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Penetration pricing essay
Essay on Abigail Williams in Arthur Miller's The Crucible. Abigail Williams’ character. Arthur Miller has created an Essay on Pricing interesting. and complex character with various personality traits, and her. controlling and Essay & Looking Life manipulative nature becomes evident for Penetration, the audience. during the very first scene. girl, an orphan…”, already the audience is made to feel sorry for her. as we find out that she has no parents. Also, because we are told she. is full of “apprehension and worry,” leads us to like her because she. appears genuinely concerned for the well-being of her cousin. Already, …show more content… house”, which leads the audience to believe she may have done. something wrong, such as had an on Reminiscing & Looking Back At My Life affair with Goody Proctor’s husband. Again, Abigail denies these claims and condemns Goody Proctor as a. “Do you begrudge my bed?” Here we are seeing the manipulative side of. her character, and her ability to influence what those around her. think and do. As an audience, at this stage we have a mixed opinion of. Abigail, and are unsure whether to like or dislike her. We still feel. sorry for her because of her background, but at the same time we see. the effects that her controlling and dominating nature can have on. those around her. her peers and the other girls her age in Salem. She is threatening. towards Mary Warren and Mercy Lewis, “I can make you wish you had. never seen the sun go down…” which shows her ability to on Pricing bully the. others into Essay not telling the truth, she also makes them feel. intimidated because she commands them to obey her, “tell them we. danced….no more” her authority is clearly outlined here, the others. are scared since they are aware that if they refuse, they will suffer. Essay on Abigail Williams in Arthur Miller's The Crucible. A reader initially sees the relationship between Abigail and John as an affair formed from lust. Both readers and Penetration theatregoers see that Abigail has a need for being in charge of a situation, as seen with Abigail's relationship with "the girls." Also, Abigail seems to diamond foam enjoy her relationship with Proctor, but clearly, he is manipulating her, as in Miller's commentary about Proctor, it states: "He was the kind of man - powerful of body, even - tempered, and not easily led" ==============… Comparison of Elizabeth Proctor with Abigail Williams in Arthur Miller's The Crucible. Throughout the play Abigail tries to Essay Penetration Pricing show the other characters that she is not to blame for her mistakes. An example of her trying to blame other people is when she tells her uncle that he should go and deny the witchcraft accusations. On Reminiscing At My! By not denying the allegations herself and having someone else do it, shows that she has support from other townspeople. Elizabeth Proctor is a strong woman who is blamed for witchcraft because of on Pricing, Abigail's accusations. Abigail claims that Elizabeth… Comparison of westward, Abigail Williams and Elizabeth Proctor in Miller's The Crucible. Their differences would also become evident when Abigail William goes on her path of vengeance. This trait becomes evident as Abigail Williams does whatever it takes to get her name cleared, including lie or commit murder. She then accuses Elizabeth of being a witch in an attempt to take her bed from Essay on Penetration Pricing her. Elizabeth, however, becomes the light of reason and sanity as she refuses to judge her husband, even to save his life. She knows that her husband is a good person and Essay on Reminiscing Back Life refuses to take that away from… Abigail Williams, the Villian of The Crucible by Essay Penetration, Arthur Miller. Abigail Williams accuses all of these people with only or Be two things in mind. On! One of them is her desperate desire to be in of confederation the spotlight at all times. ealthy motives are the reasons for the murdering of Essay, innocent people. Abigail Williams’ main cause for socialism vs liberalism, her wild accusations is a selfish one. It is to Essay on Pricing be with John Proctor, a married man with whom she has an affair. She is sent away but all she thinks of is being reunited with him. Abigail drinks blood, wishing to be with John Proctor, which could… Abigail Williams in The Crucible by Arthur Miller Essay. The character of Abigail is the reason behind many of the influential and manifest destiny devastating events, which occur during the on Penetration, play of “The Crucible”. Abigail is a character that has a longing for power and is determined to for rebellion acquire it. She also has a frightening self-belief that she can achieve any objective even if it involves carrying out morally corrupt and selfish plans. I also believe that Abigail has a longing to Essay on become recognised as an adult. Price! During the Essay Penetration, first act, Abigail is depicted as a victim… Abigail Williams in The Crucible by Arthur Miller Essay. Proctor is the root cause for the hysteria in definition Salem, her evil intent when Proctor refuses to renew the relationship is the cause for all this death and fear. Abigail seduced Proctor whilst working for him and Elizabeth as a maid. As the relationship developed Elizabeth suspected something unusual and ended it by evicting Abigail. This was Abigail's first experience of adult life and of womanhood. For that to be taken away from her so suddenly and then to Essay Penetration Pricing be thrust into the backseat of youth… Essay on Abigail Williams in The Crucible by Arthur Miller. However it is very unlikely that Parris will believe in Abigail because he himself does not believe in vs liberalism witch-craft, ‘Go directly home and speak nothing of unnatural causes.’ This shows us that Abigail is rebelling against the Salem compressed Society. However on Penetration the other hand we do feel sorry for Abigail when her brief affair with John Proctor, she cannot accept the fact that the relationship has ended. She says, "I look for John Proctor that took me from articles of confederation my sleep and put knowledge in Essay on Penetration Pricing my heart!… Abigail Williams in The Crucible by Arthur Miller Essay. In sum Abigail is a conniver willing to lie to get herself out of trouble. Abigail is a highly jealous character, concentrating her jealousy on At My Elizabeth Proctor. This jealousy is driven by lust and Essay on Penetration her desire for John Proctor. Abigail served as a servant in the Proctor household and after an affair with her husband John, Elizabeth fired her. She still resents Elizabeth for this as she is still in love with John. She clearly says to John, "You loved me, John Proctor, and Back whatever sin it… The Presentation of Abigail Williams in Act I of the Crucible by Arthur Miller. In possessing these strengths, Abigail can be seen to be beyond other characters, and really does set her apart giving her an advantage over Essay Pricing, many other characters in the play. As a result of Abigail’s dominance in the play, she holds great power over or Be Essay, other characters- however she abuses this power and can be seen as a typical bully. She can be seen as fearful, intimidating and Essay Penetration Pricing persuasive. She presents images of fear such as when she talks about seeing her own parents heads ‘smash’ on the pillow… Arthur Miller's The Crucible Essay. the dictates of his own conscience. The basic plot of the socialism, crucible surrounds the facts of John's adultery with his family's seventeen-year-old servant Abigail Williams. On Penetration! John's wife, Elizabeth Proctor, who has been "cold" towards him after John, was tempted into sleeping with young Abigail. Elizabeth dismissed Abigail and the Proctor family kept the reason a secret, as it would ruin John's reputation in the community. Articles Of Confederation! Abigail Williams and some girls of Salem were caught dancing in the woods of…

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Leadership Styles And Productivity. There have been as many definitions of Leadership as many have tried to define it. The sheer complexity of the concept can be understood by the magnitude of the number of research articles available on the internet today. There has been none universally accepted definition however though there are a few definitions which are most sought after. According to Bass (1990), 'Leadership is an interaction between two or more members of a group that often involves as structuring or restructuring of the situation and the perceptions and expectations of the Essay on Penetration Pricing, members. Leadership occurs when one group member modifies the motivation or competencies of the other in the group. Westward Destiny? Any member of the group can exhibit some amount of on leadership (pp. 19-20)'. Pfinffner and Preshtus define leadership as 'a kind of moral spirit and responsibility in the leader, which is led to unifying the efforts of the employees in order to achieve goals which exceed personal interests' (Hamadat, 2006: 16). Leadership can be explained as the ability of an individual to have power that focuses on how to establish directions by & Looking At My Life adapting forces (Go et al., 1996). From an organisational perspective, Schermerhorn (1999) believed that leading is a process used to motivate and to influence others to work hard in order to realize and support organisational goals, while Hersey et al. (2001) believed that leadership influences individuals' behaviour based on both individuals' and Essay on Penetration, organisational goals. Robbins (2001) defined leadership as the ability of an individual to influence the behaviour of a group to achieve organisational goals. Most, if not all definitions are circumferenced around two aspects of Leadership, one being the traits that the leaders elicit and other happens to westward expansion destiny, be the Essay on, organisational or group goals as the situation may be which clearly exemplifies the fact that leadership has a significant influence on the results achieved by the group or the organisation. However, it is important to understand that situations and contexts vary in varied organisations and one kind of leadership may not work effectively in all the situations. Hence, it is important for organisations and the Leaders themselves to definition, understand the Essay Penetration Pricing, expectations of the subordinates and then try to accommodate the same in their style of Leadership. Before we delve deeper into the relationship of Subordinate Performance and Leadership Styles, it is important to understand the different kinds of Leadership styles. One of the early work done by Kurt Lewin in 1939 along with a group of researchers identified three types of Leadership Styles ' Authoritarian, Democratic and Laissez 'fair. Most of the researches have been focussed of the first two styles since the third style is considered as lack of any specific leadership style which plays a dominant part only when the subordinates are motivated and socialism, knowledgeable at the given tasks. With the context in place of an Indian manufacturing company where the workmen are more or less at the mercy of their supervisors in Essay on, decision making the study takes only the former styles of leadership to assess the relationship of productivity and leadership style. 2.1.1 Authoritarian or Autocratic Leadership. There has been lot of discussion about Hitler regarding their leading style which necessarily involved a lot of close supervision, maintaining legitimate power (Hughes, Ginnett, and Curphy). Hitler projected a personalized charismatic leadership, a style that is 'exploitative, non-egalitarian, and self-aggrandizing' (Choi). He was extremely focused on his personal control, insisting that the 'ultimate authority rested with him and Killed, extended downward' (BBC). Essay Penetration Pricing? Hitler was known for heavily critiquing those who reported to him and became angry and frustrated with mistakes. Socialism Vs Liberalism? He did not trust others, particularly the generals who reported to him during the Second World War. Without establishing a two-way relationship, Hitler could not, and would not, rely on the opinions of others, resorting to his instincts and opinions (Geoffrey). This kind of leadership falls well within the on, boundaries of Authoritarian Leadership. Autocratic leadership has four major characteristics: ' The leader makes all important decisions. ' The leader is primarily concerned with task accomplishment and not the subordinates satisfaction or well being. ' The leader maintains a considerable social distance from the subordinates. ' The leader employs punishment as a means of motivation rather than rewards. Looking at the psychological perspectives of the above mentioned style of leadership tests reveal that Autocratic Leaders score high on Abasement, Aggression and Achievement. However they score low on Intraception, Nurturance and articles significance, Social Values. With respect to the organisational perspective, it is imperative to Essay on Penetration Pricing, understand that there is no certain answer to which leadership style will produce the best results in an organisation. It largely depends on the organisational culture and the kind of task at hand for the leader. For example, in a war, the leaders are required to make quick decisions and don't have all the socialism, time for a democratic process, which puts forward the on Penetration Pricing, argument that has been made above. Autocratic leadership can bring about Kill Essay, exceptional results by more accurate decision making when the leader has good subject expertise and can improve the productivity, however only when the leader is around. It is also suitable in situations where the workforce is new and untrained or where economies of scale is being tried to be achieved which leaves little time for Penetration Pricing, a democratic process to be followed in decision making. This style of leadership though most common has started to lose its shine in the present context over the democratic form of leadership. Articles Significance? However, many still have bat in favour of Pricing this kind of leadership citing that it is the context which determines which kind of leadership will be effective and not the absolute style per se. 2.1.2 Democratic Leadership. Kurt Lewin and Essay Life, his colleagues presented what has become the classic formulation of democratic leadership (Lewin & Lippitt, 1938; Lewin, Lippitt, & White, 1939; White & Lippitt, 1960). Penetration? They distinguished democratic leadership from autocratic and laissez-faire styles, arguing that democratic leaders relied upon group decision making, active member involvement, honest praise and criticism, and a degree of comradeship. By contrast, leaders using the other styles were either domineering or uninvolved. Unfortunately. Lewin and destiny, his colleagues never developed the definition beyond this rough sketch, leading some critics to find undemocratic implications in their ostensibly democratic model of on leadership. Despite this lack of conceptual precision, Lewin and others have identified the central element of the term: democratic leadership is behaviour that influences people in a manner consistent with and/or conducive to basic democratic principles and processes, such as self-determination, inclusiveness, equal participation, and deliberation (Dahl, 1989; Fishkin, 1991). Democratic leadership has three major characteristics: ' Distributing responsibility within the subordinates ' According to Krech et al. Or Be Essay? (1962) 'The democratic leader seeks to evoke maximum involvement and the participation of every member in the group activities and in the determination of objectives." In organisational settings it is imperative for leaders to delegate tasks and decision making within their subordinates since it helps in building a pool of future leaders for the organisation. Nagel (1987), argues that to avoid the free riding issues, democratic leader should not only ask subordinates to take on responsibility, rather be demanding in reminding them of their collective responsibilities. ' Empowering the members ' Democratic leadership can augment members' skills by setting high but reasonable standards and asking members to challenge themselves (Tead, 1935). Members' abilities may develop through taking on new responsibilities, but leaders can also play a direct role by Pricing offering instruction or suggestions, particularly when asked to do so (Busch, 1934; Lewin et al., 1939). Good leaders "can expand their ranks by becoming 'role models' to change novices from 'followers' to leaders" (Baker, 1982, p. 325). This has particularly significant implication since shortage of talent pool is an foam, important concern for organisations in the today's era. The organisations are looking at drawing leaders from the available talent pool from within the Essay, organisation first and then resorting to lateral hire. The organisation which has leaders who in turn can create leaders are thriving in the cut throat competition and narrowed margins. ' Aiding the subordinates in their deliberations ' Its' not enough for a leader to Essay & Looking, only delegate and empower subordinates but has to take the relationship to the next level through appropriate deliberation methodology. Essay On? Democratic leaders must distribute responsibility appropriately and empower other group members, but they must devote the bulk of their time and energy to ensuring productive and democratic decision making. Democratic leadership aids the deliberative process through constructive participation, facilitation, and the maintenance of healthy relationships and a positive emotional setting. Having talked about the facets of democratic leadership, it has be borne in mind that the articles, style of leadership cannot by any means be categorized as the better of the two leadership styles i.e. Autocratic and Democratic. Though the positives are there with democratic leadership, still previous writings on democracy and democratic leadership suggest that people often reject this form of leadership for at least four reasons. First, some people oppose a democratic leadership structure because it directly threatens their undemocratic authority. Moving toward democracy would strip them of some of their status, power, and, in some cases, wealth (Slater & Bennis, 1990). Second, some people have authoritarian values and are not easily swayed from a strong belief in the justness and efficiency of on Pricing powerful, directive authorities (Bell, 1950; Lassey 1971; Tead, 1935). Third, most people have, to some degree, an unconscious or conscious desire for a hero, a charismatic figure capable of solving our problems and sweeping away our confusion (Abse & Jessner, 1962; Smith, 1926). Finally, some reject the notion of Back At My Life democratic leadership for the opposite reason, having no faith whatsoever in leaders of any kind and no belief in Essay Penetration, their necessity (Nagel, 1987; Tead, 1935) However, Lippitt (1983) identifies a number of promising trends in the 1970s and early 1980s that are probably still present today: expectations of shared power and responsibility are increasing; there is a greater degree of collaboration and communication; and people have an increasing awareness of the westward expansion manifest destiny, need for on Pricing, organizational openness and flexibility. With the baby boomers towards the end of the westward manifest destiny, tenure and entrance of Gen Y, who thrive in Essay Pricing, responsibilities and accountabilities, into vs liberalism the workforce democratic leadership could be more widespread than what the Essay on Penetration, present situation unveils. Thus it is clearly evident from the above discussion that there is contextual effect to which kind of foam price leadership style will suit a given situation and Penetration, will be effective. It depends on many factors all of which hasn't been unearthed yet, however a few common factors affecting leadership effectiveness are the organisational culture, the time frame available for decision making for of confederation significance, the leader, the task itself, the Essay Pricing, capabilities of the subordinates and of course not to miss out the country in which the organisation operates. The study will now aim to westward expansion, understand Global and Indian manufacturing outlook which significantly is a reason for organisations employing productivity up scaling drives and at arriving at a definition of Productivity. With so much available on the term today with each organisation defining productivity in its own way it becomes really important to have a clear understanding of the definition and factors involved in the term 'Productivity'. 2.2 Manufacturing Outlook ' Global and Indian context. The global manufacturing sector has undergone a boisterous decade: large developing economies leaped into the first tier of Essay on Penetration Pricing manufacturing nations, a severe recession choked off demand, and manufacturing employment fell at an accelerated rate in westward expansion manifest destiny, advanced economies. Still, manufacturing remains critically important to both the developing and the advanced world. In the Essay on Penetration, former, it continues to destiny, provide a pathway from subsistence agriculture to rising incomes and living standards. In the latter, it remains a vital source of innovation and competitiveness, making outsized contributions to research and development, exports, and Essay Pricing, productivity growth. But the manufacturing sector has changed'bringing both opportunities and challenges'and neither business leaders nor policy makers can rely on old responses in the new manufacturing environment. Amidst the socialism, volatility and uncertainty in the manufacturing sector, its role in the world economy has continued to progress. According to a research by Mc Kinsey and Co., the Penetration, next decade and half will see the definition, entry of approximately 1.8 billion consumers which will lead to worldwide consumption of on Penetration Pricing close to $ 64 trillion. Developed economies will remain major consumers, however the share of developing economies will rise which will enhance the living standards of the residents. The GDP share of manufacturing in the Indian economy is poised to grow from 16% to 25% by definition for rebellion 2022 according to India's national manufacturing policy release. Globally the manufacturing output is growing at about 2.7% annually in developed economies in contrast to 7.4% in the developed economies (2002-2007). When economies industrialize, manufacturing employment and Essay, output both rise rapidly, but once manufacturing's share of GDP peaks at 20 to 35 percent of GDP, it falls in an inverted U pattern, along with its share of employment. The reason is that as wages rise, consumers have more money to diamond foam price, spend on services, and Essay on Penetration Pricing, that sector's growth accelerates, making it more important than manufacturing as a source of westward expansion manifest destiny growth and on Penetration Pricing, employment. The focus then shifts from mere output to the efficiency, utilization of resources and cost aspect of production which the impacts the hiring plans for the industry as well. For example manufacturing share of US employment declined from 25% in 1950 to about 9% in 2008. Or Be Killed? The figure below depicts how the share of manufacturing follows the inverted U shape as the Essay on Pricing, economy matures. However, the diamond foam, situation in developing economies is far from the on Penetration Pricing, above mentioned point and can be safely assumed that the outlook of manufacturing looks positive in a global context with the developing economies leading the way. In FY13, India's manufacturing sector grew slower than the rest of the economy, with GDP growth itself having slowed down. Kill Or Be Killed Essay? Concerns regarding the stability of some of the Eurozone economies, sluggish growth in the US and the slowdown in Essay on Penetration, key emerging economies have affected the Indian manufacturing sector's view of the diamond foam, global economy. The manufacturing sector has been moving at a slower pace than the overall economy for some time now. As a result, the Essay Penetration Pricing, sector's contribution to GDP has declined marginally from 16.1 to 15.2% in the five years till March 2013. Growth rate in manufacturing reduced from 9.7% in or Be Killed, 2010-11 to Penetration Pricing, 2.7% in 2011-12 and articles of confederation, 1% in Essay, 2012-13. In FY13, only expansion destiny, 3.3% of the country's growth was generated by manufacturing as opposed to 83% contributed by Essay services, according to The Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. A research conducted by articles significance PWC indicates that the on Penetration Pricing, India, China and the other developing economies will fare better than the rest of the world in regards to the growth of or Be Killed Essay manufacturing industry. However, there will be concerns arising out of lack of domestic demand, increasing pricing pressure, interest rates and achieving cost efficiency primarily because of on Penetration increase in wages. The global economic slowdown, slow growth rates except a few Asian countries and the persistent Euro Zone instability has continued to socialism, bother the manufacturing companies' across the globe. The outlook for the manufacturing companies has not been great in the last half a decade and the volatility that the past has witnessed is there to stay. Along with that the Essay on Pricing, increase in competition and consequently its impact on pricing strategies of the organisations have put even more pressure on the manufacturing companies to focus a lot on the output vis ' a ' vis costs. With the enhancement in technology and e ' commerce becoming more and more prevalent the customers have a wider range of options to choose from and with this competitive pricing becomes even more important to capture and sustain customer base. Mobile phone industry is a perfect example of the westward, same. With the foray of low cost manufacturers like Micromax and Karbonn in Essay Pricing, the mobile industry, the pressure on bigger players like Samsung, Sony, Nokia etc. to remain competitive with their pricing grows. No player in manifest destiny, the industry can boast of being the monopolistic company like Nokia once had in on Penetration Pricing, the mobile phone industry. The above discussion unveils a harsh reality for manufacturing companies across the globe i.e. to Kill Essay, monitor their costs and improve their output for the similar costs that they did earlier. Achieving better capacity utilization will also be at the back of the mind of the manufacturing community. The culmination of on cost efficiency, capacity utilization, improving output at the same input resources and various other parameters including financial aspects collectively give rise to definition for rebellion, the term called 'Productivity' which the study tries to define in Penetration Pricing, the manufacturing setup in the Indian context. Productivity has normally been defined as the ratio of output available at disposal of the organisation to vs liberalism, the input resources that is expended. Productivity is the relationship between the quantity of output and the quantity of input used to generate that output. It is basically a measure of the effectiveness and efficiency of your organisation in generating output with the Essay on Penetration, resources available. Productivity = Output / Input. As it is evident that there are two variable involved in the determination of productivity. Output can be measured in either physical quantity like number of units produced or in or Be Essay, financial value like revenue, value added etc. The input can be measured in human resources (number of hours worked, number of Essay on Pricing labour engaged or the labour cost) or capital deployed to achieve the output. Various Metrics that are used to measure productivity at the organisational are profitability, value added, revenue generated, return on capital employed (ROI / ROCE), organisational growth rate etc. The measures can be single factor or multifactor basis the need of the Essay on Reminiscing & Looking Back At My, organisation and on Penetration Pricing, the industry it operates in. At the operational level the commonly used metrics of productivity measurement are labour productivity, capacity utilisation etc. In manufacturing companies across the westward expansion manifest destiny, globe the concept of OEE (overall equipment efficiency) / OLE (overall line efficiency) has been commonly used apart from the on Penetration Pricing, former productivity measures. In fact, the entire operations can be broken down into smaller elements like production, purchase, maintenance and allied and their productivity is being measured on an individual basis e.g. delivery lead time, production compliance, maintenance cost etc. Essay On Reminiscing Back? This gives the organisation required control over the processes and more specifically the operations managers to Essay on Penetration Pricing, have a closer look at articles of confederation significance, the gaps in the system and take short interval controls. For the on Pricing, purpose of the study two productivity measures were analysed, one being OEE (overall equipment efficiency) and the other being Labour Productivity. 2.3.1 OEE (Overall equipment efficiency) Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is a way to monitor and improve the efficiency of socialism a manufacturing process. Developed in the mid 1990's, OEE has become an accepted management tool to measure and evaluate plant floor productivity. The analysis of OEE starts with Plant Operating Time, a measure of the time available for equipment operation. For a plant which is in continuous operation will thus have at least 720 hours for operation in a month under the premise that the month consists of 30 days. For e.g. Steel making, glass making are continuous processes since the furnace cannot be shut down for any reason whatsoever as it will take long hours to reach the temperature that is on, required for the processing. However the same is diamond price, not true for many other industry like automotive, textile and many others which can have a break in the operations. From the on Penetration, Plant Operating Time, downtime which are planned by destiny the unit (Planned Shutdown) is deducted to Essay on, arrive at Planned Production time. Planned Shutdown can be taken due to various reasons ' lack of demand of the product, strike, lockout and many others. Essay On Reminiscing Life? Planned Production time is Pricing, where OEE initiates since the other mentioned items are majorly out of the control of the unit manager. From the Planned Production time three losses inherent in any product manufacturing are reduced to expansion destiny, arrive at the Fully Productive Time where value is added during the process in a manufacturing operation. The three losses are Down Time Loss, Speed Loss and Quality Loss which are categorized as Availability, Performance and Quality. Graphically OEE can be represented as (Illustrative): Fig 3. The table below shows the Essay on, three losses and definition, their definitions. The productive time shown above is the Essay on Penetration, final output that organisations want and try to increase the same through various productivity improvement methods. Availability It is the ratio of Operating Time to Planned Production Time (Operating Time is Planned Production Time less Down Time Loss) Performance It is the articles, ratio of Net Operating Time to Operating Time (Net Operating Time is Operating Time less Speed Loss). It is also calculated as the ratio of Actual Production to Plant Production Capacity. Quality It is the Penetration Pricing, ratio of Fully Productive Time to Net Operating Time (Fully Productive Time is Net Operating Time less Quality Loss). This is diamond price, also calculated as the ratio Quality Production to Total Production. OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality. For example, if all three contributing factors are 90.0%, the Essay on Penetration Pricing, OEE would be 72.9% where as if all the factors are at 80%, the OEE would be 51.2%. This illustration clearly shows that in diamond, individual parameters, plant may be performing well (80% is Essay Penetration, considered a good number) while when combined together in the form of OEE, the performance would be considered gloomy. Definition For Rebellion? Worldwide studies indicate that the average OEE rate in manufacturing plants is 60% while in world class manufacturing plants Availability factor is 90%, Performance is 95% and Quality is 99.9% thus making OEE to on Penetration, close to Essay, 85%. OEE is an effective tool to benchmark, analyse, and improve the production process. Essay? The OEE tool gives the managers the ability to measure machines for productivity improvements. OEE not only westward, measures these inefficiencies but also groups them into categories which helps managers in analysing the machine and Essay on, get a clear picture of the entire manufacturing process. A truly comprehensive OEE solution provides machine operators and production managers with continual line notification and control so that actions can be taken to prevent events that can result in downtime, slower cycle speeds, and poor product quality. Westward Expansion Manifest Destiny? It's a complete manager's tool to assess and reassess the manufacturing processes or parts of it and take corrective actions in order to improve productivity and help the organisation remain sustainable in the ever increasing competitive environment. 2.3.2 Labour Productivity. It is one of the popularly used metric for assessing the productivity of a plant in a manufacturing company. Technically, it is calculated as the ratio of Production in units to Penetration Pricing, the number of socialism vs liberalism labour deployed for the achievement of the output. Penetration Pricing? There are a few variants of the same as well where the numerator remains the same however the denominator may vary as number of labour, total hours deployed by expansion manifest destiny labour or the cost of Essay on Pricing wages of the labour engaged in the manufacturing process. Westward? As a formula, Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Number of Labour deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Number of Man-hours deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Wages for the number of labour deployed for the same output. With different versions available at perusal, different companies use any or a combination of labour productivity metrics to assess their plant performance. While any one of the on Penetration, productivity measures should suffice the understanding of plants performance, still organisations are carefully choosing a set of indicators of Essay & Looking Back At My productivity to assess their performance vis-??-vis competition. One of the reason can be that having multiple measures allows the managers to Essay on Pricing, have an eye on the detailed performance of subsystems of the entire system and plan accordingly. Having defined all the elements of the relationship which the study aims at establishing, it becomes imperative to look at what the earlier researches have established between the illustrated variables. 2.4 Productivity and Leadership style. The supervisor behaviour (leadership style) is one of the key factors which impacts the performance of the frontline employees in the organisation. Quite some research has been done on the performance and leadership and the inter-linkages between the two. Numerous studies have demonstrated that such effective leadership behaviour is associated with the quality of work of subordinates in service organizations (Bettencourt & Brown, 1997; Deluga, 1994; Pillai, Schriesheim, & Williams, 1999; Podsakoffet al., 1990; Schaubroeck & Fink, 1998). Leaders who develop a good relationship with their subordinates will in turn influence the level of discretionary behaviour of these subordinates (e.g. Settoon, Bennett, & Liden, 1996). In a field experiment, Lam and Schaubroeck (2000) found that using credible and vs liberalism, influential people as service quality leaders could enhance the positive attitudes of bank tellers towards service quality initiatives, which result in a more favourable customer rating of Penetration service. Diamond? MacKenzie, Podsakoff, and Rich (2001) found that transformational leaders could alter the Essay Penetration Pricing, service behaviour of or Be Killed frontline salespeople. Not only does effective leadership behaviour affect individual service quality, it also enhances team service quality. However, specific relationship between productivity measures of workmen and supervisor's leadership in the Indian manufacturing context with the blue ' collar workmen hasn't received the requisite attention of the academicia which this study is on Penetration Pricing, trying to aim at. Sauer (2011) confirms the importance of leadership and diamond price, its effect on the performance of employees. Sauer's study explained the importance of leadership behaviour and how the on, leader's performance style will affect the organization. Danish et al. (2011) discussed the effect of leadership and a manager's style, showing that these had a significant effect on westward expansion, the administration and its effectiveness. According to a research done of Essay on Pricing 511 frontline service providers in 6 service organisations by Essay & Looking Life Harry et al., the on Penetration, leadership style of the supervisor plays a dominant role in definition for rebellion, producing better service quality, which is the output in this case, when the work environment and organisation culture are not conducive for Essay Penetration, better efficiency. The leadership style used for the study were task oriented, people oriented and ethically oriented. However, in organisations where the work culture is good, leadership fails to make an socialism vs liberalism, impact. An alternate viewpoint can be that leadership plays a key role in creating the kind of environment where performance can be better (Dickson, Smith, Grojean, & Ehrhart, 2001; Koeneet al., 2002; Litwin & Stringer, 1968). Hence, the Penetration, frontline employees may not be able to gauge the importance of leadership. The situation was worse when both work culture and supervisor leadership were lacking which is a clear indication that each factor present in a positive way nullifies the negative effect of the other factor. In short, the on Reminiscing & Looking Back At My Life, study aims to examine the relative contribution of service climate and effective leadership behaviour to employee service quality, and the interaction effect of these two independent variables on the service quality. Johannes et al., in their study of on Pricing 161 pairs of supervisor-subordinate pair in 24 companies of Germany revealed that transformational leadership related more strongly and positively to innovation for subordinates low in organization-based self-esteem. When subordinates were low in self-presentation propensity, active-corrective transactional leadership was negatively, and transformational leadership was positively associated with task performance. This research again testifies the fact that leadership is a significantly affecting variable in subordinate's performance. This research also has interpretation on psychological aspects of the subordinates' i.e. self-esteem and self-presentation. It also testifies the fact that different demographics of definition for rebellion employees may want different kind of leadership to be effective and Penetration, efficient in their task performance. On Reminiscing Back At My? This adds another dimension to the leadership & performance relationship. A study conducted by Heba et al. among 320 heads of Penetration Pricing instructional departments from randomly selected schools show that the principals' leadership style has a significant impact on the teacher's motivation to achieve the socialism, desired task goals. Transformational leadership exhibited a positive correlation with the teacher's achievement motivation which is connected to performance excellence. Another research in the same area by Onne Janssen illustrates that when supervisors are perceived to be supportive of risk taking fosters innovation and the supervisors who are perceived as not supportive hinder the employees from carrying out innovative work in their task area or otherwise. The survey of 170 employees in a Dutch company reveals that when employees perceive that their supervisors respond to employee innovation in Essay Penetration Pricing, a supportive and respectful manner, they feel stimulated to use their influence to persuade their subordinates and other actors to support the development and realization of their new ideas. LMX (Leader Member Exchange) embodies the relationship between a leader (Supervisor) and follower (Subordinate) and was initially conceptualized by & Looking Back Graen and colleagues (Dansereauetal.1973, Graen 1976, Graen and Cashman, 1975). According to LMX theory the leader ' follower relation falls on a continuum where one of the ends is developed relationship i.e. high involvement and on the other end is Essay on Penetration, exchange ' based relationship which has low involvement. The managers should be able to understand these aspects of expansion manifest destiny leadership since they have a significant impact on the employee behaviours and consequently productivity and performance. However, Hofstede showed that high involvement / low involvement is also a characteristic of culture of the country which he defined as power distance. A research on 577 employees in 3 wood manufacturing companies in on Penetration, Pennsylvania illustrates that employees who are led by supportive leader display better organisational commitment, job satisfaction and have higher performance that the peers who have no supportive leader. Also, the price, intention to quit the organisation was far lesser which has cost and productivity implications in the longer run as well. Another study on the same lines was done by Shahabuddin et al. on 80 employees working with IT in real estate and Essay Penetration Pricing, housing development industry in Bangladesh. The study reveals that leadership indeed has a role to play in socialism vs liberalism, job satisfaction of the on, employees which in turn leads to higher productivity and performance on the job. It was found that supervisors who engaged in positive motivational behaviours tend to have more satisfied subordinates and better performance from their group members. Through their education, training, and Essay Back Life, experience, managers develop their personal leadership style (Hersey et al., 2001). This leadership style is a fundamental concern of Essay managers and researchers (Wood, 1994) due to its effect on definition for rebellion, subordinates deliver more productive work when the leader have specific leadership styles (Mullins, 1998). Penetration Pricing? If managers adopt their subordinates' preferred style giving employees the for rebellion, respect and fair treatment they deserve, then this is seen to lead to job satisfaction, which in will affect the functioning of the Essay, organisation (Spector, 1997). Satisfied employees are absent less, show less job stress, stay at socialism, work longer, and make positive contributions to their organisations (Griffin, 2002). Furthermore, Yousef (2000) showed that leadership behaviour was positively related to job satisfaction and therefore managers needed to Essay Penetration, adopt appropriate leadership behaviour in socialism, order to improve it. Leadership style affects a range of factors such as job satisfaction, performance, turnover intention, and stress (Chen and Silverthorne, 2005) and Essay on Penetration Pricing, so contribute to organisational success (Rad and Yarmohammadian, 2006). A study of 220 Jonardian resort hotel employees consisting of 110 subordinates and 110 managers could not refute the possibility of a relationship between job satisfaction and leadership style of managers. However, job satisfaction was found to be a function of Essay on Reminiscing & Looking Back Life demographical factors as well. The study also revealed that democratic leadership was most prevalent which again has been reinforced by another study conducted on 300 employees across manufacturing and on, service organisations in the public and private setup. Kill Killed? This study shows that participatory and altruistic management style were the most desirable among various management styles. Few key findings of the exploratory study are: ' Management styles vary from culture to culture and within the specific culture from industry to industry. ' Participative management style is difficult to practice as sharing of power is not easy for managers. ' Excessive altruism in business organizations may negatively affect organizational effectiveness. ' A strong positive relationship between the management styles and the effectiveness of human resources in terms of their 'Productivity' and 'Adaptability' The various researches & studies in varied industries and countries show a definite correlation between leadership and performance and/ or job satisfaction; many a times mediated by on Pricing other factors like organisational culture, work environment etc. The correlation holds true for most of the industries and work settings whether it be a service industry or a manufacturing industry, same with public and private sectors as well. However, the studies need to be furthered for diamond price, the blue collar employees who have a major role to play in the manufacturing setups since they are the ones responsible for generating the primary product of the company. Their motivation, needs and job satisfaction needs to be taken care of their supervisors if they have to extract the maximum productivity out of Penetration them. The productivity and leadership relation is also affected by the country's culture wherein different countries respond differently to leadership styles. Meade (1967) noticed that morale, productivity and quality of product were superior in the groups which had authoritarian leadership, these results being opposite from those reported by Lippitt and White (1943) and Lippitt (1940) who used a similar sample of boys in an American setting. This can be the output of the kind of culture the sample was exposed to in their upbringing. While American children learn democratic practices at an early age, Indian are subjected to definition, hierarchy and authority right from the beginning of their life and Essay Pricing, hence they get used to it as they grow. Another study by Meade (1967) established that Chinese college students demonstrated more group cohesion in decision making in presence of authoritarian leadership than they did to democratic leadership, while Chinese ' American demonstrated a balanced result to vs liberalism, both authoritarian and democratic leadership. The studies in Essay, general have shown positive results in presence of leadership which has a human element imbibed in it rather to task orientation. Hence, participative, transformational and democratic leadership emerge to be favoured for job satisfaction and engagement of employees which in turn leads to higher productivity and better performance. A study by Robert et al. Of Confederation? discloses negative effects of Essay on Pricing close and punitive supervision style. The study of 24 groups of 4 females each in the age group 17-19 under controlled environment reveals substantial increase in aggressive feelings toward the supervisor and in indirect aggression toward the supervisor through lowered productivity, an insignificant increase in verbal aggression toward the supervisor, and an increase of borderline significance in aggressive feelings toward co-workers in Kill or Be Killed, case of Essay on close supervision. When subjected to punitive supervision the Killed, test group displayed significant increase in indirect aggression through lowered productivity and in verbal aggression. Essay Pricing? This kind of situation won't be favourable for the business when every organisation is vying for enhanced productivity and cohesiveness in group activities within and price, outside of the organisation. The study having established the fact that there is a relationship between leadership style and productivity of employees, aims to Pricing, find out the most appropriate style of leadership for higher productivity of workmen in a manufacturing industry. It feels that democratic leadership style would fare better than authoritarian style since everyone would want to have a say in the decision making process which consequently affects them in one way or the other. As many manufacturing organisations these days are practicing TPM, Lean, Quality Circles, 5S and or Be Killed Essay, Six Sigma concepts to improve productivity all of which in some way or the other lead to added responsibilities for the workmen and more say in the technical decision making of the plant. Organisations have realised that for growth to be sustainable it has to be collaborative effort of each small unit in the organisation and not just top down approach. However, with the education level, skill sets and imbibed Indian culture which is predominantly authoritarian it remains to be seen if democratic leadership is correct approach for the workmen and not authoritarian/ autocratic leadership and vice versa. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to Essay Penetration, a high level in definition, our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to Essay on, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Business work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to us by a student in expansion destiny, order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. 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