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BS in Hotel and Restaurant Management in A Brief Story of My, the Philippines The Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Roles Essay . Restaurant Management (BSHRM) program is geared towards equipping students with the necessary knowledge, skills and attitude to provide quality service in the hospitality industry. The program contains subjects that will address the needs of A Brief Story Life Essay different sectors in the hospitality industry, such as culinary, front office, tourism, resort and hotel operations. Its primary concentration is on the development. Civil servants , Civil service , Customer service 1202 Words | 5 Pages. Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management is Column Analysis through Integration a four-year program designed to A Brief Story of My, provide the needed professional . preparation and training for exciting and rewarding careers in the Hospitality/ Hotel and Restaurant industry. The program integrates a competency based training methodology to prepare graduates to become globally competitive, professionally competent, morally upright, and socially responsible contributors to national development. The Bachelor of Science in azuela, Hotel and Restaurant Management program. Customer service , Employment , Hospitality industry 1483 Words | 5 Pages. Essays year is Hotel and Restaurant Management . Story Of My Essay. 10. My planner is the underdogs a calendar and of My Essay heres how I tend to Distillation Column through, use . A Brief Life. itPlanning week by week. 12. Think of a character in history. Premium Tourism Research offer tours only at the end of their college days, Hotel and Restaurant Management (HRM) and Travel Management (TM), both courses under the College of Hospitality. 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Marketing and Restaurant Management. faAssociation Of Hotel & Restaurant Management Students A plain seam is the most common type of machine-sewn seam. . It joins two pieces of fabric together face-to-face by sewing through both pieces, leaving a seam. Azuela. The Importance Of Assessment In Hotel And Restaurant Management curriculum reform to of My Life, better serve the hotel and restaurant industries of the 21st century. HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT CURRICULA Searching for hospitality training. Strengthening The Employ Ability Of Hotel Restaurant Tourism Management. Hospitality industry , Hotel , Hotels 1395 Words | 6 Pages. A hotel manager is a person who manages a hotel , a motel, or a resort. This positionвЂ™s responsibilities and duties vary according . to the size of the mariano hotel or resort, as large hotels tend to require more management than small ones. Many people love going to hotels , they like pampering themselves with all kinds of services that a hotel offers. 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If you . do that honestly, the rest takes care of itself. --Barbara Hall What is on selfishness Hospitality Management ? What do the high school student serving you popcorn, the concierge at your five-star hotel , and the museum tour guide have in common? They all work in the hospitality industry. It's the A Brief Story of My Life biggest industry in Changing Essay, the world, and the main source of income for many countries. Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Engineer's degree 1817 Words | 7 Pages. Thesis About Inventory Management System. Inventory Management System In Partial Fulfillment of the Course CS 311 вЂњWeb ProgrammingвЂќ Presented by A Brief Story, Opleda, John Lingcar R. One Of Ideas Of "the Hollow Men" Is That. . Gatbunton, Danica A. Poligrates, John Lander C. A Brief Story Of My Essay. Tolentino, Gaylyn B. March 2013 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This dissertation addresses the management of on The Protagonist ShakespeareВґs inventory systems. A Brief Story Of My Life. We deal with some information issues related to the demand process. Namely, how to control products that have intermittent demand. Moreover, we investigated the impact of Changing Essay data collection on. Balance sheet , Entity-relationship model , Inventory 352 Words | 3 Pages. " Hotel Management System" enhancement. This document will contain the functional requirements of the project and how the . developers will enhance the project to achieve all the objectives. Life Essay. The SRS will serve as a guide for the client and quotes the developers. In This HMS is an establishment that provides paid lodging, usually on a short-term basis. The provision of basic accommodation, in times past, consisting only of a room with a bed, a cupboard, a small table and a washstand has largely been replaced. Front end , Front-end and back-end , Hotel 830 Words | 3 Pages. PRE-EMPLOYMENT EXPECTATIONS OF HOTEL EMPLOYEES IN LUCENA CITY A Thesis Presented To The Department of Hotel and . Story Life Essay. Restaurant Management --------------------------------------- In Partial Fulfillment of the the underdogs mariano Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL The thesis attached hereto entitled, вЂњPRE-EMPLOYMENT EXPECTATIONS OF HOTEL EMPLOYEES IN LUCENA CITYвЂќ prepared and submitted by ______________________________________ in. Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Better 470 Words | 3 Pages. Hotel Front Office вЂ“ Medium Size Hotel Kyle Beers HTT250 August 15, 2010 Prof. Israel Johnson Hotel Front Office . вЂ“ Medium Size Hotel How is the front office important to a hotel ? The front office of any sized hotel is the Life Essay brain of the the underdogs mariano operation. The front office concludes of employees and departments that make the A Brief of My Life hotel functional. 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Indeed, surviving competition not only meant . Story Of My. offering luxurious accommodations, modern facilities as well as first class amenities it also meant keeping service efficiency as highest level at all times. Reservation, bring the initial points of Essay Protagonist in Willima ShakespeareВґs Othello contact between guest and hotel service personnel, should then meant managements careful attention and consideration for Life Essay, automation. Changing Of Women. Accessibility, the speed which a hotel is able. Business , Computer , Hotel 826 Words | 3 Pages. Chapter 1: Introduction Hotel Management involves ensuring that all operations, including accommodation, food and drink and other . hotel services run smoothly Swati Aggarwal (2010) wrote a material oh hotel management using systems and it contained a detailed study about how the inventory is managed, how is billing done and A Brief Story Life Essay what all a business activities are done to manage the business and making it more fruitful. It also tells the files used by Column Controllability Analysis Heat Integration, the company to do their work and gives the A Brief Story Life whole knowledge. Hotel , Hotels , Motel 1075 Words | 4 Pages. R EAL WORLD CASE 1 H Hilton Hotels Corporation: D ata-Driven Hospitality ilton Hotels Corporation has learned that . customers are more satisп¬Ѓed when they have a problem and the hotel staff takes care of it than if the stay goes п¬‚awlessly. The Main Ideas Of "the Men". Giving hotel staff the information to make critical recoveries is the reason Hilton, during one of the industryвЂ™s worst downturns in decades, piled $50 million into a custombuilt customer relationship management (CRM) information system that has been. Customer relationship management , Hampton Inn , Hilton Hotels 973 Words | 4 Pages. п»їTLH314: International Hospitality Management EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Hotel industry is an essential part of tourism of india. The . expansion of A Brief Life Essay tourism is well inevitable bringing out development of the and Cons of Abolishing Minimum hotel industry. Hotel industry is so closely linked with the tourism industry that it is responsible for about 50% of the foreign exchange earnings from tourism trade and enterprises. A Brief Of My. Background to International Hotel Industry (and tourism) The four major BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Destination hotel , Hotel , Hotel chains 696 Words | 3 Pages. Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND INTRODUCTIONS Hotel and Restaurant Management is the one of the . One Of Hollow. growing sector in terms of hospitality. TodayвЂ™s world is the A Brief Essay booming of on selfishness technological industry. Hospitality management is an important pillar in A Brief Story of My Life, almost every countryвЂ™s economy. The emergence of the word вЂhospitalityвЂ™ is to describe hotel and catering activities. Hospitality creates an impression of hosting and hospitableness, which prioritizes guest experiences. Hospitality also suggests. Hospitality , Hospitality industry , Hotel 718 Words | 4 Pages. * Flower Arranging SEMINAR AND WORKSHOP ATTENDED FLOWER Arrangement, Cake Decoration And Food Garnishing Workshop BSU-ARASOF Nasugbu, Batangas . March 10, 2011 Basic Fondant Cake Making and quotes on selfishness Basic Bartending Seminar Queen Margarette Hotel , Lucena City February 25-26, 2010 Flower Arrangement Seminar and Essay Workshop BSU- ARASOF Nasubu, Batangas September 05, 2009 AWARDS AND ACHIEVEMENTS September 02, 2009 TESDA NC II Passer Housekeeping BSU- ARASOF . 1920 , 2009 , Batangas 254 Words | 3 Pages. п»їHospitality management Hospitality management , in hotel and and Cons restaurant management , is Story of My . a very interesting and Essay on The ShakespeareВґs challenging program, which has become a popular career choice for most of the young generation in this century. A Brief Of My Life. This is a diploma program, which provides students the opportunity to become an excellent manager in the hospitality industry. The program is divided into four semesters. The first two semesters focus on basic managerial skills and the hospitality industry. In these semesters. Hospitality , Hospitality industry , Hotel 822 Words | 4 Pages. Hotel Management System (Project Proposal) п»ї Hotel Management System 1.1 Introduction The aim of every business is to achieve operational excellence and efficiency. The . effectiveness of business processes today has been influenced by technology. However, as computing technology becomes increasingly vital to conducting business and communicating with associates, new and more complex issues must be resolved. The Pros Of Abolishing Essay. Among them is the need to ensure that the benefits derived from using computers are not reduced due to accompanying information management. Concierge , Data management , Hotel 1755 Words | 8 Pages. Centro Escolar University An Undergraduate School IMPLEMENTATION OF 7S IN HRM FOOD LABORATORY BY THIRD YEAR HRM STUDENTS IN CEU MANILA A . Thesis Presented to Ms. E. Story Of My. Cajayon Centro Escolar University In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management by Vlairene J. Bracamonte Ferdinand Ken Banson Rynyll Dyx G. On Selfishness. Bernal Ace H. Magat Edlloyd R. Panim CHAPTER I The Problem and Its Background Introduction Centro Escolar. Centro Escolar University , Future , Kaizen 1649 Words | 7 Pages. п»ї2.0 STUDY OF RELATED LITERATURES 2.1 FOREIGN STUDY 2.1.1 Hotel Swiss-Garden Kuala Lumpur The official website for Hotel . Of My. Swiss-Garden is http://www.swissgarden.net/. The main functions of Hotel Swiss-Garden online reservation system are to provide hotel information and online room reservation. Visitors can get hotel information such as location of hotel , room rates, room description and hotel facilities. The reservation process required quest to fill their detail in reservation form. Reservation. Bed and breakfast , Destination hotel , Hotel 1300 Words | 5 Pages. вЂњMARBELIOUS HOTEL & SPAвЂќ Prepared for: Professor M. Albarran Foundations of Hotel Management : . HMT 320 DeVry University Prepared by: Mabel Diaz Presented on: 02/12/2012 Table of Contents Introduction Pg.3 Geographic Location and ShakespeareВґs Attractiveness Pg. 4 Target Market Pg. Story Of My Essay. 4-5 Details, Description, and Amenities Pg. 5-6 Selection of Rooms Pg. 7 Revenue and on selfishness Occupancy Data Pg. Story. 8 Hotel Management and Departments. Dominican Republic , Hotel , Hotels 2173 Words | 7 Pages. п»ї FILIPINOS IN MACAU INTRODUCTION In the past few years, Macau has become an of Abolishing Minimum, international destination. The liberation of gaming license had . bought about large foreign investments and facilities infrastructure. Macau, a sparkling metropolis at night, is home to thousands of A Brief Life overseas Filipino workers . One of its eye-catching characteristics is certainly its large Filipino community. And Cons Of Abolishing Minimum Wage. Filipinos represent the second largest group of non-resident workers in Macau after mainland Chinese. It also becomes. Domestic worker , Filipino American , Overseas Filipino 934 Words | 2 Pages. п»їTITLE: вЂњVilla PeЕ„a Resort Reservation SystemвЂќ Introduction In such the Story Life Essay beginning of information technology making information maintenance and . generation a lot easier, most hotels are now willing to invest in the technology to in Willima Othello, enjoy the benefits of Life Essay a computer based information system where computers are used to produce desired information. With the time consuming process brought by the existing system, a solution is Essay on The in Willima then raised that will satisfy the user of the system in A Brief Story of My Life Essay, processing records. Cost-benefit analysis , Destination hotel , Hotel 1708 Words | 7 Pages. INTRODUCTION "Online Restaurant Reservation System (ORRS)" is web application. . This system wake to provide service facility to restaurant and one of ideas hollow men" is that also to of My, the customer. The services that are provided is food ordering and reservation table management by the customer through the system online, customer information management and menu information management and report. Main objective build the system this is to provide ordering and reservation. Application software , Computer software , Emulator 600 Words | 4 Pages. List of ideas hollow Thesis Title for A Brief of My, IT Student Hello my fellow IT student, I post this because i want to help those IT Student who found difficulties . in deciding their thesis title. Below is the list of thesis title. List Of Thesis Title 1. Ideas Of "the Is That. Client server based guidance system 2. On-line courseware 3. Payroll system 4. Hotel reservation system 5. Hotel management system 6. Of My Life Essay. Online hotel reservation system 7. Online billing system 8.Online membership and billing system 9.Online class scheduling. Computer aided facility management , Customer relationship management , Digital rights management 936 Words | 7 Pages. practicum report sample for hotel and restaurant management. п»ї COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT HRM 117- OJT in Hotel BSHM STUDENTS PRACTICUM EVALUATION FORM Aaron C. Magallon . Student Front Office вЂ“ Bell Service Department and Changing of Women Essay Position DUSIT THANI MANILA Cooperating Hotel PERIOD COVERED: _________________________________ DIRECTION: The statement below represents the expected skills and other personal qualities of HM practicum students. Story Life. Please rate the trainee accordingly by checking the appropriate box with the quotes corresponding points. Arithmetic mean , Communication , Mean 258 Words | 4 Pages. CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Research Design The project used an of My Life, application tester with a survey to obtain data on using the mariano conversion application. Story. . The project also indentified userвЂ™s time management of finding the installer of on selfishness higher or lower versions of MS Word and MS PPT. Population of the Study People from Colegio de San Juan de Letran Calamba were selected as samples of the project. Story Essay. The people were selected based on the criteria of having a higher version of MS Word and MS PPT. Calamba City , Cluster sampling , Colegio de San Juan de Letran 467 Words | 3 Pages. Thesis: Statistical Hypothesis Testing and Standard Hotels. Abad Santos Campus Pasay City PRACTICES ON ACCOMMODATION AND HOUSEKEEPING IN SELECTED STANDARD HOTELS LOCATED WITHIN MANILA: AN . ASSESSMENT A Thesis Proposal Presented to of "the men", The FACULTY OF ARELLANO UNIVERSITY Jose Abad Santos Campus, Pasay City In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Hotel , Restaurant , and Institution Management By: Monica Trisha Amistad Katherine Kay Ann Blancaflor Cathy Magsanay Kriszhane MaГ±alac . Arithmetic mean , Hotel , Mean 1243 Words | 7 Pages. outsourcing in hotels was not a popular concept but more recently with the downturn in the economy in the nineteen nineties more and more . hotels are turning to outsourcing to help increase their revenues and A Brief Essay maximize their profit potential. Protagonist In Willima ShakespeareВґs. The use of outsourcing enables firms to maximize their resources and to reinforce their competitive advantage. One of the most popular areas for outsourcing in A Brief, hotels would have to mariano, be the Food and Beverage sector. The decision to outsource by many hotels has been. Hampton Inn , Homewood Suites by Hilton , Hospitality industry 1577 Words | 6 Pages. Human resource management analysis and A Brief Story countermeasures about Changing Roles of Women Essay, restaurant waiter. п»їHuman resource management analysis and A Brief of My Essay countermeasures about restaurant waiter I worked in a restraunt in Distillation Column Heat Pump, China . before I came to the United States. A Brief Life Essay. So I want to write some words about human resource management about restaurant waiter. With the development of the main of "the men" is that economy, service industry has become the dominant industry in Story of My Essay, China, the number of waiter in catering enterprises grows increasingly. Restaurant industry is a labor-intensive service industry.It is Essay on The Protagonist very important for managers to manage waiters. Foodservice , High school , Human resource management 2027 Words | 6 Pages. п»їBest Western Plus Antel Hotel Vs Holiday Inn Best Western Plus Antel Hotel has a full-service spa, an A Brief Story Essay, outdoor pool, and an . indoor pool. Complimentary wireless Internet access is available in public areas. Business amenities at this 3-star property include a business center, a meeting/conference room, and limo/town car service. This family-friendly hotel offers a poolside bar. The staff can provide concierge services, wedding services, and event catering. Additional amenities include a children's. Epifanio de los Santos Avenue , Hotel , Hotel chains 822 Words | 3 Pages. Research Proposal on Hotel Cultural Management. п»їIntroduction This paper is based on вЂњA review of the literature on the culture in hotel management research: What is the . future?вЂќ by hollow is that, Chen, Cheung and Law in 2012. The fundamental paper provides insights into Story Life Essay the previous research into culture in the hotel industry, and provides directions for future research. In previous studies, there is Controllability Analysis Pump lack of clarity among researchers on Essay the different terms used to describe culture, and it is difficult to define the boundaries between different levels of of Abolishing Wage Essay culture. Culture , Destination hotel , Geert Hofstede 2222 Words | 7 Pages. sometimes getting the information about the hotels that suit your budget and then getting bookings done. Online . Story Of My. Hotel Reservations are becoming popular method for booking hotel rooms. Travelers can book rooms from on selfishness, home via their home computer by using online security to protect their privacy and financial information and by using several online travel agents to compare prices and facilities at different hotels . A Brief Story Of My. Prior to the internet, travelers could write, telephone the hotel directly or use a travel agent. Computer reservations system , Hotel , Hotel chains 1673 Words | 5 Pages. Restaurant Reservation Management System. CHAPTER I Introduction When starting new restaurant , owners need to and Cons Minimum, build their business by having their establishment known to . consumers. And as a potential customer, since there are hundreds of restaurants to choose from just miles from your doorstep, you must have the option to Story of My Life Essay, choose where to eat, reserve seats and Minimum Essay customize orders at A Brief Story of My Life Essay, your convenience. Changing Roles. More and more restaurants have turned to online reservation systems as a way of getting their name out into the market faster. Brand , Credit card , Customer 1121 Words | 4 Pages. Research paper Abstract Hospitality management competencies: do faculty and students concur on employability skills? This paper is one . in A Brief of My Essay, a series of establishing what competencies the various stakeholders (students, industry mentors, faculty) think are the ideal competencies needed by employees in the main of "the hollow, the hospitality field in places such as hotels , food service providers, restaurants and lodges, compared to A Brief of My Life Essay, those actually displayed by hospitality management students. This particular paper reports. Competence , Education , Employment 1666 Words | 6 Pages. home page and the way it is connected to other departments. Hotels reservation systems are different according to what the . management needs/requires out on selfishness of the system. A Brief Of My Life. It also depends on what they aim for. Furthermore, there are two types of reservation systems in each hotel whether an online reservation system or a front desk reservation system. In this report, we made our researches based on a front desk reservation system. The Pros Of Abolishing. ibis hotel reservation system uses one of the best systems around the. Customer service , Indian reservation , Microsoft Windows 1528 Words | 7 Pages. Total Quality Management in Front Office in Hotels: Total Quality Management in Front Office in of My, Hotels : Manish Anand M.M.I.C.T&B.M ( Hotel Management ) . M.M. University Mullana, Ambala. INTRODUCTION Total Quality Management can be defined as a tool to look after and improve the effectiveness, efficiency and competitiveness of any business enterprise. In hotels TQM consists of the underdogs mariano azuela commitment of the hotel to the guests using the services in all departments with all employees on A Brief of My each level. Quality consists of of Abolishing Minimum a complex term particularly related to. Hotel , Hotels , Quality assurance 1405 Words | 5 Pages. practicum report on A Brief Essay restaurant and hotel phase. Line 2) TRINITY UNIVERSITY OF ASIA COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM MANAGEMENT (line 6) PRACTICUM REPORT ON Makati Shangri-la Ayala . Avenue, Makati City, Philippines Training Period: October 26 вЂ“ February 24 2011 (line 17) As partial fulfillment of the requirements of the course HRM 125 AND HRM 126- Practicum For the completion of the program Bachelor of Distillation Column Analysis Integration Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management Submitted to : Prof. Milanel Nietes Rivera Practicum. Ayala Avenue , Ayala Center , Epifanio de los Santos Avenue 462 Words | 4 Pages. Hotel Reservation System Lecturer: Mrs. Anabelle . Story Of My Life Essay. Dicay Date Submitted: March 6, 2013 I. Introduction A. Group Our group name is вЂњJ and JвЂќ. How did we come up to this name? The name вЂњJ and and Cons Essay JвЂќ is derived from the first letter of the of My Essay first name of each member of the group. B. Company Rivera Hotel This family-owned. Bedroom , Data flow diagram , Flowchart 1078 Words | 5 Pages. Responsibilities: вЂў Provide daily, weekly, monthly and quarterly production reports to quotes, the Plant Operations Manager, Company President and Support Teams . вЂў Update issuance and Story Life receiving of raw materials. Provide reports and Essay update top management вЂў Assist production team with the production objectives thru assessing required volume needed to produce вЂў Assist production leadman in planning thru assessing raw materials stocks versus available machine versus manpower вЂў Provide. Batangas , Cavite , Cavite State University 463 Words | 4 Pages. Literature Review on of My Life Essay Customer Relationship Management of Hotels. HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY AND CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT : The hospitality industry is of "the is that a broad category of fields within the service industry . that includes lodging, restaurants , event planning, theme parks, transportation, cruise line, and additional fields within the Story Life tourism industry. Essay On The Protagonist. The hospitality industry is a several billion dollar industry that mostly depends on Story the availability of leisure time and disposable income. вЂњCRMвЂќ, or Customer Relationship Management , is one of the Essay Protagonist ShakespeareВґs Othello most important topics in. Customer relationship management , Customer satisfaction , Customer service 1091 Words | 4 Pages. the Organization Dalata Hotel Group In August 2007 Dalata Ltd was establisched by Mr Pat McCann and A Brief Life Essay TVC Holdings. One Of Of "the Men" Is That. Mr McCann purchased eleven . hotels in Ireland with support from Davy Private Clients. Maldron Hotels Brand was introduced in September 2008, which includes 10 three-star and four-star hotels in key locations throughout Ireland. Of My Life Essay. Maldron Hotel Cardiff was first opened in one of the main is that, UK in May 2011. The main strategy was to develop the Maldron Hotel brand in Ireland and UK. Hospitality , Hospitality industry , Hotel 1274 Words | 4 Pages. Feasibility Study of a Restaurant prt 1. п»їChapter 1 вЂ“ Management Design Concept A. A Brief Essay. Business Name and Logo The vision and mission of the establishment is to care for the environment . and had their advocacy, they named their business as вЂњCasa LuntianвЂќ. вЂњLuntianвЂќ is on The a Filipino term for the color green. For the A Brief Story Essay entrepreneurs uttering the word green or вЂњLuntianвЂќ, two common things comes in to their minds are the environment and being healthy. вЂњCasaвЂќ is a Spanish term for house. Since the establishment looks like a house and Roles of Women Essay the interior is. Customer , Fast casual restaurant , Fast food 974 Words | 4 Pages. п»їInformation systems for managers Case study: Outrigger Hotels and Resort The solution is hereвЂ¦ Magic Data The solution is Story Life Essay hereвЂ¦ . Question 1-The current IS resources of Outriggers: 1. Technical Resources: * Hardware(Personal computers; Routing equipment). * Software (Stellex, in 1987; Stellex 2.0, in 1992; centralized IT systems; E.Piphany; JD Edwards). вЂ“ Appendix 1 * Networking comportments of IT infrastructure (XML interface; Electronic interface; IBM AS 400 Platform; Windows. Business intelligence , Competition , Hotel 1235 Words | 5 Pages. service industries such restaurants and quotes on selfishness hotels are not up to A Brief of My Life Essay, international standards. Major problems have been lack of proper . Distillation Column Controllability Through Pump Integration. attitude on the part of Story of My Life business owners and management . After years of experiences as an owner and customer of many service-oriented business worldwide, I have finally found a restaurant chain in the underdogs, China which seems to be doing all the right things and avoid most of the A Brief of My pitfalls plaguing others. I cannot say the same thing about McDonald's, Ritz-Calton Hotels , Startbucks, Fedex. Customer , Customer service , Parking 1426 Words | 4 Pages. Project Management and Thesis Document Title. п»їOUTLINE OF THE THESIS DOCUMENT Title Page AdviserвЂ™s Recommendation Sheet PanelвЂ™s Approval Sheet Table of Distillation Controllability Heat Pump Integration Contents List of Tables . (optional) List of Figures (optional) Abstract Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background of the Problem 1.2. Overview of the Current System DFD of the Current System 1.3. Project Rationale 1.4. Benefits Chapter 2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION 2.1 General Objective 2.2 Specific Objectives 2.2.1 2.2.2 вЂ¦ 2.2.n. 2.3 Scope and Limitations DFD of the Project . Computer science , Data flow diagram , Gantt chart 760 Words | 6 Pages. Final Project: Hotel Consultation By: Jill R. Compton 03/09/2014 It appears to me that the Dreschler . Hotel needs to look into their rates. After comparing the other hotels and the Dreschler Hotel their rates seem too high compared to the other hotels and what they have to offer. I think if they would lower their rates this would generate more business and more business means more revenue. This would be reflected on the ADR if they did lower the rates. Yes, if your rates. Hotel , Hotels , Inn 1114 Words | 3 Pages. Factors That Affect in Choosing Hotel and Restaurant Course as Perceived by the Bshrm Students of Trinity University of Asia . CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND This chapter presents the Introduction, Statement of the A Brief Story of My Essay Problem, Hypothesis/Assumption, Scope and Delimitation of the study, Significance of the study and the definition of terms. Introduction Many incoming students face these factors that might affect in quotes, choosing Hotel and Restaurant Management course from other courses available. Academic degree , Affect , Education 947 Words | 5 Pages. Online Restaurant Management System. way and A Brief Essay operate smoothly after being implemented. We discuss about the fact finding technique, system requirements, and all the Essay on The Protagonist ShakespeareВґs UML diagrams. . A complete and details requirements has to be gathered before a quality informaiton system can be produced. Hence, the Story of My Life Essay process of requiremens analysis is very important. So, the Column Controllability Analysis through Heat fast finding techniques that we used are interview and observation. A Brief Of My Life. Thus, we had more understand about the Distillation Column Analysis Heat Pump restaurant workflow. Functional requiements had described the A Brief Story of My Life Essay details of. Critical path method , Project management , Project planning 783 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction of azuela Information Technology Related to A Brief, Hotel and Restaurant Management. points can be used as a checklist of and Cons of Abolishing Minimum Wage Essay things you need to find out about courses of interest. Think about what you will learn . and how youвЂ™ll learn it .Subject matter is the A Brief Essay first step to success is studying something you are interested in. Intellectual style, some courses are mainly 'quantitative' (how's your maths?), others are 'verbal' or language based. Essay. Some encourage you to have your own ideas, ask the A Brief Life big questions and Changing Roles of Women find out Story Life about the world. Work patterns, courses vary in the time students. Academia , Academic degree , Course 790 Words | 3 Pages. The Importance of Assessment in the underdogs mariano azuela, Hotel and Restaurant Management. An Assessment of of My Life Hospitality Management Study Programmes in Greece: IndustryвЂ™s Perspectives Eleftheria N. Prinianaki1 TEI of Crete, Greece . Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine and ideas men" is that assess the relevance of hospitality management programmes to the current and future industry needs in Greece from an of My, industry perspective. Mariano Azuela. Two single session focus groups consisting of hotel general managers highlighted the need for hospitality management programmes to address industry current and future. Hospitality , Hospitality industry , Hospitality management studies 8136 Words | 23 Pages. Thesis time management by KГ¤the Lemon. The idea of time management is drilled into most students through their undergraduate years, but the focus on this skill seems to drop off in . grad school. The irony is A Brief of My that most students need time management skills even more when they are looking at working on one of the main ideas hollow is that a thesis or dissertation. Writing a thesis requires both short-term and A Brief of My Life long-term time management skills, because it is a lengthy project that does without external deadlines. "You see students who are excellent but they just never finish. Academia , Doctor of one of the main ideas of "the hollow Philosophy , Management 1327 Words | 4 Pages. waves of The Filipino Americans immigration to the US as well as their contribution. In what ways are the experiences of the . Filipino different and similar to that of other Asian Americans? Show that you are familiar with the information from the A Brief of My Life text in your answer. Coming from a country of seven thousand plus islands and a culture where " women were considered equal to men,"(1) according to the underdogs mariano azuela, Linda A. Revilla in her article entitled, " Filipino Americans: Historical Review," Filipino Americans have. California , Filipino American , Mexico 2253 Words | 6 Pages. The Filipino Today By Alex Lacson, 2010 After the August 23 hostage drama, there is Story of My Life just too much negativity about and against . the The Pros of Abolishing Filipino . Story Life. "It is difficult to be a Filipino these days", says a friend who works in Hongkong. "Nakakahiya tayo", "Only in the Philippines" were some of the comments lawyer Trixie Cruz-Angeles received in her Facebook. There is this email supposedly written by the underdogs mariano, a Dutch married to a Filipina, with 2 kids, making a litany of the supposed stupidity or idiocy of Filipinos in. Binibining Pilipinas , Emilio Aguinaldo , Filipino mestizo 1398 Words | 4 Pages. August 5, 2013 Expires June 30, 2014] Phone (63 47) 611-0130 Contact Edna Villanueva Email email@example.com Island Resort Club Tour . Services, Inc. Location Subic Bay Freeport Address 110-112 Alpha Bldg., Subic International Hotel , Subic Bay Freeport Zone Description: Travel and tours Accreditation TRAVEL AND TOUR AGENCY [Acc. Story Of My Life Essay. No. TOP-RO3-00001102-2013 dated September 30, 2013 Expires June 30, 2014] Phone (63 47) 252-3241/3242 (Subic) Phone (63 2) 400-2222 (Manila) . Olongapo City , Port of Subic , Richard Gordon 435 Words | 3 Pages. The main sources of revenue in a hotel are through sales in rooms, restaurants and bars. On The Protagonist In Willima. Identify and evaluate other possible . sources of revenue. вЂOne of the fundamental business concepts is Story of My Life that a company is in on The, business to make moneyвЂ™ (Hales, 15:2005). Revenue is the Life Essay monetary amount that customers pay to receive a product or service and of Women Essay is the A Brief Story of My Essay first aspect considered when conducting financial analysis as it starts the the underdogs azuela cash flow process of Life a company (Hales and Van Hoof, 2010). Moyer et al (1995). Hospitality industry , Hotel , Hotels 1631 Words | 4 Pages.
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A Summary of My Life Story | KibinThe Case Against Affirmative Action. In this essay I set forth nine arguments against A Brief Story Life, Strong Affirmative Action, which I define as preferential treatment, discriminating in favor of members of under-represented groups, which have been treated unjustly in the past, against ideas of "the men", innocent people. I distinguish this from A Brief Essay Weak Affirmative Action, which simply seeks to promote equal opportunity to the goods and offices of a society. I do not argue against Analysis Pump, this policy. Story Of My Life? I argue against Strong Affirmative Action, attempting to show that two wrongs donвЂ™t make a right. This form of Affirmative Action, as it is applied against White males, is the underdogs azuela, both racist and sexist. Hardly a week goes by but that the subject of Affirmative Action does not come up. Whether in of My Life Essay, the form of preferential hiring, non-traditional casting, quotas, "goals and time tables," minority scholarships, race-norming, reverse discrimination, or employment of members of the underdogs, underutilized groups, the issue confronts us as a terribly perplexing problem. Affirmative action was one of the A Brief Essay issues that divided the Democratic and Republican parties during the 1996 election, the one of the main of "the men" is that Democrats supporting it ("Mend it donвЂ™t end it") and of My Life, the Republicans opposing it ("affirmative action is reverse racism"). And Cons Minimum? During the A Brief Story of My Life Essay last general election (November 7, 1996) California voters by a 55% to 45% vote approved Proposition 209 (called the "California Civil Rights Initiative") which made it illegal to discriminate on the basis of race or gender, hence ending Affirmative Action in quotes, public institutions in California. The Supreme Court recently refused to rule on the appeal, thus leaving it to the individual states to decide how they will deal with this issue. Both sides have reorganized for a renewed battle. At the same time, the European UnionвЂ™s High Court of Justice in Luxembourg has recently approved Affirmative Action programs giving women preferential treatment in A Brief of My Life Essay, the 15 European Union countries (Nov. 11, 1997). Let us agree that despite the evidences of a booming economy, the poor are suffering grievously, with children being born into desperate material and Changing Roles Essay, psychological poverty, for whom the ideal of Story of My Life, "equal opportunity for all" is Changing Essay, a cruel joke. Many feel that the federal government has abandoned its guarantee to A Brief Story of My Life Essay provide the minimum necessities for each American, so that the the underdogs mariano pace of Story of My, this tragedy that seems to be worsening daily. Add to this, the fact that in our country African-Americans have a legacy of slavery and unjust discrimination to contend with, and we have the makings of an inferno, and, perhaps, in The Pros of Abolishing Minimum Wage Essay, the worse case scenario, the downfall of a nation. What is the answer to our national problem? Is it increased welfare? more job training? more support for education? required licencing of parents to have children? negative income tax? more support for families or for mothers with small children? All of these have merit and should be part of the national debate. But, my thesis is, however tragic the A Brief Story Essay situation may be (and we may disagree on Changing Roles of Women just how tragic it is), one policy is not a legitimate part of the solution and Story of My Essay, that is reverse, unjust discrimination against young white males. Strong Affirmative Action, which implicitly advocates reverse discrimination, while, no doubt, well intentioned, is morally heinous, asserting, by implication, that two wrongs make a right. The Two Wrongs Make a Right Thesis goes like this: Because some Whites once enslaved some Blacks, the decedents of those slaves, some of whom may now enjoy high incomes and social status, have a right to opportunities and offices over quotes better qualified Whites who had nothing to do with either slavery or the Story oppression of Blacks, and who may even have suffered hardship comparable to that of poor Blacks. The Underdogs Azuela? In addition, Strong Affirmative Action creates a new Hierarchy of the Oppressed: Blacks get primary preferential treatment, women second, Native Americans third, Hispanics fourth, Handicapped fifth, and Asians sixth and so on until White males, no matter how needy or well qualified, must accept the left-overs. Naturally, combinations of oppressed classes (e.g., a one eyed, Black Hispanic female) trump all single classifications. The equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment becomes reinterpreted as "Equal protection for Life Essay, all equals, but some equals are more equal than others." Before analyzing arguments concerning Affirmative Action, I must define my terms. By Weak Affirmative Action I mean policies that will increase the opportunities of disadvantaged people to attain social goods and offices. It includes the dismantling of segregated institutions, widespread advertisement to Distillation Column through Pump Integration groups not previously represented in certain privileged positions, special scholarships for the disadvantaged classes (e.g., the poor, regardless of race or gender), and even using diversity or under representation of groups or history of past discrimination as a tie breaker when candidates for these goods and offices are relatively equal. The goal of Weak Affirmative Action is equal opportunity to compete, not equal results. A Brief Story Of My? We seek to provide each citizen regardless of race or gender a fair chance to the most favored positions in society. There is no more moral requirement to guarantee that 12% of professors are Black than to guarantee that 85% of the players in the National Basketball Association are White. By Strong Affirmative Action I mean preferential treatment on the underdogs mariano the basis of race, ethnicity or gender (or some other morally irrelevant criterion), discriminating in A Brief Essay, favor of under-represented groups against over-represented groups, aiming at roughly equal results. Essay On The Protagonist ShakespeareВґs Othello? Strong Affirmative Action is reverse discrimination. Story Essay? It says it is right to on The in Willima do wrong to of My correct a wrong. It is the policy that is Protagonist ShakespeareВґs Othello, currently being promoted under the name of Affirmative Action, so it I will use that term or "AA" for short throughout this essay to stand for A Brief Story of My, this version of affirmative action. I will not argue for or against the principle of Weak Affirmative Action. Indeed, I think it has some moral weight. Strong Affirmative Action has none, or so I will argue. In what follows I will mainly concentrate on Affirmative Action policies with regard to race, but the arguments can be extended to cover ethnicity and gender. I think that if a case for Affirmative Action can be made it will be as a corrective to racial oppression. I will examine nine arguments regarding Affirmative Action. The first six will be negative, attempting to show that the mariano best arguments for Affirmative Action fail. The last three will be positive arguments for policies opposing Affirmative Action: I. A Critique of Arguments For Affirmative Action. 1. The Need for Role Models. This argument is A Brief Essay, straightforward. We all have need of role models, and it helps to know that others like us can be successful. We learn and are encouraged to strive for Essay on The Protagonist Othello, excellence by emulating our heroes and "our kind of people" who have succeeded. In the first place itвЂ™s not clear that role models of oneвЂ™s own racial or sexual type are necessary (let alone sufficient) for success. One of my heroes was Gandhi, an Indian Hindu, another was my grade school science teacher, Miss DeVoe, and A Brief of My, another Martin Luther King, behind whom I marched in Civil Rights demonstrations. More important than having role models of oneвЂ™s "own type" is having genuinely good people, of whatever race or gender, to emulate. Our common humanity should be a sufficient basis for us to see the possibility of success in people of Changing Essay, virtue and merit. To yield to the demand, however tempting it may be to Story do so, for "role-models-just-like-us" is to treat people like means not ends. It is to elevate morally irrelevant particularity over relevant traits, such as ability and the underdogs mariano, integrity. We donвЂ™t need people exactly like us to find inspiration. As Steve Allen once quipped, "If I had to follow a role model exactly, I would have become a nun." Furthermore, even if it is of some help to people with low self-esteem to of My Life Essay gain encouragement from seeing others of the underdogs azuela, their particular kind in successful positions, it is doubtful whether this need is a sufficient reason to justify preferential hiring or reverse discrimination. What good is a role model who is inferior to other professors or physicians or business personnel? The best way to create role models is not to promote people because of race or gender but because they are the best qualified for the job. It is the violation of this fact that is largely responsible for A Brief Story of My Essay, the widespread whisper in the medical field (at least in New York) "Never go to a Black physician under 40" (referring to the main of "the hollow is that the fact that AA has affected the medical system during the past twenty years). Fight the feeling how I will, I cannot help wondering on seeing a Black or woman in A Brief Essay, a position or honor, "Is she in this position because she merits it or because of Affirmative Action?" Where Affirmative Action is the policy, the "figment of pigment" creates a stigma of undeservedness, whether or not it is deserved.1. Finally, entertain this thought experiment. Mariano? Suppose we discovered that tall handsome white males somehow made the best role models for the most people, especially poor people. Suppose even large numbers of minority people somehow found inspiration in Life, their sight. The Underdogs Azuela? Would we be justified in hiring tall handsome white males over better qualified short Hispanic women, who were deemed less role-model worthy?2. 2. The Compensation Argument. The argument goes like this: blacks have been wronged and severely harmed by A Brief Life Essay, whites. Therefore white society should compensate blacks for the injury caused them. Reverse discrimination in of Women, terms of preferential hiring, contracts, and scholarships is a fitting way to compensate for the past wrongs.3. This argument actually involves a distorted notion of compensation. Life? Normally, we think of the main men", compensation as owed by a specific person A to another person B whom A has wronged in a specific way C. Essay? For example, if I have stolen your car and used it for a period of time to make business profits that would have gone to you, it is not enough that I return your car. The Pros And Cons Wage Essay? I must pay you an amount reflecting your loss and my ability to pay. If I have only made $5,000 and only have $10,000 in assets, it would not be possible for you to collect $20,000 in damages - even though that is the amount of loss you have incurred. Sometimes compensation is Story Essay, extended to Changing of Women groups of people who have been unjustly harmed by the greater society. For example, the United States government has compensated the Japanese-Americans who were interred during the Second World War, and the West German government has paid reparations to the survivors of Nazi concentration camps. But here a specific people have been identified who were wronged in A Brief Story Life, an identifiable way by the government of the quotes on selfishness nation in A Brief Story, question. On the Changing face of it, demands by blacks for compensation does not fit the usual pattern. Perhaps Southern States with Jim Crow laws could be accused of unjustly harming blacks, but it is hard to see that the United States government was involved in doing so. Much of the harm done to blacks was the result of private discrimination, not state action. Story Of My Life? So the Germany/US analogy doesnвЂ™t hold. Furthermore, it is not clear that all blacks were harmed in the same way or whether some were unjustly harmed or harmed more than poor whites and others (e.g. short people). Finally, even if identifiable blacks were harmed by identifiable social practices, it is not clear that most forms of Roles of Women Essay, Affirmative Action are appropriate to restore the situation. The usual practice of a financial payment seems more appropriate than giving a high level job to someone unqualified or only minimally qualified, who, speculatively, might have been better qualified had he not been subject to racial discrimination. Life Essay? If John is the the underdogs mariano star tailback of our college team with a promising professional future, and I accidentally (but culpably) drive my pick-up truck over A Brief Story Life his legs, and so cripple him, John may be due compensation, but he is not due the tailback spot on the football team. Still, there may be something intuitively compelling about compensating members of an one of men" is that oppressed group who are minimally qualified. Suppose that the Story of My Life Essay Hatfields and the McCoys are enemy clans and Roles, some youths from the Hatfields go over Story of My Life and steal diamonds and gold from the McCoys, distributing it within the Hatfield economy. Even though we do not know which Hatfield youths did the stealing, we would want to restore the wealth, as far as possible, to the McCoys. Quotes? One way might be to tax the Hatfields, but another might be to give preferential treatment in terms of scholarships and training programs and hiring to the McCoys. This is A Brief Life, perhaps the on The Protagonist ShakespeareВґs strongest argument for Affirmative Action, and it may well justify some weaker versions of of My Essay, AA, but it is doubtful whether it is sufficient to justify strong versions with quotas and goals and time tables in skilled positions. There are at least two reasons for this. Quotes On Selfishness? First, we have no way of knowing how many people of any given group would have achieved some given level of Essay, competence had the Distillation Column Analysis Heat Pump Integration world been different. This is Story of My, especially relevant if my objections to quotes on selfishness the Equal Results Argument (#3 above) are correct. Secondly, the Story Essay normal criterion of competence is a strong prima facie consideration when the most important positions are at stake. There are three reasons for this: (1) treating people according to their merits respects them as persons, as ends in themselves, rather than as means to social ends (if we believe that individuals possess a dignity which deserves to be respected, then we ought to ideas of "the hollow treat that individual on the basis of his or her merits, not as a mere instrument for social policy); (2) society has given people expectations that if they attain certain levels of excellence they will be awarded appropriately and Story of My Life, (3) filling the most important positions with the best qualified is the best way to insure efficiency in job-related areas and in society in the underdogs, general. These reasons are not absolutes. They can be overridden.4 But there is a strong presumption in their favor so that a burden of A Brief of My, proof rests with those who would override them. At this point we get into the problem of whether innocent non-blacks should have to pay a penalty in terms of preferential hiring of blacks. We turn to that argument. 3. In Willima ShakespeareВґs Othello? The Argument for Compensation from Those who Innocently Benefitted from Past Injustice. Young White males as innocent beneficiaries of unjust discrimination of blacks and women have no grounds for complaint when society seeks to level the tilted field. They may be innocent of oppressing blacks, other minorities, and women, but they have unjustly benefitted from that oppression or discrimination. So it is A Brief of My, perfectly proper that less qualified women and blacks be hired before them. The operative principle is: He who knowingly and quotes on selfishness, willingly benefits from a wrong must help pay for Story Essay, the wrong. Judith Jarvis Thomson puts it this way. "Many [white males] have been direct beneficiaries of policies which have down-graded blacks and women. and Essay on The ShakespeareВґs Othello, even those who did not directly benefit. had, at any rate, the Story of My Essay advantage in the competition which comes of the confidence in one's full membership [in the community], and of one's right being recognized as a matter of course."5 That is, white males obtain advantages in self respect and self-confidence deriving from a racist/sexist system which denies these to the main is that blacks and women. Here is A Brief of My, my response to this argument: As I noted in the previous section, compensation is normally individual and specific. If A harms B regarding x, B has a right to compensation from A in regards to x. Essay? If A steals B's car and wrecks it, A has an obligation to compensate B for the stolen car, but A's son has no obligation to compensate B. Furthermore, if A dies or disappears, B has no moral right to claim that society compensate him for the stolen car - though if he has insurance, he can make such a claim to the insurance company. Sometimes a wrong cannot be compensated, and we just have to make the best of an imperfect world. Suppose my parents, divining that I would grow up to have an unsurpassable desire to be a basketball player, bought an expensive growth hormone for me. Unfortunately, a neighbor stole it and gave it to Story of My Essay little Michael, who gained the extra 13 inches - my 13 inches - and shot up to Essay on The in Willima ShakespeareВґs an enviable 6 feet 6 inches. Michael, better known as Michael Jordan, would have been a runt like me but for his luck. As it is he profited from the injustice, and excelled in basketball, as I would have done had I had my proper dose. Do I have a right to the millions of dollars that Jordan made as a professional basketball player - the unjustly innocent beneficiary of my growth hormone? I have a right to something from the neighbor who stole the hormone, and it might be kind of Jordan to give me free tickets to the BullвЂ™s basketball games, and perhaps I should be remembered in his will. As far as I can see, however, he does not owe me anything, either legally or morally. Suppose further that Michael Jordan and I are in high school together and Story Life Essay, we are both qualified to The Pros of Abolishing Minimum Wage Essay play basketball, only he is far better than I. Do I deserve to A Brief Story of My Life Essay start in the underdogs mariano, his position because I would have been as good as he is A Brief Story Life, had someone not cheated me as a child? Again, I think not. But if being the lucky beneficiary of wrong-doing does not entail that Jordan (or the coach) owes me anything in regards to basketball, why should it be a reason to engage in preferential hiring in academic positions or highly coveted jobs? If minimal qualifications are not adequate to override excellence in on selfishness, basketball, even when the A Brief Story minimality is a consequence of wrongdoing, why should they be adequate in other areas? 4. The Diversity Argument. It is important that we learn to live in a pluralistic world, learning to Column Controllability Analysis through Heat Pump get along with those of other races and cultures, so we should have fully integrated schools and employment situations. A Brief Of My Life? We live in Controllability through, a shrinking world and of My Essay, need to appreciate each otherвЂ™s culture and specific way of quotes, looking at life. Diversity is an important symbol and educative device. Story Essay? As Barbara Bergmann argues, "Diversity has positive value in many situations, but in some its value is crucial. To give an obvious example, a racially diverse community needs a racially diverse police force if the police are to gain the trust of all parts of the community and if one part of the quotes community is A Brief Story Life Essay, not to feel dominated by the other part."6 Thus preferential treatment is warranted to perform this role in society. Once again, there is some truth in these concerns. Diversity of ideas challenges us to scrutinize our own values and beliefs, and diverse customs have aesthetic and moral value, helping us to appreciate the novelty and beauty in life. Diversity may expand our moral horizons. But, again, while we can admit the value of the underdogs mariano azuela, diversity, it hardly seems adequate to override the moral requirement to treat each person with equal respect. Diversity for diversity's sake is moral promiscuity, since it obfuscates rational distinctions, undermines treating individuals as ends, treating them, instead as mere means (to the goals of Story, social engineering), and, furthermore, unless those hired are highly qualified, the diversity factor threatens to quotes become a fetish. At least at the higher levels of business and the professions, competence far outweighs considerations of Story of My Life, diversity. I do not care whether the group of surgeons operating on me reflect racial or gender balance, but I do care that they are highly qualified. Neither do most football or basketball fans care whether their team reflects ethnic and gender diversity, but whether they are the best combination of players available. And likewise with airplane pilots, military leaders, business executives, and, may I say it, teachers and university professors.. One need not be a white male to teach, let alone, appreciate Shakespeare, nor need one be Black to teach, let alone appreciate, Alice WalkerвЂ™s Color Purple. There may be times when diversity may seem to be "crucial" to the well-being of a diverse community, such as a diverse police force. Changing Of Women? Suppose that White policemen overreact to young Black males and the latter group distrust White policemen. Hiring more less qualified Black policemen, who would relate better to these youth, may have overall utilitarian value. But such a move, while we might make it as a lesser evil, could have serious consequences in allowing the demographic prejudices to dictate social policy. Story? A better strategy would be to hire the best police, that is, those who can perform in Essay Protagonist ShakespeareВґs Othello, disciplined, intelligent manner, regardless of their race. A White policeman must be able to arrest a Black burglar, even as a Black policeman must be able to arrest a White rapist. The quality of the police man or woman, not their race or gender is what counts. On the of My Life other hand, if the Black policeman, though lacking formal skills of the White policeman, really is able to do a better job in the Black community, this might constitute a case of merit, not Affirmative Action. This is similar to the legitimacy of hiring Chinese men to Changing Roles Essay act as undercover agents in Chinatown.7. 5. The Equal Results Argument. Some philosophers and social scientists hold that human nature is A Brief Story Life Essay, roughly identical, so that on a fair playing field the same proportion from every race and ethnic group and both genders would attain to the highest positions in every area of endeavor. Controllability Analysis Heat Pump Integration? It would follow that any inequality of results itself is evidence for inequality of opportunity. History is important when considering governmental rules like Test 21 because low scores by blacks can be traced in large measure to the legacy of slavery and A Brief Life, racism: segregation, poor schooling, exclusion from trade unions, malnutrition, and poverty have all played their roles. One Of The Main Hollow? Unless one assumes that blacks are naturally less able to pass the test, the conclusion must be that the results are themselves socially and legally constructed, not a mere given for which law and society can claim no responsibility. The conclusion seems to be that genuine equality eventually requires equal results. Obviously blacks have been treated unequally throughout US history, and just as obviously the economic and psychological effects of that inequality linger to this day, showing up in lower income and Story of My Essay, poorer performance in school and on tests than whites achieve. Since we have no reason to believe that differences in performance can be explained by factors other than history, equal results are a good benchmark by which to measure progress made toward genuine equality (John Arthur, The Unfinished Constitution (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co, 1990), p. 238.). Sterling Harwood seems to support a similar theory when he writes, "When will [AA] end? When will affirmative action stop compensating blacks? As soon as the unfair advantage is gone, affirmative action will stop. The elimination of the unfair advantage can be determined by showing that the percentage of blacks hired and admitted at least roughly equaled the percentage of blacks in the population."8. Albert G. Mosley develops a similar argument. "Establishing BlacksвЂ™ presence at a level commensurate with their proportion in one of the main ideas of "the hollow men" is that, the relevant labor market need not be seen as an attempt to A Brief Story of My Essay actualize some valid prediction. Rather, given the azuela impossibility of determining what level of representation Blacks would have achieved were it not for Story Essay, racial discrimination, the Changing Roles assumption of proportional representation is the only fair assumption to make. This is not to A Brief Life argue that Blacks should be maintained in such positions, but their contrived exclusion merits equally contrived rectification."9 The result of a just society should be equal numbers in quotes, proportion to Story Life Essay each group in the work force. However, Arthur, Mosley, and Harwood fail even to consider studies that suggest that there are innate differences between races, sexes, and groups. Roles Essay? If there are genetic differences in intelligence and temperament within families, why should we not expect such differences between racial groups and the two genders? Why should the evidence for this be completely discounted? MosleyвЂ™s reasoning is A Brief of My Essay, as follows: Since we donвЂ™t know for certain whether groups proportionately differ in talent, we should presume that they are equal in every respect. So we should presume that if we were living in a just society, there would be roughly proportionate representation in every field (e.g., equal representation of doctors, lawyers, professors, carpenters, air-plane pilots, basketball players, and criminals). Hence, it is only fair - productive of justice - to aim at Changing Roles Essay, proportionate representation in these fields. But the logic is flawed. Under a situation of ignorance we should not presume equality or inequality of representation - but conclude that we donвЂ™t know what the results would be in a just society. Ignorance doesnвЂ™t favor equal group representation any more than it favors unequal group representation. It is neutral between them. Consider this analogy. Suppose that you were the owner of a National Basketball Association team. Suppose that I and A Brief Essay, other frustrated White basketball players bring a class-action suit against you and all the other owners, claiming that you have subtly and systematically discriminate against White and Asian basketball players who make up less than 20% of the NBA players. On Selfishness? When you respond to our charges that you and A Brief of My Essay, your owners are just responding to individual merit, we respond that the discrimination is Changing, a function of deep prejudice against White athletes, especially basketball players, who are discouraged in every way from competing on fair terms with Blacks who dominate the NBA. You would probably wish that the matter of unequal results was not brought up in Story of My Life Essay, the first place, but once it has been, would you not be in your rights to defend yourself by Column Controllability through Heat, producing evidence, showing that average physiological differences exist between Blacks and Whites and Asians, so that we should not presume unjust discrimination? Similarly, the proponents of the A Brief doctrine of equal results open the door to quotes on selfishness a debate over Story Life Essay average ability in ethnic, racial and gender groups. The proponent of equal or fair opportunity would just as soon down play this feature in mariano, favor of judging people as individuals by their merit (hard though that may be). But if the proponent of Life Essay, AA insists on the Equal Results Thesis, we are obliged to examine the Equal Abilities Thesis, on which it is based - the thesis that various ethnic and gender groups all have the same distribution of talent on Roles Essay the relevant characteristic. A Brief Story Life? With regard to cognitive skills we must consult the one of the main hollow best evidence we have on average group differences. Essay? We need to compare average IQ scores, SAT scores, standard personality testing, success in academic and professional areas and the like. If the evidence shows that group differences are nonexistent, the AA proponent may win, but if the evidence turns out to Wage Essay be against the Equal Abilities Thesis, the AA proponent loses. Consider for a start that the average white and Story Essay, Asian scores 195 points higher on the SAT tests and that on virtually all IQ tests for the past seven or eight decades the average Black IQ is 85 as opposed to the average White and Asian IQ at over 100, or that males and females differ significantly on cognitive ability tests. Essay Protagonist Othello? Females out perform males in Story, reading comprehension, perceptual speed, and associative memory (ratios of 1.4 to 2.2), but males typically outnumbering females among high scoring individuals in mathematics, science and social science (by a ratio of 7.0 in the top 1% of overall mathematics distribution).10 The results of average GRE, LSAT, MCAT scores show similar pattens or significant average racial difference. Ideas Of "the Hollow? The Black scholar Glenn Loury notes, "In 1990 black high school seniors from families with annual incomes of A Brief Story Life, $70,000 or more scored an average of 855 on the SAT, compared with average scores of 855 and 879 respectively for Asian-American and white seniors whose families had incomes between $10,000 and 20,000 per year."11 Note, we are speaking about statistical averages. There are brilliant and The Pros and Cons of Abolishing Minimum Wage, retarded people in each group. When such statistics are discussed many people feel uncomfortable and want to drop the subject. A Brief Of My? Perhaps these statistics are misleading, but then we need to look carefully at quotes, the total evidence. The proponent of equal opportunity would urges us to get beyond racial and gender criteria in assignment of offices and Story Essay, opportunities and treat each person, not as an average white or Black or female or male, but as a person judge on his or her own merits. Furthermore, on the logic of Mosley and company, we should take aggressive AA against Asians and Distillation Controllability through Heat Pump, Jews since they are over-represented in science, technology, and medicine, and we should presume that Asians and Jews are no more talented than average. A Brief Story Life Essay? So that each group receives its fair share, we should ensure that 12% of the philosophers in the United States are Black, reduce the percentage of Jews from an estimated 15% to 2% - firing about The Pros and Cons Minimum, 1,300 Jewish philosophers. The fact that Asians are producing 50% of Story Essay, Ph Ds in mariano, science and math in this country and Story of My Essay, blacks less than 1% clearly shows, on Controllability Analysis through Heat this reasoning, that we are providing special secret advantages to Asians. A Brief Life Essay? By this logic, we should reduce the quota of Blacks in the NBA to 12%. But why does society have to Changing Roles Essay enter into this results game in the first place? Why do we have to of My Essay decide whether all difference is the underdogs mariano, environmental or genetic? Perhaps we should simply admit that we lack sufficient evidence to pronounce on these issues with any certainty - but if so, should we not be more modest in insisting on equal results? Here's a thought experiment. Take two families of A Brief of My Life Essay, different racial groups, Green and Blue. On Selfishness? The Greens decide to have only two children, to spend all their resources on them, and to give them the best education. The two Green kids respond well and end up with achievement test scores in the 99th percentile. The Blues fail to practice family planning and have 15 children. They can only afford 2 children, but lack of A Brief Essay, ability or whatever prevents them from keeping their family size down. Now they need help for the underdogs, their large family. Why does society have to A Brief of My Life Essay step in and help them? Society did not force them to have 15 children. Suppose that the achievement test scores of the 15 children fall below the 25th percentile. They cannot compete with the Greens. But now enters AA. It says that it is society's fault that the Blue children are not as able as the Greens and that the Greens must pay extra taxes to enable the on selfishness Blues to compete. Story Of My Life? No restraints are put on the Blues regarding family size. On Selfishness? This seems unfair to A Brief Story of My Life Essay the Greens. Should the Green children be made to bear responsibility for the consequences of the Blues' voluntary behavior?12. My point is simply that philosophers like Arthur, Harwood, and Mosley need to Essay on The Protagonist in Willima ShakespeareВґs cast their net wider and Story of My, recognize that demographics and childbearing and -rearing practices are crucial factors in achievement. People have to take some responsibility for their actions. The equal results argument (or axiom) misses a greater part of the picture. 6. Of Women? The "No One Deserves His Talents" Argument Against Meritocracy. According to this argument, the competent do not deserve their intelligence, their superior character, their industriousness, or their discipline; therefore they have no right to the best positions in A Brief of My Life, society; therefore it is not unjust to give these positions to Distillation Controllability through Heat less (but still minimally) qualified blacks and Story of My Life, women. In one form this argument holds that since no one deserves anything, society may use any criteria it pleases to distribute goods. One Of Hollow Men" Is That? The criterion most often designated is social utility. Versions of this argument are found in the writings of John Arthur, John Rawls, Bernard Boxill, Michael Kinsley, Ronald Dworkin, and Richard Wasserstrom. Rawls writes, "No one deserves his place in the distribution of native endowments, any more than one deserves one's initial starting place in society. The assertion that a man deserves the superior character that enables him to make the effort to cultivate his abilities is Story of My Life, equally problematic; for his character depends in large part upon fortunate family and social circumstances for which he can claim no credit. Column Analysis Through Heat? The notion of desert seems not to apply to these cases."13 Michael Kinsley is even more adamant: Opponents of affirmative action are hung up on a distinction that seems more profoundly irrelevant: treating individuals versus treating groups. What is the of My Life moral difference between dispensing favors to of Abolishing people on their "merits" as individuals and passing out society's benefits on the basis of group identification? Group identifications like race and sex are, of course, immutable. They have nothing to do with a person's moral worth. A Brief Story Essay? But the same is true of most of on The ShakespeareВґs Othello, what comes under the label "merit." The tools you need for A Brief Life Essay, getting ahead in Protagonist Othello, a meritocratic society - not all of them but most: talent, education, instilled cultural values such as ambition - are distributed just as arbitrarily as skin color. They are fate. The notion that people somehow "deserve" the advantages of these characteristics in a way they don't "deserve" the advantage of their race is A Brief Story of My, powerful, but illogical.14. It will help to put the argument in the underdogs mariano, outline form. 1. Society may award jobs and positions as it sees fit as long as individuals have no claim to these positions. 2. To have a claim to something means that one has earned it or deserves it. 3. A Brief Of My Essay? But no one has earned or deserves his intelligence, talent, education or cultural values which produce superior qualifications. 4. If a person does not deserve what produces something, he does not deserve its products. 5. Therefore better qualified people do not deserve their qualifications. 6. Therefore, society may override their qualifications in awarding jobs and Essay, positions as it sees fit (for social utility or to compensate for previous wrongs). So it is A Brief of My Life, permissible if a minimally qualified black or woman is admitted to law or medical school ahead of a white male with excellent credentials or if a less qualified person from an "underutilized" group gets a professorship ahead of an eminently better qualified white male. Sufficiency and underutilization together outweigh excellence. My response: Premise 4 is false. To see this, reflect that just because I do not deserve the money that I have been given as a gift (for instance) does not mean that I am not entitled to one of the main hollow what I get with that money. If you and of My Essay, I both get a gift of $100 and I bury mine in the sand for Changing Roles of Women, 5 years while you invest yours wisely and A Brief Essay, double its value at the end of five years, I cannot complain that you should split the one of ideas hollow is that increase 50/50 since neither of us deserved the of My Life original gift. If we accept the notion of responsibility at all, we must hold that persons deserve the fruits of their labor and conscious choices. Analysis Heat? Of course, we might want to A Brief Story of My distinguish moral from men" is that legal desert and of My Life, argue that, morally speaking, effort is quotes on selfishness, more important than outcome, whereas, legally speaking, outcome may be more important. Nevertheless, there are good reasons in Story of My, terms of efficiency, motivation, and rough justice for holding a strong prima facie principle of giving scarce high positions to those most competent. The attack on Distillation through Integration moral desert is A Brief Story Life, perhaps the most radical move that egalitarians like Rawls and company have made against meritocracy, and the ramifications of their attack are far reaching. Here are some implications: Since I do not deserve my two good eyes or two good kidneys, the mariano azuela social engineers may take one of each from me to give to those needing an eye or a kidney - even if they have damaged their organs by Story Essay, their own voluntary actions; Since no one deserves anything, we do not deserve pay for on The, our labors or praise for a job well done or first prize in the race we win. The notion of moral responsibility vanishes in a system of levelling. But there is no good reason to A Brief Story Life Essay accept the argument against desert. We do act freely and, as such, we are responsible for our actions. We deserve the fruits of our labor, reward for our noble feats and Changing Essay, punishment for A Brief Story of My, our misbehavior.15. We have considered seven arguments for Affirmative Action and have found no compelling case for Strong AA and Roles, only one plausible argument (a version of the compensation argument) for Weak AA. We must now turn to the arguments against Affirmative Action to see whether they fare any better. II. Arguments Against Affirmative Action. 7. Affirmative Action Requires Discrimination Against a Different Group. Weak Affirmative Action weakly discriminates against new minorities, mostly innocent young white males, and Strong Affirmative Action strongly discriminates against these new minorities. As I argued in A Brief Story of My Life Essay, I. 4, this discrimination is unwarranted, since, even if some compensation to blacks were indicated, it would be unfair to make innocent white males bear the whole brunt of the payments. Recently I had this experience. I knew a brilliant philosopher, with outstanding publications in first level journals, who was having difficulty getting a tenure-track position. For the first time in my life I offered to make a phone call on his behalf to a university to which he had applied. When I got the Chair of the The Pros and Cons of Abolishing Minimum Search Committee, he offered that the committee was under instructions from the Administration to hire a woman or a Black. They had one of A Brief of My Life Essay, each on Column Controllability through their short-list, so they werenвЂ™t even considering the applications of White males. At my urging he retrieved my friendвЂ™s file, and Story of My Essay, said, "This fellow looks far superior to Changing Roles of Women the two candidates weвЂ™re interviewing, but thereвЂ™s nothing I can do about it." Cases like this come to my attention regularly. In fact, it is poor white youth who become the new pariahs on the job market. The children of the wealthy have no trouble getting into the best private grammar schools and, on the basis of A Brief Story of My Life, superior early education, into the best universities, graduate schools, managerial and professional positions. Column Analysis Pump Integration? Affirmative Action simply shifts injustice, setting Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, Asians and of My Life Essay, women against young white males, especially ethnic and poor white males. It makes no more sense to of "the men" discriminate in A Brief Story Essay, favor of a rich Black or female who had the opportunity of the best family and education available against a poor White, than it does to quotes discriminate in favor of White males against Blacks or women. It does little to rectify the goal of providing equal opportunity to A Brief Essay all. At the one of ideas hollow men" end of his essay supporting Affirmative Action, Albert Mosley points out that other groups besides Blacks have been benefitted by Affirmative Action, "women, the disabled, the elderly."16 HeвЂ™s correct in A Brief Life Essay, including the elderly, for through powerful lobbies, such as the AARP, they do get special benefits including medicare and may sue on the grounds of being discriminated against due to Agism, prejudice against older people. Might this not be a reason to Roles Essay reconsider Affirmative Action? Consider the sheer rough percentages of A Brief Life, those who qualify for Affirmative Action programs. Controllability Analysis Heat Pump? GROUP PERCENTAGE. 4. Native Americans 2% 6. Physically Disabled 10% 7. Welfare recipients 6% 8. The Elderly 25% (est. Adults over A Brief Story of My Life Essay 60) 9. Italians (in New York City) 3% The elderly can sue on the grounds of Roles, Agism, receive entitlements in terms of Social Security and Medicare, and have the A Brief Story of My Life Essay AARP lobbying on their behalf. Roles Of Women? Recently, it has been proposed that homosexuals be included in Story of My Life, oppressed groups deserving Affirmative Action.17 At Northeastern University in 1996 the The Pros Minimum Essay faculty governing body voted to grant homosexuals Affirmative Action status at this university. How many more percentage points would this add? Several authors have advocated putting all poor people on the list.18 And if we took handicaps seriously would we not add ugly people, obese people, and, especially, short people, for which there is ample evidence of discrimination? How about left-handed people (about 9% of the population) - they canвЂ™t play short-stop of third base and have to put up with a right-handedly biased world. The only group not the list is Story Essay, that of White males. Are they, especially healthy, middle class young White males, becoming the new "oppressed class"? Should we add them to our list? Respect for persons entails that we treat each person as an end in him or herself, not simply as a means to on selfishness be used for social purposes. What is wrong about discrimination against Blacks is that it fails to Essay treat Black people as individuals, judging them instead by Protagonist, their skin color not their merit. What is wrong about discrimination against Story of My Life Essay, women is that it fails to treat them as individuals, judging them by their gender, not their merit. What is equally wrong about Affirmative Action is that it fails to treat White males with dignity as individuals, judging them by both their race and gender, instead of their merit. Present Affirmative Action is both racist and sexist. 8. Essay Protagonist In Willima ShakespeareВґs? Affirmative Action Encourages Mediocrity and Incompetence. A few years ago Jesse Jackson joined protesters at Harvard Law School in A Brief Life Essay, demanding that the Law School faculty hire black women. Jackson dismissed Dean of the Law School, Robert C. Clark's standard of choosing the The Pros and Cons Minimum Essay best qualified person for the job as "Cultural anemia." "We cannot just define who is qualified in the most narrow vertical academic terms," he said. "Most people in the world are yellow, brown, black, poor, non-Christian and don't speak English, and they can't wait for some white males with archaic rules to A Brief Essay appraise them."19 It might be noted that if Jackson is correct about the depth of cultural decadence at Harvard, blacks might be well advised to form and support their own more vital law schools and leave places like Harvard to on The in Willima ShakespeareВґs their archaism. At several universities, the administration has forced departments to hire members of minorities even when far superior candidates were available. Shortly after obtaining my Ph D in the late 70's I was mistakenly identified as a black philosopher (I had a civil rights record and was once a black studies major) and was flown to a major university, only to be rejected for a more qualified candidate when it discovered that I was white. Stories of the bad effects of Affirmative Action abound. The philosopher Sidney Hook writes that "At one Ivy League university, representatives of the Regional HEW demanded an explanation of why there were no women or minority students in the Graduate Department of Religious Studies. They were told that a reading of knowledge of Hebrew and Greek was presupposed. Whereupon the representatives of HEW advised orally: 'Then end those old fashioned programs that require irrelevant languages. And start up programs on relevant things which minority group students can study without learning languages.'"20. Nicholas Capaldi notes that the staff of HEW itself was one-half women, three-fifths members of minorities, and one-half black - a clear case of A Brief, racial over on The in Willima representation. In 1972 officials at Stanford University discovered a proposal for the government to monitor curriculum in higher education: the "Summary Statement. Sex Discrimination Proposed HEW Regulation to Effectuate Title IX of the Education Amendment of A Brief of My Life, 1972" to quotes on selfishness "establish and use internal procedure for A Brief of My Essay, reviewing curricula, designed both to ensure that they do not reflect discrimination on the basis of sex and to resolve complaints concerning allegations of such discrimination, pursuant to procedural standards to be prescribed by the Director of the office of Civil Rights." Fortunately, Secretary of HEW Caspar Weinberger discovered the intrusion and assured Stanford University that he would never approve of it.21. Government programs of enforced preferential treatment tend to appeal to Protagonist the lowest possible common denominator. Witness the 1974 HEW Revised Order No. 14 on Affirmative Action expectations for preferential hiring: "Neither minorities nor female employees should be required to possess higher qualifications than those of the lowest qualified incumbents." Furthermore, no test may be given to candidates unless it is proved to be relevant to the job. No standard or criteria which have, by intent or effect, worked to exclude women or minorities as a class can be utilized, unless the institution can demonstrate the A Brief Story necessity of such standard to the performance of the job in question. Whenever a validity study is called for. the user should include . an investigation of suitable alternative selection procedures and suitable alternative methods of using the the underdogs selection procedure which have as little adverse impact as possible . Whenever the user is Story, shown an alternative selection procedure with evidence of less adverse impact and substantial evidence of the underdogs, validity for the same job in similar circumstances, the user should investigate it to determine the Story of My Life Essay appropriateness of using or validating it in accord with these guidelines.22. At the same time Americans are wondering why standards in our country are falling and the Japanese and Koreans are getting ahead. Affirmative Action with its twin idols, Sufficiency and Diversity, is the enemy of excellence. I will develop this thought in the next section. 9. Azuela? An Argument from the Principle of Merit. Traditionally, we have believed that the highest positions in society should be awarded to A Brief Story of My those who are best qualified. The Koran states that "A ruler who appoints any man to an office, when there is in The Pros Wage Essay, his dominion another man better qualified for it, sins against God and against the State". Rewarding excellence both seems just to of My Life the individuals in the competition and makes for efficiency. Note that one of the most successful acts of racial integration, the Heat Pump Integration Brooklyn DodgerвЂ™s recruitment of Story of My Life Essay, Jackie Robinson in the late 40s, was done in just this way, according to merit. If Robinson had been brought into the major league as a mediocre player or had batted .200 he would have been scorned and sent back to quotes the minors where he belonged. As I mentioned earlier, merit is not an absolute value, but there is are strong prima facie reasons for awarding positions on its basis, and it should enjoy a weighty presumption in our social practices. In a celebrated article Ronald Dworkin says that "Bakke had no case" because society did not owe Bakke anything. That may be, but then why does it owe anyone anything? Dworkin puts the matter in A Brief Story Essay, Utility terms, but if that is the case, society may owe Bakke a place at the University of California/Davis, for it seems a reasonable rule-utilitarian principle that achievement should be rewarded in through Heat Pump, society. We generally want the best to have the best positions, the best qualified candidate to win the political office, the most brilliant and A Brief Life, competent scientist to be chosen for the most challenging research project, the best qualified pilots to the underdogs azuela become commercial pilots, only the best soldiers to become generals. A Brief Story Life Essay? Only when little is at stake do we weaken the standards and content ourselves with sufficiency (rather than excellence) - there are plenty of jobs where "sufficiency" rather than excellence is required. Perhaps we have even come to feel that medicine or law or university professorships are so routine that they can be performed by minimally qualified people - in Protagonist in Willima ShakespeareВґs, which case AA has a place. Note! no one is calling for Life Essay, quotas or proportional representation of underutilized groups in the National Basketball Association where blacks make up 80% of the players. But, surely, if merit and merit alone reigns in sports, should it not be valued at least as much in education and Changing Roles of Women, industry? The case for meritocracy has two pillars. One pillar is a deontological argument which holds that we ought to treat people as ends and not merely means. By giving people what they deserve as individuals, rather than as members of groups we show respect for their inherent worth. If you and of My, I take a test, and you get 95% of the Changing of Women answers correct and I only get 50% correct, it would be unfair to you to of My Life Essay give both of one of the main ideas hollow is that, us the same grade, say an A, and even more unfair to give me a higher grade A+ than your B+. Although I have heard cases where teachers have been instructed to "race norm" in A Brief of My Life, grading (giving Blacks and Hispanics higher grades for Column Analysis through Integration, the same numerical scores), most proponents of Affirmative Action stop short of advocating such a practice. But, I would ask them, whatвЂ™s really the A Brief Life difference between taking the overall average of azuela, a White and Story Life, a Black and "race norming" it? If teachers shouldnвЂ™t do it, why should administrators? The second pillar for meritocracy is Protagonist in Willima ShakespeareВґs Othello, utilitarian. In the end, we will be better off by honoring excellence. We want the best leaders, teachers, policemen, physicians, generals, lawyers, and airplane pilots that we can possibly produce in A Brief Story Life Essay, society. Distillation Analysis Through? So our program should be to promote equal opportunity, as much as is feasible in a free market economy, and reward people according to their individual merit. Let me sum up my discussion. The goal of the Civil Rights movement and of moral people everywhere has been justice for all, including equal opportunity. The question is: how best to get there. Civil Rights legislation removed the legal barriers, opening the way towards equal opportunity, but it did not tackle the deeper causes that produce differential results. Weak Affirmative Action aims at encouraging minorities in striving for the highest positions without unduly jeopardizing the rights of majorities. The problem of Weak Affirmative Action is that it easily slides into Strong Affirmative Action where quotas, "goals and time-tables," "equal results,"--in a word--reverse discrimination prevails and forced onto groups, thus promoting mediocrity, inefficiency, and resentment. A Brief Of My? Furthermore, Affirmative Action aims at Distillation Column Controllability Analysis through Heat, the higher levels of of My Life Essay, society - universities and skilled jobs, but if we want to improve our society, the best way to do it is to mariano concentrate on families, children, early education, and the like, so all are prepared to of My Essay avail themselves of opportunity. Affirmative Action, on the one hand, is too much, too soon and on the other hand, too little, too late. In addition to one of hollow the arguments I have offered, Affirmative Action, rather than unite people of good will in of My, the common cause of justice, tends to balkanize us into segregation-thinking. Professor Derrick Bell of Harvard Law School recently said that the African American Supreme Court Judge Clarence Thomas, in of "the hollow men" is that, his opposition to Affirmative Action "doesnвЂ™t think black."23 Does Bell really claim that there is a standard and Story Life Essay, proper "Black" (and presumably a White) way of thinking? Ideologues like Bell, whether radical Blacks like himself, or Nazis who advocate "think Aryan," both represent the same thing: cynicism about rational debate, the very antithesis of the quest for impartial truth and justice. People who have believe in reason to The Pros Minimum Wage resolve our differences will oppose this kind of balkanization of the races. Martin Luther said that humanity is like a man mounting a horse who always tends to A Brief fall off on the other side of the Column Analysis through horse. This seems to be the case with Affirmative Action. Attempting to redress the discriminatory iniquities of our history, our well-intentioned social engineers now engage in new forms of Life, discriminatory iniquity and thereby think that they have successfully mounted the Essay on The Protagonist in Willima ShakespeareВґs horse of of My, racial harmony. They have only fallen off on the other side of the issue.24. 1. This argument is related to The Need of Breaking Stereotypes Argument. The Pros And Cons Minimum? Society may simply need to know that there are talented Blacks and women, so that it does not automatically assign them lesser respect or status. The right response is that hiring less qualified people is neither fair to those better qualified who are passed over nor an effective way to remove inaccurate stereotypes. If high competence is accepted as the criterion for hiring, then it is unjust to override it for of My Life, purposes of social engineering. Furthermore, if Blacks and women are known to hold high positions simply because of on selfishness, reverse discrimination, they will still lack the respect due to A Brief Story of My Life Essay those of their rank. 2. Stephen Kershnar suggested this point to of Abolishing Wage Essay me. 3. For a good discussion of this argument see Boxill, вЂњThe Morality of ReparationвЂќ in Social Theory and Practice 2:1 (1972) and Mosley, op. cit., pp. 23-27. 4. Merit sometimes may be justifiably overridden by Story, need, as when parents choose to spend extra earnings on special education for their disabled child rather than for their gifted child. Sometimes we may override merit for and Cons Minimum Wage, utilitarian purposes. E.g., suppose you are the A Brief best short stop on a baseball team but are also the best catcher. You=d rather play short stop, but the manager decides to put you at catcher because, while your friend can do an adequate job at short, no one else is adequate at catcher. Column Analysis Through Pump? It=s permissible for you to A Brief of My be assigned the job of catcher. Probably, some expression of appreciation would be due you. 5. Judith Jarvis Thomson, вЂњPreferential HiringвЂќ in Marshall Cohen, Thomas Nagel and Thomas Scanlon eds, Equality and Preferential Treatment (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977). 6. Barbara Bergmann, In Defense of Affirmative Action (New York: Basic Books, 1996), pp. 9-10. 7. Essay Protagonist? Stephen Kershnar pointed this out in written comments (Dec 22, 1997). 8. Sterling Harwood, вЂњThe Justice of affirmative ActionвЂќ in Yearger Hudson and C. Peden, eds., The Bill of RightsвЂќ Bicentennial Reflections (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen). 9. Albert G. Mosley and Nicholas Capaldi, вЂњAffirmative Action; Social Justice or Unfair Preference?вЂќ (Rowman and Littlefield, 1996), p. A Brief Of My Essay? 28. Bernard Boxill Blacks and Social Justice (Rowman & Littlefield, 1984), whom Mosley quotes in his article, also defends this position. 10. Larry Hedges and Amy Nowell, вЂњSex Differences in Mental Test Scores, Variability, and Numbers of Column Controllability Analysis through Heat, High-Scoring IndividualsвЂќ Science vol. 269 (July 1995), pp. 41-45. See Phillip E. Vernon=s summary of the literature in Intelligence: Heredity and Environment (New York, 1979), Yves Christen, вЂњSex Differences in the Human BrainвЂќ in Nicholas Davidson (ed.) Gender Sanity (Rowman & Littlefield, 1989) and T. Bouchard, et. al., вЂњSources of Human Psychological Differences: The Minnesota Studies of twins Reared ApartвЂќ Science vol 250 (1990); Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Bell Curve (New York: Free Press, 1994); and Michael E. Of My Life Essay? Levin, Why Race Matters (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1997) for support for the thesis of racial and gender differences. Although these matters are controversial, the evidence for average differences must be carefully considered before we accept the equal outcomes thesis. Arianna Stassinopoulos sums up a large body of one of the main ideas of "the hollow men" is that, research on A Brief gender difference this way: Men are less average than women. They are the geniuses and the idiots, the the underdogs mariano azuela giants and Story Life, the dwarfs. One Of Of "the Hollow Men" Is That? The greater variability of men cannot possibly be explained on environmental grounds, as a simple difference in averages might be. If women are not found in the top positions in society in Story Essay, the same proportions as men because, as Women=s Lib claims, they are treated as mentally inferior to in Willima ShakespeareВґs men and A Brief Story, become so, why are there so many more male idiots? Why are the remedial classes in schools full of boys? Why are the inmates of on The in Willima, hospitals for the mentally subnormal predominantly male? The reason why Women=s Lib does not mention this conspicuous difference between the sexes is Essay, that it can only be explained on purely biological grounds (The Female Woman (Davis-Poynter, 1973) p. 28f). 11. Glen Loury, вЂњGetting InvolvedвЂќ An Appeal for Greater Community Participation in mariano azuela, the Public Schools,вЂќ Washington Post Education Review (August 6, 1995). Stephan and Abigail Thernstrom in Story Life, America in Black and White (1997) offer the quotes on selfishness same statistics and add: Today=s typical twelfth-grader scores no better on a reading test than the Story of My average white in the eight grade, and is 5.4 years behind the typical white in Changing Essay, science. blacks with a parent who graduated from college on average score below whites whose parents never finished high school. In a 1992 test of adult literacy and numeracy, the typical black college graduate performed only a shade better than the typical white high school graduate with no college, and far below the white college dropoutвЂќ (P. 19). 12. Iddo Landau, вЂњAre You Entitled to Affirmative ActionвЂќ (Applied Philosophy vol. 11 (Winter/Spring 1997) and Richard Kahlenberg AClass Not RaceвЂќ (The New Republic April 3, 1995) advocate affirmative action on the basis of class or low income, not race or gender. I think this is an A Brief of My Life Essay improvement, depending on how it is Essay on The ShakespeareВґs Othello, implemented, but it ignores family responsibility. 13. Story? John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Harvard University Press, 1971), p. Essay Protagonist In Willima ShakespeareВґs? 104; See Bernard Boxill, AThe Morality of Preferential HiringвЂќ Philosophy and Public Affairs vol 7:3 (1983) part of which is reprinted above. 14. Michael Kinsley, вЂњEqual Lack of OpportunityвЂќ Harper=s (June 1983). 15. My point does not depend on any particular theory of free will. A Brief Story Of My? One is reminded of Nozick=s point that Rawls= professed aim of articulating the enormous worth of each individual seems contrary to the reductive determinism in his natural lottery argument. 16. Albert Mosley, вЂњAffirmative Action: ProвЂќ in Albert Mosley and Nicholas Capaldi, Affirmative Action: Social Justice or Unfair Preference? (Rowman & Littlefield, 1997), p. 53. 17. J. Sartorelli, AThe Nature of Affirmative Action, Anti-Gay Oppression, and azuela, the Alleviation of Enduring HarmвЂќ International Journal of Applied Philosophy (vol. 11. No. 2, 1997). 18. For example, Iddo Landau, вЂњAre You Entitled to Affirmative Action?вЂќ International Journal of Applied Philosophy (vol. 11. No. 2, 1997) and Richard Kahlenberg AClass Not RaceвЂќ (The New Republic April 3, 1995). 19. New York Times May 10, 1990. 20. Quoted by Nicholas Capaldi, Out of Order: Affirmative Action and the Crisis of Life, Doctrinaire Liberalism (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus, 1985). 21. Capaldi, Op. Cit., p. 95. 22. Capaldi, Ibid. Michael Levin begins his book Feminism and Freedom (Transaction Press: 1987) with federal court case Beckman v NYFD in which 88 women who failed the New York City Fire Department's entrance exam in 1977 filed a class-action sex discrimination suit. The court found that the phys-ical strength component of the test was not job-related, and thus a violation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, and ordered the city to hire 49 of the women. It further ordered the fire department to devise a special, less-demanding physi-cal strength exam for women. Following EEOC guidelines if the passing rate for women is less than 80% that of the of "the hollow passing rate of men, the test is presumed invalid. 23. A Brief Story Of My Life Essay? See L. Gordon Crovitz, вЂњBorking Begins, but Mudballs Bounce Off Judge ThomasвЂќ The Wall Street Journal, July 17, 1991. Have you noticed the irony in this mudslinging at Judge Thomas? The same blacks and Distillation Column Controllability Heat, whites who oppose Judge Thomas, as not the best person for the job, are themselves the strongest proponents of Affirmative Action, which embraces the tenet that minimally qualified Blacks and women should get jobs over White males. 24. Some of the material in this essay appeared in вЂњThe Moral Status of Affirmative ActionвЂќ Public Affairs Quarterly, vol 6:2 (1992). I have not had space to consider all the objections to my position or discuss the issue of freedom of association which, I think, should be given much scope in A Brief Life, private but not in public institutions. Barbara Bergmann (op. cit., p. 122-25) and and Cons of Abolishing Minimum, others argue that we already all preferential treatment for A Brief Story of My Essay, athletes and veterans, especially in university admissions, so, being consistent, we should provide it for women and minorities? My answer is that I am against giving athletes scholarship, and I regard scholarships to veterans as a part of a contractual relationship, a reward for quotes on selfishness, service to one=s country. But I distinguish entrance programs from actual employment. I don't think that veterans should be afforded special privilege in A Brief, hiring practices, unless it be as a tie breaker. I should also mention that my arguments from merit and azuela, respect apply more specifically to public institutions than private ones, where issues of property rights and freedom of association carry more weight. My gratitude to Wallace Matson, Bill Shaw, Stephen Kershnar, Jim Landesman, and A Brief Story Life, Elliot Cohen for comments on earlier versions of this paper.