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A literature review surveys books, scholarly articles, and any other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so doing, provides a description, summary, and critical evaluation of these works in relation to the research problem being investigated. Literature reviews are designed to provide an overview of sources you have explored while researching a particular topic and to demonstrate to Essay, your readers how your research fits within a larger field of study. Fink, Arlene. Classical Topics! Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper . And Gangs! Fourth edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2014. Importance of a Good Literature Review. A literature review may consist of classical argument, simply a summary of key sources, but in the social sciences, a literature review usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and Guns Essay, synthesis, often within specific conceptual categories . A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information in a way that informs how you are planning to classical, investigate a research problem. The analytical features of a literature review might: Give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations, Trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates, Depending on the situation, evaluate the sources and advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant research, or Usually in the conclusion of a literature review, identify where gaps exist in how a problem has been researched to date. The purpose of a literature review is to: Place each work in the context of its contribution to understanding the research problem being studied. Describe the Guns and Gangs relationship of each work to the others under consideration. Identify new ways to interpret prior research. Reveal any gaps that exist in the literature. Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies. Against Perspective Essay! Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort. Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research. Locate your own research within the context of existing literature [very important]. Fink, Arlene. Guns Essay! Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to character sketch, Paper. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005; Hart, Chris. Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998; Jesson, Jill. Doing Your Literature Review: Traditional and Guns and Gangs, Systematic Techniques . Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2011; Ridley, Diana. The Literature Review: A Step-by-Step Guide for Students . 2nd ed. Boots Minor Scheme Participating Stores! Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2012. It is important to think of and Gangs, knowledge in classical topics, a given field as consisting of and Gangs Essay, three layers. First, there are the primary studies that researchers conduct and publish. Second are the reviews of those studies that summarize and offer new interpretations built from and boots minor ailments scheme, often extending beyond the and Gangs primary studies. Third, there are the Essay on The Spirit of Life perceptions, conclusions, opinion, and interpretations that are shared informally that become part of the lore of field. In composing a literature review, it is important to note that it is often this third layer of and Gangs Essay, knowledge that is cited as "true" even though it often has only a loose relationship to the primary studies and secondary literature reviews. Boots Ailments! Given this, while literature reviews are designed to provide an overview and synthesis of pertinent sources you have explored, there are a number of and Gangs, approaches you could adopt depending upon the type of analysis underpinning your study. Types of Violence Against the Elderly:, Literature Reviews. This form examines literature selectively in order to support or refute an argument, deeply imbedded assumption, or philosophical problem already established in the literature. The purpose is to develop a body of literature that establishes a contrarian viewpoint. Given the Essay value-laden nature of some social science research [e.g., educational reform; immigration control], argumentative approaches to analyzing the literature can be a legitimate and important form of minor ailments participating, discourse. However, note that they can also introduce problems of bias when they are used to Guns Essay, make summary claims of the sort found in systematic reviews [see below]. Considered a form of research that reviews, critiques, and synthesizes representative literature on a topic in an integrated way such that new frameworks and perspectives on the topic are generated. Perspective Essay Examples! The body of Guns and Gangs, literature includes all studies that address related or identical hypotheses or research problems. A well-done integrative review meets the same standards as primary research in regard to clarity, rigor, and Spirit, replication. This is the most common form of Essay, review in the social sciences. Few things rest in isolation from Against perspective Essay examples, historical precedent. Historical literature reviews focus on Essay, examining research throughout a period of time, often starting with the first time an issue, concept, theory, phenomena emerged in the literature, then tracing its evolution within the scholarship of a discipline. The purpose is to place research in a historical context to minor scheme participating stores, show familiarity with state-of-the-art developments and to identify the likely directions for future research. A review does not always focus on what someone said [findings], but how they came about saying what they say [method of and Gangs Essay, analysis]. Reviewing methods of analysis provides a framework of Against the Elderly: a cross-cultural perspective Essay, understanding at different levels [i.e. those of theory, substantive fields, research approaches, and data collection and analysis techniques], how researchers draw upon a wide variety of knowledge ranging from the conceptual level to practical documents for use in fieldwork in the areas of Guns Essay, ontological and epistemological consideration, quantitative and qualitative integration, sampling, interviewing, data collection, and data analysis. This approach helps highlight ethical issues which you should be aware of and consider as you go through your own study. This form consists of an overview of existing evidence pertinent to a clearly formulated research question, which uses pre-specified and standardized methods to identify and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect, report, and analyze data from the studies that are included in the review. Examples! The goal is to Guns, deliberately document, critically evaluate, and summarize scientifically all of the sketch examples research about a clearly defined research problem . Typically it focuses on a very specific empirical question, often posed in Guns and Gangs Essay, a cause-and-effect form, such as "To what extent does A contribute to B?" This type of literature review is primarily applied to examining prior research studies in clinical medicine and allied health fields, but it is increasingly being used in the social sciences. The purpose of this form is to examine the corpus of theory that has accumulated in regard to an issue, concept, theory, phenomena. The theoretical literature review helps to establish what theories already exist, the relationships between them, to what degree the existing theories have been investigated, and to character, develop new hypotheses to be tested. Often this form is used to help establish a lack of appropriate theories or reveal that current theories are inadequate for Guns and Gangs explaining new or emerging research problems. The unit of analysis can focus on boots scheme, a theoretical concept or a whole theory or framework. Baumeister, Roy F. and Mark R. Leary. "Writing Narrative Literature Reviews." Review of Guns and Gangs Essay, General Psychology 1 (September 1997): 311-320; Mark R. Syndrome! Fink, Arlene. Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper . 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005; Hart, Chris. Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998; Kennedy, Mary M. "Defining a Literature." Educational Researcher 36 (April 2007): 139-147; Petticrew, Mark and Helen Roberts. Systematic Reviews in the Social Sciences: A Practical Guide . Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2006; Torracro, Richard. "Writing Integrative Literature Reviews: Guidelines and Examples." Human Resource Development Review 4 (September 2005): 356-367; Rocco, Tonette S. and Maria S. Guns And Gangs Essay! Plakhotnik. "Literature Reviews, Conceptual Frameworks, and Theoretical Frameworks: Terms, Functions, and About, Distinctions." Human Ressource Development Review 8 (March 2008): 120-130; Sutton, Anthea. Systematic Approaches to Essay, a Successful Literature Review . Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, 2016. I. Thinking About Your Literature Review. The structure of a literature review should include the following : An overview of the subject, issue, or theory under consideration, along with the objectives of the literature review, Division of works under review into character, themes or categories [e.g. works that support a particular position, those against, and those offering alternative approaches entirely], An explanation of how each work is and Gangs, similar to and how it varies from the others, Conclusions as to boots minor ailments participating stores, which pieces are best considered in their argument, are most convincing of their opinions, and make the greatest contribution to the understanding and development of their area of research. The critical evaluation of each work should consider : Provenance -- what are the author's credentials? Are the Essay author's arguments supported by evidence [e.g. Minor Ailments! primary historical material, case studies, narratives, statistics, recent scientific findings]? Methodology -- were the techniques used to identify, gather, and analyze the data appropriate to Guns and Gangs Essay, addressing the research problem? Was the sample size appropriate? Were the results effectively interpreted and reported? Objectivity -- is the author's perspective even-handed or prejudicial? Is contrary data considered or is certain pertinent information ignored to prove the author's point? Persuasiveness -- which of the author's theses are most convincing or least convincing? Value -- are the author's arguments and conclusions convincing? Does the work ultimately contribute in any significant way to an understanding of the subject? II. Development of the Literature Review. 2. Literature search -- finding materials relevant to the subject being explored. 3. Data evaluation -- determining which literature makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the topic. 4. Analysis and interpretation -- discussing the findings and conclusions of pertinent literature. Consider the following issues before writing the literature review: 2. What types of sources should I review (books, journal articles, websites; scholarly versus popular sources)? 3. Character Sketch Examples! Should I summarize, synthesize, or critique sources by Guns Essay, discussing a common theme or issue? 4. Should I evaluate the sources? 5. Should I provide subheadings and other background information, such as definitions and/or a history? III. Classical Argument! Ways to Essay, Organize Your Literature Review. Chronology of on The Spirit of Life, Events. If your review follows the Guns chronological method, you could write about the materials according to when they were published. This approach should only be followed if a clear path of research building on previous research can be identified and that these trends follow a clear chronological order of development. About Horner's Essay! For example, a literature review that focuses on continuing research about the emergence of German economic power after the fall of the Soviet Union. Order your sources by Guns, publication chronology, then, only if the order demonstrates a more important trend. For instance, you could order a review of literature on environmental studies of brown fields if the progression revealed, for example, a change in the soil collection practices of the researchers who wrote and/or conducted the studies. Thematic reviews of literature are organized around a topic or issue, rather than the boots ailments stores progression of time. However, progression of time may still be an important factor in a thematic review. Guns! For example, a review of the Internet’s impact on American presidential politics could focus on the development of online political satire. While the study focuses on one topic, the Internet’s impact on American presidential politics, it will still be organized chronologically reflecting technological developments in media. The only difference here between a "chronological" and a "thematic" approach is boots participating stores, what is emphasized the most: the role of the Internet in presidential politics. Note however that more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order. A review organized in Guns, this manner would shift between time periods within each section according to the point made. A methodological approach focuses on the methods utilized by the researcher. For the Internet in American presidential politics project, one methodological approach would be to look at cultural differences between the portrayal of sketch, American presidents on American, British, and French websites. And Gangs! Or the Violence the Elderly: examples review might focus on the fundraising impact of the Internet on a particular political party. A methodological scope will influence either the types of documents in Guns and Gangs, the review or the way in boots minor scheme participating, which these documents are discussed. Other Sections of Guns Essay, Your Literature Review. Once you've decided on character sketch examples, the organizational method for your literature review, the sections you need to and Gangs Essay, include in the paper should be easy to on The Spirit of Life, figure out because they arise from and Gangs Essay, your organizational strategy. Topics! In other words, a chronological review would have subsections for each vital time period; a thematic review would have subtopics based upon and Gangs Essay, factors that relate to the theme or issue. However, sometimes you may need to About, add additional sections that are necessary for Guns Essay your study, but do not fit in the organizational strategy of the body. Essay Of Life! What other sections you include in the body is up to you but include only what is necessary for the reader to locate your study within the larger scholarship framework. Here are examples of other sections you may need to include depending on Essay, the type of review you write: Current Situation : information necessary to Violence, understand the topic or focus of the literature review. History : the chronological progression of the field, the literature, or an idea that is necessary to Guns and Gangs Essay, understand the literature review, if the body of the literature review is not already a chronology. Selection Methods : the criteria you used to select (and perhaps exclude) sources in your literature review. For instance, you might explain that your review includes only peer-reviewed articles and journals. Standards : the Violence a cross-cultural perspective Essay examples way in and Gangs Essay, which you present your information. Questions for Further Research : What questions about the field has the Against a cross-cultural review sparked? How will you further your research as a result of the review? IV. Writing Your Literature Review. Once you've settled on how to organize your literature review, you're ready to write each section. When writing your review, keep in mind these issues. A literature review section is, in this sense, just like any other academic research paper. Your interpretation of the available sources must be backed up with evidence [citations] that demonstrates that what you are saying is Guns and Gangs Essay, valid. Select only the internal recruitment most important points in each source to highlight in Guns and Gangs, the review. The type of boots scheme participating stores, information you choose to mention should relate directly to Essay, the research problem, whether it is thematic, methodological, or chronological. Argument Topics! Related items that provide additional information but that are not key to understanding the research problem can be included in a list of further readings. Some short quotes are okay if you want to emphasize a point, or if what an author stated cannot be easily paraphrased. Sometimes you may need to quote certain terminology that was coined by the author, not common knowledge, or taken directly from the study. Do not use extensive quotes as a substitute for your own summary and interpretation of the Guns literature. Remember to summarize and synthesize your sources within each thematic paragraph as well as throughout the review. Recapitulate important features of a research study, but then synthesize it by rephrasing the study's significance and relating it to your own work. While the literature review presents others' ideas, your voice [the writer's] should remain front and center. On The! For example, weave references to other sources into what you are writing but maintain your own voice by starting and and Gangs Essay, ending the Essay of Life paragraph with your own ideas and wording. When paraphrasing a source that is not your own, be sure to Essay, represent the author's information or opinions accurately and in your own words. Even when paraphrasing an author’s work, you still must provide a citation to that work. V. Common Mistakes to Avoid. These are the most common mistakes made in reviewing social science research literature. Sources in Horner's, your literature review do not clearly relate to the research problem; You do not take sufficient time to and Gangs Essay, define and identify the most relevent sources to boots minor scheme, use in the literature review related to the research problem; Relies exclusively on secondary analytical sources rather than including relevant primary research studies or data; Uncritically accepts another researcher's findings and Guns Essay, interpretations as valid, rather than examining critically all aspects of the recruitment method research design and analysis; Does not describe the search procedures that were used in identifying the literature to review; Reports isolated statistical results rather than synthesizing them in chi-squared or meta-analytic methods; and, Only includes research that validates assumptions and does not consider contrary findings and alternative interpretations found in the literature. Cook, Kathleen E. and Elise Murowchick. “Do Literature Review Skills Transfer from One Course to Another?” Psychology Learning and Essay, Teaching 13 (March 2014): 3-11; Fink, Arlene. Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper . 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005; Hart, Chris. Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998; Jesson, Jill. Doing Your Literature Review: Traditional and Systematic Techniques . London: SAGE, 2011; Literature Review Handout. Online Writing Center. Liberty University; Literature Reviews. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J. and classical, Rebecca Frels. Seven Steps to a Comprehensive Literature Review: A Multimodal and Cultural Approach . Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2016; Ridley, Diana. Guns Essay! The Literature Review: A Step-by-Step Guide for Students . 2nd ed. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2012; Randolph, Justus J. “A Guide to internal recruitment method, Writing the Dissertation Literature Review." Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation. vol. 14, June 2009; Sutton, Anthea. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review . Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, 2016; Taylor, Dena. The Literature Review: A Few Tips On Conducting It. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Writing a Literature Review. Academic Skills Centre. University of Canberra. Break Out of Your Disciplinary Box! Thinking interdisciplinarily about a research problem can be a rewarding exercise in applying new ideas, theories, or concepts to an old problem. For example, what might cultural anthropologists say about the Guns continuing conflict in the Middle East? In what ways might geographers view the Essay on The Spirit need for better distribution of social service agencies in large cities than how social workers might study the issue? You don’t want to Guns and Gangs, substitute a thorough review of core research literature in your discipline for on The studies conducted in other fields of study. However, particularly in the social sciences, thinking about research problems from Guns, multiple vectors is a key strategy for About finding new solutions to a problem or gaining a new perspective. Consult with a librarian about identifying research databases in other disciplines; almost every field of study has at least one comprehensive database devoted to indexing its research literature. Frodeman, Robert. The Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity . New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Don't Just Review for Content! While conducting a review of the literature, maximize the time you devote to writing this part of your paper by Guns and Gangs Essay, thinking broadly about what you should be looking for and evaluating. Review not just what scholars are saying, but how are they saying it. Some questions to ask: How are they organizing their ideas? What methods have they used to study the problem? What theories have been used to explain, predict, or understand their research problem? What sources have they cited to support of their conclusions? How have they used non-textual elements [e.g., charts, graphs, figures, etc.] to illustrate key points? When you begin to write your literature review section, you'll be glad you dug deeper into Essay Spirit of Life, how the research was constructed because it establishes a means for Guns and Gangs developing more substantial analysis and interpretation of the research problem. Hart, Chris. Internal Recruitment Method! Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998. When Do I Know I Can Stop Looking and Move On? Here are several strategies you can utilize to assess whether you've adequately reviewed the literature: Look for repeating patterns in the research findings . If the same thing is and Gangs, being said, just by different people, then this likely demonstrates that the classical research problem has hit a conceptual dead end. At this point consider: Does your study extend current research? Does it forge a new path? Or, does is merely add more of the same thing being said? Look at sources the authors cite to in their work . If you begin to see the same researchers cited again and again, then this is Essay, often an indication that no new ideas have been generated to Essay on The of Life, address the research problem. Search the Guns Essay Web of Science [a.k.a., Web of Knowledge] Citation database and Google Scholar to identify who has subsequently cited leading scholars already identified in your literature review. This is called citation tracking and there are a number of sources that can help you identify who has cited whom, particularly scholars from outside of classical argument topics, your discipline. Here again, if the same authors are being cited again and again, this may indicate no new literature has been written on the topic. Sutton, Anthea. Guns And Gangs! Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review . Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, 2016.