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SparkNotes: A Christmas Carol: Stave Four: The Last of the SpiritsPrice discrimination strategy. Price discrimination implies charging two different prices for the same commodity in two different and distinct markets. With the two different target market which are believed to be distinct thus having different elasticity of demand I will be able to charge different price for the same products. For the local buyers that are students and ghosts local residents I will charge a low price because they have an elastic demand. This means that their quantity demanded with greatly respond to a change in price. On the other hand, for the visitors I will charge a high price on the products they purchase. This is because they have an inelastic demand meaning that any change in price will not affect the amount of quantity demanded by About Syndrome them. As a result of this strategy I will be able to increase my revenues and profits. Carol! The strategy is supported by the assumption that there will be no market switching by the visitors (Mankiw, 2008, pp. 89). With the absence of government intervention in the market the prices of various commodities is determined by the forces of demand and supply. Writing Perspectives! In that case the market is at equilibrium at in a christmas, point, e, where demand is Horner's Essay, equal to supply. At point, e, Pe is the four in a christmas carol equilibrium price of the cable TV and Qe is the amount of quantity demanded of the cable TV. When the government intervene the market with price control policies, in this case, price ceiling, which is the maximum price that can be charged by the sellers on cable TV as shown above by letter P. At that point there is excess demand of (QsQd). The quantity demanded is represented by Qd units whereas quantity supplied is represented by Qs units. This means that less cable TV will be produced by the industry as compared to those required by the consumers. This will create deficiencies in the market. It may eventually result to the demise of the The Debate Over Security industry due to high cost of production per unit (Hylton, 2003, pp. 76). With the ghosts in a christmas carol introduction of cheap, new and inflicted satisfying type of programming, the resulting effect will be an increase in the number of ghosts christmas, product being demanded translating to increased supply of the same by the industry. At last the self industry will be able to increase its revenues and profits because of reduced cost per unit of the products. The supply curve will shift downwards indicating an increase in quantity supplied for the market to be in equilibrium. * Final order price might be slightly different depending on the current exchange rate of ghosts, chosen payment system. Long run average cost curves. The different market systems have different shapes of their long run average cost curves. For instance, the long run average cost curve of commit, a natural monopoly is steeper downwards as compared to that of perfectly competitive market. The reasons behind, is that for a natural monopoly it is in a position of increase its output and price in four in a christmas, the long run. Self! The monopoly will ensure that it maximizes its capacity. With increased production the cost per unit will be reduced. This will be lower compared with the carol MES (minimum efficient scale). Self! For the case of a perfect market as we move downwards the long run average cost curves we have the constant returns of scale. At this point the average cost of production is equivalent to the MES (minimum efficient scale). New model of digital camera. Initially the four in a market is beef, assumed to have inelastic demand for the present buyers as compared to the inelastic demand of the future buyers. Presently and in the future the products are still the same but the price is the factor that has changed. This is discrimination between the four christmas present buyers and the future buyers. Column Controllability Analysis Through Heat! The reason is that with the initial high price the producer has been able to meet the production cost therefore the low price in the future will just be equated to the average variable costs (Gillespie, 2007). Rationale and implications of four in a christmas, new guidelines. The new guidelines seek to challenge and identify competitively unhealthy mergers as it avoids interference on mergers which are neutral or beneficial competitively. In most cases merger analysis are highly predictive hence it is possible to carryout an assessment about the self outcome. It also illustrates the chief analytical methods and the evidence that is relied upon by the agency in order determines whether the merger will reduce competition (Marshall, 2010, pp. 63). It is not meant for how to look at cases but horizontal mergers. They are meant to help the business society together with antitrust practitioners through an increase in in a, transparency of the analytical procedures based on the agencies decisions on enforcement. The guidelines will also help the court with the interpretation and application of the laws concerning antitrust within the context of horizontal mergers (Blinder, 2008, pp. 67). The guidelines should also be look at with the anticipation that there is no universal method to be employed for its application. Writing Perspectives! This means that it is a process which is based on facts together with the extensive experience of the agencies of utilizing the different analytical tools to four ghosts christmas the present and unfailing evidence to assess within a short period of jay z and nas beef, time the competitive concerns. The summation theme is that the mergers should not be allowed to enhance, create or establish market power or in any case facilitates its exercise. It will strengthen the market power only if it will be in carol, a position of encouraging more than one firm to writing perspectives increase their prices, lower output, reduce innovation or cause harm to in a carol customers because of minimal competitive incentives. The merger can only strengthen the About market power only through reduction of ghosts, competition among the merging parties (Perloff, 2001, pp. 61). The guidelines majorly clearly state the procedure on the analysis of mergers by the Agencies among competing suppliers which may strengthen their power as merchants. This will results into an increase in the prices charged on consumers. It can also be looked in terms that are price unrelated such as low product quality, minimal product variety, reduced innovation and reduced service. The two can coexist together. Mergers are normally assessed based on their shock on consumers. On the other hand, the strengthening of what we call monopsony power that is the power vested on Over Airport Security Essay, the buyer has got greatly adverse effects as compared to that of the ghosts in a christmas carol seller. The guidelines are also used to analyze any mergers between buyers that can strengthen their market power. Buy Principles of Economics essay paper online. Do you want to get an. Get a generous discount on the original paper on this topic.
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Картинки по запросу four ghosts in a christmas carol
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How does dickens presentation of the four ghosts in A ChristmasExaminations are a very common assessment and evaluation tool in universities and there are many types of examination questions. This tips sheet contains a brief description of carol seven types of examination questions, as well as tips for using each of them: 1) multiple choice, 2) true/false, 3) matching, 4) short answer, 5) essay, 6) oral, and writing, 7) computational. Remember that some exams can be conducted effectively in a secure online environment in a proctored computer lab or assigned as paper based or online вЂњtake homeвЂќ exams. Multiple choice questions are composed of one question (stem) with multiple possible answers (choices), including the correct answer and several incorrect answers (distractors). Typically, students select the correct answer by circling the ghosts christmas, associated number or letter, or filling in the associated circle on the machine-readable response sheet. A) Elements of the writing, exam layout that distract attention from the four ghosts in a, questions. B) Incorrect but plausible choices used in multiple choice questions. C) Unnecessary clauses included in the stem of multiple choice questions. Students can generally respond to these type of questions quite quickly. As a result, they are often used to test studentвЂ™s knowledge of a broad range of content. Creating these questions can be time consuming because it is often difficult to generate several plausible distractors. However, they can be marked very quickly. Tips for writing good multiple choice items: Long / complex sentences Trivial statements Negatives and writing, double-negatives Ambiguity or indefinite terms, absolute statements, and broad generalization Extraneous material Item characteristics that provide a clue to the answer misconceptions. Statements too close to four in a christmas carol the correct answer Completely implausible responses вЂAll of the above,вЂ™ вЂnone of the aboveвЂ™ Overlapping responses (e.g., if вЂAвЂ™ is true) Your own words вЂ“ not statements straight out of the people suicide?, textbook Single, clearly formulated problems. Plausible and homogeneous distractors Statements based on common student misconceptions True statements that do not answer the questions Short options вЂ“ and all same length Correct options evenly distributed over A, B, C, etc. Alternatives that are in logical or numerical then вЂCвЂ™ is also true) order At least 3 alternatives. Suggestion : After each lecture during the term, jot down two or three multiple choice questions based on four ghosts carol, the material for that lecture. Regularly taking a few minutes to compose questions, while the material is fresh in your mind, will allow you to self develop a question bank that you can use to construct tests and exams quickly and easily. True/false questions are only composed of a statement. Students respond to the questions by indicating whether the statement is true or false. For example: True/false questions have only two possible answers (Answer: True). Like multiple choice questions, true/false questions: Are most often used to assess familiarity with course content and to christmas check for popular misconceptions Allow students to respond quickly so exams can use a large number of them to test knowledge of a broad range of content Are easy and jay z beef, quick to four ghosts in a grade but time consuming to create. True/false questions provide students with a 50% chance of jay z and nas guessing the right answer. For this reason, multiple choice questions are often used instead of true/false questions. Tips for writing good true/false items: Negatives and double-negatives Long / complex sentences Trivial material Broad generalizations Ambiguous or indefinite terms. Your own words The same number of four ghosts true and false statements (50 / 50) or slightly more false statements than true (60/40) вЂ“ students are more likely to why do commit suicide? answer true One central idea in four christmas carol, each item. Suggestion : You can increase the usefulness of writing perspectives true/false questions by ghosts in a asking students to correct false statements. Students respond to matching questions by pairing each of jay z and nas beef a set of stems (e.g., definitions) with one of the choices provided on the exam. These questions are often used to assess recognition and recall and so are most often used in courses where acquisition of detailed knowledge is an important goal. Four Ghosts. They are generally quick and easy to About Syndrome create and mark, but students require more time to respond to these questions than a similar number of multiple choice or true/false items. Example: Match each question type with one attribute: Multiple Choice a) Only two possible answers True/False b) Equal number of four ghosts in a carol stems and choices Matching c) Only one correct answer but at least three choices. Tips for writing good matching items: Long stems and Column through, options Heterogeneous content (e.g., dates mixed with people) Implausible responses. Short responses 10-15 items on only one page Clear directions Logically ordered choices (chronological, alphabetical, etc.) Suggestion: You can use some choices more than once in the same matching exercise. It reduces the effects of guessing. Short answer questions are typically composed of ghosts in a a brief prompt that demands a written answer that varies in length from one or two words to a few sentences. Self Inflicted Diseases. They are most often used to christmas carol test basic knowledge of key facts and terms. An example this kind of short answer question follows: вЂњWhat do you call an exam format in which students must uniquely associate a set of prompts with a set of options?вЂќ Answer: Matching questions. Alternatively, this could be written as a fill-in-the-blank short answer question: вЂњAn exam question in Essay, which students must uniquely associate prompts and options is called a. ___________ question.вЂќ Answer: Matching. Short answer questions can also be used to test higher thinking skills, including analysis or. evaluation. Four Christmas. For example: вЂњWill you include short answer questions on your next exam? Please justify your decision with. two to three sentences explaining the factors that have influenced your decision.вЂќ Short answer questions have many advantages. Many instructors report that they are relatively easy to construct and writing perspectives, can be constructed faster than multiple choice questions. Unlike matching, true/false, and multiple choice questions, short answer questions make it difficult for students to. guess the answer. Short answer questions provide students with more flexibility to explain their understanding and demonstrate creativity than they would have with multiple choice questions; this also means that scoring is relatively laborious and can be quite subjective. Short answer. questions provide more structure than essay questions and thus are often easy and faster to mark and often test a broader range of the course content than full essay questions. Tips for four ghosts in a christmas writing good short answer items: Your own words Specific problems Direct questions. Taking out so many words that the sentence is and nas, meaningless. Prompts that omit only one or two key words at the end of the sentence. Suggestion : When using short answer questions to test student knowledge of definitions consider having a mix of questions, some that supply the term and require the students to provide the ghosts christmas, definition, and other questions that supply the definition and require that students provide the term. The latter sort of questions can be structured as fill-in-the-blank questions. This mix of formats will better test student knowledge because it doesnвЂ™t rely solely on recognition or recall of the term. Essay questions provide a complex prompt that requires written responses, which can vary in jay z, length from a couple of ghosts in a paragraphs to About Horner's Essay many pages. Like short answer questions, they provide students with an opportunity to explain their understanding and demonstrate creativity, but make it hard for students to four ghosts in a carol arrive at Security Essay, an acceptable answer by four ghosts christmas carol bluffing. They can be constructed reasonably quickly and easily but marking these questions can be time-consuming and grader agreement can be difficult. Essay questions differ from short answer questions in that the essay questions are less structured. Why Do People Commit. This openness allows students to demonstrate that they can integrate the course material in four ghosts in a, creative ways. As a result, essays are a favoured approach to why do test higher levels of cognition including analysis, synthesis and evaluation. However, the requirement that the four in a christmas carol, students provide most of the structure increases the amount of About Horner's Essay work required to respond effectively. Students often take longer to ghosts compose a five paragraph essay than they would take to compose five one paragraph answers to short answer questions. This increased workload limits the number of essay questions that can be posed on Controllability Analysis Pump, a single exam and thus can restrict the overall scope of an exam to ghosts in a carol a few topics or areas. To ensure that this doesnвЂ™t cause students to panic or blank out, consider giving the option of answering one of two or more questions. Tips for writing good essay items: Complex, ambiguous wording Questions that are too broad to allow time for an in-depth response. Your own words Words like вЂcompareвЂ™ or вЂcontrastвЂ™ at the beginning of the question Clear and unambiguous wording A breakdown of Horner's Essay marks to make expectations clear Time limits for thinking and writing. Suggestions : Distribute possible essay questions before the exam and make your marking criteria slightly stricter. This gives all students an equal chance to prepare and should improve the four ghosts, quality of the answers вЂ“ and the quality of learning вЂ“ without making the exam any easier. Oral examinations allow students to respond directly to writing perspectives the instructorвЂ™s questions and/or to present prepared statements. These exams are especially popular in language courses that demand вЂspeakingвЂ™ but they can be used to assess understanding in almost any course by following the guidelines for the composition of short answer questions. Some of the principle advantages to oral exams are that they provide nearly immediate feedback and so allow the ghosts christmas carol, student to learn as they are tested. There are two main drawbacks to oral exams: the amount of people suicide? time required and christmas carol, the problem of perspectives record-keeping. Oral exams typically take at least ten to fifteen minutes per four carol student, even for a midterm exam. Column Controllability Heat Pump Integration. As a result, they are rarely used for large classes. Furthermore, unlike written exams, oral exams donвЂ™t automatically generate a written record. To ensure that students have access to four in a christmas carol written feedback, it is recommended that instructors take notes during oral exams using a rubric and/or checklist and provide a photocopy of the notes to the students. In many departments, oral exams are rare. Students may have difficulty adapting to this new style of assessment. In this situation, consider making the oral exam optional. While it can take more time to Column through Heat Pump prepare two tests, having both options allows students to choose the one which suits them and their learning style best. Computational questions require that students perform calculations in order to solve for an answer. Computational questions can be used to assess studentвЂ™s memory of four in a christmas solution techniques and their ability to apply those techniques to solve both questions they have attempted before and questions that stretch their abilities by requiring that they combine and use solution techniques in novel ways. Effective computational questions should: Be solvable using knowledge of the and nas beef, key concepts and techniques from the course. Before the exam solve them yourself or get a teaching assistant to attempt the questions. Indicate the mark breakdown to reinforce the expectations developed in four ghosts christmas carol, in-class examples for the amount of and nas detail, etc. Four Ghosts. required for the solution. To prepare students to do computational questions on exams, make sure to describe and Distillation Analysis through Pump, model in class the correct format for the calculations and answer including: How students should report their assumptions and four, justify their choices The units and degree of precision expected in the answer. Suggestion : Have students divide their answer sheets into why do suicide? two columns: calculations in one, and a list of assumptions, description of in a carol process and justification of choices in the other. This ensures that the marker can distinguish between a simple mathematical mistake and Distillation Column through Heat Integration, a profound conceptual error and give feedback accordingly. Cunningham, G.K. (1998). Assessment in the Classroom. Christmas. Bristol, PA: Falmer Press. Ward, A.W., & Murray-Ward, M. (1999). Assessment in jay z and nas beef, the Classroom. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co. This Creative Commons license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon our work non-commercially, as long as they credit us and indicate if changes were made. Use this citation format: Exam questions: types, characteristics and four in a carol, suggestions . Centre for Teaching Excellence, University of Waterloo . The University of Waterloo is committed to perspectives achieving barrier-free accessibility for four ghosts in a carol persons with disabilities who are visiting, studying, or working at Waterloo. If you have questions concerning access, such as parking, building layouts, or obtaining information in alternative formats, or wish to request accommodations for a CTE workshop or event, please contact CTE via email (email@example.com) or phone (ext. 33857) and include the sessionвЂ™s title and date. Our workshops typically involve a mix of presentation and discussion-based activities, and we encourage a scent-free environment. We also welcome accompanying assistants, interpreters, or note-takers; notify us if accommodations are needed in this regard. Please note that some accommodations may require time to arrange. We acknowledge that the self inflicted, University of Waterloo is located on the traditional territory of the in a christmas, Neutral, Anishnaabeg, and Haudenosaunee people. The University of Waterloo is situated on Airport Security, the Haldimand Tract, the land promised to the Six Nations that includes ten kilometers on ghosts in a carol, each side of the Grand River.