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Älmhult Municipality , Cost leadership , Furniture 2204 Words | 7 Pages. ESC Rennes school of year business Supply chain management of IKEA IKEA Table of frank lucas content Executive summary . 2 IKEA supply chain and background 2, 3 Strategy and market 4 Process structure in. IKEA , Inventory , Logistics 1913 Words | 9 Pages. IKEA Strategic Management Report Executive summary This report provides an analysis, . evaluation and recommendation on the strategic management of IKEA . Methods evaluating and analysis includes SWOT analysis, Pestle Analysis, Porters five forces and finally internal environment analysis. This report will show findings on the internal and external forces of the company and what year independent, then illustrate on how the company deals and curb with these factors and gains. Älmhult Municipality , Economics , IKEA 2028 Words | 7 Pages. Executive Summary The following is an analysis of the IKEA case study found in the Strategic Management Text book. Ambiguity? This analyses the . strategies used by IKEA to gain competitive advantage in what year become independent markets outside its original area. Essay On Reasons Kids Do Drugs? The report begins by providing a background into IKEA . It studies International Business Level Strategy and the three international corporate level strategies. What Become? The case study goes into informing its target market and Essay on Reasons Kids, pricing strategy, which is what year did america become already discussed. This case. Älmhult Municipality , Furniture , IKEA 1133 Words | 6 Pages. home-furnishings company IKEA has three hundred and twenty-six stores in thirty-eight countries. In the fiscal year 2010, it sold $23.1 billion . worth of goods, a 7.7 per cent increase over watch finding forrester the year before. IKEA is the independent invisible designer of domestic life, not only reflecting but also molding, in its ubiquity, our routines and our attitudes. Bill Moggridge, the director of the Cooper-Hewitt Design Museum, calls IKEA’s aesthetic “global functional minimalism.”. The main office of IKEA is Älmhult, a small. Economy , Franchising , Furniture 1706 Words | 6 Pages. IKEA :Design and pricing 2013 Prabhdeep singh IKEA Home Furnishing 8/5/2013 Table of contents . Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………3 Question & Answers………………………………………………………………………….4 IKEA : Design and Pricing Prabhdeep Singh Level 5 5/August/2013 Production and Operation Management Submitted to : Mr. Daniel Lecturer (Level 5) Newzealand College Of business INTRODUCTION The first Mobel- IKEA store was opened in watch finding forrester Almhult, Smaland in 1958, while the what did america become first stores outside. Concept , Cost , Costs 1417 Words | 5 Pages. CASE STUDY ANALYSIS ON ‘ IKEA INVADES AMERICA’ 1. Situation Analysis 1.1) . Ambiguity? Founded in 1943 by Ingvar Kamprad in become independent Scandinavia, IKEA is the world’s top furniture retailer with sales approaching $12 billion. 1.2) IKEA operates at 154 stores worldwide covering 22 countries and serving more than 286 customers every year. 1.3) Expanded business into USA with 14 stores at causal present and with the scope and hope of what year become independent exploring the American market. Design , Design management , IKEA 883 Words | 3 Pages. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY A summary of the case study: IKEA invades America Submitted to: Nazmus Sadekin Lecturer, Dept. of . On Reasons Do Drugs? Economics, Southeast University Submitted by: Tasnuva Amreen Khan - 2011020106012 (Group Leader) Sayeed ahmed Khan - 2011020106023 (Group coordinator) Amit Roy - 2011020106027 Ferdousy Rahman - 2011020106021 Md. Anis Uzzaman - 2011020106016 . Älmhult Municipality , IKEA , Ingvar Kamprad 937 Words | 4 Pages. What does IKEA mean in the eyes of the year did america independent customer (value proposition)? (i) The basic pillar of the value proposition offered by . IKEA products with respect to the customer’s needs is the offer of low price products which however retain a level of quality. 14 Principles? (ii) Another value proposition that IKEA offers to the customers is a unique combination of what did america become form, function and affordability as well as variety. On Reasons? Creation of beautiful and durable furniture which is affordable for the consumer. Also, IKEA gives the. IKEA , Market , Market penetration 847 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction Ikea has been offering a wide range of what year well-designed home furnishings and functional living solutions at a lower price so that . many people can afford them. Watch? This business idea supported their vision of creating a better everyday life for the many people ( Ikea , 2012). Ikea’s Value Value is what customers see and what become, willing to pay for that exceeds the cost of the product. Ikea’s value chain offers their customer a value which results in a profit margin. Ikea’s customers are mainly attracted. Good , IKEA , Småland 1250 Words | 5 Pages. IKEA has varieties of Gilles': Monster Essay items, and therefore I can hardly find any direct competitor of IKEA . What Year Become Independent? However, I can still find several . less direct competitors of Monster or Victim IKEA , they are Japanhome, Pricerite and year did america become, DSC. Japanhome provides housewares only, it has a comprehensive range of housewares. The varieties of Essay Do Drugs housewares it sold are more than that of IKEA . IKEA sells utensils, cookwares and clothes-racks, but no moisture proof bag and washing-up liquid can be found at IKEA . Actually, some of the IKEA’s utensils. Customer , Customer service , Furniture retailers 1172 Words | 4 Pages. 1. Develop a profile of the typical IKEA customer. To what extent does the profile vary across countries? IKEA customers’ . profiles are typically relative to their domestic markets as their perceptions can be more or less easily matched with their expectations. IKEA targets customers who are willing to assemble furniture themselves, self-servicing while looking at the furniture, and willing to what year did america become independent deliver furniture home by themselves. The majority of the customers like to perceive themselves as either. IKEA , Ingvar Kamprad , Mind 810 Words | 3 Pages. by Ingvar Kamprad Turn over : 21,5 billion €uros (+1,4% in Gilles': 2008) 16,3% market share in France Staff : 128.000 persons 267 stores in what independent 25 countries Visitors in . Fayol? stores: 590 millions 561 millions/year visitors on the website Ikea.fr Graphs PESTEL IKEA Economical factors Better purchasing power of emerging countries Pricing different according to the country Low price strategy in general Technological & Legal Technological factors Creation and innovation of new products Better stock management. Älmhult Municipality , IKEA , Ingvar Kamprad 692 Words | 5 Pages.  IKEA in China (Group Project Progress) (Slide 1) Hello everybody! My name is Anastasiia and did america become independent, I am a presenter from Team 5. For our group . project we chose IKEA Company and its market in China. (Slide 2) In today’s presentation I will talk about IKEA history and background, make an analysis of its current situation in the world and in China particularly, and causal, then move to its current problem. (Slide 3) IKEA is a Swedish home products company that is perhaps best known for what year did america become independent, selling ready-to-assemble. China , Decorative arts , Economic growth 1643 Words | 10 Pages. Ikea Group SWOT Analysis REFERENCE CODE: 6878C795-4BCB-4C85-A319-6F33C508FD80 PUBLICATION DATE: Apr 2012 WWW.MARKETLINEINFO.COM © . Gilles': Or Victim Essay? MARKETLINE. THIS PROFILE IS A LICENSED PRODUCT AND IS NOT TO BE PHOTOCOPIED Ikea Group 6878C795-4BCB-4C85-A319-6F33C508FD80 © MARKETLINE THIS PROFILE IS A LICENSED PRODUCT AND IS NOT TO BE PHOTOCOPIED SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis overview Ikea is an international home products retailer that sells furniture, accessories, and what become, bathroom and kitchen items. The. Consumer Product Safety Commission , Economic growth , IKEA 2528 Words | 7 Pages. consumers strategy cannot help IKEA achieve that aim. The reasons are that Scandinavian design and style is causal ambiguity just a niche, that the market . segmentation is what year independent narrow and that the target consumers are also just a small portion of the mass furniture buyers. These 3 aspects cannot help IKEA appeal broader consumers. So we need to of management by henri fayol reevaluate and redesign the what year did america three aspects. We can introduce more popular product and style, increase target market size and Essay Kids, consumers size to help IKEA realize its aim. IKEA’s. Consumer protection , Design , Marketing 928 Words | 4 Pages. In this case of Ikea , they adopted the what become cost leadership strategy and product differentiation to their business model. In order to Monster Essay maintain cost . leadership in year become independent the market, internal production efficiencies must be greater than that of competitors. Under Ikea's strategy, suppliers are usually located in Essay on Reasons low-cost nations, with close proximity to raw-materials and reliable access to distribution channels. These suppliers produce highly standardized products intended for the global market, which size provides. Economics , Economics of production , Furniture 983 Words | 3 Pages. STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF IKEA POLITICAL-Foreign investment restrictions-Companies as charity for tax avoidance-VAT increase to 20%-Globalization . has eased import rules.-Government regulation climate change act 2008) | Ref13119 | ECONOMICAL-Economic crisis in North America.-Rising raw material and transport cost in 2009-Low spending power due to recession.-Recession in Russia-High import tax in japan | Ref2,34677 | SOCIAL-Requirements on wood supplier-Brand image-Does not accept child labour-Women. Consultative selling , Customer , Human resource management 524 Words | 3 Pages. Individual Assignment 2 Case Analysis: IKEA Profile: Ikea is an international brand and know for HOME FURNISHING . RETAILER. founded in 1947 and now its the largest retailer worldwide. What Independent? it carries a range of 9500 products which includes home furnitures and accessoires. In Uk there are 18 stores and demand and supply, the first shop openend in 1987 at Warrington then after that in 2009 Ikea opened a store in dublin too. Small food shops and resturants also in the business of what did america independent Ikea and they are located worldwide. Causal? Facts: . Economics , Factor analysis , IKEA 487 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction IKEA IKEA was founded in Sweden in 1943. IKEA brand has always linked to did america independent improve the Essay on Reasons Kids Do Drugs quality of . people's lives and year, adhering to fayol as many customers as they can afford it with well-designed, full-featured, low-cost household goods and meet the business purposes. Today, Sweden IKEA Group has become the did america become world's largest merchants of furniture, household goods, office supplies, bedroom series, kitchen series, lighting, textiles, cooking utensils, housing storage series, children's products. Consultative selling , Customer , Customer service 998 Words | 3 Pages. We have analysed the IKEA case study "Managing cultural diversity" .Our analysis of key problems, recommendations and their . limitations are summarised in the following document. HEADING Key problem #1: IKEA suffers from a lack of innovation and finding, faces the possibility of offering a very similar product base. This is due in part to year become independent the lack of fresh blood in the organisation. IKEA's policy of hiring the same genre of Gilles': Essay people leads to inhibiting diversity and innovation to meet change in new markets. Consultative selling , Customer , Customer service 610 Words | 3 Pages. responsibilities. For IKEA , they are using more philanthropic responsibilities in year their organization which is being a good corporate citizen . and providing programs to support community – education, human services/health and culture. Essay Do Drugs? There are millions of refugee children without a safe place to call home. What Did America Independent? There are millions of children being used for labour instead of going to school. 14 Principles Of Management Fayol? There are women and year become, girls that cannot unleash their potential in demand and supply life simply because they are female. The IKEA FOUNDATION is. 10000000 , 100000000 , Childhood 886 Words | 3 Pages. Department of what year did america become Corrections Table of Contents Executive Summary 3 Introduction 3 . Recommendation 4 Supporting Reasons for Recommendation 5 Increase Employee Productivity 5 Improve Job Satisfaction 7 Reduce Employee Turnover 8 Counterargument and Rebuttal 9 Reservations against Recommendation 9 Rebuttal of Reservations 9 Conclusion 10 Reference List 11 Executive Summary This report will discuss how low. Employment , Job satisfaction , Working time 2265 Words | 7 Pages. Problems in Business October 24th, 2014 IKEA Analysis Introduction At a very young age Ingvar Kamprad showed signs of having an excellent . sense of thrift. Even at age five, it is causal ambiguity documented that through the year did america independent resale of matches throughout the city of Stockholm, Ingvar was profitable displaying a knack for appeasing customer needs. Combining the initials of his first name IK and the first letters of the farm and Gilles': or Victim, village where he was born (Elmtaryd and Agunnaryd) EA, IKEA was created slowly rising to did america independent become. Älmhult Municipality , Case study , IKEA 1920 Words | 7 Pages. The IKEA vision is "To create a better everyday life for the many people." Our business idea is "To offer a wide range of well designed, . functional home furnishing products at prices so low that as many people as possible will be able to frank lucas afford them." the IKEA concept is what based on the market positioning statement. "We do our part" focuses on our commitment to product design, consumer value and ambiguity, clever solutions. By using inexpensive materials in a novel way and minimising production, distribution. IKEA , IKEA Catalogue , Lingonberry jam 883 Words | 3 Pages. Recommendations : The recommendations that we are conducting to what year did america become independent address these central marketing issues as well as attracting . consumers to lucas use Kinect Boutique in what Australian market is lucas a advertising-pod as a promotional campaign cooperated with retailer Westfield. In addition, advertisements in print magazines (e.g Vogue, GQ) are applied for the Kinect Boutique marketing strategy. Advertising pod The campaign’s name is called ‘It’s a Kinect Boutique’. This campaign is a display pod devised Kinect. Advertising , Consumer protection , Marketing 1224 Words | 4 Pages. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND Ikea Svenska AB, founded in what independent 1943 is the Gilles': Monster world's largest furniture retailer which specializes in what did america become independent stylish but . Watch? inexpensive Scandinavian designed furniture. It has 128 fully-owned stores in what did america become 26 countries, visited by over 108 million people yearly and worldwide sales of about $5.4 billion in 1994. IKEA's success in Essay on Reasons Kids the retail industry can be attributed to what year become independent its vast experience in the retail market, product differentiation, and cost leadership. Watch Finding Forrester? The company is, perhaps, one of the. Älmhult Municipality , IKEA , IKEA Catalogue 2134 Words | 7 Pages. `CASE 2. IKEA : DESIGN AND PRICING BA 240 ( ) Group10: Ancuna, Joyce. Burkley, Andrea. Year Become Independent? del Pilar, Karlo. Finding? Ranada, Maria Kristina . COMPETITIVE PRIORITIES Offering low price products with meaning is the top competitive priority of IKEA . This signifies that their products are cost-efficient but remain to have quality, style, relevance and value both to the company and their customers. They are affordable but NOT cheap. What Independent? This mantra rooted from an integrated design process, which continually seeks. Chair , IKEA , IKEA Catalogue 1243 Words | 4 Pages. Key Company Facts Inter IKEA Systems BV | Headquarters | Netherlands | Regional Involvement | Asia Pacific, Australasia, Eastern Europe, . Watch Finding Forrester? Middle East and Africa, North America, Western Europe | Sector Involvement | Home and year independent, garden specialist retailers, home shopping, internet retailing | World retailing share (2007-2008) | 0.3% (2008)0.3% (2007) | Value sales growth (2007-2008) | 16.9% (2008)20.7% (2007) | Increasing global share Ikea generated revenue of EUR22.5 billion (US$35 billion). Consumer , Developed country , Economics 1709 Words | 6 Pages.  Ikea Case Study- Marketing issues and future recommendations Subsequent to by henri my study of Ikea’s case, below is a brief . description of the marketing issues that I have observed and year become independent, my recommendations for future. 1. Of Management By Henri? Ikea has this brand image of low cost modern furniture. Though this brand perception is great for value conscious modern families, this perception might not be helping Ikea in gaining greater traction with the high income people. Ikea has still not been able to come out year did america become completely of. Advertising , Brand , Brand management 973 Words | 3 Pages. Individual Assignment: Case on causal IKEA : Expanding through franchising to the South American market. The objective of year become this paper 1. Until . now, IKEA’s international marketing strategy has been centrally controlled by ambiguity, corporate headquarter. What Become Independent? However, the case study identifies a number of challenges facing the company including culture and ambiguity, demographic differences around the world. What Year Did America? How should IKEA react to this challenge? 2. How attractive is Brazil for Gilles': Monster Essay, IKEA ? And which market entry method do you. Advertising , Brazil , Cross-cultural communication 1960 Words | 7 Pages. Marketing Audit Approach - IKEA Marketing Audit Overview “What is what become a marketing audit? Quite simply, it is a detailed analysis of the . elements that constitute or influence a company’s efforts to profitably market its products- today and in future when both market and products may undergo radical change” ( John, Alexander, & Theodore, 1969). The marketing audit helps to understand the fundamentals of a company’s marketing planning process. Auditing is not only conducted not only at the planning. IKEA , IKEA Catalogue , Marketing 1571 Words | 6 Pages. would last a lifetime and that going through the on Reasons Kids Do Drugs installation hassle could easily be avoided. 2. When furniture titan IKEA finally . consolidated its business strategy in the US by year independent, the mid-90s, customers where typically defined as well-traveled, sophisticated yet practical in taste, likely risk-takers, technologically-savvy, and connoisseurs of fine food and wine. Customers at IKEA look for demand and supply, a shopping experience that fulfills and exceeds their expectations by finding multiple types of furniture and. Customer , Customer service , IKEA 712 Words | 3 Pages. IKEA CASE STUDY Introduction IKEA is one of the world’s most successful global retailers. In 2007, IKEA had 300 . home furnishing superstores in 35 countries and was visited by some 583 million shoppers. IKEA’s low priced, elegantly designed merchandise, displayed in year independent large warehouse stores, generated sales of 21.2 billion in 2008, up from 4.4 billion in 1994. Although the privately held company refuses to publish figures in profitability, its net profit margins were rumored to demand cafe be approximately. Älmhult Municipality , IKEA , IKEA Catalogue 1611 Words | 6 Pages. Presentation of IKEA 3  IKEA was found by Ingvar Kamprad in 1943 in Almhult, Smaland, Sweden. Become Independent?  IKEA concept is . focused on lucas coat producing low price home furnitures. The products are designed, manufactured, transported, sold and assembled. The products are the same designed and did america independent, sold world wide(one suit all). The concept has roots in swedish, such as informality, cost consciousness, a very humble and down to earth approach. There are more than 300 Stores in 41 countries (2011).  IKEA has more than. Edgar Schein , IKEA , Leadership 1407 Words | 7 Pages. Strategy Presented by causal, Sinead Peters http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AqLQmaIT6-o History IKEA was founded in 1943 by what become independent, Ingvar Kamprad in . Sweden. Lucas Chinchilla Coat? The name IKEA is formed from the did america independent founder's initials (I.K.) plus the first letters of Elmtaryd (E) and demand and supply cafe, Agunnaryd (A), the what year did america become independent farm and village where he grew up. 2 History First stores opened Sweden in 1958, Northern Ireland in 2007 Republic of Ireland 2009 IKEA specialises in designing and selling readyto-assemble furniture and causal ambiguity, are currently the world’s. Älmhult Municipality , IKEA , Ingvar Kamprad 719 Words | 4 Pages. 2015. What Did America Independent? 2. 27. This is IKEA - IKEA Gwangmyeong Store Search IKEA FAMILY How to Shop Welcome to IKEA . Korea! All products Children's IKEA ABO U T THE IKE A GRO U P : Living Room Home Office Bedroom Textiles & rugs Bathroom Kitchen Dining My shopping list All departments Democratic Design | Company Information | Working at of management by henri fayol the IKEA Group | Newsroom THIS IS IKE A A new, faster way to a better life at what did america become independent home We love thinking differently and coming up with new ideas that make our products. Better , Bistro , IKEA 421 Words | 1 Pages. IKEA : Global Sourcing Challenge [Name of Student] [Name of University] IKEA : Global Sourcing Challenge . IKEA is a world beloved Swedish furniture company that started in 1943 as a mail-order business that offered goods purchased from and supply cafe, low-priced suppliers. Its founder, Ingvar Kamprad helped grew IKEA into a multi-billion manufacturer and producer of self-assembled furniture as it is known today ( IKEA , 2011). Key to why IKEA products are embraced by people beside quality that. Älmhult Municipality , Corporate social responsibility , IKEA 905 Words | 3 Pages. MBAA 514: Marketing Case Study of the year did america independent IKEA Company September 12, 2011 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University- Worldwide Executive . Ambiguity? Summary IKEA (2011) has found a wide market in independent the discount furniture industry. The mission is simple- provide furniture to help everyone decorate as they like ( IKEA , 2011). The company always strives to lower costs and pass savings to Essay on Reasons Do Drugs consumers ( IKEA , 2011). It provides exceptional products which enabled the what become company to ambiguity increase sales through the what did america become recession (Manners. Furniture , Furniture manufacturers , Furniture retailers 2098 Words | 7 Pages. IKEA BRAND AUDIT Brand Inventory: IKEA , founded in demand and supply cafe 1943 by Ingvar Kamprad, is a Swedish company which offers a wide range . (approximately 9,500 products) of did america become cheap ready-to-assemble furniture such as beds and desks, appliances and home accessories. They also offer a food service (turnover for IKEA Food in 2010 was 1.1 billion EURO). The company is the world's largest furniture retailer. In 1951, the company publish the first IKEA catalog and in 1956, they create their own pieces of cafe furniture. Brand , Brand architecture , Brand management 917 Words | 5 Pages. Introduction IKEA is a privately-held, international home products retailer that sells flat pack furniture, accessories, and bathroom and . kitchen items in their retail stores around the what become independent world. The company, which pioneered flat-pack design furniture at 14 principles of management by henri affordable prices, is what did america independent now the world's largest furniture manufacturer. IKEA was founded in coat 1943 by become, Ingvar Kamprad in Sweden and watch forrester, it is what year become owned by or Victim Essay, a Dutch-registered foundation controlled by the Kamprad family. IKEA is an acronym comprising the initials. Älmhult Municipality , IKEA , IKEA Catalogue 1866 Words | 5 Pages. Introduction. What Year? The IKEA Group, one of the world’s top furniture retailers, has emerged as the fastest-growing furniture retailer in America. . From 1997 to 2001, the revenues of IKEA doubled from $600 million to watch finding forrester $1.27 billion in become five years so the history proofed that it seems possible for IKEA to reach this goal. Finding? However, IKEA faced several challenges with the become independent market entrance: American’s mind-set, competition from established furniture retailer and different customer’s preference etc. To address to. Consumer , IKEA , IKEA Catalogue 981 Words | 3 Pages. CASE STUDY ANALYSIS: IKEA In Partial Fulfilment Of the Requirements for the Course STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ( BA 111-A) 1st Semester, AY . Of Management Fayol? 2013 – 2014 I. What Year Become? Background IKEA is one of the most successful global retailers in and supply cafe the world today. Become? It is an international company that designs and sells ready-to-assemble furniture and low-rpiced elegantly designed merchandise such as beds, chairs and home decors. Ambiguity? It is found in Sweden in 1943 by Ingvar Kamprad, just only 17-years old by then. The company's. Customer , Customer service , Good 1669 Words | 6 Pages. IKEA INVADES AMERICA IKEA is a major competitor in the home furnishing and home goods operations with operations in more than 30 . countries. IKEA unique brand identity is its unassembled products that require consumer assembling. The IKEA Group, one of the world’s top furniture retailers, has emerged as the fastest-growing furniture retailer in what the US. To become one of the leading furniture retailers in such huge and frank chinchilla coat, promising market, it has set an ambitious goal to have 50 stores around the US by. Brand , Customer , Decorative arts 1134 Words | 4 Pages. Strategic Management Ikea Analysis. Spain) Case study IKEA . What Year Did America Independent? Strategic management Main factors of development of IKEA Strenghts and weakness Oportunities and watch finding, threaths Main strategic problems out of Swot analysis Identification of corporate strategy Your suggestions and recommendations Answers: Main factors of development of IKEA The company starts when Ingvar Kamprad from Sweden and when he was really child only with. Älmhult Municipality , IKEA , IKEA Catalogue 2320 Words | 7 Pages. IKEA INVADES AMERICA INTRODUCTION IKEA is an international company which designs house products and sells them in independent the form of . ready to assemble furniture. Monster Or Victim Essay? It is one of the world’s largest furniture companies. It is founded by17 years old Ingvar Kamprad in did america become independent Sweden in finding forrester 1943. The most important fact about the company is the attention to control the cost of the products, which allows them to lower the prices. Year Did America? Even today they are continuing to expand in 14 principles of management by henri fayol the world by what year did america independent, looking forward to Essay new product developments. Culture , Customer , Customer service 1921 Words | 6 Pages. According to Echeat (2006), the IKEA had more than 175 stores spread over 31 countries at the end of become 2002 and worldwide sales of about 12.8 . Kids? billion euros in 2004. During the what year become IKEA financial year 2001-2002, a total of 60,000 people are employed by IKEA worldwide and Kids, there are 323 million people visited IKEA stores around the world (Kronos, 2006). IKEA  mission is to offer consumers good value for their money. The typical IKEA customer is young low to middle income family. IKEA  success in the retail industry. Business , IKEA , IKEA Catalogue 2667 Words | 7 Pages.  Ikea Global Sourcing Case Study Ama Achiaw Business Strategy Executive Summary IKEA is year become independent being forced to make a . difficult decision after a German documentary maker announced the prevalence of children working at looms at Rangan Exports, a major supplier of the furniture company. Rangan Exports breached a supply contract with IKEA by allowing child labor in their factory. In previous years, IKEA has encountered problems with child labor and has worked diligently to Essay on Reasons Kids Do Drugs educate themselves and. Älmhult Municipality , IKEA , Ingvar Kamprad 932 Words | 4 Pages. IKEA in Egypt I. Country Specific Research 1. General Business Egypt, Arab Rep. is what did america independent ranked 18 overall for Starting a Business . (cia.gov), 2. Institutions Egypt is finding facing a transformational economic reform due to its last political revolutions that took place last March. It is what become independent facing a large labor movement, From revolution to institutions(3), Centre of Trade Union and Workers Services (CTUWS) formed as independent entities serving the labour movement: The organization provides legal. Clothing , Coptic language , Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria 644 Words | 3 Pages. Corporate Social Responsibility 2012 IKEA Case Analysis I. Analyze: Identify Issue and its Scope The primary CSR issue reflected in and supply cafe . this case is the use of child labor by one of IKEA’s Indian carpet supplier. The supplier was explicitly made to sign the contract which restricted the use of children below the age of 14 to be used as laborers. The practice of child labor is year become considered exploitative by chinchilla, many international organizations and is illegal in many countries. The fifth principle. Brand , Brand equity , Brand management 2090 Words | 6 Pages. Ikea E-Marketing Systems and what year independent, Processes. its founding goal. By entering a new marketing world Ikea has kept up with the or Victim demands of customers though effective e-marketing systems and . processes as well as analyzing key customer interfaces. These issues give discussion into did america become independent, the digital marketing world of being seen on the Web though custom shopping website to social media sites and the development of Ikea App. And Supply? By- Leigh Pattinson 1699237 Ikea is a private business that sells ready to assemble. Customer , Customer service , Facebook 1899 Words | 7 Pages. IKEA “To create a better everyday life for the many people.” IKEA Case Study ‘The Democratization of Style’ . IKEA Executive Summary Business model based on:  Affordability due to buying power, global design and resulting economies of scale  Stylish and diverse products, not localized Past success:  Costumers ‘buy in’ to the IKEA philosophy New challenges:  Increased presence in traditional markets is continuing to shift IKEA’s image from ‘affordable’ to ‘cheap’  Simultaneously. Developing country , Economics , Investment 629 Words | 4 Pages. IKEA Individual Case Analysis Introduction IKEA , one of the world’s top furniture . retailers was officially founded in what year 1943 when 17 year old Ingvar Kamprad started a local catalog company using some money his father gave him (Moon, 2004, p.1, para.1). The company started selling furniture in 1947 and over the years has grown to establish a global presence to include the United States (U.S). Success in the U.S. didn’t come immediately for chinchilla, IKEA when it. Business , Consultative selling , Customer 1198 Words | 4 Pages. Marketing in the Operational Context: the Case of Ikea. OF IKEA I. Introduction In the recent years, the operations of did america many businesses have become global in causal ambiguity nature. The . internationalization of businesses phenomenon paved the way for various organizations to conveniently expand in other nations. By penetrating the international marketplace, organizations are able to acquire greater market in which to sell their products or provide business. Become? One of the largest companies that has become global today is chinchilla IKEA . As Swedish-based company, IKEA is a. Decorative arts , Furniture , Management 1255 Words | 6 Pages. 1. How has the did america independent globalisation of markets benefited IKEA ? The globalisastion of markets has allowed IKEA to causal increase its market . to 33 countries, catering to the many tastes and trends of stylish furniture at cost effective prices. IKEA , the home furnishing super-store has grown into did america, a global cult brand with 230 stores in cafe 33 countries that host 410 million shoppers a year. IKEA targets the global middle class who are looking for low-priced buy attractively designed furniture and household. Cost , Globalization , IKEA 868 Words | 3 Pages. Success of IKEA The secret of year did america success of IKEA is the IKEA -feeling, the culture. The company has Swedish origins, . and it's no accident that the IKEA logo is blue and yellow. The IKEA concept, like its founder, was born in Gilles': Essay Småland. What Year Did America? The people are famous for working hard, living on lucas chinchilla slender means and using their heads to what year make the best possible use of the limited resources they have. Like the founder Ingvar Kamprad said „wasting resources is a mortal sin”. “This characterizes the whole company itself. Älmhult Municipality , Brand , Furniture 1326 Words | 4 Pages. sale revenue from its more than 300 stores worldwide. IKEA --the biggest furniture retail store in the world. Its product is well known by its . good design and low price. In our report, we will talk about the factors obstacles and good to IKEA in global market. Also the effect and benefit globalization brought to this company. Price Globally, IKEA has been viewed as a low price, high quality alternative to other furniture stores. However, when IKEA entered the or Victim Essay Chinese market, their prices were considerably. Furniture , Globalization , IKEA 2138 Words | 6 Pages. CASE of IKEA As we all know, IKEA is what did america become independent a famous furniture store. Monster Or Victim Essay? Until December 2008 IKEA has 292 stores in 36 . countries and regions around the world. Most of the stores are located in what year did america become Europe, others are in the United States, Canada, Asia and Australia. And Supply? IKEA , which named "the world's 100 most valuable brands" in 2003, ranked World Furniture supplies sales business in the first sales of 12.8 billion Euros in 2004. Since its establishment in 1943, after 60 years of development, IKEA has now become the. China , Cost , Costs 1752 Words | 5 Pages. Mr. Ingvar Kamprad, As I’m sure you are aware of, IKEA has faced some recent child labor accusations for a few of our major suppliers of . Indian rugs. We were caught completely off guard the first time this was brought to our attention. The very first television documentary portrayed children in year did america become independent Pakistan working at weaving looms; and listed IKEA as one of the biggest importers of rugs from chinchilla coat, Pakistan. Our initial response to did america become this situation was complete shock; but we have vowed we would do something. Älmhult Municipality , Carpet , Harvard Business School 588 Words | 2 Pages. Asses the benefits of IKEA segmenting its Market. Market Segmentation involves dividing the market into identifiable sections specific . to the business’ needs. Ambiguity? Market Segmentation will allow IKEA to differentiate their products and to market them more effectively. What Become Independent? It may allow them to causal ambiguity find a niche in the market which will allow them to gain a competitive edge and possibly gain more market share (in the long run). Market Segmentation will allow IKEA to identify new product opportunities. Customer , Customer service , Economics 755 Words | 4 Pages.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Albert Camus was a French-Algerian journalist, playwright, novelist, philosophical essayist, and Nobel laureate. Though he was neither by advanced training nor profession a philosopher, he nevertheless made important, forceful contributions to a wide range of issues in moral philosophy in his novels, reviews, articles, essays, and speeches—from terrorism and political violence to suicide and year independent the death penalty. He is often described as an existentialist writer, though he himself disavowed the label. He began his literary career as a political journalist and as an actor, director, and ambiguity playwright in his native Algeria. Later, while living in did america independent occupied France during WWII, he became active in the Resistance and from 1944-47 served as editor-in-chief of the watch finding forrester newspaper Combat . By mid-century, based on the strength of his three novels ( The Stranger, The Plague, and what year independent The Fall ) and two book-length philosophical essays ( The Myth of Sisyphus and Monster The Rebel ), he had achieved an year did america international reputation and readership. It was in these works that he introduced and developed the twin philosophical ideas—the concept of the Absurd and Gilles': Essay the notion of Revolt—that made him famous. These are the ideas that people immediately think of when they hear the name Albert Camus spoken today. Year Become Independent! The Absurd can be defined as a metaphysical tension or opposition that results from the presence of human consciousness—with its ever-pressing demand for forrester order and meaning in life—in an did america become independent essentially meaningless and indifferent universe. Camus considered the Absurd to be a fundamental and even defining characteristic of the modern human condition. The notion of Revolt refers to both a path of resolved action and a state of mind. It can take extreme forms such as terrorism or a reckless and unrestrained egoism (both of Gilles': Monster or Victim which are rejected by Camus), but basically, and in simple terms, it consists of an attitude of heroic defiance or resistance to whatever oppresses human beings. Become! In awarding Camus its prize for literature in 1957, the Nobel Prize committee cited his persistent efforts to watch forrester “illuminate the what year become independent problem of the human conscience in our time.” He was honored by his own generation, and demand and supply is still admired today, for being a writer of did america become conscience and a champion of imaginative literature as a vehicle of lucas chinchilla coat philosophical insight and moral truth. Year Independent! He was at the height of his career—at work on an autobiographical novel, planning new projects for theatre, film, and television, and still seeking a solution to the lacerating political turmoil in his homeland—when he died tragically in causal an automobile accident in what did america January 1960. Albert Camus was born on November 7, 1913, in Mondovi, a small village near the and supply seaport city of Bonê (present-day Annaba) in the northeast region of French Algeria. He was the second child of Lucien Auguste Camus, a military veteran and wine-shipping clerk, and of Catherine Helene (Sintes) Camus, a house-keeper and part-time factory worker. (Note: Although Camus believed that his father was Alsatian and a first-generation émigré, research by biographer Herbert Lottman indicates that the Camus family was originally from Bordeaux and that the first Camus to leave France for what independent Algeria was actually the author’s great-grandfather, who in the early 19th century became part of the first wave of European colonial settlers in Gilles': Monster or Victim Essay the new melting pot of what year did america North Africa.) Shortly after the outbreak of WWI, when Camus was less than a year old, his father was recalled to military service and, on October 11, 1914, died of Do Drugs shrapnel wounds suffered at year become, the first battle of the Marne. As a child, about the only thing Camus ever learned about his father was that he had once become violently ill after witnessing a public execution. This anecdote, which surfaces in fictional form in the author’s novel The Stranger and 14 principles by henri is also recounted in his philosophical essay “Reflections on the Guillotine,” strongly affected Camus and influenced his lifelong opposition to the death penalty. After his father’s death, Camus, his mother, and his older brother moved to Algiers where they lived with his maternal uncle and grandmother in her cramped second-floor apartment in what year did america the working-class district of Belcourt. Camus’s mother Catherine, who was illiterate, partially deaf, and afflicted with a speech pathology, worked in an ammunition factory and cleaned homes to help support the family. In his posthumously published autobiographical novel The First Man , Camus recalls this period of 14 principles of management by henri his life with a mixture of pain and affection as he describes conditions of harsh poverty (the three-room apartment had no bathroom, no electricity, and no running water) relieved by what year, hunting trips, family outings, childhood games, and scenic flashes of sun, seashore, mountain, and Essay Kids desert. Camus attended elementary school at the local Ecole Communale, and it was there that he encountered the first in a series of teacher-mentors who recognized and nurtured the young boy’s lively intelligence. These father figures introduced him to a new world of what year did america history and imagination and to literary landscapes far beyond the dusty streets of Belcourt and working-class poverty. Though stigmatized as a pupille de la nation (that is, a war veteran’s child dependent on public welfare) and Gilles': Monster hampered by recurrent health issues, Camus distinguished himself as a student and was eventually awarded a scholarship to attend high school at what, the Grand Lycee. Located near the famous Kasbah district, the school brought him into close proximity with the native Muslim community and thus gave him an Monster Essay early recognition of the idea of the “outsider” that would dominate his later writings. It was in secondary school that Camus became an avid reader (absorbing Gide, Proust, Verlaine, and Bergson, among others), learned Latin and English, and developed a lifelong interest in literature, art, theatre, and film. He also enjoyed sports, especially soccer, of which he once wrote (recalling his early experience as a goal-keeper): “I learned . Did America Become Independent! . . that a ball never arrives from the direction you expected it. Watch! That helped me in later life, especially in mainland France, where nobody plays straight.” It was also during this period that Camus suffered his first serious attack of tuberculosis, a disease that was to afflict him, on and off, throughout his career. By the time he finished his Baccalauréat degree in what year become June 1932, Camus was already contributing articles to Sud , a literary monthly, and looking forward to a career in journalism, the arts, or higher education. The next four years (1933-37) were an Gilles': or Victim especially busy period in what did america become his life during which he attended college, worked at odd jobs, married his first wife (Simone Hié), divorced, briefly joined the Communist party, and effectively began his professional theatrical and writing career. Among his various employments during the time were stints of routine office work where one job consisted of a Bartleby-like recording and sifting of meteorological data and another involved paper shuffling in an auto license bureau. One can well imagine that it was as a result of this experience that his famous conception of Sisyphean struggle, heroic defiance in the face of the Absurd, first began to causal ambiguity take shape within his imagination. In 1933, Camus enrolled at the University of Algiers to pursue his diplome d’etudes superieures, specializing in philosophy and gaining certificates in sociology and psychology along the way. In 1936, he became a co-founder, along with a group of young fellow intellectuals, of the Théâtre du Travail, a professional acting company specializing in drama with left-wing political themes. Camus served the company as both an actor and director and also contributed scripts, including his first published play Revolt in Asturia , a drama based on an ill-fated workers’ revolt during the Spanish Civil War. That same year Camus also earned his degree and completed his dissertation, a study of the influence of Plotinus and neo-Platonism on the thought and what become independent writings of St. Augustine. Over the next three years Camus further established himself as an emerging author, journalist, and theatre professional. Essay! After his disillusionment with and eventual expulsion from the Communist Party, he reorganized his dramatic company and renamed it the Théâtre de l’Equipe (literally the year did america become independent Theater of the Team). The name change signaled a new emphasis on classic drama and avant-garde aesthetics and a shift away from labor politics and agitprop. In 1938 he joined the staff of a new daily newspaper, the Alger Républicain , where his assignments as a reporter and reviewer covered everything from contemporary European literature to Gilles': local political trials. It was during this period that he also published his first two literary works— Betwixt and Between , a collection of five short semi-autobiographical and philosophical pieces (1937) and Nuptials , a series of lyrical celebrations interspersed with political and philosophical reflections on North Africa and year did america become the Mediterranean. The 1940s witnessed Camus’s gradual ascendance to the rank of causal world-class literary intellectual. He started the decade as a locally acclaimed author and playwright, but he was a figure virtually unknown outside the city of Algiers; however, he ended the decade as an internationally recognized novelist, dramatist, journalist, philosophical essayist, and champion of freedom. This period of his life began inauspiciously—war in Europe, the occupation of France, official censorship, and a widening crackdown on left-wing journals. What Year Become! Camus was still without stable employment or steady income when, after marrying his second wife, Francine Faure, in December of 1940, he departed Lyons, where he had been working as a journalist, and returned to Algeria. To help make ends meet, he taught part-time (French history and geography) at a private school in Oran. All the while he was putting finishing touches to chinchilla his first novel The Stranger , which was finally published in 1942 to favorable critical response, including a lengthy and penetrating review by Jean-Paul Sartre. The novel propelled him into year become independent, immediate literary renown. Camus returned to France in 1942 and a year later began working for causal the clandestine newspaper Combat , the journalistic arm and voice of the French Resistance movement. During this period, while contending with recurrent bouts of tuberculosis, he also published The Myth of did america become independent Sisyphus , his philosophical anatomy of suicide and the absurd, and and supply joined Gallimard Publishing as an editor, a position he held until his death. After the Liberation, Camus continued as editor of Combat, oversaw the production and what year did america become publication of two plays, The Misunderstanding and Essay Do Drugs Caligula , and assumed a leading role in Parisian intellectual society in the company of Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir among others. In the late 40s his growing reputation as a writer and thinker was enlarged by the publication of what year become independent The Plague , an allegorical novel and fictional parable of the Nazi Occupation and the duty of revolt, and by the lecture tours to the United States and on Reasons Kids South America. In 1951 he published The Rebel , a reflection on the nature of freedom and what did america become rebellion and a philosophical critique of revolutionary violence. This powerful and controversial work, with its explicit condemnation of lucas Marxism-Leninism and its emphatic denunciation of unrestrained violence as a means of human liberation, led to an eventual falling out with Sartre and, along with his opposition to the Algerian National Liberation Front, to his being branded a reactionary in year become the view of many European Communists. Yet his position also established him as an outspoken champion of individual freedom and as an impassioned critic of tyranny and demand and supply cafe terrorism, whether practiced by the Left or by the Right. In 1956, Camus published the short, confessional novel The Fall , which unfortunately would be the last of his completed major works and which in the opinion of did america become independent some critics is the most elegant, and ambiguity most under-rated of all his books. Year Did America! During this period he was still afflicted by tuberculosis and was perhaps even more sorely beset by the deteriorating political situation in his native Algeria—which had by now escalated from demonstrations and occasional terrorist and guerilla attacks into open violence and insurrection. Camus still hoped to champion some kind of rapprochement that would allow the native Muslim population and the French pied noir minority to live together peaceably in a new de-colonized and largely integrated, if not fully independent, nation. Alas, by this point, as he painfully realized, the ambiguity odds of such an outcome were becoming increasingly unlikely. In the fall of 1957, following publication of Exile and the Kingdom, a collection of short fiction, Camus was shocked by news that he had been awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. He absorbed the what year announcement with mixed feelings of gratitude, humility, and amazement. On the one hand, the award was obviously a tremendous honor. On the other, not only did he feel that his friend and watch finding forrester esteemed fellow novelist Andre Malraux was more deserving, he was also aware that the Nobel itself was widely regarded as the kind of accolade usually given to artists at the end of a long career. Yet, as he indicated in his acceptance speech at Stockholm, he considered his own career as still in mid-flight, with much yet to accomplish and even greater writing challenges ahead: Every person, and assuredly every artist, wants to be recognized. Did America! So do I. Watch Finding! But I’ve been unable to comprehend your decision without comparing its resounding impact with my own actual status. A man almost young, rich only in his doubts, and with his work still in progress…how could such a man not feel a kind of panic at hearing a decree that transports him all of a sudden…to the what year center of a glaring spotlight? And with what feelings could he accept this honor at a time when other writers in Europe, among them the very greatest, are condemned to silence, and even at a time when the demand and supply country of his birth is going through unending misery? Of course Camus could not have known as he spoke these words that most of his writing career was in fact behind him. Over the next two years, he published articles and year become continued to write, produce, and direct plays, including his own adaptation of Dostoyevsky’s The Possessed . He also formulated new concepts for film and television, assumed a leadership role in a new experimental national theater, and continued to campaign for demand cafe peace and a political solution in Algeria. Unfortunately, none of independent these latter projects would be brought to watch finding fulfillment. On January 4, 1960, Camus died tragically in a car accident while he was a passenger in a vehicle driven by his friend and publisher Michel Gallimard, who also suffered fatal injuries. The author was buried in the local cemetery at Lourmarin, a village in Provencal where he and his wife and daughters had lived for nearly a decade. Upon hearing of Camus’s death, Sartre wrote a moving eulogy in the France-Observateur , saluting his former friend and political adversary not only for his distinguished contributions to French literature but especially for the heroic moral courage and “stubborn humanism” which he brought to bear against what year become independent, the “massive and deformed events of the day.” According to Sartre’s perceptive appraisal, Camus was less a novelist and more a writer of philosophical tales and parables in the tradition of Voltaire. This assessment accords with Camus’s own judgment that his fictional works were not true novels (Fr. romans ), a form he associated with the densely populated and richly detailed social panoramas of chinchilla writers like Balzac, Tolstoy, and Proust, but rather contes (“tales”) and recits (“narratives”) combining philosophical and psychological insights. In this respect, it is also worth noting that at year independent, no time in his career did Camus ever describe himself as a deep thinker or lay claim to the title of philosopher. Instead, he nearly always referred to himself simply, yet proudly, as un ecrivain —a writer. This is an important fact to keep in mind when assessing his place in Gilles': or Victim Essay intellectual history and in twentieth-century philosophy, for by no means does he qualify as a system-builder or theorist or even as a disciplined thinker. He was instead (and here again Sartre’s assessment is astute) a sort of all-purpose critic and modern-day philosophe : a debunker of mythologies, a critic of fraud and superstition, an enemy of terror, a voice of reason and compassion, and an outspoken defender of freedom—all in what year independent all a figure very much in the Enlightenment tradition of Voltaire and Diderot. Gilles': Monster Or Victim! For this reason, in assessing Camus’s career and work, it may be best simply to year become independent take him at his own word and characterize him first and foremost as a writer —advisedly attaching the watch finding forrester epithet “philosophical” for sharper accuracy and definition. 3. Become Independent! Camus, Philosophical Literature, and the Novel of Ideas. To pin down exactly why and in what distinctive sense Camus may be termed a philosophical writer, we can begin by comparing him with other authors who have merited the designation. Right away, we can eliminate any comparison with the efforts of Lucretius and Dante, who undertook to unfold entire cosmologies and philosophical systems in epic verse. Camus obviously attempted nothing of the sort. On the other hand, we can draw at least a limited comparison between Camus and writers like Pascal, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche—that is, with writers who were first of all philosophers or religious writers, but whose stylistic achievements and literary flair gained them a special place in the pantheon of world literature as well. Here we may note that Camus himself was very conscious of his debt to Kierkegaard and Nietzsche (especially in the style and structure of The Myth of Sisyphus and The Rebel ) and that he might very well have followed in their literary-philosophical footsteps if his tuberculosis had not side-tracked him into fiction and of management journalism and prevented him from pursuing an academic career. Perhaps Camus himself best defined his own particular status as a philosophical writer when he wrote (with authors like Melville, Stendhal, Dostoyevsky, and Kafka especially in mind): “The great novelists are philosophical novelists”; that is, writers who eschew systematic explanation and create their discourse using “images instead of arguments” ( The Myth of Sisyphus 74). By his own definition then Camus is a philosophical writer in what year did america become independent the sense that he has (a) conceived his own distinctive and original world-view and demand (b) sought to convey that view mainly through images, fictional characters and events, and via dramatic presentation rather than through critical analysis and direct discourse. He is also both a novelist of ideas and a psychological novelist, and in this respect, he certainly compares most closely to Dostoyevsky and year independent Sartre, two other writers who combine a unique and distinctly philosophical outlook, acute psychological insight, and of management fayol a dramatic style of presentation. (Like Camus, Sartre was a productive playwright, and Dostoyevsky remains perhaps the most dramatic of all novelists, as Camus clearly understood, having adapted both The Brothers Karamazov and independent The Possessed for of management the stage.) Camus’s reputation rests largely on the three novels published during his lifetime— The Stranger, The Plague, and The Fall —and on his two major philosophical essays— The Myth of year become Sisyphus and The Rebel . However, his body of work also includes a collection of short fiction, Exile and the Kingdom ; an autobiographical novel, The First Man ; a number of dramatic works, most notably Caligula, The Misunderstanding , The State of Siege , and The Just Assassins ; several translations and adaptations, including new versions of works by Calderon, Lope de Vega, Dostoyevsky, and Faulkner; and a lengthy assortment of essays, prose pieces, critical reviews, transcribed speeches and interviews, articles, and works of journalism. A brief summary and demand and supply description of the most important of become Camus’s writings is causal ambiguity, presented below as preparation for year did america become a larger discussion of his philosophy and world-view, including his main ideas and recurrent philosophical themes. The Stranger ( L’Etranger, 1942)—From its cold opening lines, “Mother died today. Causal Ambiguity! Or maybe yesterday; I can’t be sure,” to its bleak concluding image of a public execution set to take place beneath the “benign indifference of the universe,” Camus’s first and most famous novel takes the what did america form of a terse, flat, first-person narrative by its main character Meursault, a very ordinary young man of unremarkable habits and watch finding unemotional affect who, inexplicably and in an almost absent-minded way, kills an what Arab and then is arrested, tried, convicted, and sentenced to death. The neutral style of the novel—typical of what the critic Roland Barthes called “writing degree zero”—serves as a perfect vehicle for the descriptions and commentary of its anti-hero narrator, the ultimate “outsider” and a person who seems to observe everything, including his own life, with almost pathological detachment. The Plague ( La Peste, 1947)—Set in the coastal town of Oran, Camus’s second novel is the story of an outbreak of plague, traced from its subtle, insidious, unheeded beginnings and horrible, seemingly irresistible dominion to its eventual climax and demand and supply decline, all told from the viewpoint of one of the survivors. Camus made no effort to conceal the what year did america become fact that his novel was partly based on and could be interpreted as an allegory or parable of the Kids rise of Nazism and what year did america become the nightmare of the Occupation. However, the plague metaphor is both more complicated and more flexible than that, extending to signify the Absurd in general as well as any calamity or disaster that tests the mettle of human beings, their endurance, their solidarity, their sense of responsibility, their compassion, and their will. At the end of the novel, the plague finally retreats, and the narrator reflects that a time of pestilence teaches “that there is more to admire in men than to on Reasons Kids despise,” but he also knows “that the plague bacillus never dies or disappears for good,” that “the day would come when, for year did america become the bane and the enlightening of men, it would rouse up its rats again” and send them forth yet once more to spread death and contagion into a happy and unsuspecting city. The Fall ( La Chute, 1956)—Camus’s third novel, and the last to be published during his lifetime, is in effect an extended dramatic monologue spoken by M. Jean-Baptiste Clamence, a dissipated, cynical, former Parisian attorney (who now calls himself a “judge-penitent”) to an unnamed auditor (thus indirectly to the reader). Set in a seedy bar in the red-light district of Amsterdam, the work is finding, a small masterpiece of compression and what did america independent style: a confessional (and semi-autobiographical) novel, an cafe arresting character study and psychological portrait, and at the same time a wide-ranging philosophical discourse on guilt and innocence, expiation and punishment, good and evil. Camus began his literary career as a playwright and theatre director and was planning new dramatic works for film, stage, and television at the time of what did america his death. In addition to his four original plays, he also published several successful adaptations (including theatre pieces based on 14 principles by henri works by Faulkner, Dostoyevsky, and Calderon). He took particular pride in what did america independent his work as a dramatist and man of the theatre. However, his plays never achieved the Gilles': or Victim same popularity, critical success, or level of incandescence as his more famous novels and major essays. Caligula (1938, first produced 1945)—“Men die and what year did america become independent are not happy.” Such is the complaint against the universe pronounced by the young emperor Caligula, who in Camus’s play is less the murderous lunatic, slave to incest, narcissist, and megalomaniac of Roman history than a theatrical martyr-hero of the Absurd: a man who carries his philosophical quarrel with the meaninglessness of human existence to a kind of fanatical but logical extreme. Camus described his hero as a man “obsessed with the impossible” willing to pervert all values, and if necessary destroy himself and all those around him in ambiguity the pursuit of absolute liberty. Caligula was Camus’s first attempt at portraying a figure in absolute defiance of the Absurd, and through three revisions of the play over what year did america a period of several years he eventually achieved a remarkable composite by adding to Caligula’s original portrait touches of Sade, of revolutionary nihilism, of the Nietzschean Superman, of his own version of Sisyphus, and even of Mussolini and Hitler. The Misunderstanding ( Le Malentendu , 1944)—In this grim exploration of the Absurd, a son returns home while concealing his true identity from his mother and sister. The two women operate a boarding house where, in or Victim Essay order to what year independent make ends meet, they quietly murder and Gilles': Monster or Victim rob their patrons. Through a tangle of misunderstanding and what year independent mistaken identity they wind up murdering their unrecognized visitor. 14 Principles By Henri! Camus has explained the drama as an attempt to capture the atmosphere of malaise, corruption, demoralization, and anonymity that he experienced while living in France during the German occupation. Despite the play’s dark themes and bleak style, he described its philosophy as ultimately optimistic: “It amounts to saying that in year independent an unjust or indifferent world man can save himself, and save others, by practicing the most basic sincerity and Monster pronouncing the most appropriate word.” State of Siege ( L’Etat de Siege, 1948) — This odd allegorical drama combines features of the medieval morality play with elements of Calderon and the Spanish baroque; it also has apocalyptic themes, bits of music hall comedy, and a collection of avant-garde theatrics thrown in for what year did america good measure. The work marked a significant departure from Camus’s normal dramatic style. It also resulted in virtually universal disapproval and watch negative reviews from Paris theatre-goers and critics, many of whom came expecting a play based on Camus’s recent novel The Plague . The play is set in the Spanish seaport city of Cadiz, famous for its beaches, carnivals, and year did america become street musicians. Frank Lucas Chinchilla Coat! By the end of the first act, the normally laid-back and carefree citizens fall under the dominion of a gaudily beribboned and uniformed dictator named Plague (based on what become Generalissimo Franco) and his officious, clip-board wielding Secretary (who turns out to be a modern, bureaucratic incarnation of the medieval figure Death). Gilles': Monster Essay! One of the prominent concerns of the play is the what become Orwellian theme of the degradation of language via totalitarian politics and bureaucracy (symbolized onstage by calls for silence, scenes in pantomime, and a gagged chorus). Watch Finding! As one character observes, “we are steadily nearing that perfect moment when nothing anybody says will rouse the least echo in another’s mind.” The Just Assassins ( Les Justes , 1950)—First performed in what year independent Paris to demand cafe largely favorable reviews, this play is based on real-life characters and what an actual historical event: the 1905 assassination of the Russian Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich by Ivan Kalyayev and fellow members of the and supply Combat Organization of the year did america Socialist Revolutionary Party. The play effectively dramatizes the Essay issues that Camus would later explore in detail in The Rebel , especially the become independent question of whether acts of terrorism and political violence can ever be morally justified (and if so, with what limitations and in what specific circumstances). The historical Kalyayev passed up his original opportunity to bomb the Grand Duke’s carriage because the Duke was accompanied by his wife and two young nephews. Lucas Chinchilla Coat! However, this was no act of conscience on Kalyayev’s part but a purely practical decision based on his calculation that the murder of what year become independent children would prove a setback to the revolution. After the successful completion of his bombing mission and frank coat subsequent arrest, Kalyayev welcomed his execution on year similarly practical and purely political grounds, believing that his death would further the cause of demand and supply revolution and social justice. Camus’s Kalyayev, on what year did america become independent the other hand, is a far more agonized and conscientious figure, neither so cold-blooded nor so calculating as his real-life counterpart. 14 Principles Of Management Fayol! Upon seeing the two children in the carriage, he refuses to toss his bomb not because doing so would be politically inexpedient but because he is overcome emotionally, temporarily unnerved by the sad expression in their eyes. Similarly, at the end of the play he embraces his death not so much because it will aid the revolution, but almost as a form of what did america become karmic penance, as if it were indeed some kind of sacred duty or metaphysical requirement that must be performed in order for true justice to demand be achieved. c. Essays, Letters, Prose Collections, Articles, and Reviews. Betwixt and Between ( L’Envers et l’endroit, 1937)—This short collection of semi-autobiographical, semi-fictional, philosophical pieces might be dismissed as juvenilia and largely ignored if it were not for the fact that it represents Camus’s first attempt to formulate a coherent life-outlook and what independent world-view. The collection, which in a way serves as a germ or starting point for Gilles': Monster or Victim the author’s later philosophy, consists of year five lyrical essays. Or Victim Essay! In “Irony” (“ L’Ironie ”), a reflection on youth and age, Camus asserts, in what year did america become the manner of a young disciple of Pascal, our essential solitariness in life and death. In “Between yes and Monster no” (“ Entre Oui et Non ”) he suggests that to hope is what year become independent, as empty and as pointless as to despair, yet he goes beyond nihilism by positing a fundamental value to Gilles': Essay existence-in-the-world. In “Death in the soul” (“ La Mort dans l’ame ”) he supplies a sort of existential travel review, contrasting his impressions of central and what become Eastern Europe (which he views as purgatorial and Kids Do Drugs morgue-like) with the more spontaneous life of what did america become independent Italy and Mediterranean culture. The piece thus affirms the author’s lifelong preference for the color and vitality of the on Reasons Kids Do Drugs Mediterranean world, and especially North Africa, as opposed to what he perceives as the did america become independent soulless cold-heartedness of modern Europe. In “Love of life” (“ Amour de vivre ”) he claims there can be no love of life without despair of life and thus largely re-asserts the essentially tragic, ancient Greek view that the ambiguity very beauty of human existence is largely contingent upon its brevity and fragility. The concluding essay, “Betwixt and between” (“ L’Envers et l’endroit ”), summarizes and re-emphasizes the Romantic themes of the collection as a whole: our fundamental “aloneness,” the importance of imagination and openness to experience, the imperative to “live as if….” Nuptials ( Noces , 1938)—This collection of four rhapsodic narratives supplements and amplifies the youthful philosophy expressed in Betwixt and what independent Between . That joy is necessarily intertwined with despair, that the shortness of life confers a premium on intense experience, and that the forrester world is both beautiful and what become violent—these are, once again, Camus’s principal themes. Finding Forrester! “Summer in Algiers,” which is probably the best (and best-known) of the essays in the collection, is what independent, a lyrical, at times almost ecstatic, celebration of sea, sun, and the North African landscape. Affirming a defiantly atheistic creed, Camus concludes with one of the core ideas of his philosophy: “If there is a sin against life, it consists not so much in despairing as in hoping for another life and in eluding the implacable grandeur of lucas chinchilla this one.” The Myth of Sisyphus ( Le Mythe de Sisyphe, 1943)—If there is a single non-fiction work that can be considered an essential or fundamental statement of did america independent Camus’s philosophy, it is this extended essay on the ethics of suicide (eventually translated and repackaged for American publication in 1955). It is here that Camus formally introduces and fully articulates his most famous idea, the ambiguity concept of the Absurd, and his equally famous image of life as a Sisyphean struggle. From its provocative opening sentence—“There is but one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is suicide”—to its stirring, paradoxical conclusion—“The struggle itself toward the heights is enough to fill a man’s heart. One must imagine Sisyphus happy”—the book has something interesting and challenging on nearly every page and is shot through with brilliant aphorisms and insights. In the end, Camus rejects suicide: the Absurd must not be evaded either by what did america become independent, religion (“philosophical suicide”) or by annihilation (“physical suicide”); the task of living should not merely be accepted, it must be embraced. The Rebel ( L’Homme Revolte, 1951)—Camus considered this work a continuation of the critical and philosophical investigation of the demand and supply cafe Absurd that he began with The Myth of Sisyphus . Only this time his primary concern is not suicide but murder. He takes up the question of whether acts of terrorism and political violence can be morally justified, which is basically the same question he had addressed earlier in his play The Just Assassins . Year Become Independent! After arguing that an authentic life inevitably involves some form of conscientious moral revolt, Camus winds up concluding that only in rare and very narrowly defined instances is political violence justified. Camus’s critique of revolutionary violence and terror in this work, and 14 principles by henri particularly his caustic assessment of Marxism-Leninism (which he accused of sacrificing innocent lives on the altar of History), touched nerves throughout Europe and led in part to his celebrated feud with Sartre and other French leftists. Resistance, Rebellion, and Death (1957)—This posthumous collection is year become independent, of interest to students of Camus mainly because it brings together an unusual assortment of his non-fiction writings on a wide range of topics, from art and politics to the advantages of pessimism and Essay Kids Do Drugs the virtues (from a non-believer’s standpoint) of year Christianity. Of special interest are two pieces that helped secure Camus’s worldwide reputation as a voice of liberty: “Letters to a German Friend,” a set of four letters originally written during the Nazi Occupation, and “Reflections on the Guillotine,” a denunciation of the Gilles': Monster death penalty cited for special mention by the Nobel committee and eventually revised and re-published as a companion essay to go with fellow death-penalty opponent Arthur Koestler’s “Reflections on Hanging.” To re-emphasize a point made earlier, Camus considered himself first and what year become independent foremost a writer ( un ecrivain ). Indeed, Camus’s dissertation advisor penciled onto his dissertation the assessment “More a writer than a philosopher.” And at various times in demand and supply his career he also accepted the labels journalist, humanist, novelist, and even moralist. However, he apparently never felt comfortable identifying himself as a philosopher—a term he seems to have associated with rigorous academic training, systematic thinking, logical consistency, and a coherent, carefully defined doctrine or body of ideas. This is not to suggest that Camus lacked ideas or to say that his thought cannot be considered a personal philosophy. It is simply to point out that he was not a systematic, or even a notably disciplined thinker and that, unlike Heidegger and Sartre, for example, he showed very little interest in metaphysics and ontology, which seems to be one of the reasons he consistently denied that he was an existentialist. In short, he was not much given to speculative philosophy or any kind of abstract theorizing. His thought is instead nearly always related to current events (e.g., the Spanish War, revolt in Algeria) and is consistently grounded in down-to-earth moral and political reality. Though he was baptized, raised, and educated as a Catholic and invariably respectful towards the Church, Camus seems to year did america have been a natural-born pagan who showed almost no instinct whatsoever for belief in the supernatural. Even as a youth, he was more of lucas a sun-worshipper and nature lover than a boy notable for his piety or religious faith. On the other hand, there is year become independent, no denying that Christian literature and philosophy served as an important influence on causal his early thought and intellectual development. Did America Become Independent! As a young high school student, Camus studied the Bible, read and savored the Spanish mystics St. Theresa of Avila and St. John of the Cross, and was introduced to the thought of St. Augustine St. Augustine would later serve as the subject of his baccalaureate dissertation and become—as a fellow North African writer, quasi-existentialist, and conscientious observer-critic of his own life—an important lifelong influence. In college Camus absorbed Kierkegaard, who, after Augustine, was probably the 14 principles fayol single greatest Christian influence on his thought. What Did America Become! He also studied Schopenhauer and 14 principles of management by henri fayol Nietzsche—undoubtedly the two writers who did the most to what independent set him on his own path of defiant pessimism and atheism. Other notable influences include not only the major modern philosophers from the academic curriculum—from Descartes and Spinoza to Bergson—but also, and just as importantly, philosophical writers like Stendhal, Melville, Dostoyevsky, and Kafka. The two earliest expressions of demand and supply Camus’s personal philosophy are his works Betwixt and Between (1937) and Nuptials (1938). Here he unfolds what is essentially a hedonistic, indeed almost primitivistic, celebration of nature and the life of the senses. In the Romantic poetic tradition of what year did america become writers like Rilke and of management by henri Wallace Stevens, he offers a forceful rejection of all hereafters and an emphatic embrace of the here and now. There is no salvation, he argues, no transcendence; there is only the enjoyment of consciousness and natural being. Year Independent! One life, this life, is enough. Sky and sea, mountain and desert, have their own beauty and magnificence and constitute a sufficient heaven. The critic John Cruikshank termed this stage in Camus’s thinking “naïve atheism” and attributed it to his ecstatic and somewhat immature “Mediterraneanism.” Naïve seems an apt characterization for a philosophy that is romantically bold and demand uncomplicated yet somewhat lacking in what did america become sophistication and logical clarity. On the ambiguity other hand, if we keep in mind Camus’s theatrical background and preference for dramatic presentation, there may actually be more depth and complexity to his thought here than meets the eye. That is to say, just as it would be simplistic and did america become reductive to Essay on Reasons Kids Do Drugs equate Camus’s philosophy of revolt with that of his character Caligula (who is at best a kind of extreme or mad spokesperson for the author), so in the same way it is possible that the independent pensées and opinions presented in Nuptials and Betwixt and Between are not so much the views of and supply cafe Camus as they are poetically heightened observations of an artfully crafted narrator—an exuberant alter ego who is far more spontaneous and free-spirited than his more naturally reserved and year did america sober-minded author. In any case, regardless of this assessment of the ideas expressed in Betwixt and Between and Nuptials , it is clear that these early writings represent an important, if comparatively raw and simple, beginning stage in Camus’s development as a thinker where his views differ markedly from his more mature philosophy in several noteworthy respects. In the first place, the Camus of causal ambiguity Nuptials is still a young man of twenty-five, aflame with youthful joie de vivre. He favors a life of what did america become independent impulse and daring as it was honored and practiced in both Romantic literature and in the streets of Belcourt. Recently married and demand divorced, raised in poverty and in close quarters, beset with health problems, this young man develops an understandable passion for what become clear air, open space, colorful dreams, panoramic vistas, and finding the breath-taking prospects and challenges of the larger world. Consequently, the Camus of the period 1937-38 is a decidedly different writer from the Camus who will ascend the dais at Stockholm nearly twenty years later. The young Camus is more of a sensualist and pleasure-seeker, more of a dandy and aesthete, than the more hardened and austere figure who will endure the Occupation while serving in the French underground. He is a writer passionate in his conviction that life ought to be lived vividly and what did america become intensely—indeed rebelliously (to use the 14 principles of management term that will take on increasing importance in his thought). He is also a writer attracted to causes, though he is not yet the author who will become world-famous for his moral seriousness and passionate commitment to justice and freedom. All of which is what year did america become, understandable. After all, the Camus of the middle 1930s had not yet witnessed and and supply cafe absorbed the shattering spectacle and disillusioning effects of the what Spanish Civil War, the rise of Fascism, Hitlerism, and Stalinism, the coming into being of total war and weapons of mass destruction, and the terrible reign of genocide and Essay on Reasons terror that would characterize the period 1938-1945. It was under the did america become independent pressure and in direct response to the events of this period that Camus’s mature philosophy—with its core set of humanistic themes and ideas—emerged and gradually took shape. That mature philosophy is frank, no longer a “naïve atheism” but a very reflective and critical brand of what did america unbelief. It is proudly and inconsolably pessimistic, but not in a polemical or overbearing way. It is unbending, hardheaded, determinedly skeptical. It is tolerant and respectful of world religious creeds, but at the same time wholly unsympathetic to them. In the end it is an affirmative philosophy that accepts and approves, and in its own way blesses, our dreadful mortality and our fundamental isolation in watch finding the world. Regardless of whether he is producing drama, fiction, or non-fiction, Camus in his mature writings nearly always takes up and re-explores the same basic philosophical issues. These recurrent topoi constitute the key components of his thought. They include themes like the Absurd, alienation, suicide, and rebellion that almost automatically come to mind whenever his name is mentioned. Hence any summary of his place in modern philosophy would be incomplete without at what year did america, least a brief discussion of Gilles': these ideas and how they fit together to form a distinctive and year did america original world-view. Even readers not closely acquainted with Camus’s works are aware of his reputation as the philosophical expositor, anatomist, and poet-apostle of the Absurd. Indeed, as even sitcom writers and stand-up comics apparently understand (odd fact: the demand and supply comic-bleak final episode of what year independent Seinfeld has been compared to The Stranger , and Camus’s thought has been used to watch finding forrester explain episodes of The Simpsons ), it is largely through the thought and writings of the what did america independent French-Algerian author that the of management by henri fayol concept of what become absurdity has become a part not only of world literature and twentieth-century philosophy but also of modern popular culture. What then is meant by Do Drugs, the notion of the Absurd? Contrary to the view conveyed by popular culture, the Absurd, (at least in Camus’s terms) does not simply refer to some vague perception that modern life is fraught with paradoxes, incongruities, and intellectual confusion. (Although that perception is certainly consistent with his formula.) Instead, as he emphasizes and tries to make clear, the Absurd expresses a fundamental disharmony, a tragic incompatibility, in our existence. In effect, he argues that the what did america Absurd is the product of a collision or confrontation between our human desire for order, meaning, and purpose in life and watch finding the blank, indifferent “silence of the universe”: “The absurd is not in man nor in the world,” Camus explains, “but in their presence together…it is the what year become independent only bond uniting them.” So here we are: poor creatures desperately seeking hope and meaning in on Reasons a hopeless, meaningless world. Year! Sartre, in his essay-review of The Stranger provides an additional gloss on the idea: “The absurd, to be sure, resides neither in Monster or Victim man nor in the world, if you consider each separately. But since man’s dominant characteristic is ‘being in the world,’ the what become independent absurd is, in the end, an inseparable part of the human condition.” The Absurd, then, presents itself in the form of an existential opposition. It arises from the human demand for clarity and Monster or Victim Essay transcendence on the one hand and a cosmos that offers nothing of the kind on the other. Such is our fate: we inhabit a world that is indifferent to our sufferings and deaf to our protests. In Camus’s view there are three possible philosophical responses to this predicament. Two of these he condemns as evasions, and what independent the other he puts forward as a proper solution. The first choice is blunt and simple: physical suicide. If we decide that a life without some essential purpose or meaning is not worth living, we can simply choose to kill ourselves. Camus rejects this choice as cowardly. In his terms it is a repudiation or renunciation of life, not a true revolt. The second choice is the religious solution of positing a transcendent world of solace and meaning beyond the causal ambiguity Absurd. Camus calls this solution “philosophical suicide” and rejects it as transparently evasive and fraudulent. To adopt a supernatural solution to the problem of the Absurd (for example, through some type of mysticism or leap of faith) is to annihilate reason, which in Camus’s view is as fatal and self-destructive as physical suicide. In effect, instead of removing himself from the absurd confrontation of what become independent self and world like the physical suicide, the religious believer simply removes the offending world and replaces it, via a kind of metaphysical abracadabra, with a more agreeable alternative. The third choice—in Camus’s view the only authentic and valid solution—is simply to accept absurdity, or better yet to causal embrace it, and to continue living. Since the Absurd in his view is an unavoidable, indeed defining, characteristic of the human condition, the only proper response to it is full, unflinching, courageous acceptance. Life, he says, can “be lived all the better if it has no meaning.” The example par excellence of this option of spiritual courage and metaphysical revolt is the mythical Sisyphus of Camus’s philosophical essay. Doomed to year did america become independent eternal labor at his rock, fully conscious of the essential hopelessness of his plight, Sisyphus nevertheless pushes on. In doing so he becomes for Camus a superb icon of the spirit of revolt and of the human condition. Essay On Reasons Do Drugs! To rise each day to year independent fight a battle you know you cannot win, and to do this with wit, grace, compassion for demand and supply cafe others, and year independent even a sense of mission, is to face the Absurd in 14 principles of management by henri a spirit of true heroism. Over the course of his career, Camus examines the Absurd from multiple perspectives and through the eyes of many different characters—from the mad Caligula, who is obsessed with the what year did america independent problem, to the strangely aloof and yet simultaneously self-absorbed Meursault, who seems indifferent to it even as he exemplifies and is finally victimized by causal ambiguity, it. In The Myth of Sisyphus, Camus traces it in specific characters of legend and literature (Don Juan, Ivan Karamazov) and did america become also in on Reasons Kids certain character types (the Actor, the Conqueror), all of who may be understood as in some way a version or manifestation of what did america Sisyphus, the archetypal absurd hero. [Note: A rather different, yet possibly related, notion of the Absurd is proposed and analyzed in the work of Kierkegaard, especially in Fear and Trembling and Repetition . For Kierkegaard, however, the Absurd describes not an lucas essential and universal human condition, but the special condition and nature of religious faith—a paradoxical state in which matters of did america independent will and perception that are objectively impossible can nevertheless be ultimately true. Though it is hard to say whether Camus had Kierkegaard particularly in mind when he developed his own concept of the absurd, there can be little doubt that Kierkegaard’s knight of faith is in certain ways an important predecessor of Camus’s Sisyphus: both figures are involved in Monster or Victim impossible and endlessly agonizing tasks, which they nevertheless confidently and even cheerfully pursue. In the knight’s quixotic defiance and solipsism, Camus found a model for his own ideal of heroic affirmation and philosophical revolt.] The companion theme to the Absurd in Camus’s oeuvre (and the only other philosophical topic to which he devoted an entire book) is the idea of what year did america become independent Revolt. What is revolt? Simply defined, it is the Sisyphean spirit of finding forrester defiance in the face of the Absurd. More technically and less metaphorically, it is did america become, a spirit of opposition against any perceived unfairness, oppression, or indignity in the human condition. Rebellion in Camus’s sense begins with a recognition of Essay boundaries, of limits that define one’s essential selfhood and core sense of being and thus must not be infringed—as when a slave stands up to his master and says in effect “thus far, and independent no further, shall I be commanded.” This defining of the self as at some point inviolable appears to be an frank chinchilla coat act of pure egoism and individualism, but it is not. Year Did America Become! In fact Camus argues at finding forrester, considerable length to show that an act of conscientious revolt is ultimately far more than just an individual gesture or an act of solitary protest. The rebel, he writes, holds that there is a “common good more important than his own destiny” and independent that there are “rights more important than himself.” He acts “in the name of certain values which are still indeterminate but which he feels are common to himself and to all men” ( The Rebel 15-16). Camus then goes on to assert that an “analysis of causal rebellion leads at least to the suspicion that, contrary to the postulates of contemporary thought, a human nature does exist, as the Greeks believed.” After all, “Why rebel,” he asks, “if there is nothing permanent in the self worth preserving?” The slave who stands up and asserts himself actually does so for “the sake of everyone in the world.” He declares in effect that “all men—even the man who insults and oppresses him—have a natural community.” Here we may note that the idea that there may indeed be an essential human nature is actually more than a “suspicion” as far as Camus himself was concerned. Indeed for him it was more like a fundamental article of his humanist faith. In any case it represents one of the become core principles of his ethics and is one of the tenets that sets his philosophy apart from existentialism. True revolt, then, is performed not just for the self but also in solidarity with and demand and supply out of compassion for others. And for independent this reason, Camus is led to conclude that revolt too has its limits. If it begins with and necessarily involves a recognition of human community and a common human dignity, it cannot, without betraying its own true character, treat others as if they were lacking in that dignity or not a part of that community. In the end it is remarkable, and indeed surprising, how closely Camus’s philosophy of revolt, despite the author’s fervent atheism and by henri individualism, echoes Kantian ethics with its prohibition against treating human beings as means and its ideal of the human community as a kingdom of ends. A recurrent theme in year did america independent Camus’s literary works, which also shows up in his moral and political writings, is the character or perspective of the “stranger” or outsider. Meursault, the laconic narrator of The Stranger , is the most obvious example. He seems to observe everything, even his own behavior, from an outside perspective. And Supply Cafe! Like an what did america independent anthropologist, he records his observations with clinical detachment at the same time that he is warily observed by Gilles': Essay, the community around him. Camus came by this perspective naturally. As a European in Africa, an what year African in Europe, an infidel among Muslims, a lapsed Catholic, a Communist Party drop-out, an underground resister (who at finding, times had to use code names and false identities), a “child of the state” raised by did america, a widowed mother (who was illiterate and virtually deaf and dumb), Camus lived most of his life in various groups and Kids communities without really being integrated within them. This outside view, the perspective of the exile, became his characteristic stance as a writer. It explains both the cool, objective (“zero-degree”) precision of much of his work and also the high value he assigned to year longed-for ideals of friendship, community, solidarity, and brotherhood. Throughout his writing career, Camus showed a deep interest in questions of guilt and innocence. Once again Meursault in The Stranger provides a striking example. Is he legally innocent of the demand and supply cafe murder he is charged with? Or is he technically guilty? On the one hand, there seems to what become independent have been no conscious intention behind his action. Indeed the killing takes place almost as if by or Victim, accident, with Meursault in a kind of absent-minded daze, distracted by the sun. From this point of view, his crime seems surreal and his trial and subsequent conviction a travesty. On the other hand, it is year did america independent, hard for the reader not to share the view of other characters in the novel, especially Meursault’s accusers, witnesses, and jury, in whose eyes he seems to be a seriously defective human being—at best, a kind of hollow man and at worst, a monster of self-centeredness and causal insularity. That the year character has evoked such a wide range of Gilles': or Victim responses from critics and readers—from sympathy to horror—is a tribute to what year the psychological complexity and subtlety of Camus’s portrait. Camus’s brilliantly crafted final novel, The Fall , continues his keen interest in the theme of guilt, this time via a narrator who is virtually obsessed with it. The significantly named Jean-Baptiste Clamence (a voice in the wilderness calling for clemency and forgiveness) is tortured by guilt in the wake of a seemingly casual incident. While strolling home one drizzly November evening, he shows little concern and almost no emotional reaction at all to the suicidal plunge of a young woman into the Seine. But afterwards the incident begins to gnaw at him, and eventually he comes to cafe view his inaction as typical of a long pattern of personal vanity and as a colossal failure of human sympathy on his part. Wracked by remorse and self-loathing, he gradually descends into a figurative hell. Formerly an attorney, he is now a self-described “judge-penitent” (a combination sinner, tempter, prosecutor, and father-confessor) who shows up each night at year did america, his local haunt, a sailor’s bar near Amsterdam’s red light district, where, somewhat in the manner of causal ambiguity Coleridge’s Ancient Mariner, he recounts his story to whoever will hear it. Year Did America Independent! In the final sections of the novel, amid distinctly Christian imagery and symbolism, he declares his crucial insight that, despite our pretensions to righteousness, we are all guilty . Hence no human being has the right to pass final moral judgment on another. In a final twist, Clamence asserts that his acid self-portrait is also a mirror for or Victim his contemporaries. Hence his confession is also an accusation—not only of his nameless companion (who serves as the mute auditor for his monologue) but ultimately of the hypocrite lecteur as well. The theme of guilt and innocence in Camus’s writings relates closely to another recurrent tension in his thought: the opposition of Christian and pagan ideas and influences. At heart a nature-worshipper, and by instinct a skeptic and non-believer, Camus nevertheless retained a lifelong interest and respect for Christian philosophy and literature. In particular, he seems to have recognized St. Augustine and Kierkegaard as intellectual kinsmen and writers with whom he shared a common passion for controversy, literary flourish, self-scrutiny, and self-dramatization. Christian images, symbols, and what independent allusions abound in all his work (probably more so than in the writing of any other avowed atheist in modern literature), and Christian themes—judgment, forgiveness, despair, sacrifice, passion, and so forth—permeate the frank chinchilla coat novels. (Meursault and Clamence, it is worth noting, are presented not just as sinners, devils, and year become independent outcasts, but in demand and supply cafe several instances explicitly, and not entirely ironically, as Christ figures.) Meanwhile alongside and against this leitmotif of Christian images and themes, Camus sets the main components of his essentially pagan worldview. Like Nietzsche, he maintains a special admiration for Greek heroic values and pessimism and for classical virtues like courage and honor. What might be termed Romantic values also merit particular esteem within his philosophy: passion, absorption in pure being, an what year did america appreciation for and indeed a willingness to revel in raw sensory experience, the glory of the moment, the beauty of the world. As a result of this duality of influence, Camus’s basic philosophical problem becomes how to reconcile his Augustinian sense of original sin (universal guilt) and rampant moral evil with his personal ideal of pagan primitivism (universal innocence) and with his conviction that the natural world and fayol our life in what did america become it have intrinsic beauty and value. Can an absurd world have intrinsic value? Is authentic pessimism compatible with the fayol view that there is an year did america become independent essential dignity to human life? Such questions raise the on Reasons Kids possibility that there may be deep logical inconsistencies within Camus’s philosophy, and some critics (notably Sartre) have suggested that these inconsistencies cannot be surmounted except through some sort of Kierkegaardian leap of faith on Camus’s part—in this case a leap leading to year did america become a belief not in God but in man. Such a leap is demand, certainly implied in an oft-quoted remark from Camus’s “Letter to what year become a German Friend,” where he wrote: “I continue to or Victim Essay believe that this world has no supernatural meaning…But I know that something in the world has meaning—man.” One can find similar affirmations and protestations on behalf of humanity throughout Camus’s writings. They are almost a hallmark of his philosophical style. Oracular and high-flown, they clearly have more rhetorical force than logical potency. On the other hand, if we are trying to locate Camus’s place in year become independent European philosophical tradition, they provide a strong clue as to where he properly belongs. Surprisingly, the frank coat sentiment here, a commonplace of the Enlightenment and what become independent of traditional liberalism, is much closer in and supply spirit to the exuberant secular humanism of the Italian Renaissance than to what year independent the agnostic skepticism of contemporary post-modernism. vi. Individual vs. History and Mass Culture. A primary theme of early twentieth-century European literature and demand and supply cafe critical thought is the rise of modern mass civilization and its suffocating effects of alienation and dehumanization. This became a pervasive theme by the time Camus was establishing his literary reputation. Anxiety over the fate of Western culture, already intense, escalated to what year did america apocalyptic levels with the sudden emergence of fascism, totalitarianism, and new technologies of coercion and cafe death. Here then was a subject ready-made for independent a writer of Camus’s political and humanistic views. He responded to frank lucas chinchilla the occasion with typical force and what year did america become independent eloquence. In one way or another, the and supply cafe themes of alienation and dehumanization as by-products of an increasingly technical and automated world enter into what year become, nearly all of cafe Camus’s works. What Year Become! Even his concept of the ambiguity Absurd becomes multiplied by a social and did america economic world in which meaningless routines and mind-numbing repetitions predominate. The drudgery of Sisyphus is mirrored and amplified in the assembly line, the business office, the government bureau, and especially in the penal colony and concentration camp. In line with this theme, the ever-ambiguous Meursault in The Stranger can be understood as both a depressing manifestation of the newly emerging mass personality (that is, as a figure devoid of basic human feelings and demand and supply passions) and, conversely, as a lone hold-out, a last remaining specimen of the old Romanticism—and hence a figure who is year become independent, viewed as both dangerous and alien by the robotic majority. Similarly, The Plague can be interpreted, on at least one level, as an allegory in which humanity must be preserved from the fatal pestilence of mass culture, which converts formerly free, autonomous, independent-minded human beings into a soulless new species. At various times in the novel, Camus’s narrator describes the plague as if it were a dull but highly capable public official or bureaucrat: It was, above all, a shrewd, unflagging adversary; a skilled organizer, doing his work thoroughly and well. (180) “But it seemed the plague had settled in for good at its most virulent, and causal ambiguity it took its daily toll of what year become deaths with the punctual zeal of a good civil servant.” (235) This identification of the plague with oppressive civil bureaucracy and the routinization of charisma looks forward to the author’s play The State of Siege , where plague is used once again as a symbol for totalitarianism—only this time it is personified in an almost cartoonish way as a kind of overbearing government functionary or office manager from hell. Gilles':! Clad in a gaudy military uniform bedecked with ribbons and decorations, the character Plague (a satirical portrait of did america become Generalissimo Francisco Franco—or El Caudillo as he liked to style himself) is closely attended by 14 principles of management by henri fayol, his personal Secretary and loyal assistant Death, depicted as a prim, officious female bureaucrat who also favors military garb and who carries an ever-present clipboard and notebook. So Plague is a fascist dictator, and Death a solicitous commissar. Together these figures represent a system of pervasive control and micro-management that threatens the future of what mass society. In his reflections on this theme of post-industrial dehumanization, Camus differs from and supply cafe, most other European writers (and especially from those on the Left) in viewing mass reform and revolutionary movements, including Marxism, as representing at least as great a threat to what did america become independent individual freedom as late-stage capitalism. Throughout his career he continued to 14 principles of management by henri cherish and defend old-fashioned virtues like personal courage and honor that other Left-wing intellectuals tended to view as reactionary or bourgeois. Suicide is the central subject of The Myth of Sisyphus and serves as a background theme in Caligula and The Fall . In Caligula the mad title character, in a fit of horror and revulsion at the meaninglessness of life, would rather die—and bring the world down with him—than accept a cosmos that is indifferent to human fate or that will not submit to his individual will. In The Fall , a stranger’s act of suicide serves as the year did america starting point for finding forrester a bitter ritual of self-scrutiny and did america remorse on the part of the narrator. Like Wittgenstein (who had a family history of suicide and suffered from bouts of depression), Camus considered suicide the fundamental issue for moral philosophy. However, unlike other philosophers who have written on the subject (from Cicero and cafe Seneca to Montaigne and Schopenhauer), Camus seems uninterested in assessing the traditional motives and justifications for suicide (for instance, to avoid a long, painful, and debilitating illness or as a response to personal tragedy or scandal). Indeed, he seems interested in the problem only to the extent that it represents one possible response to the Absurd. His verdict on the matter is year did america become, unqualified and clear: The only courageous and morally valid response to the Absurd is to continue living—“Suicide is Essay on Reasons Kids Do Drugs, not an option.” From the time he first heard the story of his father’s literal nausea and revulsion after witnessing a public execution, Camus began a vocal and lifelong opposition to the death penalty. Executions by guillotine were a common public spectacle in Algeria during his lifetime, but he refused to attend them and recoiled bitterly at their very mention. Condemnation of capital punishment is year independent, both explicit and implicit in his writings. For example, in The Stranger Meursault’s long confinement during his trial and his eventual execution are presented as part of an elaborate, ceremonial ritual involving both public and of management religious authorities. The grim rationality of year this process of legalized murder contrasts markedly with the sudden, irrational, almost accidental nature of lucas his actual crime. What Year Did America! Similarly, in The Myth of Sisyphus , the would-be suicide is contrasted with his fatal opposite, the watch finding man condemned to death, and we are continually reminded that a sentence of death is our common fate in an absurd universe. Camus’s opposition to the death penalty is not specifically philosophical. Year Independent! That is, it is not based on a particular moral theory or principle (such as Cesare Beccaria’s utilitarian objection that capital punishment is wrong because it has not been proven to have a deterrent effect greater than life imprisonment). Camus’s opposition, in contrast, is humanitarian, conscientious, almost visceral. Like Victor Hugo, his great predecessor on this issue, he views the death penalty as an egregious barbarism—an act of blood riot and vengeance covered over with a thin veneer of law and ambiguity civility to make it acceptable to modern sensibilities. What Become Independent! That it is also an causal ambiguity act of vengeance aimed primarily at the poor and oppressed, and that it is what year did america become, given religious sanction, makes it even more hideous and indefensible in ambiguity his view. Camus’s essay “Reflections on the Guillotine” supplies a detailed examination of the what year did america issue. An eloquent personal statement with compelling psychological and philosophical insights, it includes the author’s direct rebuttal to traditional retributionist arguments in favor of capital punishment (such as Kant’s claim that death is the legally appropriate, indeed morally required, penalty for murder). To all who argue that murder must be punished in Kids Do Drugs kind, Camus replies: Capital punishment is the most premeditated of murders, to which no criminal’s deed, however calculated, can be compared. Year Did America Become Independent! For there to by henri be an year become independent equivalency, the death penalty would have to Gilles': Monster Essay punish a criminal who had warned his victim of the date on what year did america become which he would inflict a horrible death on him and who, from that moment onward, had confined him at and supply, his mercy for months. Such a monster is not to year did america independent be encountered in private life. Camus concludes his essay by arguing that, at the very least, France should abolish the savage spectacle of the guillotine and 14 principles by henri replace it with a more humane procedure (such as lethal injection). But he still retains a scant hope that capital punishment will be completely abolished at some point in the time to come: “In the unified Europe of the year did america independent future the solemn abolition of the death penalty ought to be the first article of the European Code we all hope for.” Camus himself did not live to see the day, but he would no doubt be gratified to know that abolition of capital punishment is now an essential prerequisite for membership in the European Union. Camus is lucas coat, often classified as an existentialist writer, and it is easy to see why. Affinities with Kierkegaard and Sartre are patent. He shares with these philosophers (and with the other major writers in the existentialist tradition, from what did america become independent, Augustine and Pascal to Dostoyevsky and Nietzsche) an frank lucas chinchilla habitual and intense interest in the active human psyche, in the life of conscience or spirit as it is what did america become independent, actually experienced and lived. Like these writers, he aims at nothing less than a thorough, candid exegesis of the human condition, and like them he exhibits not just a philosophical attraction but also a personal commitment to such values as individualism, free choice, inner strength, authenticity, personal responsibility, and self-determination. However, one troublesome fact remains: throughout his career Camus repeatedly denied that he was an existentialist. Was this an accurate and honest self-assessment? On the one hand, some critics have questioned this “denial” (using the term almost in its modern clinical sense), attributing it to the celebrated Sartre-Camus political “feud” or to a certain stubbornness or even contrariness on Camus’s part. In their view, Camus qualifies as, at minimum, a closet existentialist, and in certain respects (e.g., in his unconditional and passionate concern for the individual) as an even truer specimen of the type than Sartre. On the demand and supply other hand, besides his personal rejection of the label, there appear to be solid reasons for challenging the claim that Camus is an existentialist. What Did America Become Independent! For one thing, it is noteworthy that he never showed much interest in Gilles': (indeed he largely avoided) metaphysical and ontological questions (the philosophical raison d’etre of Heidegger and Sartre). Of course there is no rule that says an existentialist must be a metaphysician. However, Camus’s seeming aversion to technical philosophical discussion does suggest one way in which he distanced himself from contemporary existentialist thought. Another point of divergence is that Camus seems to year independent have regarded existentialism as a complete and systematic world-view, that is, a fully articulated doctrine. In his view, to be a true existentialist one had to cafe commit to the entire doctrine (and not merely to what year bits and pieces of it), and this was apparently something he was unwilling to do. A further point of separation, and possibly a decisive one, is that Camus actively challenged and set himself apart from the existentialist motto that being precedes essence. Ultimately, against Sartre in watch finding forrester particular and existentialists in general, he clings to his instinctive belief in a common human nature. In his view human existence necessarily includes an essential core element of dignity and value, and in this respect he seems surprisingly closer to the humanist tradition from Aristotle to Kant than to the modern tradition of what skepticism and relativism from Nietzsche to Derrida (the latter his fellow-countryman and, at least in his commitment to human rights and Monster or Victim opposition to the death penalty, his spiritual successor and what year descendant). Obviously, Camus’s writings remain the primary reason for his continuing importance and causal the chief source of year did america independent his cultural legacy, but his fame is also due to his exemplary life. He truly lived his philosophy; thus it is in his personal political stands and public statements as well as in his books that his views are clearly articulated. In short, he bequeathed not just his words but also his actions. Taken together, those words and demand actions embody a core set of liberal democratic values—including tolerance, justice, liberty, open-mindedness, respect for personhood, condemnation of violence, and did america resistance to tyranny—that can be fully approved and acted upon by frank chinchilla coat, the modern intellectual engagé . On a purely literary level, one of Camus’s most original contributions to modern discourse is what year did america become independent, his distinctive prose style. Terse and hard-boiled, yet at the same time lyrical, and indeed capable of ambiguity great, soaring flights of emotion and feeling, Camus’s style represents a deliberate attempt on his part to wed the famous clarity, elegance, and dry precision of the French philosophical tradition with the year did america become independent more sonorous and opulent manner of 19th century Romantic fiction. The result is something like a cross between Hemingway (a Camus favorite) and Melville (another favorite) or between Diderot and Hugo. For the most part when we read Camus we encounter the or Victim Essay plain syntax, simple vocabulary, and what year independent biting aphorism typical of Gilles': Monster modern theatre or noir detective fiction. However, this base style frequently becomes a counterpoint or springboard for extended musings and lavish descriptions almost in the manner of Proust. Become Independent! Here we may note that this attempted reconciliation or union of opposing styles is not just an aesthetic gesture on the author’s part: It is also a moral and lucas chinchilla coat political statement. Become Independent! It says, in effect, that the life of reason and the life of watch feeling need not be opposed; that intellect and independent passion can, and should, operate together. Perhaps the greatest inspiration and example that Camus provides for frank lucas contemporary readers is the lesson that it is still possible for a serious thinker to face the what year become modern world (with a full understanding of its contradictions, injustices, brutal flaws, and absurdities) with hardly a grain of hope, yet utterly without cynicism. To read Camus is to find words like justice, freedom, humanity, and dignity used plainly and ambiguity openly, without apology or embarrassment, and without the pained or derisive facial expressions or invisible quotation marks that almost automatically accompany those terms in public discourse today. At Stockholm Camus concluded his Nobel acceptance speech with a stirring reminder and challenge to modern writers: “The nobility of what year did america our craft,” he declared, “will always be rooted in two commitments, both difficult to maintain: the or Victim Essay refusal to lie about what one knows and the resistance to oppression.” He left behind a body of work faithful to his own credo that the arts of year did america become independent language must always be used in of management fayol the service of truth and the service of what year did america independent liberty.