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What is pidgins

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Sanskrit (/ˈsænskrɪt/; संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam [səmskr̩t̪əm], originally संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, "refined speech") is a historical Indo-Aryan . language, the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and a literary and scholarly language in what is pidgins, Buddhism and result of cuban crisis, Jainism. What! Developing from Vedic Sanskrit , today it is is a traitor, listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India[3] and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand.[4] Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. The corpus of Sanskrit. Buddhism , Indo-Aryan languages , Indo-European languages 799 Words | 3 Pages. Kalidasa's Sakuntala is the best-known Sanskrit drama, and widely considered a masterpiece. It is based on an episode from the is pidgins, Mahabharata . (book 1, ch. 62-69), though Kalidasa takes significant liberties in his version. Widely translated -- there were "no fewer than forty-six translations in twelve different languages" in the century after Sir William Jones' groundbreaking first translation (1789) alone, Dorothy Matilda Figueira notes in Translating the what theory, Orient -- new editions continue to what appear regularly. Abhijñānaśākuntalam , Anxiety , Sanskrit 1594 Words | 5 Pages. Sanskrit संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam Pronunciation [sə̃skɹ̩t̪əm] Spoken in Essay about Time Is Limited, Greater India Total speakers 14,135 native speakers in what, India . (2001)[1] Language family Indo-European * Indo-Iranian o Indo-Aryan + Sanskrit Writing system Devanāgarī (de facto), various Brāhmī–based scripts, and Latin alphabet Official status Official language in India (Uttarakhand) one of the commercial farming, 22 scheduled languages of India Regulated by what is pidgins, No official regulation Language codes . Hindi , India , Indo-Aryan languages 6594 Words | 25 Pages.  BEAMING FACETS OF SANSKRIT “This (i.e. Snowden Is A Traitor! Panini’s) grammar, which dates from somewhere round 350 to 250 BC, . is one of the what, greatest monuments of human intelligence. It describes with the minutest detail, every inflection, derivation and composition, and every syntactic usage of its author’s speech. Traitor! No other language, to this day, has been so perfectly described. L. Bloomfield. Dravidian languages , Hinduism , India 1224 Words | 2 Pages. of this material creation can compare to His beauty. Therefore, it is recommended that we need to remember and adore Him, by which we can experience His . divine love, which is like an ocean of what nectar. It is important to point out that the Sanskrit term for the experience of Krishna’s divine love is rasa. What Is Collision! It is the Bhagavat Purana that, in is pidgins, the Vedic literature, begins to explain the rasa-lila or bliss pastimes of Lord Krishna with His numerous associates. The word rasa is never used in connection. Brahman , God , Hinduism 27097 Words | 68 Pages. Glossary of Sanskrit Terms for the Ayurvedic Practitioner November 2004 by Marisa Laursen and Robert Talbert This reference guide evolved . naturally out of our studies of Ayurveda and deepening interest in a mars a day, the original language of this sacred science. It was compiled with the loving intent of helping to what make the ancient language of snowden is a Sanskrit more accessible to students and practitioners of Ayurveda. This reference contains the terms used in the primary textbooks utilized by the California College. Astral body , Astral projection , Ayurveda 12454 Words | 55 Pages. Hinduism and Sanskrit Philosophical Treatises. from Sanskrit kavya (Klaus Karttunen, Lidia Sudyka, Anna Trynkowska) to what is pidgins medieval and modern Hindi poetry (Renata Czekalska, Kunwar Narain, . Danuta Stasik). Analysis of personalities of of cuban missile crisis personages of the Vedic pantheon is is pidgins, juxtaposed with comparative approach to Indian mythology (Rahul Peter Das, Paolo Magnone). Commercial Farming! Examination of different historical and textual layers of is pidgins Vedic exegesis (Tatiana Y. Elizarenkova, Cezary Galewicz, Joanna Jurewicz, Sven Sellmer) is enriched by what theory, reflection on Sanskrit epics. Culture , Hindi literature , Hindu 661 Words | 3 Pages. below about how historians have gone about trying to pinpoint the date when Panini lived. Panini was a Sanskrit grammarian who gave a . What! comprehensive and scientific theory of phonetics, phonology, and morphology. Result! Sanskrit was the what, classical literary language of the Indian Hindus and Panini is considered the founder of the language and literature. It is interesting to note that the a mars a day, word " Sanskrit " means "complete" or "perfect" and it was thought of as the divine language, or language of the gods. A. India , Linguistics , Logic 1342 Words | 4 Pages. unambiguity of the what, Sanskrit language. A Computational Algorithm based on Empirical Analysis, that Composes Sanskrit Poetry Rama . N., Meenakshi Lakshmanan (Submitted on 7 Mar 2010) Poetry-writing in Sanskrit is riddled with problems for even those who know the language well. This is crisis, so because the rules that govern Sanskrit prosody are numerous and what, stringent. We propose a computational algorithm that converts prose given as E-text into poetry in accordance with the metrical rules of Sanskrit prosody, simultaneously. Bhagavad Gita , India , Linguistics 376 Words | 2 Pages. Sanskrit Schlarship Application Form. Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan (Deemed University) 56-57, Institutional Area, Janak Puri, New Delhi-110058 Notification of Scholarship . Commercial Farming! Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan (Deemed University) set up by the Government of India for propagation and is pidgins, promotion of commercial Sanskrit language invites applications in the prescribed form for award of merit Scholarship to: i. Regular students studying Sanskrit in any recognized traditional Pathshalas/modern institutions / Secondary / Senior Secondary Schools from 9th. Deemed university , Graduation , Grammatical gender 1817 Words | 8 Pages. MIXED FEELINGS IN POST-INDEPENDENCE INDIA BUT WAS WELL ESTABLISHED NEVERTHELESS. WHAT IS BEING DISCUSSED IN EACH PARAGRAPH? PARAGRAPH 1 IT IS . ALL ABOUT THE SEQUENCE OF INDIA’S LITERARY WORKS FROM THE RIG VEDA TO THE PURANAS AND ABOUT THE SANSKRIT LITERATURE PARAGRAPH 2 IT IS ALL ABOUT FEATURING THE TWO MOST FAMOUS PURANIC EPICS KNOWN AS MAHABHARATA AND RAMAYANA. PARAGRAPH 3 INDIAN CONSTITUTION RECOGNIZED SEVERAL OFFICIAL LANGUAGES AND RESULTED IN THE PRODUCTION OF REGIONAL LITERATURE. Hinduism , India , Indian epic poetry 285 Words | 2 Pages. The Spectrum of Love: Analysis of Sanskrit Writings. Justin Chernick Sense and Sensuality McHugh, 2012 Eike, 9am The Spectrum of Love Love is of particular interest in Sanskrit writings. . Sometimes it is tied to is pidgins positive, life giving undertones and what effects, other times, it is associated with violent, feverish attacks. Looking at what is pidgins two Sanskrit poems concerning the way women and are the effects, men deal with love sheds light on how complicated the culture’s view on what the phenomenon was. Through the use of nature-related metaphor, the female reaction to what are the of racism love is given a. Aesthetics , India , Literature 645 Words | 2 Pages. Sanskrit as the Future Language of Super Computers. intelligence, is a false one. There is at is pidgins least one language, Sanskrit , which for the duration of almost 1,000 years was a living spoken . language with a considerable literature of its own. Besides works of literary value, there was a long philosophical and grammatical tradition that has continued to farming exist with undiminished vigor until the what, present century. Among the accomplishments of the grammarians can be reckoned a method for paraphrasing Sanskrit in snowden is a traitor, a manner that is what, identical not only in about Time Is Limited, essence but in. Grammar , Language , Linguistics 568 Words | 2 Pages. A Comparative Study of Sindhi and Sanskrit Language Journalism. A comparative study of Sindhi and Sanskrit Language Journalism Abstract Journalism in . regional languages that are not mainstream have a number of challenges associated with it. While some regional languages like Hindi, Bengali, Malayalam etc. are flourishing even more than English language journalism. Devanagari , India , Linguistics 2980 Words | 87 Pages. : Swadhinatar Sukh Chap. 18 : Baromese 15. Lower Hindi : Chap. 2 : Abhimani Gulab Chap. 5 : Kechup Ki . Kahani Chap. 9 : Prakriti Ka Sandesh (Kavita) Chap. 14 : Hazirjawab Mulla Nasiruddin Patra lekhan, Anuched lekhan 16. Sanskrit : 1. Is Pidgins! Sanskrit Gyan Jyoti Chap. Are The Effects! 21 : Ganga (Prose), Chap. 26 : Sanskrita Bhashaya Gauravam . Creative writing , Literature , Sanskrit 656 Words | 5 Pages. criminals were imprisoned for is pidgins, life. Talking of political life, in most cases kingshop was hereditary although at times a king was nominated by his . predecessor or elected by people or nobels. Nandivarman Pallava was raised to the throne by the mula prakritis . At Thaneshwar the crown was offered to are the effects Harsha by a council of nobles headed by Bhandi. Secondly the is pidgins, tradition that the welfare of Time king depends on the welfare of people was still believed in. Fa-Hien, Hiue-Tsang and Suleiman record that rulers did. Bihar , Brahmin , Gupta Empire 1521 Words | 4 Pages. Sanskrit Words and Phrases and Honesty. Honesty I will start with a true story. Once King of what Spain went to visit prison. He spoke with each and every prisoners. One prisoner said , “ I am . innocent but the of cuban crisis, judge was biased. What! “ the other told “ Witnesses lied “ Every prisoner claimed that they were innocent. Only one prisoner told king ” I was in missile crisis, need of money. What! I was caught while stealing the ornaments. I am in jail for the crime I committed.” The king exclaimed “ You are the only bad person in the company of all these honest persons. Arjuna , Deva , Krishna 489 Words | 2 Pages. mountain, forests etc. The location of the houses was determined by a need for protection of the effects of racism, houses against wind and also for what, a satisfactory scenic view . of nature. Nature is referred to as ‘natur’ is Norwegian, ‘natura’ in Greek, ‘ prakriti ’ in Sanskrit all these have a same meaning the ‘unprocessed’ in result of cuban missile, distinction to what is what is pidgins, beautified. Wild, imposing nature evoked a variety of culturally attitudes, not only fear or abhorrence. A feeling for nature is positive feeling for what, areas that are not. Bhagavad Gita , Biodiversity , Deep ecology 1332 Words | 4 Pages. Controversy over the Bhagvad Gita. Lord Sri Krishna is revered by Hindus as a manifestation of God. The Bhagvad Gita is the what, advice of Lord Krishna given to Arjuna before the start of the . Kurukshetra war. The Gita explains the effects of racism, five basic concepts or truths, including Ishvara, Jiva, Prakriti , Dharma, and kaala (time). Krishna provides knowledge of dharma or universal harmony and duty. Is Pidgins! Arjuna wishes to leave the battle field without fighting against his own brothers and farming, kinsmen, however, Krishna warns him that if he does not fight or. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada , Arjuna , Bhagavad Gita 1189 Words | 3 Pages. Shad Darshana - Six systems of Vedic Philosophy Philosophy is a worldview, as represented by the Sanskrit darshana, derived from the what, verbal . root drish, "to see". Generally speaking, the modern Philosophical approach seeks to find an objective vantage point from which to analyze and properly order the farming, many subjective perspectives which constitute what is then termed "reality". Is Pidgins! The Indian approach, by contrast, has sometimes been called a subjective attempt to find the ultimate objective. Essay About Time! While. Brahman , Hindu philosophy , Hinduism 1149 Words | 3 Pages. - ora, chota, jalak, jap, muruka, khar, pak and lon. These are categorised on what the basis of different characters and Essay about Time, application patterns. Under these broad . units, there are many sub-units. For example - there are four types of ora - Purush Ora, Prakriti or Stri Ora, Phul Ora,and Lahi Ora. Like that there are at is pidgins least six types of snowden traitor chota- ora chota, kati chota, Udha chota etc. Mati-Akhoras embrace all the features of what Sattriya dance. They are – the basic body positions or stances, bhangas. Dance , Dance in India , Lon Chaney, Sr. 1513 Words | 5 Pages. percent words of modern Malayalam are from pure Sanskrit .[9][10][11] Before Malayalam came into being, Old Tamil was used in literature and . courts of a region called Tamilakam, a famous example being Silappatikaram. While Dravidian Tamil used to be the ruling language of the Chera Dynasty[12] Ai and snowden, Pandyan kingdoms[13]. Sanskrit /Prakrit derived Buddhist Pali Language and what, the Jain Kalpasutra were know to Keralites from 500 BC. The Grantha Bhasha or Sanskrit mixed Tamil which was written in Time Is Limited, Grantha Script. Dravidian languages , Kannada language , Karnataka 1267 Words | 4 Pages. Analysis of Rabindranath Tagore as a Creative Mind. Rabindranath Tagore as a creative mind Noted as the first Nobel Laureate of Asia, Rabindranath Tagore’s works span across many genres beside poetry. His . acquaintance with literature and what, language started at a very early age. He learnt Bengali, Sanskrit and English apart from is collision theory math, history, art, science and is pidgins, the Upanishads. His introduction to classic literature began with the is a traitor, plays of Macabeth and poetry of Kalidasa, both of which he partly translated into Bengali. During these early years Tagore. Bengali literature , Bengali people , Gitanjali 1129 Words | 4 Pages. Adho Mukha Svanasana Adho mukha śvānāsana, adho mukha shvanasana (AH-doh MOO-kah shvah-NAH-sah-nah; Sanskrit : अधोमुखश्वानासन; IAST: Adho Mukha . Śvānāsana), downward-facing dog Pose, downward dog, or down dog is an what asana. A Mars A Day! Etymology The name comes from the Sanskrit words adhas meaning 'down', mukha meaning 'face', śvāna meaning 'dog’, and asana meaning 'posture' or 'seat'. Description The preparatory position is with the hands and knees on the floor, hands under the shoulders, fingers spread wide. Adho Mukha Svanasana , Foot , Human abdomen 731 Words | 3 Pages. differ from tradition to tradition The name comes from the what is pidgins, Sanskrit words Dhanura (धनुर, Dhanura) meaning "bow",[3] and Asana (आसन, Āsana) . meaning "posture" or "seat". A Mars A Day! The practitioner lies on the belly, grasps the is pidgins, feet, and farming, lifts the legs into is pidgins the shape of a bow. Backward extension of the spine is a mars a day, achieved with the back muscles, not by leverage with the arms. kutkutaasana The name comes from the Sanskrit words kukkuṭā meaning "cock"[4] and asana (आसन) meaning "posture". Human leg , Mantra , Sanskrit words and phrases 682 Words | 3 Pages. practiced today. What Is Pidgins! Even though the Vedas are India's ancient sacred texts, modern Hinduism begins with the Vedanta (end of Vedas) and attains its zenith with . the Brahma Sutras. The Sankhyya philosophy traces the a mars a day, origins of everything to the interplay of Prakriti (nature) and what is pidgins, Purusha (the Self, to be differentiated from the concept of the soul in the latter Indian philosophies). These two separate entities have always existed and a mars a day, their interplay is at the root of all reality. Is Pidgins! The concept of God is conspicuous. Bhagavad Gita , Brahman , Hindu 2503 Words | 6 Pages. Malayalam poetry. Kerala Panineeyam is considered to be an authoritative work on Malayalam grammar. He was a rare blend of scholarship and creative talent . and was the are the effects of racism, moving spirit behind the great literary renaissance in Kerala. He wrote widely in Sanskrit and Malayalam and his poetic works were influenced by the study of British romantic poets of the 19th century. His essays are fine examples of excellent prose and what is pidgins, his name will be remembered as long as Malayalam survives. Ulloor S. Parameshwar Iyer. Kerala , Malayalam , Malayalam language 1353 Words | 4 Pages. Ayurvedic Medicine v. Western Medicine. and “vedic” means “knowledge” in Sanskrit - in essence Ayurveda hopes to bring knowledge of life to the way of medicine. Since this form of commercial . medicine was first practiced in what is pidgins, India many philosophies of snowden is a Hinduism are woven into the way Ayurveda is practiced. Hinduism deals a lot with the spiritual world and how the body and soul connects with the universe. Much like concepts in is pidgins, Hinduism, “the concepts of universal interconnectedness, the body's constitution ( prakriti ), and life forces (doshas) are [also]. Alternative medicine , Ayurveda , Herbalism 1800 Words | 5 Pages. Anant Shastri Dongre, who stayed at a place in Western Ghats, called Gangamoola, (Mala village, Karkala, Karnataka) was a Sanskrit scholar and . believed that women should have education. Snowden! Against the prevailing traditional Hindu social structure, he taught Puranas and Sanskrit shloks to what Ramabai as well as his second wife, Ramambai’s mother Laxmibai and how to read and what theory, write Sanskrit as well as how to interpret Vedic texts. She was raised by her father. Her father faced hardships as he was against the. Hinduism , India , Jainism 1143 Words | 3 Pages. Vamana added Lati riti later. Modern scholars believe that Riti literature was written to exhibit a knowledge of Sanskrit poetics and to . prove one’s learning to the patron.Bhagirath Mishra and Nagendra rightly believed that durinig this period the term ritihad no exclusive link with the Riti school of Sanskrit poetics. These scholars suggest that it was not the Riti school of what is pidgins Sanskrit poetics headed by Vamana after which the a mars a day, literature was called Riti literature. It is also mentioned that the ambition. Hindi , India , Languages of India 2081 Words | 6 Pages. Elements in Sande¿ak¡vyas Introduction Sanskrit is the what is pidgins, vast and rich treasure house of various branches of knowledge. It has produced . magnificent and sublime poetry since time immemorial. Ancient Indian thinkers thought a lot on the various aspects of poetry from different angles and consequently criticism of poetry developed here. New views emerged, several literary principles were explored and a series of schools of poetics came into existence. What Is Collision! Sanskrit poetics is remarkably rich. Inasmuch as. India , Mahābhārata , Poetry 2144 Words | 6 Pages. of ZERO and its effects use as a number. In the beginning it was shown in the form of DOT or sometimes by a circle. It was known by the name “SHUNYA” meaning . nothing in what, Sanskrit . Historians believed that it came into existence from 458 A.D. Most of the number and problems were written in verses form (Known as SLOKA in Sanskrit ) or in the basis of natural things. For Ex: Moon and Earth represents the Number 1, Eyes represents the Number 2, Indians were the First to introduce Base 10 system. 0 , Arabic numerals , Decimal 651 Words | 3 Pages. Theatre is Sanskrit Theatre, which was constructed after the classical Greek and Roman Theatre. However, during the are the effects of racism, medieval rise of is pidgins theatre in . Europe, Sanskrit Theatre had its decline and lost its importance. Therefore, before it was able to prosper, it wasn’t even able to grow and was immediately shut down. When discussing about Sanskrit Theatre, Farley P. Richmond, Darius L. Swann, and Phillip B. Zarilli mentioned said, “On the eve of the what are the effects, reemergence of drama in medieval Europe, the Sanskrit drama. Bollywood , Cinema of India , History of is pidgins theatre 1145 Words | 5 Pages. found surrounding rainforests. Jungles are home to a wide range of plants and animals. Over half of the world's species live in a jungle environment. . Traitor! Jungles are usually in warm places with high rainfall. The word ‘jungle’ comes from a Sanskrit word meaning ‘uncultivated land’. The saying “The Law of the Jungle” comes from Rudyard Kipling’s collection of stories called The Jungle Book, published in 1894. What! While lions have the effects, nickname “The King of the Jungle” they typically live in. Akela , Mowgli , Rainforest 628 Words | 4 Pages. contributions to Western philology. Panini, the is pidgins, Sanskrit grammarian, who lived between 750 and 500 BC, was the first to is a compose formal grammar . through his Astadhyai. India invented the Number System. What! Zero was invented by commercial, Aryabhatta. The World's first university was established in Nalanda built in the 4th century BC was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education. Sanskrit is the what is pidgins, mother of all the what is collision, European languages. What! Sanskrit is the most suitable language for computer. 1st millennium , Centuries , India 904 Words | 3 Pages. Takshila in 700 BC. Students from all over the World studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century was one of the . Commercial Farming! greatest achievements of what is pidgins ancient India in the field of a mars a day education. Sanskrit is considered the mother of what is pidgins all higher languages. Sanskrit is the what theory, most precise, and what, therefore suitable language for computer software – a report in Forbes magazine, July 1987. Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to humans. Charaka, the father of medicine consolidated. Hinduism , History of a mars a day India , India 845 Words | 3 Pages. German spirant stops f, ts, kh; hence, the correlation between Latin duo, English “two,” and modern German zwei (pronounced “tsvai”). Also, the originally . What! voiced bh, dh, gh became the English voiced b, d, g and the Old High German p, t, k; compare Sanskrit bhárati, English “bear,” and a mars a day, the Upper German dialects of Old High German ki-peran (later standard German ge-bären). The Old High German examples show the second shift in addition to the first, which is seen in what is pidgins, English. LINKS Related Articles . Danish language , English language , German language 838 Words | 4 Pages. Punjab | | | | Punjabi Names | Jhelum · Chenab · Ravi · Sutlej · Beas | | | | | Greek Names | . Hydaspes · Acesines · Hydraotes · Hesidros · Hyphasis | | | | | Sanskrit Names | Vitasta · Ashikini · Parushani · Shatadru · Vipasa | | | Jehlum River or Jhelum River Urdu: دریاۓ جہلم (Shahmukhi),( Sanskrit : वितस्ता, Kashmiri: Vyeth, Hindi: झेलम, Punjabi: ਜੇਹਲਮ(Gurmukhi)) is a river that flows in India and Pakistan. It is the what of racism, largest and most western of the what is pidgins, five rivers of Punjab, and. Chenab River , Himachal Pradesh , Indus basin 941 Words | 3 Pages. foundation for the religion as a whole. It encompasses a variet and farming, number of what different religious groups which hold some similarities but are very diverse. A Mars A Day! . orientalism: how western scholars view the east Colonial British translate texts with Sanskrit scholars and what is pidgins, make certain views/practices more important and dominant. Result! Lex Loci Act 1845: establish british common law in what, India, property laws. Cast Disabilities Removal Act, 1850: enshrines religion in personal law (funeral laws, marriage). Civilization , Hindu , Hinduism 680 Words | 3 Pages. Ethical Issues in Bhopal Gas Tregedy. Javanese, Malay, Paiwan, Sundanese, Tagalog, Tetum * Dravidian: Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu * Indo-Asiatic: Armenian, Bengali, English, . Gujarati, Marathi, Hindi, Kurdish, Nepali, Pashto, Persian, Portuguese, Punjabi, Russian, Konkani, Sanskrit , Tajik, Urdu * Japonic: Japanese, Okinawan * Sino-Tibetan: * Sinitic: Mandarin, Gan, Hakka, Min, Wu, Xiang, Yue * Tibeto-Burman: Tibetan, Burmese * Tai-Kadai: Lao, Thai * Turkic: Azeri, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Turkish. Asia , Buddhism , Central Asia 1488 Words | 5 Pages. classicial language, Sanskrit ,.The Indian literary tradition is farming, primarily one of verse and is also essentially oral. The earliest works were . Is Pidgins! composed to be sung or recited and were so transmitted for many generations before being written down. As a result, the earliest records of a text may be later by several centuries than the conjectured date of its composition. Furthermore, perhaps because so much Indian literature is either religious or a reworking of what theory familiar stories from the Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana. Hindi , India , Kannada language 2069 Words | 5 Pages. constancy". Is Pidgins! It is also interpreted as "absolute truth" or "reality". Passion Activity. Rajas- Responsible for motion, energy and preservation, . destruction/transformation. Snowden! Goodness and Purity. Tamas- Resistance to action, indifference, darkness Prakriti - Nature, Primal Motive Force Shruti- Hearing, listening Shunyata- Emptiness, Void Skandhas- Five functions or aspects that constitute the what is pidgins, sentient being. Aggregate, mass, heap. Pramana- Knowledge and Understanding. Purvapaksa- . Buddhism , Hindu philosophical concepts , Rajas 261 Words | 3 Pages. The History of British Education in India. concern among some Company officials about being seen as foreign rulers. They argued that the Company should try to win over its subjects by outdoing the commercial farming, . region's previous rulers in the support of is pidgins indigenous learning. Guided by this belief, the Benares Sanskrit College was founded in Varanasi in of racism, 1791 during the administration of Lord Cornwallis. The promotion of knowledge of Asia had attracted scholars as well to the Company's service. Earlier, in 1784, the Asiatick Society had been founded in Calcutta. British Empire , British Raj , Company rule in India 1283 Words | 4 Pages. realization, intimate practical realization with God = vijnana. Is Pidgins! * Krishna’s two natures: he has created out of himself all the elements and all . things that make up the world. His spiritual nature is that he is the transcendent lord of the universe. Commercial Farming! Prakriti - principle of mind and matter. Purusha – principle of pure spirit. * Final freeing of spirit purusha and self-realization ceases the flirtation with mind and matter * Questions * Maya is the magical capacity to create form and. Arjuna , Bhagavad Gita , Brahman 1989 Words | 7 Pages. 1 . Theatre Of India The earliest form of the theatre of India was the what is pidgins, Sanskrit theatre. It began after the development of Greek and Roman . theatre and before the development of theatre in other parts of traitor Asia. It emerged sometime between the 2nd century BCE and the 1st century CE and flourished between the 1st century CE and the 10th In an attempt to re-assert indigenous values and ideas, village theatre was encouraged across the subcontinent, developing in a large number of regional languages. Bollywood , Cinema of India , India 2184 Words | 7 Pages. Educational Scheme by Government to Improve Education. computer in schools is continue by Bhoj Open University. 7. SANSKRIT EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT SCHEMES:The scheme is launched by Govt. of India to . develop Sanskrit Education in the country during 1998-99.The scheme aims to award the well learned in Kalidas Samaroh in what is pidgins, which training of sanskrit teachers and various scholarships are included. Snowden Is A Traitor! In addition to the above aim the scheme aims to provide Grant in the form of salary of the teachers of Sanskrit primary schools as received by Govt. of India.Efforts are. College , Education , High school 973 Words | 3 Pages. CHANGING STATUS OF EUNUCHS (HERMAPHRODITES)- ROLE OF YOUTH. What Is Pidgins! Introduction write Background Eunuchs Eunuchs or Hijras are hermaphrodites in our race . A Mars A Day! who do not possess a single gender identification, but dual. “The Sanskrit term "tritiya prakriti ," or third nature, is is pidgins, used to classify them” (3 bring surname and year). Chatterji (write year) (this comes in references), “The term hijra is often translated as "eunuch" and of cuban crisis, the archetypal hijra is raised as a man and undergoes ritual removal of. Eunuch , Eunuchs , Government of India 2738 Words | 6 Pages. are honored. India sanskrit : an ancient literary of India, highly educated. Sanscrit Drana: India's oldest greek tradition, between 200 bc . and 100 AD flourished from 300-1000 AD during which hundreds of plays were written. Focused on what is pidgins spiritual themes, epic tales. Specticle: decorated costumes and heavy make-up. Colors and stylization of the costumes represent different characters that the contemporary audiences would recognize. The Sanskrit stagecraft Sanskrit drama was once an a mars a day elite. Audience , Hand puppet , Marionette 583 Words | 3 Pages. Nizami Ganjavi. His work was considered to be one of the what, great classics of farming Persian poetry during the Timurid period in Transoxiana. He wrote primarily in . Persian and Hindustani. What Is Pidgins! He also wrote a war ballad in Punjabi. In addition, he spoke Arabic and Sanskrit . His poetry is still Ab'ul Hasan was a Sufi musician, poet and scholar. He was an traitor iconic figure in is pidgins, the cultural history of the Indian subcontinent. He was a mystic and a spiritual disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya of Delhi. Amīr Khusrow has been reputed. India , Islam , Mysticism 1212 Words | 3 Pages. Navaratnas Nauratan ( Sanskrit dvigu nava-ratna- or "nine gems") was a term applied to of racism a group of is pidgins nine extraordinary people in a emperor's court . in India. a group of literate and wise philosophers. ------------------------------------------------- In the court of Chandragupta II Nine gems during the reign of Chandragupta II * Kalidasa, the most notable among all of them. Chandragupta II The Great, very often referred to as Vikramaditya was one of the most powerful emperors of the Gupta. Chandragupta I , Chandragupta II , Ghatotkacha 812 Words | 3 Pages. Evangelista. in Laguna de Bay, in the metroplex of Manila, Philippines, the LCI has inscribed on it a date of Saka era 822, corresponding to April 21, 900 . AD. It was written in the Kawi Script in a variety of a mars a day Old Malay containing numerous loanwords from is pidgins Sanskrit and a few non-Malay vocabulary elements whose origin is ambiguous between Old Javanese and Old Tagalog. The document releases its bearer, Namwaran, from a debt in gold amounting to 1 kati and are the of racism, 8 suwarnas (865 grams). The document mentions the places. Filipino language , History of the Philippines , Laguna Copperplate Inscription 2651 Words | 10 Pages. poetry, drama, novels, short stories and literary criticism, Indian literature has a tremendous variety to offer. Nearly every major Indian language has a . Is Pidgins! rich tradition of is a literature. The earliest works of Indian literature were orally transmitted. Sanskrit literature begins with the is pidgins, Vedas collections of sacred hymns dating to the period 1500–1200 BCE. Those earliest works like the is collision, Vedas or Upanishads were composed to be sung or recited and what is pidgins, were transmitted for many generations before being written. Hinduism , History of India , India 1951 Words | 5 Pages. of two realities: Purusha (consciousness) and Prakriti (phenomenal realm of matter). They are the experiencer and the experienced, not unlike . the res cogitans and res extensa of René Descartes. Prakriti further bifurcates into animate and inanimate realms. On the other hand, Purusha separates out into countless Jivas or individual units of consciousness as souls which fuse into the mind and body of the animate branch of Prakriti . Purusha| Prakriti | Consciousness( Self)|Phenomenal realm of matter| . Adi Shankara , Advaita Vedanta , Brahman 2449 Words | 9 Pages. oldest form of a mars a day theatre began in what is pidgins, the second century B.C. They performed Sanskrit dance theatre. The most comprehensive study of theatre . surviving from the ancient world, the Natyasastra, contains detailed analysis of Sanskrit dramatic texts, theatre building, acting, staging, music, gesture, dance, and even theatre-company organization (Cohen, 2014). Theory! Highly literary and poetic, the Sanskrit dramas had an elite audience in what, mind. Sanskrit is Time Is Limited, a highly-inflected, Indo-European language, related to classical. Drama , History of what is pidgins theatre , Kabuki 1912 Words | 7 Pages. left hand… a book, knowledge Lower right hand… Cinmudra , knowledge Matted locks… Air Forehead …Ganga ..water Ashes smeared… earth Right ear ring… . masculine Left ear ring …feminine The Lord represents both male and female.. Purusha and Prakriti , spirit and matter Viditatmanada, Hindu Dharma. What Are The! Ahemedabad, India 2008 Terminologies Guru. Teacher. The letter ‘gu’ stands for darkness and ‘ru’ stands for what is pidgins, that which removes darkness. ‘Guru’ implies one who removes darkness of ignorance. Adi Shankara , Bhagavad Gita , Brahman 1722 Words | 12 Pages. contacts are still found in the art and commercial farming, architecture of these countries. The Southeast Asian countries formed a stronghold of Indian culture from the early . centuries of the Christian era. The various Southeast Asian languages show strong influence of is pidgins Sanskrit . Many earlier kingdoms of these countries had adopted Hinduism as their religion, whose influence is perceptible even today. India presents a picture of unity in diversity to which history provides no parallel. There is complete harmony in. 1st millennium , Centuries , Haryana 2007 Words | 6 Pages. “A COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY ON THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF VAITARANA BASTI AND YOGARAJA GUGGULU IN AMAVATA W.S.R. TO RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS” edition,E-Book,2012,The Mcgraw-Hill companies INC.Chapter no 321 3. Chakrapanidata, Chakradatta, Dr. Indradeva Tripathi, Editor Ramanath Dwivedy, , . chaukhambha Sanskrit sanstan, Varanasi 2010, P No 455. 4. Bhava prakasha,sri Bhavamishra with vidyotini Hindi Commentary,Editor Bhisagratna pandit sri Brahmasankar misra,Chaukambha Sanskrit bhawam varanashi,11th edition 2009,vol 2, 277 5. Pandit sarngadhara acharya,sarngadara samhita,with Adamalla s dipika and kasiramas gudhartha,dipika commentary. Arthritis , Ayurveda , Charaka Samhita 1495 Words | 6 Pages. magician John Dee; to Cagliostro; to Eliphas Levi who died on the same day as Crowley was born. Continuing back further Crowley believed he had been . Ankh-fn-Khonsu, an Egyptian priest of the XXVIth dynasty. Snowden Is A Traitor! A.G.H. Is Pidgins! ( Karma is a Sanskrit word from the root "Kri" to do or to make and simply means "action." It operates in the universe as the continuous chain reaction of cause and effect. It is not only confined to causation in the physical sense but also it has moral implications. Buddhism , Death , Heaven 2378 Words | 6 Pages. the tale of troy. It narrates the story of the farming, Greek struggle to rescue Helen, from Trojans, the wrath of Achilles and subsequent destruction of Troy. What Is Pidgins! 2. . Mahabharata by Vyasa ( Sanskrit ) - Mahabharata is snowden, one of the great Indian epic compiled around 8th century BC. What Is Pidgins! This epic poem has about one lakh couplets in what is collision theory, Sanskrit and it can be considered as the is pidgins, longest epic poem of the world. This ancient epic deals with the rivalry between cousins - Kauravas and Pandavas - of a great ruling family of result India. Aeneid , Epic poetry , Homer 1679 Words | 5 Pages. yogins. Students study under prolonged and careful guidance of the is pidgins, teacher, known as the guru. The first syllable “gu,” in . About Is Limited! Sanskrit means light; the second syllable, “ru” means light. A guru is a spiritual teacher who leads the pupil from darkness to light. Literally, yoga means “the union of mind and body.” In Sanskrit , the language of India, yoga means discipline. Many people in western countries practice some form of yoga exercise in hope of improving. Exercise , Hinduism , Meditation 907 Words | 3 Pages.

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Two of is pidgins, my favorite novels growing up were A Catcher in the Rye by J.D Salinger and A Separate Peace by John Knowles. Essay About Time. Looking back, I wonder how I could have identified so strongly with two upper class white male characters that went to elite prep schools. I grew up in what, a very different world. Nevertheless, the experiences of theory, these two characters resonated with me. Like Holden, I was becoming increasingly disenchanted with the what is pidgins, many “phonies” around me, and, like Gene, I was beginning to suspect that I had a war going on inside myself. Spending time with these two fictional characters offered me solace and at the same time held a mirror up to aspects of snowden is a traitor, myself and of the world that were painful to look at. What. Witnessing someone else’s journey to adulthood gave me the chance to make some sense of the messy business of growing up. The coming-of-age story is a genre that invites readers to a mars a day, reflect upon what, themselves and upon their relationship to the world. In Book Lust , librarian and author Nancy Pearl asserts that “coming of snowden traitor, age novels describe a search for understanding, not only of oneself, but of the often mysterious, contradictory and sometimes frightening adult world. Is Pidgins. They help readers reflect on their own experiences and offer a (sometimes minimal) consolation that one’s feelings are not unique.” (Pearl 207) These stories cross cultures and farming historical periods. While individual characteristics such as race, gender, ethnicity or family background will influence one’s story, certain aspects of growing up are universal. The journey from innocence to experience is well documented in what is pidgins, literature. Is A. There are many stories about is pidgins losing a false sense of security, discovering injustice in the world and searching for farming one’s authentic identity. Typically, the protagonist of the coming of age story doesn’t fully articulate or even recognize his or her own transformation. However, as witnesses of the character’s journey, we can understand on an emotional and intellectual level how he has grown up. On occasion, the reader can even see something in the fictional world that he is blind to in his own life. Is Pidgins. Ironically, reading fiction can help him or her to “read” the Essay Time, real world more accurately. I’ve heard friends joke about what is pidgins how they wish someone gave them the a mars a day, “manual” for adulthood. Perhaps, in part, the coming-of-age story can serve this function. As a new teacher, I was surprised when many of my thirteen, fourteen and fifteen year-old students would read one of these stories and is pidgins dismiss it as something “boring” or that they couldn’t “relate to.” I soon discovered something that I probably should have known-many of my students were inexperienced readers. In part, reading was unsatisfying for them because they hadn’t yet come of age as thinkers. They did not automatically make inferences about characters, recognize themes, make connections between life and literature and evaluate the author’s craft. I needed to make the processes that experienced readers use visible to them. I found the work of literacy theorists, Carol Booth Olson and Kylene Beers, particularly helpful as I developed practical strategies for my classroom and a mars a day my practice as a teacher has been shaped by their work. Both of these women incorporated a Reader Response approach to literature which I have found to be an what is pidgins effective starting point for fostering independent thinking. Reader Response theory assumes the stance that meaning is actively constructed by the reader. Are The Of Racism. In other words, meaning does not reside solely within text, but is the result of the interaction between the reader and the text. Levels of interaction include: forming an understanding, developing interpretation, making connections, and generating a critical stance. Reading is no longer looked upon as a passive act of receiving someone else’s meaning. However, I have noticed that many of what is pidgins, my students are reluctant to give up the idea that all authority resides in the text. They believe that their main task is to prove that they “get it” by correctly answering the questions at the end of the a mars a day, story or parroting back what the teacher has said. Many are frustrated when I won’t point to the answer in the text. One exercise that I use to what, help students recognize what I call their “literal level, fill in the blank, worksheet type thinking” is to give them a “test,” similar to one I took at a mars a day, a professional development workshop. This test was filled with nonsense sentences like the following: For the snagdoodle to work properly, all of its lombos must work together. The corresponding test question was: Why might a snagdoodle work improperly? This exercise helps students to see that it is possible to what is pidgins, get a good grade on the test while learning nothing of Essay about Is Limited, value. My students’ reluctance to move on to higher order thinking may be reinforced by what educational philosopher Paulo Freire (1970) calls the “banking model of what, education.” (Maureen McLaughlin, Glenn L. DeVoogd 149) In The Pedagogy of the Oppressed Freire describes a teacher/student dynamic where teachers view students as bank accounts where they deposit facts and withdraw information when tests are given. What. He goes on to describe how students don’t use the “deposits” because they don’t seem to relate in any way to what is pidgins, the students lives. Students are not taught to be critical readers because they are seen as “objects to be acted upon rather than subjects who make decisions about how and what they learn.” (Maureen McLaughlin, Glenn L. DeVoogd 149) As a teacher in New Haven, I work with students from social, racial and farming ethnic groups that traditionally have been marginalized in our society. Is Pidgins. Thus, Freire’s metaphor frightens me. Often I feel tremendous pressure to push my students to a higher level of thinking. I see that there are issues of power involved and I imagine that the children in the wealthy suburbs are engaging in Is Limited, challenging inquiry, while my students believe that “doing work” is passively filling out worksheets. I want to pound the desk in frustration and exclaim, “If you don’t start thinking for yourself someone will do the thinking for what is pidgins you,” or “how are you going to ‘stick it to the man’ if you can’t construct a cogent argument?” However, I continually need to a mars a day, remind myself that abstract thought is what, really quite new to my students. They, like their suburban counterparts (whom most people would consider the non-oppressed) are coming of age as thinkers. According to the classic work of developmental psychologist, Jean Piaget, these early adolescents have just entered the formal operational stage which begins at around twelve years of age and continues into adulthood. It is characterized by the acquisition of the snowden traitor, ability to think abstractly, reason logically and draw conclusions from the information available. During this stage the young adult is able to understand such abstract concepts as love, recognize that when making moral decisions there are shades of gray, make predictions, concieve of logical theories and recognize the values that shape human behavior. This is is pidgins, quite a cognitive leap from are the, what Piaget calls the concrete operational stage which typically occurs between the is pidgins, ages of snowden, seven and eleven. Most children under the age of twelve do not view the world or literature in all its complexity. It is difficult for them to see and accept the contradictions that are inherent in human behavior. For example, the what is pidgins, idea that Huck Finn defies the racism in his culture even though he calls his friend Jim “the N-word,” is problematic. It disrupts the notion of an orderly, well-defined world where people and snowden traitor things are either good or bad, fair or unfair, right or wrong. What Is Pidgins. Likewise, students can not fully consider the role that culture, social norms or the character’s personal history play in his behavior. It is not surprising that coming-of-age as an abstract thinker is a key task in developing into a mature thinking adult. However, such thinking demands entry into a world that is filled with contradictions, ambiguities and multiple perspectives. Sometimes there are more questions than answers and this world requires that one become an independent thinker in order to navigate it. Ideas need to be less fixed as new information is constantly assimilated. Things are not always as they appear to what are the, be. Being a mature thinker is hard work. It’s frightening to leave the safety of childhood where things fit into clear categories and what is pidgins trusted adults can be relied upon to supply right answers. Although traditionally we see adolescence as a time when students begin to challenge authority and question conventional wisdom, many early adolescents are ambivalent about becoming independent thinkers. Part of the answer might be that they have become accustomed to the banking model of education. Effects Of Racism. They get extremely frustrated with the idea that I, as the teacher don’t supply the right answer. What Is Pidgins. They believe that real teachers give true and false tests and assign lists of vocabulary to memorize and rote grammatical exercises to complete all pedagogical strategies that have been found to be least effective in promoting critical thinking and strong insightful writing. Researchers in critical literacy encourage teachers to help students to “problematize” issues. This involves asking questions that move students beyond superficial answers. For example, if students were asked to examine the problem of lack of commercial, motivation in what, teenage readers, they might suggest that the answer was to punish students that don’t read and reward students that do. However, problematizing would mean to look at the complexity of the situation. What Is Collision. Students might discover multiple factors that lead to is pidgins, lack of motivation: poor quality texts, students’ past reading experiences, classroom climate, lack of choice in reading materials. Growing up as a thinker and Is Limited as a human being means entering into undiscovered territory. What. In doing research on the development of critical literacy, I’ve come across a quotation by Antonio Machado, the Spanish poet, who said, “Caminante, no hay camino, Se hace el camino al andar”-”Traveler, there is no road. The road is made as you walk.” I believe that my job as a teacher is to provide the tools that children need to chart their own course as thinkers and to create a safe environment, rich with opportunities to practice critical reading and snowden traitor thinking. Classroom strategies that support critical thinking. So how do we help students to cross the what is pidgins, bridge from concrete to about, abstract thinking and to what is pidgins, actively engage with the what theory, text as they read? In the section that follows I would like to present some methods that I have found particularly effective in helping students come of age as thinkers. All of these strategies challenge students to what, make their thinking visible. I frequently remind students that they are smart and are already doing the kind of thinking that they need to do in order to respond thoughtfully and analytically to literature. The problem is that they don’t capture their thoughts or articulate why their conclusions make sense. It is essential to focus on fluency as students get their thinking on paper. At this point the focus is on result of cuban missile crisis getting ideas down. This is what, “first draft thinking” and Essay about students are expected to make discoveries and revise their initial reactions to the text as they go. These strategies also promote independent inquiry among students. Traditionally, the what, teacher asks the majority of the questions and sets the agenda for class discourse. These methods put the onus on students. What Theory. They are encouraged to remain curious, continually probing the text and relating it to their own life experience, as they seek answers to their own questions. They are then able revise, add to or clarify their theories through discourse with their peers. In fact I encourage students to keep their classmates in mind as they get their thinking down on what paper. Making their thinking visible allows them to a mars a day, rehearse what they plan to contribute to class discussion. Student centered discussion enables students to collectively develop interpretations and explore multiple perspectives. Inevitably they recognize that sometimes two people have equally viable points of view, even though their ways of what, seeing an issue are quite different. The reader response strategies encourage a similar ability to identify diverse characters’ points of view and what ultimately the author’s perspective. Students begin to automatically look to the text to identify passages that reveal the is pidgins, character’s and the author’s assumptions about the world. Ultimately, these strategies help students step outside the a mars a day, text and what consider author’s craft and the broader implications of the author’s choices. The purpose of practicing these strategies continually in the classroom is to enable students to internalize mature “habits of a mars a day, mind” as readers and thinkers. Carol Olson and Robert Probst have both done extensive research on is pidgins the cognitive strategies that underlie the reading and writing process. Olson has created a series of response starters that help students contruct meaning. Experienced readers tap prior knowledge, ask questions, make connections and reflect on the text during and after reading. The response starters provide a scaffold for students until these strategies become second nature. Farming. Sometimes I encourage students to use the starters to is pidgins, write in the margins as they read. A Mars A Day. To practice the process together, I often read a text aloud to students and stop at strategic points to have them respond to is pidgins, the text using the prompts. They can ask questions, make connections, evaluate the a mars a day, text or make predictions. The sentence starters kickstart their thinking. I have found the prompts to be most helpful as a tool to is pidgins, help students articulate their initial understanding of text. Although, students want to verbalize their first emotional response immediately, when the a mars a day, class puts their first thoughts on paper using the prompts, a more analytical discourse follows. I have attached a list of open-ended prompts for what is pidgins responding to literature that I have adapted from the work of Robert Probst and Carol Booth Olson. A comprehensive list is available is available in Carol Booth Olson’s book The ReadingWriting Connection: Stategies for Teaching and Learning in the Secondary Classroom . This strategy taps into students’ natural curiosity by encouraging them to generate their own questions about text. It is commercial, important that students understand that the types of questions I want them to generate do not have obvious answers. In other words they are not literal level questions that are spelled out in the text such as: What did Esperanza do when the teacher gave her the what is pidgins, smelly sweater? (She took it) Where was Esperanza from? (Mexico). A simple way to is a, encourage higher level inquiry is to is pidgins, have students begin their questions with the phrase I wonder why: “I wonder why Esperanza… ?” or “ I wonder why the author, Sandra Cisneros chose to a mars a day, ____________.” Both questions lead to analytical, interpretive and/or evaluative thinking. These are questions that do not have answers that are that are definitively correct or incorrect. They are debatable and require that the student develop a theory or multiple theories to answer the question. A theory requires support. I ask students to explain to me why their theory makes sense. What. They need to refer specifically both to the text and to their own experience of the world to substantiate their theory. As my students are sometimes insecure about developing this habit of inquiry, I like to remind them that they already question and theorize on a regular basis. I point out that when I observe students in the hallway, most of them seem curious about each other. Additionally, I explain that I’ve overheard a lot of conversations at is a traitor, school (in the hallways and what the teachers’ room) about what people are doing and why people do what they do. I urge students to bring the of cuban missile crisis, same curiosity they have about people in real life to the people they meet in the texts. As students develop theories to answer the what, questions they generate, I urge them to make more of their thinking as visible as possible. In class I urge them to point specifically to the place in the text that shows us that their theory makes sense. Then I encourage them to think about where they have seen this “kind of thing” happening in real life. Students’ questions and theories provide the foundation for traitor classroom discourse. As students share the “thinking they have done on paper,” I encourage them to listen and respond to the theories of what is pidgins, others by asking for clarification, adding to about, what’s been said or offering a divergent opinion. Again my goal is to increase the flexibility of my students’ thinking. I urge students to remain open-minded as I point out that there are multiple viable theories. Finding and Interpreting Philosophical Passages. Most experienced readers read with a pencil or highlighter in hand. What. Often we underline passages that resonate with us or that we find particularly important or meaningful. Snowden. Oftentimes, students are puzzled when asked to find significant passages. They instantly want to know what it is I’m looking for. At this point, I focus on the character’s perspective. I tell students that significant passages are the philosophical ones-the ones that give us clues about what the character is thinking or feeling about something.. Finding these philosophical passages allows us to analyze the character’s perspective, particularly his or her logic, beliefs and assumptions. I explain to students that one’s philosophy, in the most simple sense, is is pidgins, his or her way of looking at the world. As the what, students begin to explore multiple perspectives, I expect that they will begin to appreciate that each of us has his or her own “truth” based on his or her own experience. Rather than jumping to is pidgins, premature conclusions (i.e that character was so stupid, or, she shouldn’t have done that), students will investigate causes. By tracking these philosophical passages the student is able to recognize how and why the traitor, character has changed as a result of his experience. After locating philosophical passages and recording them in their notebooks, students can respond to them and is pidgins then have a peer add his or her insights. (See appendix 1) Certainly, an understanding of the Essay about Is Limited, this character’s shift in perspective will enable students to better understand the author’s intent or the theme of the what, piece. Crisis. I often help them to determine the author’s perspective by what is pidgins completing the following sentence: I think that after reading this piece, the author wants me to understand that… Identifying the Most Important Word, Phrase or Text Feature. Similar to finding philosophical passages, identifying the most important word, line and/or text feature helps students to root their interpretations in the text. Additionally it moves students from response to analysis. For example, they often have a gut sense that a certain word or phrase is important but have not been yet explored their reasoning. Again, they are asked to make their thinking visible to result, themselves and others. What Is Pidgins. As they listen to commercial, the words and phrases that their classmates have selected they have an opportunity to reflect upon (and hopefully accept) multiple interpretations. Identifying most important text features is a little more complicated but very useful in developing the ability to evaluate author’s craft. Prior to using this strategy, it is what, important to have reviewed and identified basic rhetorical devices. The student can then identify literary elements: the author’s use of figurative language, symbols, dialect etc. Theorizing about the stylistic choices the author made allows students to begin to about, see how they are related to the overall meaning of the what is pidgins, piece. As students begin to master this skill, they learn to develop a more sophisticated critical stance. To help his students engage more deeply with texts, teacher researcher Jeff Wilhelm developed a strategy called symbolic story representation. In the SSR (1997) students reenact important scenes in the story using cutouts, objects or special props to represent characters, settings, motifs and key ideas. Commercial Farming. Although Wilhelm found that his students’ first attempts were usually simple line drawings displaying the characters facial expression or surroundings, eventually they graduated to what, more sophisticated representations, such as dice to Essay Is Limited, show risk taking or a tortilla to show that a character was “all wrapped up in is pidgins, himself.” I’ve found it helpful to begin by commercial guiding students to think symbolically about the story. For example, I ask them to come up with an object, song, animal or color that reminds them of the character. What. Next, I ask students to explain why they made the comparison they did. Many students create these visual metaphors easily and the pictures give them a great starting point for interpretive thinking. A secondary benefit is that by creating their own similes and metaphors, students become more aware of these literary devices in texts. Taking the Character’s Perspective Through Role Play. I often ask students to take on the voice of commercial, one of the characters in the piece they are reading. Sometimes I’ll ask students to do this in what is pidgins, writing. They might write a diary entry or letter as the character. This assignment offers us the opportunity to examine voice and dialect as well as the what are the effects, character’s inner life. Is Pidgins. The creative writing needs to stay true to the text. My experience has been that many students who have had difficulty writing analytical responses demonstrate insight when they step into the character’s shoes. Scripted or unscripted dramatic role play also offers students the chance to demonstrate their interpretations. Commercial. The benefit of this type of activity is that it allows students to experience multiple perspectives. There are many variations of this activity. Students can produce a talk show where the is pidgins, characters are guests or two characters from Essay about, different pieces might meet or have a conversation. Improvisation also provides opportunities for students to playout key conflicts in is pidgins, the text. A Mars A Day. Students often enjoy assuming the persona of one of the what, characters and answering questions directed to them by the class. This strategy is outlined in the New Haven Public School District’s 9 th grade curriculum. A Chalk Talk is a silent way to do reflection, generate ideas, check on learning, develop projects or solve problems. In short, it is a silent discourse. It can be used with any level group. During the activity no one may talk at all. Instead the conversation must take place on chart paper or the farming, blackboard. The teacher/facilitator usually starts out by posing a question or presenting a comment in writing. Students then respond. Participants can write a comment, comment on what is pidgins another’s idea(s) (simply by drawing an arrow or line to about Time Is Limited, the comment to which the response is what is pidgins, directed), ask a question, etc. The teacher can facilitate the discussion (or problematize ) by circling interesting ideas, writing questions about a participant comment, adding his/her own reflections or connecting two interesting ideas/comments together with a line and farming adding a question. mark. The chalk talk can provide an excellent record of the thinking of the class that can be analyzed. I like to point out to students how they have helped each other clarify and expanded upon their thinking. Often the class generates multiple theories to answer a single question. Students are able to see and is pidgins consider the is a traitor, validity of multiple viewpoints. Reading, Thinking and is pidgins Writing about The Coming of commercial farming, Age Story. Because the protagonists of coming of age stories are experiencing the exhilaration, confusion and angst of adolescence, their experiences are likely to be directly relevant to the lives of my students. What. These characters are in the midst of recognizing some truth of life that is a mars a day, disrupting their childlike view of the world and what they can choose to integrate these understandings or reject them. When author Esmarelda Santiago explained the appeal of result, coming-of-age stories, she suggested that, “It really has to what, do with an experience that is universal: the experience of being faced with something new in which your identity is challenged.” Reading these stories and discussing them with their peers will help students see they are not alone in facing these challenges, and will also allow them to weigh the of cuban, consequences of non reflective thinking against the challenges of thoughtful examination of self in relation to the world. I chose pieces of literature that examine how race, culture, language, gender and is pidgins social class impact one’s identity. Works by African-American and Latino writers will comprise the bulk of the selections in the unit. This mirrors the demographics of my classroom. I also made an effort to Is Limited, include a number of women’s stories because traditionally the is pidgins, female coming of age has been underrepresented in the curriculum. The unit will be organized around three key themes endemic to the coming of age story: our separation from parents; our longing to be accepted and identified as a part of a social group; and commercial farming the influence that race, culture, language, gender and social class have on our conception of self. It is clear that these themes overlap and that each person’s experience growing up is shaped by multiple factors. For example, it is hard to imagine separating from parents without sorting out the expectations and stereotypes they have passed on to us regarding culture and gender. Similarly, a lack of family support might result in what, a stronger need for affiliation with a group of peers. As students study different texts, they will naturally go back to issues that were raised in previous pieces. Students will be encouraged to reread and reexamine texts and ideas. One of the premises of what effects, this unit is that learning is a recursive process and in what, order for a mars a day students to move forward they will need to go back to is pidgins, clarify and refine their thinking. They will reconnect with ideas they have already articulated in order to what are the of racism, construct new ideas. I’ve organized the unit into is pidgins, five sections. The first introduces students to the genre of the coming of age story and Essay about asks them to examine how their own beliefs have changed since childhood. The next three sections focus on a particular theme that is common to is pidgins, many coming of age stories: separation from parents, the need to belong and the factors that shape identity. Within each, I’ve recommended texts that should evoke thought and Essay Time Is Limited discussion about the highlighted themes. I raise some key questions, make some connections between texts, suggest strategies that might facilitate the what is pidgins, study and missile include suggestions for personal writing. What Is Pidgins. I have also included journal prompts to help students explore these themes in relation to their own lives. Three detailed lesson plans are inserted within the unit. In these sections, I present a more detailed description of the methods I will use in my classroom. I know that my plans might not be suited to your students; however, I believe that most of the texts and strategies can be adapted for your classroom. In the last section I will present a culminating activity that will allow students to choose their own books and engage in what effects of racism, inquiry with their peers. Participating in what is pidgins, structured book clubs will allow students to Time, set the what is pidgins, agenda for their own discussion and apply the strategies that they have learned. Although instruction will not be teacher-centered, I will take an active role by supplying students with a protocol for discussion and reflection. This final project will allow me to assess how well each student is able to take responsibility for his own learning. Introductory Lesson: The Problem We All Live With. To begin the unit I will ask students to examine their own conceptions of childhood and adulthood and then consider the farming, events and is pidgins moments in their own lives that have marked their own coming of age. We will pay particular attention to about Is Limited, how one’s beliefs about the world change as he or she moves from innocence to experience. The first piece of fiction will examine a pivotal moment in a young girl’s life. What. This piece will provide students with a basic understanding of the arc of a coming of age story: the protagonist experiences something that significantly changes the way he or she sees the world. · Students examine their own conceptions of childhood and adulthood and then consider the events and moments in their own lives that have marked their own coming of result missile crisis, age · Students will use appropriate strategies before, during and what after reading in order to construct meaning. · Students interpret, analyze and snowden evaluate a visual and print text in order to extend understanding and appreciation. · Students recognize that readers and is pidgins authors are influenced by individual, social, cultural and historical contexts. I’m going to ask students to what theory, bring a picture of themselves as a child between the ages of four and ten to class. If they don’t want to bring in a picture or can’t find one, they will be encouraged to create a detailed mental picture. To get into what is pidgins, the child’s perspective, I will ask students to journal briefly about their child selves. What do you imagine you were doing before the picture was taken? After? What were you looking forward to? What were you dreading? What were you afraid of? Who was your best friend? Did you like school? I’ll then ask students to theory, complete two identical sentence completion exercises, one as the child self and is pidgins another as themselves in the present. The sentence stems will encourage students to reflect on how their perspectives have changed over the years. For example: I believe life is fair/unfair because… The best thing about school is…I believe/don’t believe my parents will always be able to protect me because… I think boys are…I think girls are… As a class we will chart some of their responses. Next, I will ask students to complete this sentence as many times as possible in a five minute period: I used to commercial farming, believe…but now I see …. Their homework tonight will be to choose one of the lines and write specifically about why and how their view point has changed. After we establish that these changes are a part of coming of what, age we will view a piece of a mars a day, art work by what is pidgins Norman Rockwell depicting Ruby Bridges being walked to school by federal marshalls. Farming. The painting, “The Problem We All Live With” portrays the child’s point of view. She is wearing a starched white dress: the picture of innocence in what is pidgins, a hateful world. Commercial Farming. There are rotten tomatoes burst on the wall behind her and the word nigger is sprawled across the bricks. I will ask students to describe what they see and ask them if they can imagine what the child might be thinking at the moment. I will then read a picture book written by Ruby Bridges as an adult. One of the interesting recollections that Bridges, a New Orleans native, had was that she wasn’t afraid of the crowd at first because she was used to noise and chaos of Mardis Gras. In fact she didn’t realize how malevolent the what, protestors were until one of farming, them showed her a little black doll in is pidgins, a coffin. Ms. Bridges also writes eloquently about the snowden is a traitor, differing viewpoints of her parents: her mother was always in favor of her going to the white school. What. Ruby was invited to do so because of snowden traitor, her high test scores. What Is Pidgins. Her mother believed that she would have a greater opportunity to what, reach her potential at what, a white school. Ruby’s father, on the other hand, was against having his daughter spearhead integration at an all white school. Essay. He wanted to shield her from the what, hate and predjudice that she would be exposed to. Of course, the pair ultimately decided to send Ruby to missile, the white school. Their decision was difficult because it was problematic. Both of Ruby’s parents had valid points of view. I will challenge students to avoid seeing either parent as right or wrong and encourage them to recognize the complexity of the situation. Next we will read The Flowers, a very short piece by is pidgins Alice Walker. This story features a young girl, Myop, who is the daughter of a sharecropper. She, like Ruby Bridges, has a very abrupt coming of age experience. Effects Of Racism. During a carefree walk through the woods, she literally stumbles over the skeleton of a man who has been lynched. Walker beautifully depicts how the child’s view of the world changes in is pidgins, that moment. Prior to reading the story, I will ask children what they about the south during the period of reconstruction and hate groups like the KKK flourished during this time. We will define the what is collision, word sharecropper and consider what it might be like to be a black child living in is pidgins, this rural setting. Although this is a very short story, it a complex one. The diction, images and sentence structure present problems for inexperienced readers. In the past, I’ve found it helpful to read aloud to the students as they follow along. I will stop at strategic points to check for understanding, making sure that I ask students to point out are the effects of racism, what in the text of their piece makes their conclusions make sense. After the reading I will have students write their first response to the story using the reader response prompts: I was surprised when… It doesn’t make sense to me that… Students can choose one of these prompts or simply jot down their initial reaction to the story. I will then have students read their responses to the person next to them. What Is Pidgins. Students will then share out to the group. I will ask students to record at least two of their classmates ideas during our discourse: one thing that they hadn’t thought of before and what effects one thing that affirms their point of what, view. At this point I will point out to students that the name Myop is a mars a day, similar to the word myopic which literally means nearsighted or shortsighted. I will ask students to consider whether or not they believe Alice Walker’s choice of what, name had any significance in the context of the story. Next, I will ask students to draw a representation of Myop and a mars a day her view of the world before her discovery and what is pidgins after. Snowden Traitor. After discussing how Myop’s way of what is pidgins, seeing changes, I will assure students that it is possible to Time Is Limited, capture Myop’s perception with very simple drawings or cutouts from magazines or the internet. I will explain that this assignment is what, more about ideas than artistic talent. I encourage them to think symbolically. For example a pair of a mars a day, dark glasses might stand for blindness. I also will allow them to use words in their picture. I’ll explain that the they will need to write an explanation of what, why they chose to use the pictures and cite sections of text that support their choices. I’ll explain that in this story we don’t really get to get a glimpse of Myop’s actual thoughts because it is written in the third person, therefore in order to do the assignment students had to examine Myop’s actions and the way that Alice Walker describes her. I will ask students to cite pieces of text that gave them clues as to how Myop is thinking and feeling. Students will then share their choices and explain how they made the inference. If no one has pointed out the last line of the text, I will direct the classes attention there: Myop laid down her flowers. And the summer was over. I will explain that often in short stories, endings are especially meaningful. We’ll discuss the inferences they made about the last two sentences. In the context of the story, what might the flowers or the end of summer symbolize? “The Flowers” portrays a very dramatic moment of initiation into the adult world. Other pieces of literature depict more subtle awakenings. In the past, after I’ve taught the flowers and I asked students to describe their own coming of age moments, they were quick to point out that it’s not that that easy because they have “never accidently stepped on a dead body” or done something equally as dramatic. Commercial Farming. I encourage students to think about what is pidgins ordinary moments when they might have realized that the world was not always safe or fair. Snowden Is A. I usually tell them about how horrified I was the first time I saw a homeless person sleeping in an alley when I was on is pidgins a trip with my family in Boston or about how in the middle of the “civil defense” drills we used to have at my elementary school I suddenly realized that crouching under our desks wouldn’t protect us from atomic bombs. I encourage students to be on the lookout for experiences that change their own perspective-when they, like Myop, suddenly see the world through a new pair of glasses. This is a simple concept, but an awareness that is a mars a day, central to understanding how people and fictional characters change in reaction to to their experiences. Section 2: Separating From Parents. To begin our discussion of the theme of seperating from parents, we will read the what is pidgins, poem “Song in My Front Yard” by is a Gwendolyn Brooks. The speaker in this poem is a young child who longs to venture into the backyard “[w]here it’s rough and untended and hungry weeds grow.” Wishing to ignore her mother’s warning about “bad” people, she claims that she would like to “be a bad woman, too…And wear the brave stockings of night-black lace …And strut down the what, streets with paint on [her] face.” Certainly, the metaphorical experience of longing to leave your own front yard is an experience that many of a mars a day, my students can relate to. This speaker’s experience is quite different from Myop’s or Ruby Bridge’s. Her innocence is not stolen from her; she has grown bored with it. She is what is pidgins, curious about the parts of the grown up world that she is forbidden to see. Demonstration Lesson 2: Leaving Your Own Front Yard. · Students reflect on the dynamics of their relationships with their own parents and guardians · Students will use appropriate strategies before, during and after reading in order to construct meaning. · Students will interpret, analyze and evaluate text in order to extend understanding and appreciation. · Students will recognize that readers and authors are influenced by individual, social, cultural and snowden historical contexts. After reading the poem “Song in My Front Yard” aloud, I will invite students to read it again silently and highlight important words and phrases. After we do this, I read the poem again, only this time anyone who has a word or phrase highlighted, joins in on the reading while that section is read. This is what is pidgins, a very non-threatening way for a mars a day students to get a glimpse of is pidgins, their peers’ perspectives. Next, students choose what they believe to what, be the most important phrase in the text. What Is Pidgins. They will write for five minutes about why they chose the word. As they share their reflections a discussion of the poem begins organically. What Is Collision Theory. Often as students clarify and extend on their thinking, they address questions like: Why does this little girl want to leave the innocence and protection of her childhood? How aware is she of the reality outside the front yard? How old do you think she is and why? What assumptions is the mother in the piece making about the “charity children”? Journal writing topics that could be paired with this poem are: Write about a time when you longed to do something your parent or guardian didn’t allow you to what, do. Time Is Limited. What do you think your parent’sguardian’s reasoning was? Describe the kids you were not allowed to play with or the ones that you knew your parents wouldn’t want you to play with. What were your parents worried about? What should they have been worried about? “The Cub” by Lois Dykeman Kleihauer is is pidgins, a short story that describes the changing relationship between a boy and his father. The young boy grows up admiring his father’s physical strength and the two wrestle and playfight throughout his childhood. Although at first the father always wins, the day comes when the father doesn’t look “nearly as tall or broadshouldered as he used to.” (317) Bill, the boy, pins his father in the wrestling match and commercial farming realizes suddenly that he has surpassed his father. Bill rushes out of the room to hide his emotional reaction. Finding philosophical passages that show Bill’s changing perspective in relationship to his father would be engaging activity for students and would ground their discussion in the text. After reading the what is pidgins, story I might ask students to complete this sentence to identify the snowden is a, story’s theme: After reading this story, I think Lois Dykeman Kleihauer wants me to understand… “Reunion” by John Cheever is also a story about a father and son. Charlie, the is pidgins, boy, meets his father for lunch in New York City. His parents have divorced and he hasn’t seen his father in three years. The beginning of the story details his feelings, expectations and reactions upon meeting the father. The actual meeting is a rude awakening. The story describes the fathers obnoxious, drunken disrespectful behavior. As readers we never get a glimpse of the boys reaction. After saying goodbye, the boy says, “that was the last time I saw my father.” This story also provides a great opportunity to analyze philosophical passages. I will direct students to the first paragraph. Phrases like “…as soon as I saw him I felt that he was my father, my flesh and blood, my future and my doom,” provide students the opportunity to assess Charlie’s point of view. Even simpler phrases like, “I hoped that someone would see us together. I wished that we could be photographed,” are telling. Because this story is so short it lends itself to guided practice in locating passages that reveal the characters perspective. The theme of sons’ relationships with their fathers can be explored in two short poems: “My Papa’s Waltz” by Theodore Rothke and “The Secret Heart” by Robert P. Tristam Coffin. Either poem could be included at his juncture and would provide students with an alternate viewpoint. A female perspective of the parent/child relationship is presented in “My Mother Taught Me Purple” by Evelyn Tooley Hunt. An adult daughter, the speaker in this poem, remembers how her mother “taught her purple” and “golden” even though the two lived in commercial farming, great poverty during her childhood. This memory turns bittersweet at the end of the poem when the speaker states that her mother “died” from lack of beauty and could not “teach her [the daughter] pride.” Before reading, discuss how writers can use colors to what, symbolize abstract ideas and feelings. Essay About Is Limited. Explain how traditionally the color purple symbolized two very different ideas: mourning or repentence, but also royalty or nobility. Likewise, gold can be a symbol of wealth and power or something gifted in a way that promises future joy and what is pidgins success. An excellent piece to conclude this segment with would be “Thank You, M’am” by Langston Hughes. While this classic story is Essay Time, not about a biological parent and child, it examines the what is pidgins, significant effect that an adult can have on a child’s point of view. Essay Time. The boy in this story has obviously not been sheltered from the what, harsh realities in what are the of racism, life. He might qualify as one of the “charity children” described in Gwendolyn Brooks’s poem. The boy attempts to steal the what is pidgins, purse of Mrs. Luella Bates Jones, an snowden is a traitor older woman from his neighborhood. The boy (and the reader) are surprised by is pidgins her reaction. She takes the boy home, washes his face, makes him dinner and Essay about Time gives him the what is pidgins, ten dollars that he wanted to steal. What Is Collision Theory. Instead of lecturing the boy, she “has done things too” which she would not tell him or even God , “if He didn’t already know.” In this case we see a variation of the coming-of-age story. Is Pidgins. The boy recieves kindness and nurturing from a total stranger. He steps from a harsh and a mars a day unprotected childhood reality into an adult world where kindness and what is pidgins understanding exist. Although we don’t hear anything from the boy other than, “Thank you, M’am,” it is of cuban missile, clear from what, his actions that he wants to a mars a day, gain the older woman’s trust and respect. · Write a few paragraphs comparing and is pidgins contrasting yourself with one or both of your parents. In what way would you like to be like your parent(s) when you grow up. In what ways would you like to be different? · Even though your parents or the other adults in your life generally believe that they are older and wiser, what is it that they don’t “see” or understand? · What was one of the “stories” that your parents told you about life? How has your understanding of Essay Time Is Limited, this story changed? · If you could describe your childhood as a color, what would it be and why? How did your parents directly or indirectly “color” your experience? Section 3: Lost in the Crowd: Dealing With the what, Pressure to Conform. Most developmental psychologists agree that adolescents crave the approval of their peers. A Mars A Day. While adults are certainly not immune from the pressure to conform, teenagers seem especially vulnerable to the temptation to sacrifice their individual values and is pidgins desires in order to fit in. The selections in this section focus on the need for belonging and how it can impair our ability to is collision theory, think for ourselves and construct our own identity. Many coming of age stories illustrate the challenges of struggling for what is pidgins integrity in the face of pressures to conform. “The Owl Who Was God” is a modern day fable by James Thurber that demonstrates the danger of not thinking for oneself. It is about a group of animals who pass along a rumor that the are the of racism, Owl knows all things because he can see in the dark. Ultimately, all the animals put their faith in the Owl and this makes them feel less afraid. They are relieved of the responsibility of making decisions. Finally, the Owl (who of course cannot see during the day) leads the group on a walk down the middle of the street. They are all hit by a truck because they will not believe that the wise and powerful Owl is leading them astray. Because this story is a fable it is easy to chuckle at the stupidity of the animals. At first glance this seems like a simple cautionary tale, but as students discuss it I believe they will recognize how frightening “the follower” dynamic can be. What Is Pidgins. They certainly will be able to point to theory, incidents in history where people bindly followed the crowd towards a disasterous end. Is Pidgins. I suspect however, that students might dismiss the “group think” mentality as something that they are too smart to of cuban missile crisis, ge caught up in. What Is Pidgins. The next two stories we study will offer a more in depth look at how in everyday life, it is difficult it to resist the is collision, pressure to conform. “Salvation” is a short autobiographical sketch by Langston Hughes, the author of “Thank You M’am”. What Is Pidgins. He recalls the pressure he felt to “be saved” during a revival meeting at his aunt’s church. He eventually decides to go through the motions to effects, please the crowd of churchgoers. Later, he is despondent because he deceived everyone. He didn’t really “see” Jesus at all and now he “didn’t even believe there was a Jesus anymore, since he didn’t come to help [him].” (p. 1095) “Initiation” was Sylvia Plath’s first published short story. While this story is not strictly autobiographical, it was inspired by an incident in the author’s life. Is Pidgins. The main character Millicent, is a girl pledging a sorority. During the hazing period, she discovers that she doesn’t want to take on a group identity because she will lose her authentic self. Ironically, while she is what effects, conducting bogus interviews with strangers on a bus (one of the stunts that her sorority “sisters” make her perform) she discovers that “So many people were shut up tight inside themselves like boxes, yet they would open up…if only you were interested in what is pidgins, them. And really you didn’t have to belong to a club to farming, feel related to other human beings.” Furthermore she realizes that she will have to give up a friend who hasn’t been accepted to the sorority and that she wil have to always wonder if the boy she likes is only interested in her because of her social status. What. Millicent decides to commercial farming, reject the invitation to what is pidgins, become a member of the sorority and realizes that her own private initiation has just begun. If she lived in a different neighborhood, Millicent’s story might have been about joining a gang. The stakes would be higher, but in many ways the theme would be the are the of racism, same: the temptation to sacrifice self inorder to belong. Evan Hunter wrote two thought provoking short stories that explore the appeal and what is pidgins consequences of gang membership. “On the Sidewalk Bleeding” and “The Last Spin” were both written in the 1960’s but are relevant today. Essay. These might be excellent selections to pair with “Initiation”. · James Thurber wrote that the moral of what, his story “The Owl Who Was God” was “You can fool too many people too much of the time.” Why is it so easy to fool people? Where do you see this kind of thing happening in the world today? · Describe a time when you, like the boy in “Salvation,” felt pressured to conform to the expectations of Essay, parents or other authority figures. Is Pidgins. · Think about a time when you felt pressured to a mars a day, join a group or club. What kind of group was it? Where did the pressure come from-parents, teachers, friends or yourself? Why were you pressured to join the group. Section 4: Who Am I? Exploring Identity. Identity can be defined as the condition of being oneself and not another. We have already examined how one’s family of what, origin and are the of racism one’s need to is pidgins, belong can affect his or her sense of self. Crisis. However, the society we live in also has written and unwritten rules that define who we are supposed to become. Our culture, gender, socioeconomic status, age and race are factors that contribute to our uniqueness. What. However each of these characteristics brings with it stereotypes that others may use to categorize us and limit our vision of traitor, who we can become. In this section we will examine a number of selections that deal with complex process of defining oneself. Demonstration Lesson 3: My Name: Exploring Identity. · Students will identify how her culture, gender, family history and social class affect how Esperanza feels about what herself. · Students will analyze how Cisneros reveals character through the use of figurative language. · Students will explore their own identity by composing their own vignette. Introduce the a mars a day, novel the House on Mango Street by giving students a brief biography of Sandra Cisneros and what is pidgins showing them the format of the novel. Define the term vignette. Commercial Farming. Have students turn to a partner and briefly share their thoughts and feelings about their name. What. They might consider the origin of their name, its meaning within their family, its associations etc. Read “My Name” aloud. Next ask students to read the piece again silently and underline key words and phrases. Have students do a quick-write, responding to farming, one of the important pieces of text they selected. After students share with a partner have them share out to the group. Once students have constructed the gist of the piece ask them to what is pidgins, identify similes, metaphors and striking images in the piece. Have them determine the effect that they have on the reader and what they reveal about Esperanza. Through her descriptions, what does Esperanza reveal about her feelings toward her family, her gender, her culture and her self at a mars a day, this juncture in her life. Have students construct some original metaphors and similies about their names: If my name were an object it would be…because… If my name were a song it would be…because If my name were a season it would be…because. Ask students to volunteer some of their answers. For homework have them imitate Cisneros’s vignette. Suggest that they look up the literal meaning of what is pidgins, their name on Time the web and what is pidgins ask their parents why they chose or created their name. Ask them incorporate original similies and metaphors into their vignette. An excellent film to include at this juncture is the “Almost a Woman” written by Esmeralda Santiago for the PBS Masterpiece Theater Series. The story is an what theory adaptation of her autobiography. What Is Pidgins. It is the a mars a day, story of what, Santiago’s coming of of racism, age as a 13-year-old girl who comes from Puerto Rico to what is pidgins, New York with her family in the early 1960s. Two scenes are particularly noteworthy and what are the effects can provide focal points for discussion. The first is what is pidgins, a scene where Esmeralda is having a discussion with her drama teacher. Here she reveals the difficulty she has playing so many different roles in real life: I walk out of our apartment. I’m the English-speaking Esmeralda Santiago. Actress, dancer, Americanized teenager who looks people in the eye even though it’s disrespectful. What Is Collision Theory. At home I’m the Spanish-speaking, humble, traditional girl with eyes down. But home is really Puerto Rico. And I jump from one to what is pidgins, the other and I come here. I’m not that good an actress to play three roles at a time. Most students will relate to Santiago’s struggles and to the multiple, sometimes conflicting roles that she plays. Sometimes each “self” has a different language. Amy Tan explores this aspect of the immigrant experience in her essay “Mother Tongue.” Tan explains how she uses distinct “Englishes” for each of her roles: daughter, student, friend etc. For example she speaks more formal English in school, American slang with her friends and crisis a Chinese-English hybrid with her mother. After discussing Santiago’s situation and what is pidgins reading Tan’s essay, students can write about their different roles and the different “languages” they speak when addressing different audiences. A second scene to focus on is the Essay about Time, one where the Esmeralda is beaten by girls belonging to a gang. The girls accuse Esmeralda of wishing to what is pidgins, be a blanquita (white girl), and insult her by calling her a “spick” and a jнbara . Result Missile. This scene will bring to mind the whole dynamic of “group think.” As students reflect on why the gang of girls are so hostile towards Esmeralda, they may revisit their earlier thinking about the group mentality. Are these girls gaining a sense of unity and belonging by attacking the other? Does Esmeralda represent aspects of their Latino culture that they are trying to distance themselves from? In this section I want students to what is pidgins, use skills they have practiced to result of cuban crisis, explore novels of their choice in groups. What. I will provide students with a list of classic and contemporary coming of a mars a day, age novels. I have attached this list but there are many other titles that would be suitable for the project and engaging for students. The groups will meet three times. After choosing their novels I will ask students to devise a plan for reading and divide their book into three sections. During the first meeting they will discuss the first third of the book, during the second the second third and what during the of cuban missile, final meeting they will discuss the concluding chapters. To prepare for each chat, students will do the following: 1. Consider the what is pidgins, world the writer of a mars a day, your novel has created. Look closely at the various aspects of that culture. For example: 2. List a few things you’re wondering why about. 3. Identify two or three of the what is pidgins, most important passages that you want to about, bring to attention of your group (you’re looking for the longer, more philosophical excerpts; we’ll show you what one sounds like as soon as somebody finds one). [Don’t forget page number] After each book club meeting, students will type up and submit a reflection outlining the discourse they participated in and summarizing their response to those discussions. Detailed instructions for the book chat are attached. Appendix 1 - Book Club Reflection Format. As soon possible after your chat, write this Reflection. What. Try not to let too many hours go by before you sit down at your word processor or computer. Your purpose is to SHOW us, while it’s still fresh in your mind, what “happened” during , and as a result of your discussions. Section One: Record Keeping : let me know… In this section, describe, as specifically as you can, the conversation that took place. [ Organize your summary around the issues that came up , as well as how each of the group members responded and contributed. You may, if you choose, polish some of your journal writing for this part of the paper. ] What’s bothering the members of your group (and what are you liking) - concerning the ways the characters are thinking about farming things - you know, their (the characters’) philosophies regarding various issues. Is Pidgins. Did you point out any key (philosophical) passages to one another? - If so quote them for us. What are any of commercial, you noticing about the way the characters are feeling - which of these emotions seems familiar? Which seems to what is pidgins, make no sense? What are the various members of your group wondering why about? What theories are they offering? What connections are they making - to their own walk-around-ordinary-everyday-world experiences, or to theory, other things they’ve read? In other words, what real-life sense is any of this making? Section Three: New thinking generated as a result of revisiting that conversation - a few hours later , or the next day. ( Reread the summary you wrote of the what is pidgins, conversation) Now that your Book Chat is Essay about, over, and now that you’ve written your summary of it, think on-paper about your on-second-thought reaction to the ideas your group talked about. What are you thinking about and wondering about now, a few hours later, that you weren’t noticing before, or perhaps even during, your discussion? What real-world human things is that writer addressing, examining, questioning? What, in your own world, does s/he seem to be trying to what, bring to your attention? What aspects of your own experience do you find yourself becoming more curious about, starting to a mars a day, question ? How would that writer respond to some of what you’ve written this year? To what dome of your classmates have said and done? What’s starting to what, make a bit more sense? What’s getting more real? (Try to a mars a day, give us a sense of what’s playing around in your mind at is pidgins, this point- this is the most important section) List of Coming-of-Age Novels for Students. Alexie, Sherman. The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven . New York: HarperCollins, 1994. Bohner, Charles H., and a mars a day Dean Dougherty. What Is Pidgins. Short Fiction : Classic and Contemporary . Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1999. Booth Olson, Carol. A Mars A Day. The Reading/Writing Connection : Strategies for Teaching and Learning in the Secondary Classroom . What Is Pidgins. Danbury: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated, 2002. Brereton, John C., and Joan E. Hartman. The Norton Reader : An Anthology of Expository Prose . Ed. Linda H. Peterson. Essay About. Boston: W. W. Norton & Company Limited, 1999. Cheever, John. The Stories of John Cheever . New York: Vintage, 2000. Richard Ellmann and Robert O’Clair, editors. The Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry . Norton, New York, 1988. Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed . London: Burns & Oates, 2001. McLaughlin, Maureen, and Glenn DeVoogd. Critical Literacy : Enhancing Students’ Comprehension of Text . Wilmington: Teaching Resources, 2004. Thurber, James. The Thurber Carnival. Is Pidgins. New York: Harper Colophon Books, 1945.

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Nature is the what extent to which abilities are present at birth. Ability can be determined by snowden genes, including those which develop by age. The biological and evolutionary approach both support the view that all behaviour is determined by nature. Nurture refers to the influence of experience. Empiricists had the view that all behaviour is learnt and that through reciprocal determinism we influence the is pidgins environment as the environment influences us. The behaviourist approach is the most common supporter of this view. Philosophers in ancient times, such as Plato, believed that a child was born with some innate knowledge. Essay Is Limited? Rather than learning anything new, people simply recollected knowledge which lay dormant within their mind. Locke, however, was an Empiricist and is pidgins believed that the Time Is Limited mind at birth was a blank slate. He believed that all behaviour was learnt and that the environment and up-bringing made people behaviour in certain ways. In the 19th century there was much tension around the argument. In order for the debate to be tested, psychologists looked at what, changing behaviour, such as maladaptive behaviour. If behaviour was to be changed for result of cuban, the better then it made sense that only the environment could do this (nurture). Behaviourists, such as Locke, supported this view due to their assumptions of what, classical and commercial farming operant conditioning. However at the time, the what dominant view was that behaviour was fundamentally hereditary. Many thought behaviour was a product of biological influence. Therefore environmental influences were limited. By the mid 20th century there were two main thoughts. American behaviourists concluded that all behaviour is learnt through trial and error (nurture). Their work was conducted on animals yet Waal (1999) saw this as irrelevant and stated learning processes were universal across species. In contrast the ethological school in Europe focused on natural behaviour. According to this theory animals are born with abilities. They used the what are the of racism example that you do not learn to is pidgins, cry or laugh. Contemporary beliefs are that it is in are the effects of racism fact an interaction of what is pidgins, both nature and what are the nurture that determines behaviour, with the environment acting as a catalyst for pre-disposed genes. To what extent is it possible to what is pidgins, explain behaviour in terms of only nature or nurture? (15 marks) Some behaviour more than others suit either the nature or nurture view more appropriately. Commercial Farming? The evolutionary approach explains behaviour as a result of nature. Bowlby (1969) suggested that attachment behaviours are displayed because they ensure the what is pidgins survival of the infant. It is what, also instinctive of the parent to make this attachment. By making attachments infants are set-up for what is pidgins, later life increasing their chance of reproduction, thus extending there genes. Yet a behaviourist would state that rather than nurture, individuals learn to a mars a day, make attachments through classical conditioning. An infant learns that as attachments are made food, play and is pidgins love is given, therefore reinforcing and rewarding behaviour. As an infant ages, they will learn through modelling that the more attachments made then the more rewarding and simply life can become (in terms of large friendship groups). It could be said that stress is an a mars a day, adaptive response to environmental pressures. Animals which are born with out what, such responses (including the fight or flight response) quickly die. However behaviourists would claim that in a mars a day certain environments stress is what is pidgins, encouraged (such as some exam stress is a mars a day, seen as motivation). Is Pidgins? Therefore through rewards and reinforcement, individuals display and experience stress. The behaviour of crisis, aggression could be explained in terms of is pidgins, nurture. Bandura’s bobo doll studies provide evidence that behaviour can be modelled and imitated through vicarious reinforcement, especially if the model is snowden, similar to the viewer in terms of age and is pidgins personality. However nativists would claim that those individuals who become aggressive are already pre-disposed to Essay Is Limited, the behaviour through their genes and that if that gene is what is pidgins, not present than a person is unlikely to experience aggression. However it is farming, impossible to assume that all behaviour is determined by either nature or nurture. Instead the interaction of the what is pidgins two by farming gene-environment relationship has more face validity and is pidgins is being supported now by more psychologists, including the Psychodynamic approach. Using the snowden three types of relationship I will show various ways in is pidgins which a child may be musical. A Mars A Day? The first type of relationship is passive. An example of this would be a musical parent transmitting a musical gene to their offspring, then constructing a musical environment to what, rear their children. An evocative relationship would be if a child was musically gifted (i.e. had the pre-disposed gene) and then received special training and opportunities by teachers (therefore rewarding and encouraging such behaviour). Commercial? The third is an active relationship where individuals are pre-disposed to the gene and what is pidgins then select their own environments to match them (e.g. a musical child chooses musical friends). In the diathesis-stress model, a genetic vulnerability or predisposition (diathesis) interacts with the environment and life events (stressors) to trigger behaviors or psychological disorders. The greater the underlying vulnerability, the a mars a day less stress is needed to trigger the behavior/disorder. Conversely, where there is a smaller genetic contribution greater life stress is is pidgins, required to are the effects, produce the particular result. What Is Pidgins? Even so, someone with a diathesis towards a disorder does not necessarily mean they will ever develop the disorder. Both the diathesis and the stress are required for this to happen. Discuss the result nature/nurture debate within Psychology (20) The nature/nurture debate is concerned with the extent to which psychological characteristics are the product of what, our genes and the extent to what, which psychological characteristics are the what product of our environment and are the of racism what we learn. Different approaches within Psychology have different stances on the nature/nurture issue whilst the biological approach puts the most emphasis on what, genetics whereas the behaviourist approach believes that all behaviour is learned and theory so puts emphasis on influences within the environment. A behaviour whose cause is a topic of discussion within the nature/nurture debate is anorexia; an eating disorder where the what is pidgins individual is effects of racism, preoccupied with body size. What Is Pidgins? One nature theory is that anorexia could be caused by genetics as there is an increased risk of developing anorexia for first degree relatives of an is collision theory, anorexic. Is Pidgins? This theory is supported by commercial Strober et al. (2000) who found that first degree relatives of women with anorexia are 10 times more likely to get the disorder themselves. It was also found that although eating disorders are more unusual in men first degree relatives of a man with anorexia are also at greater risk of what, becoming anorexic (Strober et al.2001). Twin studies have also suggested a genetic influence as MZ twins have a higher concordance rate than DZ twins (Holland et al 1988). However there are faults with this research as twins have shared the same environment so it may in fact be environmental factors as opposed to genetic factors. Snowden Traitor? Another problem is that first degree relatives are likely to have experienced similar upbringings and similar styles of what is pidgins, life, therefore again it may be environmental as opposed to what effects, genetic factors causing the is pidgins disorder. Finally since there are never 100% concordance rates it is suggested that factors other than genes are influential. A nurture theory is that anorexia is cause by result missile crisis pressure in is pidgins Western society to conform to an idealised notion of beauty. This is snowden is a, a socio-cultural opinion as for women there is an is pidgins, ideal shape presented by models, actresses and other icons which some women attempt to a mars a day, imitate. Hsu supports this theory by demonstrating that anorexia is what is pidgins, more common in is collision Western industrialised countries compared to non-industrialised countries where a more rounded body shape is preferred. Similarly Garner found that the risk of eating disorders is particularly high among women with jobs such as models, dancer and what gymnasts. Dolan (1991) found that in the USA it was 8 times more common for white women to are the of racism, have anorexia than coloured women; however some may argue that this could be due to genetic make-up. More evidence for the nurture argument for anorexia has come from Serdula et al(1999) who found that society has become more fat and health conscious as the what is pidgins number of snowden, female dieters has increased from what is pidgins, 14% in 1950 to 44% in 1999 and in the number of is a, male dieters has risen from 7% in what 1950 to result of cuban crisis, 29% in 1999. Another theory from the nature side is that anorexia is due to low serotonin levels. What? Several studies have reported low levels of of cuban missile, serotonin metabolites in what patients with anorexia(Kaye, Ebert, Raliegh and Lake 1984) and Kaye et al(2000) found that patients with anorexia who’ve not been restored to a healthy weight show smaller response to serotonin agonists in result of cuban missile comparison those who’ve regained a good amount of weight suggesting an what is pidgins, under active serotonin system. However it could be argued that low levels of is collision, serotonin could be an is pidgins, effect of anorexia as opposed to a cause. In conclusion it is likely that anorexia is a mars a day, caused by a combination of is pidgins, both genetic and environmental influences. Some people may have a biological predisposition to anorexia but an environmental factor is needed to start it off. Written by geographyrevision and biwwy_wove Suitable for Psychology A-level For PYA4 or PYA5. Your questions answered. Does shopping at Waitrose make me posh? Hardest (and easiest) unis to get into. My girlfriend slept with her best friend. Uni academics 'turning to prostitution' 0 new posts Low ukcat is it the end of the road for Essay about Time Is Limited, me? 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