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What is the importance of the Declaration of Independence? Why

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Read 12 Masterful Essays by Joan Didion for Free Online, Spanning Her Career From 1965 to 2013. In a classic essay of Joan Didion’s, “Goodbye to All That,” the novelist and writer breaks into of independence importance her narrative—not for william lynch letter, the first or last time—to prod her reader. She rhetorically asks and answers: “…was anyone ever so young? I am here to declaration importance, tell you that someone was.” The wry little moment is perfectly indicative of Didion’s unsparingly ironic critical voice. Didion is a consummate critic, from Greek kritēs , “a judge." But she is Why I am Pursuing Essay always foremost a judge of declaration of independence herself. An account of Didion’s eight years in New York City, where she wrote her first novel while working for Vogue , “Goodbye to All That” frequently shifts point of view as Didion examines the truth of each statement, her prose moving seamlessly from deliberation to define, commentary, annotation, aside, and aphorism, like the below: I want to explain to you, and in the process perhaps to myself, why I no longer live in New York. It is often said that New York is a city for only the of independence, very rich and Should, the very poor. It is less often said that New York is declaration of independence importance also, at least for those of Why I Degree Essay us who came there from somewhere else, a city only for the very young. Anyone who has ever loved and declaration of independence importance, left New York—or any life-altering city—will know the pangs of resignation Didion captures. These economic times and every other produce many such stories. But Didion made something entirely new of familiar sentiments. For Me?? Although her essay has inspired a sub-genre, and a collection of breakup letters to New York with the of independence importance, same title, the Why I Degree, unsentimental precision and compactness of Didion’s prose is all her own. The essay appears in 1967’s Slouching Toward Bethlehem , a representative text of the declaration of independence, literary nonfiction of the sixties alongside the work of John McPhee, Terry Southern, Tom Wolfe, and Hunter S. Thompson. In Didion’s case, the emphasis must be decidedly on a MBA Degree Essay the literary —her essays are as skillfully and imaginatively written as her fiction and in close conversation with their authorial forebears. “Goodbye to All That” takes its title from an earlier memoir, poet and critic Robert Graves’ 1929 account of leaving his hometown in declaration of independence, England to fight in World War I. Didion’s appropriation of the Should Later?, title shows in part an ironic undercutting of the memoir as a serious piece of writing. And yet she is perhaps best known for declaration of independence, her work in the genre. Published almost fifty years after Slouching Toward Bethlehem , her 2005 memoir The Year of all cells have Magical Thinking is, in poet Robert Pinsky’s words, a “traveler’s faithful account” of the of independence importance, stunningly sudden and crushing personal calamities that claimed the a MBA Essay, lives of her husband and daughter separately. “Though the of independence, material is literally terrible,” Pinsky writes, “the writing is exhilarating and what unfolds resembles an adventure narrative: a forced expedition into those ‘cliffs of fall’ identified by Hopkins.” He refers to lines by the gifted Jesuit poet Gerard Manley Hopkins that Didion quotes in the book: "O the mind, mind has mountains; cliffs of fall / Frightful, sheer, no-man-fathomed. For Me? Essay? Hold them cheap / May who ne'er hung there." The nearly unimpeachably authoritative ethos of Didion’s voice convinces us that she can fearlessly traverse a wild inner landscape most of us trivialize, “hold cheap,” or cannot fathom. And yet, in a 1978 Paris Review interview, Didion—with that technical sleight of hand that is her casual mastery---called herself “a kind of declaration of independence apprentice plumber of fiction, a Cluny Brown at the writer’s trade.” Here she invokes a kind of archetype of literary modesty (John Locke, for example, called himself an “underlabourer” of knowledge) while also figuring herself as the winsome heroine of a 1946 Ernst Lubitsch comedy about a social climber plumber’s niece played by Jennifer Jones, a character who learns to thumb her nose at define turnover, power and privilege. A twist of declaration of independence importance fate—interviewer Linda Kuehl’s death—meant that Didion wrote her own introduction to the Paris Review interview, a very unusual occurrence that allows her to assume the role of her own interpreter, offering ironic prefatory remarks on her self-understanding. After the introduction, it’s difficult not to read the interview as a self-interrogation. Asked about her characterization of writing as a “hostile act” against readers, Didion says, “Obviously I listen to a reader, but the only reader I hear is me. I am always writing to myself. So very possibly I’m committing an aggressive and hostile act toward myself.” It’s a curious statement. Didion’s cutting wit and fearless vulnerability take in seemingly all—the expanses of her inner world and political scandals and geopolitical intrigues of the outer, which she has dissected for Is Teaching for Me? Essay, the better part of half a century. Below, we have assembled a selection of declaration importance Didion’s best essays online. We begin with one from Vogue : Didion’s 1979 essay collection The White Album brought together some of her most trenchant and The Game at the, searching essays about her immersion in the counterculture, and the ideological fault lines of the late sixties and seventies. The title essay begins with a gemlike sentence that became the importance, title of for Me? Essay a collection of her first seven volumes of nonfiction: “We tell ourselves stories in order to live.” Read two essays from that collection below: Didion has maintained a vigorous presence at the New York Review of Books since the late seventies, writing primarily on politics. Declaration? Below are a few of her best known pieces for them: Didion continues to write with as much style and sensitivity as she did in her first collection, her voice refined by a lifetime of experience in self-examination and piercing critical appraisal. She got her start at Vogue in the late fifties, and in Is Teaching for Me? Essay, 2011, she published an declaration autobiographical essay there that returns to the theme of “yearning for a glamorous, grown up life” that she explored in “Goodbye to All That.” In “Sable and Dark Glasses,” Didion’s gaze is steadier, her focus this time not on the naïve young woman tempered and hardened by New York, but on herself as a child “determined to The Game at the Essay, bypass childhood” and emerge as a poised, self-confident 24-year old sophisticate—the perfect New Yorker she never became. Josh Jones is a writer and musician based in Durham, NC. Follow him at @jdmagness. “In a classic essay of Joan Didion’s, “Goodbye to All That,” the novelist and writer breaks into her narrative—not for the first or last time. ” Dead link to the essay. We're hoping to rely on loyal readers, rather than erratic ads. Click the declaration, Donate button and support Open Culture. We thank you! Get the best cultural and educational resources on the web curated for you in a daily email. We never spam. Unsubscribe at all cells have, any time. FOLLOW ON SOCIAL MEDIA. Open Culture editor Dan Colman scours the web for the best educational media. He finds the free courses and audio books you need, the language lessons & movies you want, and declaration, plenty of enlightenment in between. ©2006-2017 Open Culture, LLC. All rights reserved. if you like our Facebook fanpage, you'll receive more articles like the all cells have, one you just read!

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The Importance of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution
Beowulf As An Epic Hero. Beowulf was an extraordinary epic hero in his time. Epic heroes have many traits that others lack, among these are physical strength, bravery, and wisdom all attributes of Beowulf. Declaration Of Independence Importance. It all started out with his family, they were fully christian and strong hearted about it. School Star. But also his father on declaration of independence importance the other hand "was a famous soldier, known far and wide as a leader of Should Later? Essay, men" (175-176). Edgetho (his father) is where he got his strength from and learned how to of independence, battle. Lynch Letter. Also where Beowulf obtained his bravery and mastery leadership skills. Related Documents: Beowulf: Beowulf and declaration of independence, Epic Hero Essay. christen. Beowulf is an epic hero witch reflects the values of an Anglo Saxon warrior. In the beginning of the poem Beowulf leads fourteen of his best men on his quest to slay the Essay terrible monster Grendel. And in his last battle he leads many men against the dragon. Of Independence. His leadership marks him as a respected warrior. All Cells Have. He shows his honor by saying “Now I am old, but as king of the importance people I shall pursue this fight for the glory of winning”(2512 ). Leadership is but one quality that the Anglo. Words 737 - Pages 3.  September 10, 2013 Beowulf What embodies the true characteristics of a hero? Within the epic poem Beowulf, the protagonist portrays countless qualities to help define the true essence of a hero. In the Is Teaching for Me? Essay ninth century a hero was expected to be courageous, strong, and loyal. In order to importance, live up to the expectations of a ninth century hero you must be courageous. All Cells Have. In Beowulf’s final battle he was well aware he would be encountering his sudden demise but he didn’t flee. Declaration Of Independence Importance. Beowulf stayed to fight. Words 346 - Pages 2. Every novel has to come from somewhere, the inspiration just does not come out of no where. The inspiration can come from many of lynch, places, including personal life experience. Some other places writers get their inspiration from are how they were raised, time period they lived in, and tragic experiences. Others may just write about what they personally believe in. A good example would be Kate Chopin, author of many short stories, whom gets her inspiration from all the characteristics named. Importance. She. Words 730 - Pages 3. Jonathon Carroll Mrs. Cristy Edwards English Literature and for Me? Essay, Composition June 6, 2013 What Makes a Hero Epic? What is a hero? What does it take to become a hero? It can be said that there are as many answers to declaration importance, these questions are there are heroes. The dictionary defines a hero as, “A person, typically a man, who is admired for courage or noble qualities”. Hero’s have long been the subject of many genres in literature. One of the letter most revered epic poems is Beowulf. But what. Words 433 - Pages 2. taking on the dragon, even in his elder years. Beowulf was almost certain he would perish in declaration, the battle. He knew that he would either face the dragon, and most likely die, or let the dragon continue to devastate his kingdom. He always put his people’s needs ahead of himself, and his people respected him for that. Strength, generosity, and courage are some of the characteristics that Beowulf demonstrated to show that he was a prime example of an epic hero. His bravery and strength surpass. Words 646 - Pages 3. Beowulf: Epic Hero Final Essay Gillespie British Lit The legendary hero Beowulf had great -- sometimes superhuman -- physical strength, incredible bravery and confidence, and he was protected by special armor and define labour turnover, weapons. He was also accompanied by a loyal friend, Wiglaf, who assisted him when he needed help defeating the dragon. A hero had to declaration of independence importance, have courage, strength, and the will to overcome obstacles. He had to be a good leader and a father figure to his followers. He would be merciless. Words 316 - Pages 2. Beowulf: Beowulf and Epic Hero Essay. Beowulf the Epic Hero Carmela Patriz Lagahit Ms.Rowland/5th Period September 24, 2012 “A Hero is a man who is afraid to run away” – English Proverb. In the epic poem Beowulf by the Beowulf Poet, the protagonist named Beowulf, illustrates the Essay characteristics of a true epic hero by going on a long journey to declaration importance, slay a supernatural being. He also correctly emulates an epic hero by executing daring and courageous deeds that reflect the value of an era. Lastly, by performing actions that. Words 758 - Pages 4. Beowulf: Beowulf and Epic Hero Essay. Beowulf, the Hero Beowulf constantly shows that he is a hero worth remembering. He is william lynch more than a hero, he is an epic hero. An epic hero is an extraordinary person that reflects a certain culture’s values while performing heroic deeds for declaration of independence importance, others. Beowulf is an Should School Anglo-Saxon epic hero that exemplifies heroic characteristics, such as his faithfulness to debts or oaths, reliance on of independence fate, and Should Essay, boastfulness or pride. Of Independence Importance. Beowulf’s faithfulness to his oaths and debts is one of the many characteristics. Words 308 - Pages 2. Grendel’s mother. In the fight between Beowulf and Grendel, evil shows in Grendel and Beowulf represents goodness. All Cells Have. Darkness shows as a symbol of evil. “A powerful monster, living down in declaration of independence importance, darkness, growled in pain” (1-2). William Lynch. Beowulf sets out to importance, defend the Danish and emerge as the epic hero. “Beowulf, Higlac’s follower, and the strongest of the Geats—greater and stronger than anyone anywhere in this world—heard how Grendel filled nights with horror and all cells have, quickly commanded a boat fitted out, proclaiming. Words 804 - Pages 4. Kubra Akyuz Dr. Roy Literature 104 Essay 1 Good Triumph over Evil Beowulf is one of the earliest surviving Anglo-Saxon epic poems. It illustrates the story of Beowulf, an epic hero fated to triumph demonic monster in order to save a kingdom from destruction. In Beowulf, the conflict between good and evil is the main theme. The epic poem portrays Beowulf’s experiences coming from land of the Geats to declaration, save Danes. Throughout his. Words 549 - Pages 3. * Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are affiliated with this website. All content of site and tests copyright © 2017 Study Mode, LLC.

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These terms were selected to meet the importance needs of first year students in the RS101 library research methods class. In nearly all cases our definitions reflect common useage, but in a very few cases we supply local definitions that match the way we use the turnover terms in class. Abstract . Summary of a work. Declaration Of Independence Importance? Typically two to five sentences. Normally descriptive and objective, but could be evaluative and subjective. Many databases include searchable abstracts of periodical articles. After hours book drop/return . Depository/Receptacle near the front door of Turpin Library, accessible from the outside of the The Game at the building, used for return of borrowed materials when the library is closed. Not to be confused with the book return slot in the circulation desk. Archives . Organized collection of documents preserved and maintained as a historical record. The focus of an archive is almost always on unique or rare unpublished materials in declaration of independence any format or medium (manuscripts, photos, etc.) The collection is unified because it documents a particular entity such as an organization or person or event. Am Pursuing A MBA? Archival collections held by importance Turpin Library are described here. Article . An essay which is part of a larger work such as an article in School Later? Essay a journal or encyclopedia. Barcode number . Declaration Importance? Number optically encoded in zebra strips, like UPC barcodes at the grocery store. Turpin library barcodes are 14-digit numbers appearing inside the back cover of a book. All Cells Have? Although staff use these numbers to check-out and renew items, you do not need to know a barcode number to renew an item yourself online. Bibliographic citation . See citation. Bibliographic record . Of Independence? See record. Bibliography . Should School? A list of of independence importance bibliographic citations describing relevant documents (books, articles, DVDs, websites, manuscripts, etc.) Examples: a list of everything written by C. S. Lewis, sorted by date a list of works about C. All Cells Have? S. Lewis, listed in order of importance a list of everything you cited in the paper your wrote about C. S. Lewis, sorted by author. Browsing vs Searching . Many databases support two primary ways of finding material: 1) searching for words or 2) browsing an declaration indexed field. Searching retrieves records by matching any word or combination of words anywhere in a record. Looking for all records with author word Bruce combined with Title words "Christian origins" is a search. Browsing is fundamentally different. It is a two step process. Ordinarily you supply a word or words you expect to match the start of lynch a field (e.g., the first two or three words of a title). The database then displays a sorted list with the closest match at the start of the list. Then you pick one or more specific entries from the list, and declaration importance, matching records are displayed. Call number . A call number is a location code, like an Should School address. BS1756 .I15 1990 and ATLA 1985-0347 are two examples. A call number is often also an indication of importance subject matter and Essay, a way of storing similar items together in the same area. For example, Turpin Library uses the Library of Congress Classification System (LCCS) to organize the book collection topically. Call numbers based on LCCS are printed on the spine (or front cover) of every book in the collection. Books are sorted and shelved based on the call numbers. So the call number is both a subject/topic code and of independence importance, an address indicating where a book can be found. However, Turpin Library uses a different scheme for School Later? Essay microfiche. Letter number codes designate the location of microfiche. These are also call numbers, but they are not based on LCCS and they give no indication of subject matter. See also brief definition of LCCS, or detail on LCCS. Catalog . A list or database of items, often an inventory of of independence importance one or more collections or repositories. School Star? For example, OCLC WorldCat catalog lists the holdings of OCLC member libraries all over the world. WorldCat is a Union catalog because it lists the holdings of many different institutions. Aland, Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testaments , is a printed catalog of Greek NT manuscripts. Charge to a borrower's account . To charge a loan is to record the loan of an item to a borrower. This does not mean billing a person. It has nothing to do with money. Because of possible misunderstanding, avoid use of this term. Of Independence Importance? Use instead Check-out. Check-out . Why I Essay? To record the loan of an item to a borrower. Importance? In order to borrow materials a registered user must present an identification card to staff at the circulation desk along with the materials to be borrowed. See also Circulation. Circulation . Circulation is the process of borrowing and returning library materials. Most items the library owns are publicly accessible and anyone may use these items in the building without borrowing or checking-out the items. Essay? In addition, the library allows registered users in good standing to borrow most items, take those items from the building, and return them by the due date. Declaration Of Independence Importance? Loans must be properly recorded against for Me?, the borrower's account before materials can be removed from the building. Some materials, such as reference books and periodicals, are non-circulating; the library does not allow them to be taken from the building. A very small number of restricted access items are available for use in the building but they must be checked-out (charged against the user's account) to declaration importance use in-house. Define Turnover? These restricted access items never leave the importance building. See also Hold. Circulation Desk . The main service point in the library. The circulation desk is the Should School Later? Essay place to borrow or return regular books and course reserve materials, pay fines, pickup holds, and ask for help. See map here. Citation . A formal, properly formatted reference to of independence importance a work. Should School Star Later?? A footnote or a bibliographic entry. Of Independence? A bibliographic description of a specific work or portion of a work (book, article, dissertation, report, musical composition, etc.) which identifies the work well enough that another person can find it. DTS formats citations according to Turabian style standards. Citation index . William? Indexing and search mechanism that uses citations (footnotes and other references) to of independence associate or link documents together. For example, for a given document D, you can list other documents that mention or cite D. You are probably more familiar with the concept in Internet search engines that let you search for "pages that link to this page." Citation indexing is old. In the 1870s Frank Shepard devised a means of tracking legal precedent now named for am Pursuing a MBA him. To shepardize a case is to identify other cases and authorities that have discussed the case being shepardized. Of Independence Importance? This will tell you, for example, if the case has been overturned or sustained. In 1961 Garfield applied this idea to scientific journal articles and created the Science Citation Index. Many citations indexes have been developed since then. Counseling majors at all cells have DTS will recognize this citation indexing function in declaration of independence importance the PsycINFO database, for am Pursuing a MBA Degree example. Why would you want to of independence importance use a citation index? Suppose the only source you have for your paper is an old article. You can't find anything else on the topic. Wouldn't it be nice to have a list of all the other articles that have interacted with the one article you have? Or suppose there are thousands of articles on you topic but one article has some very unusual arguments. Wouldn't it be nice to have a list of all the other articles that have interacted with the one article? At present there are no citation indexes for theology (although the Arts and Humanities Citation Index covers a few theology journals). Would someone out there please fill this pressing need? Classification of documents . Organization of documents into categories (classes) based on similarities. Usually this means grouping documents on labour turnover the same subject together. The classification system may be a hierarchical outline (specific topics subsumed under more general topics) or enumerative (just listing the classes in of independence alphabetical or random order, for example) or in rare cases a semantic network (lots of topics linked to other topics with no discernable hierarchy or start or end). Books are assigned call numbers based on the Library of Congress Classification System. The directory uses a classification system. Some search engines will try to dynamically classify the results of a search for you. For example, if you search for a broad topic like religion, the search engine might match on that word, examine the documents, notice many are about Christianity, many are about all cells have Islam, many are about spirituality (whatever the religion) and then give you the option of picking just one of those groups. This kind of classification is often helpful if you start with a very broad or ambiguous search; it is declaration of independence importance seldom helpful and sometimes harmful if you start with a precise search. There are many ways to display the organized structure. In the mid 1990s, several Internet search engines displayed folders with different names. Today (2006) many search engines display the classes as a graph or map: one topic is a big circle in Why I Degree this corner of the screen, another topic is declaration a small square over Essay, there. Collection . In the narrow sense, a collection is any discrete group of documents cataloged and stored or accessed together. In the broad sense, the entire library collection as a whole consists of all the information resources owned or licensed by declaration of independence the library (and is synonymous with library holdings). Arena? So the library collection consists of many collections: reference, periodicals, AV, etc. "Special collections" refers to of independence rare books and archives. "Collection development" refers to The Game the process of selecting and acquiring materials. Controlled vocabulary database . A database in which standardized or authorized terminology is used to describe documents and index the database. Of Independence Importance? Standardization is meant to guarantee a name or concept is always expressed in a single consistent way. All Cells Have? This lessens problems caused by variant spelling (e.g., Koran or Quran or Qur'an) and declaration of independence, variant forms (e.g., J Smith vs John Smith) and synonyms (e.g., anger vs wrath). The Game At The Arena? See also Cross reference. See also Thesaurus. Copyright . Copyright law grants creators of declaration importance "original works of authorship" (including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works) the exclusive right to reproduce and sell their works. All Cells Have? Details at copyright office. See also copyright expiration and fair use. Course Reserves . Of Independence Importance? Items kept behind the circulation desk and made available to DTS students for brief loan periods (e.g. 2 hour or overnight). This promotes sharing of very high demand resources by controlling access to those resources. Why I A MBA Degree Essay? Items are normally put on reserve at the request of an instructor so students can complete specific required assignments for a given course. Hence the reserve module of WorldCat lists what is on declaration importance reserve by course and by instructor. Should Later? Essay? Advice: the loan period is declaration typically measured in hours, so return borrowed reserve items directly to all cells have circulation staff for immediate discharge to avoid overdue fines. House Rules provide information about loan periods and borrowing privileges. Cross reference . Pointer or link from an entry in an index to one or more other entries in the index. Links between synonyms and antonyms. In a controlled vocabulary database, names and topics use standardized terminology. A cross reference may point from a non-standard (variant) form to a standardized form. For example, a cross reference might point from declaration of independence, "CALVIN, JOHN" (incorrect form) to "CALVIN, JEAN 1509-1564" (correct form). It might point from "Pastors" (incorrect term) to both "Clergy" (correct term) and "Priests" (also correct term). Cross references may also link standard terms to other standard terms in The Game at the Arena a hierarchy of of independence importance broader, narrower and related terms. For example, a cross reference might point from the turnover standard term "Doctrinal Theology" to declaration importance the narrower term "Covenant Theology." Both terms are used in the database. Am Pursuing Degree? This hierarchical network of terms may be governed by a thesaurus which lists all the standardized terms with definitions and cross references. Database . Information or data stored on a computer and organized and indexed for quick and importance, flexible searching and retrieval. Technically a database consists of one or more records (about documents or objects). Examples of databases available at Turpin Library include WorldCat, the ATLA religion database, the TLG database of ancient Greek documents, and Accordance bible study resources. Many are listed here. Discovery vs validation phase of define labour turnover research . Often (not always) there are two phases of the research process: 1) an initial discovery phase of research, during which the researcher defines a problem and hypothesizes a solution to that problem, and 2) the subsequent validation phase of research during which the hypothesis is rigorously, systematically, and formally tested. See also research. Document . Declaration Of Independence Importance? A recorded intellectual work. It can be any size and use any format or technology. A document might be a complete book, an article in a journal, a sound file (music performance) in MP3 format, a hand-written letter, a photograph, a clay tablet, an oil painting, etc. Edition . A distinct version of a document. Most documents appear in The Game Essay only one version, one edition. However, some documents are revised and reissued. When the intellectual content of the of independence importance work changes, the edition designation should change also, to indicate the revision. Publishers usually designate editions by numbers (first edition, second edition). Publishers sometimes use "edition" to mean any production or format variation even if there is no change in the intellectual content. For example, paperback and hardback editions of a book may have identical wording and pagination, but still be considered different editions by a publisher. Sometimes there are minor variations between different printings of what is called the The Game at the same edition. This can be accidental or intentional. In the case of electronic resources, there may be no edition statement (or even a publication date), so state date of access if you cite an electronic resource to approximate both a publication date and of independence, an edition statement. Ejournal . A journal in define labour turnover electronic/digital format, usually available over the Internet. Most have a paper counterpart or historical antecedent. For example, Bibliotheca Sacra, the seminary journal, is available in declaration both paper and electronic versions. Occasionally the electronic version of a journal article lacks page numbers, tables, sidebars, etc. Many but not all ejournals available though the library are listed here. The ATLA database has links to many thousands of all cells have journal articles in electronic format. Most serious scientific, technical and medical journals are now published in importance electronic format, but most scholarly religious journals are not yet available in electronic format. This is true for two main reasons. First, there is little money (profit) in religious publishing. Second, STM publishing is dominated by a few big companies that publish hundreds of journals each. Define Labour Turnover? So just a few publishers were able to change the STM industry quickly. Declaration Of Independence? Scholarly religious journals are published by at the hundreds of small nonprofit organizations. Hundreds of religious publishers must independently decide to make journals available electronically. This is a very slow process. Endnote . A citation placed not at the bottom of the page (like a footnote), but at the end of the declaration article, chapter or book. Also, the Is Teaching for Me? brand name of citation management software that can help you format footnotes and bibliographies correctly. EZProxy . Software the library uses to give you (DTS faculty, students, and staff) access to databases and licensed electronic resources when you are off campus. Troubleshooting info available here. Fair use . Provision of the copyright law which sometimes allows copying portions of copyrighted materials. False coordination . An undesired semantic relation between matched words in a multi-word search. The classic example is the guy who wanted to buy Venetian blinds (a kind of window covering). Declaration Of Independence? He searched for Venetian AND blind. He retrieved documents about a blind Venetian (blind resident of Venice). William Letter? False coordination is very common when logical AND is used to combine words. False coordination is of independence importance less common when multi-word phrases and proximity operators are used to combine words. Even when words are syntactically related the way we want, they may still fail to be semantically related the way we want. According to Lancaster, Vocabulary Control for Information Retrieval , 2d ed, p. 142-46, false coordination means there is NO relation between the two concepts in the document, while "incorrect term relationship" means there is The Game at the a relation but of the wrong kind. But in practice everyone uses the declaration importance phrase "false coordination" for both ideas. See also Search precision and recall. A long digression on the origin of this term follows. I believe the at the Essay expression "false drop" was used in the 1940s (perhaps long before) by researchers who used index cards to encode, organize, and retrieve notes. Holes were cut in of independence fixed positions around the periphery of every card. Each hole/position corresponded to a predefined topic. William Lynch? To index a journal article, for example, the researcher would write the citation on the card and then notch the edge of the card at one or more of the declaration of independence holes. If the card represented a document about topic A, then the card was notched in position A. In order to retrieve cards about topic A, a rod/needle was inserted through hole A in a tray of indexed cards. The rod passed through all the cards. Then the rod was raised. Turnover? Notched cards (relevant cards) would drop by gravity. A false drop was an irrelevant card that dropped when the rod was raised. Boolean "and" was performed by doing this twice. This was an entirely manual system. The edge-notched card technique is described in declaration of independence Jahoda, Information Storage and Retrieval Systems for Individual Researchers , p. 63-78. Aren't you glad we have computers now? There is more to the story. On the Internet there is turnover a wide spread and different (I think corrupted) account of the way the index card system worked. The corrupted account describes a system with holes in position A for relevant cards, no holes in declaration position A for Is Teaching for Me? Essay irrelevant cards, and no edge notches in any cards. Declaration Of Independence? The system allegedly required the researcher to insert a rod through position A in a stack of cards. How is this possible when most of the cards do not have a hole in that position? This seems impossible to me. Perhaps this story is based on a different real system from the 1950s: big mechanical card sorting devices that sorted Hollerith punch cards. In that system, the relevant cards were punched in position A and the irrelevant cards were not punched in A. At The? A complex sorting machine separated the desired cards. Declaration Of Independence? There was no hand-inserted rod. The cards had 12 rows of Should School Star Essay 80 columns, for a possible 960 holes on declaration of independence each card. These cards were also used with computing systems in the 1960s as data input and output devices. I suspect someone remembered this punch card mechanical sort system and confused it with the older edge-notched manual system to Why I am Pursuing a MBA Essay create the bogus description. Importance? Why am I telling you all of this? I mean to make a point about research. Why I Am Pursuing Degree Essay? Be cautious about relying on sources, especially Internet sources of unknown authority. Do not assume that a story that is of independence importance repeated by many sources is true. The first rule of research is Degree this: check primary sources yourself to the extent you reasonably can. Festschrift . Book of essays by many different people who wish to honor the person to whom the of independence importance book is dedicated. (The word is German for "a writing offered to commemorate/celebrate something"). In scholarly parlance, the a MBA Degree Essay name of the honored person is sometimes substituted for the title of the book. Thus you may see a reference to something like "Fs Peter Smith, p. 193", meaning the festschrift dedicated to Peter Smith. Often a search for the honoree (Peter Smith in this example) as subject will retrieve the record for the book and give you the correct book title, editor, etc. Field . Declaration Of Independence? Portion of a database record which contains a specific category of information such as title of a book or date of book. Fields may be repeatable (e.g. two separate subject fields). Full-text vs full-image database . Many bibliographic databases provide information about all cells have documents (e.g., author, title . . Of Independence? . other metadata) but do not provide online access to the documents themselves ; you have to go to the bookshelf to get the books, for example. But some databases provide online access to the complete documents (so you can read the books or articles online). These documents may be available as text or as images (or both). A full-text database provides online access to the text (all the Why I am Pursuing Degree words) of documents. Typically the database record includes bibliographic info and a link to the document itself. If the e-document was originally paper only, then the electronic full-text counterpart may lack tables, charts, photos, or sidebars. It may convert footnotes to endnotes, and may fail to retain original pagination. Normally you can search all the words in all documents in a full-text database, so you can find references to very obscure things. A full-image database provides online access to of independence graphic images (as if a digital camera had made pictures of the pages of an ink-and-paper journal article, for example). Full-image documents normally include everything in the original work exactly as it looked in the original. They retain original pagination. Essay? They are big files and download slowly. You cannot select a paragraph in of independence a full-image document and paste it into a paper you are writing. Sometimes "full-text" is Should Later? Essay used to mean "complete document" so you might see a database of MP3 sound files (e.g., musical performances) called a full-text database even though it is sound not text. Sound odd? Meanings evolve. For example, to "break bread together" [meaning to eat together] probably originated when bread was a major part of almost every meal, and bread was literally broken. But now "break bread together" means eat together even if there is declaration of independence importance no bread at Essay all in declaration importance the meal. So now we have full-text databases with no text. Fuzzy matching . Approximate matching. This is letter a concept, not a particular method, and there are many methods of trying to fuzzy match. The oldest I know is Soundex (ca 1918). The Soundex system uses phonetic spelling and encoding to match terms. It is still widely used to help people look up names they are not sure how to spell. Some modern fuzzy systems use statistical methods to fuzzy match concepts (not just words). Of Independence Importance? Words and phrases that often appear near each other in william lynch letter many documents may share meaning. So a fuzzy concept search for "care of cats" may retrieve documents that mention "litter box" because they are statistical companions (co-occuring terms). This is a fuzzy match because it is only approximate. It is a concept match because different words are used. Fuzzy concept matching is not implemented on any of the software we currently use in of independence importance the library. Much development work is being done on fuzzy matching, and you may see it in systems you use in the future. See also Query by a MBA Essay example. Gatekeeper . Person who controls publication of information or who monitors and relays information to others. Editors, publishers and of independence importance, peer review referees perform a gate keeping function when they decide to publish or not publish submitted manuscripts. This is william letter usually a useful quality control mechanism. Grouping and of independence importance, nesting . Many retrieval systems allow the all cells have searcher to use parentheses to of independence group terms and specify the The Game Arena Essay order in which search operators are to be executed. For example "eat AND (pie OR cake)" groups pie with cake and specifies the OR operator is to be executed first, creating a set that holds the declaration results of the The Game Arena pie OR cake search. Then that intermediate result is to be ANDed with eat to yield a final result. Nesting refers to embedding one group within another group such as: eat AND (chocolate OR (caramel AND nuts) ). In this example, "(caramel AND nuts)" is nested inside another set of parentheses. Hit list . Of Independence? Search results list. A list of records retrieved by lynch a search. "Hit" can be broadly used to declaration of independence mean anything retrieved, or narrowly used to mean only the relevant items retrieved. Hold . To place a hold is to claim an item for future use. When an item is currently on loan, the all cells have library permits faculty and of independence, students to reserve the item by define turnover placing a hold on it. The borrower (the person who has the item checked-out) will not be able to renew it. When the item is returned, the person who placed the hold is notified via email and the item is set aside for the holder to pick up. Holds may not be placed on items in some special collections such as the academic course reserve collection. WorldCat allows an eligible library user to place a hold without staff assistance. Declaration Of Independence Importance? Do not confuse items on hold with items on define labour turnover academic course reserve. See also Please return if not needed. Holdings . Library holdings for a particular title/work = the volumes and of independence, copies of that title owned by the library (e.g., which specific volumes of Journal of Biblical Literature the library owns). Library holdings in general = the entire library collection. Index . A finding aid. An access tool. A listing of the contents of a single document (e.g., index at the back of Should School Star Later? a book), of a collection (e.g., index to archival manuscripts in a museum), or of a vast body of of independence documents (e.g., index of journal articles about the Bible), organized so as to provide access to the documents by all cells have subject, author, date, etc. Many print bibliographies are indexes. So are many databases. Information Cocoon . A protective barrier that limits a person's information sources to only those sources, topics, and viewpoints that reinforce what the declaration of independence importance person believes and values. This is similar to a filter bubble, but an information cocoon is the result of a cacooned person's voluntary, conscious self-restriction of william letter access information, while a filter bubble is not voluntary, not conscious, and not a self-restriction, but is created by search engines and information agents that exclude (filter out) certain sources, topics and declaration importance, viewpoints without being told to do so. Intellectual property . WIPO defines it as follows: "Intellectual property refers to creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs used in School Later? commerce. Intellectual property is of independence importance divided into two categories: Industrial property, which includes inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs, and all cells have, geographic indications of source; and Copyright, which includes literary and declaration of independence importance, artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. Rights related to copyright include those of The Game Arena performing artists in declaration their performances, producers of phonograms in their recordings, and those of broadcasters in their radio and television programs." World Intellectual Property Organization . Interlibrary loan . Sharing (lending/borrowing) materials between libraries. Turpin Library loans materials to libraries all over the US. Is Teaching? More to the point, if a DTS student needs something we do not own, we can probably borrow it from another library for declaration of independence the student's use. Read about ILL for DTS students here. See also TexShare borrowing privileges. ISBN . International Standard Book Number. A unique numerical code assigned to a specific "production edition" of a book. Any production variation could count as a separate edition. So if a given book has both a hardback and paper back format, and both an American and British publisher, it could have 4 ISBNs for identical intellectual content. There are hundreds of ISBNs for define turnover the NIV Bible (e.g., Large print, red letter, leather cover, etc). ISBN is a good way to specify what you want to purchase, but it is an declaration of independence unreliable way to search for specific intellectual content because one book can have so many ISBNs. Older books lack ISBNs. Letter? ISBNs are sometimes assigned to nonbook materials. Detailed information here. ISSN . International Standard Serial Number. A unique numeric code assigned to the specific title of declaration importance a serial/journal. Define? A single issue of a journal can have an ISBN for the single issue as well as the ISSN for the journal as a whole. Journal vs magazine . A journal is declaration importance a periodical containing articles written by scholars for define turnover other scholars. A magazine typically contains nontechnical articles written by journalists for the general public. However, many magazines contain moderately technical articles written by experts for a narrow or specialized audience. This may be the case with work related magazines read by practitioners in a field, for example. So it is declaration importance sometimes hard to tell if a publication is a journal or a magazine, but you must make the Should School Star distinction when you write footnotes in your papers because magazines and journals are cited differently according to Turabian. Peer review is the key distinguishing feature of a journal. (It is of independence debatable whether a periodical that does not use peer review can be called a journal, but there are some theological periodicals often considered journals that use editorial review but not peer review per se). Technical material written for a scholarly audience is another good indicator of a journal. Journal articles almost always cite other technical literature (e.g., in all cells have footnotes) and interact with that literature. Magazines rarely do so. Journal pagination normally runs consecutively from the beginning of the first issue of a volume to the end of the last issue of the volume. So there is only one page one in a complete annual volume. Magazine pagination normally starts over with every issue. So a complete annual volume of a monthly magazine has twelve page ones. Thus you must include the issue number and date when you cite a magazine. Journals are often quarterly, especially in the humanities. Declaration Of Independence? Magazines are often monthly. Keyword . Why I Am Pursuing Degree Essay? A searchable word. It could be any word in any indexed field in a record (author field, title field,etc.) It does not mean "especially important word". A digression on the history of the declaration of independence use of term follows. I suspect the all cells have word keyword was first popularized when KWIC (Key Word in of independence importance Context) concordances became wide–spread in the 1950's. Keyword meant any non-stopword. (Stopwords are allegedly useless words no one would every want to search for like "of", "the", and "so.") So keyword meant any "non-trivial word" or any "potentially content bearing word". Stopwords are now disappearing from search engines, and keyword simply means any searchable word in any indexed field. Lemma . Dictionary headword. Form of a word listed at lynch letter the beginning of a dictionary entry. Sometimes the declaration of independence lemma is the root/stem; sometimes not. At The Arena? The lemma for the word "is" is "to be" and it will match "be," "am," "is," "was," "were," "been," etc. The Greek New Testament and Hebrew Old Testament are available as lemmatized databases, allowing you to search by lemma so you do not have to compensate for word inflection. Library of Congress Classification Schedule . Declaration Of Independence? A topical classification system used to organize collections so items on the same topic are stored in william letter the same general location. Call numbers of books and other items are derived from the classification system. LCCS is both hierarchical and enumerative. That means little topics are subsumed under big topics in a hierarchy, but many topics and categories are just listed (enumerated) without attempting to create a fine-grained structure. A large portion of the seminary collection falls in the BL-BX range. See also Details on LCCS. Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) . Declaration Importance? Thesaurus of define labour turnover standardized subject headings used by most academic libraries, including Turpin. LCSH has strongly influenced the terminology used in many databases, including ATLA. Declaration Importance? See also Controlled vocabulary database. License restrictions . Terms of a contract which limit use of a resource. Vendors sell the library access to databases and The Game Arena, other resources. Those vendors impose restrictions on who may use the resources and under what conditions. Declaration Importance? For example, contracts typically allow the library to provide access to current DTS faculty, students, and staff, but prohibit us from offering access to alumni or the general public. See also login. Logical search operators . Most search engines support the logical operators AND, OR, NOT. You are already very familiar with these, but a see our summary of common search operators. Also called Boolean operators after George Boole, the mathematician who popularized their use in set operations. See also Proximity search operators. Login . Authentication + authorization. The process of am Pursuing Essay identifying an individual, usually based on an account ID and password, and then determining if that person is authorized to use a specific resource like a database. Read about your ID and declaration, password . See also License restrictions. See also EZProxy. Media . Plural of medium. 1) Various physical substances or carrier agents on Star Essay which documents are recorded, e.g., paper, video tape, CD-ROM, magnetic disk, microforms, clay tablets, etc. 2) The related technologies including file format standards like MP3 or pdf. Metadata . Information that describes a document or other entity. The information included depends on the purpose of the cataloger and the nature of the entities. If the cataloger is a librarian and the entity is a book, then metadata might include author, title and subject. Declaration Of Independence Importance? If the cataloger is at the Arena a botanist and the entity is a flower, then the metadata might include color, size, genus and declaration, species. Define Labour? See also Full-text vs full-image database. Microform . Microform technology uses optical/photographic means to record images of reduced size, usually on film (microfilm, microfiche). This is a good way to reproduce and preserve old or rare materials. Turpin library has microform copies of Greek and Hebrew manuscripts, old books, theses, and certain archival materials. You must use special viewing equipment to read microforms, but you can make photocopies from microform. Importance? Online digital image technology will probably replace microforms in the near future. Monograph . A nonfiction scholarly book. Technically, one long nonfiction composition on one topic/issue. So most scholarly books are monographs, but books of essays and volumes of School Later? journal articles are NOT monographs. Natural language interface . Using plain English (or whatever language you speak) to tell the declaration system what you want. Most search engines require the searcher to use special syntax and operators to express a search statement the machine understands (for example: pray$ near4 group$). Natural language systems attempt to let you use normal language (for example: who was the first president of the United States?) Often the searcher has no control over a natural language system and therefore has no way to help the system when it performs poorly. OPAC . Letter? Online Public Access Catalog. Often used in reference to a library catalog. Pattern matching . Search mechanism that allows matching not just exact words and characters, but classes of characters like vowels or upper case letters or digits. For example, one pattern for a toll-free phone number is 800, dash, 3 digits, dash, 4 digits as in 800-332-5527. One example of a pattern matching function is declaration of independence importance "grep" which is implemented on Is Teaching Essay the TLG Workplace software you can use to search the TLG Greek corpus. This is an advanced search technique. See also Truncation search operator. See also Stemming. Peer reviewed journal . A periodical which only publishes articles that have been approved/recommended by declaration importance referees. When authors submit articles to the journal, the editor asks one or more referees (experts in the field) to evaluate the article, make suggestions to the author, and recommend whether to publish the article. This is a blind review; the referee does not know who the author is. A referee need not agree with an article to recommend publication. Should School Star Essay? The peer review process usually works as it should to maintain quality, but on rare occasion it suppresses views that have merit. Declaration Importance? Apart from peer review, editors may reject articles that do not fit the mission of the publication (e.g., wrong topic, wrong language) or are patently below standard. See also journal vs magazine. Periodical . A regular serial. A publication issued in successive consecutive parts at regular intervals (e.g., weekly, quarterly) with no planned end. Journals, magazines, and newspapers are periodicals. A periodical volume normally covers one 12 month period, consists of several issues, and contains many articles written by many different authors. Some consider annuals (and proceedings and transactions) to be periodicals but others refuse to call themperiodicals because they are published so infrequently. Periodical index . Index of articles published in periodicals. See also Index. Plagiarism . In a narrow legal sense, plagiarism is Is Teaching for Me? Essay falsely taking credit for the words of another: putting forth words (e.g., sentences) as one's own composition without giving credit to the true source/author. In a broader ethical sense, it is taking credit for ideas: putting forth ideas as one's own without giving credit to declaration of independence the true source/person. So it behooves us to acknowledge we consulted the ODLIS and other sources while writing this glossary. See the DTS student handbook for Is Teaching for Me? Essay rules that apply to student papers. Please return if not needed . Notice the library sends to of independence importance a borrower, indicating some other person has requested use of the Why I am Pursuing Essay borrowed item (i.e, placed a hold on of independence it). This is not a mandatory recall. The borrower is free to keep the item until the normal due date, but the Why I am Pursuing Degree borrower is importance urged to return the item if no longer needed. Contrast Recall of a loan. Primary research . Original research. Advanced research. For Me? Essay? Primary research is an importance attempt to create new/original/novel knowledge, to contribute to the cumulative knowledge of humanity. The knowledge is not just new to the researcher; it is new to the world. The researcher teaches others. Primary theological research typically offers original views, uses original methods, uses previously neglected data, or simply addresses a previously neglected topic. Primary research involves publication and subsequent peer review to assess the all cells have value of the research. This is the way a contribution is made and human knowledge advances. See also Research and Secondary research. Primary source . Fundamental basic evidence. Raw data. In historical research, a primary source is declaration of independence importance typically an eyewitness account recorded at or about the time of the event, an original document composed near the am Pursuing Degree time of the event that tells us about the declaration importance time (but maybe not about the specific event), or physical evidence from the time (like an archaeological artifact or a photo of the event). In scientific research, the first recorded measurements and observations for School Star Essay a given experiment are primary source material. The Greek and Hebrew texts of the Bible are the primary sources for importance biblical studies. (Purists would deny primary status to an English translation of the Bible.) Primary does not mean true or authoritative. A primary source like an eyewitness account can be wrong. One source can be primary for one purpose but secondary for Is Teaching another purpose. For example, Isaac Newton's commentary on Revelation is importance a primary source for am Pursuing Degree a biographical and historical study of Newton, but it is a secondary source for importance biblical studies or Christian theology. The Dead Sea Scrolls are primary sources for what some Jews believed in the first century, and are thus important background for understanding the New Testament in historical context. But the Dead Sea Scrolls are not primary sources for Christian theology per se. See also Secondary source. Proximity search operators . Many search engines support proximity operators. Proximity operators specify how far apart matching words can be. They may also specify word order. Details vary considerably system to system. At The Arena Essay? Proximity operators tend to be more precise than logical operators, and more appropriate for full-text searching. See our summary of common search operators. Pure vs applied research . It is best to think of both of these as kinds of declaration importance primary or original research (although the pure vs applied distinction can also be made for a MBA Degree secondary research). Applied research begins with a specific practical need and attempts to produce knowledge that can be used to meet that need (such as linguistic research that would form the declaration basis for software that could automatically adapt a Bible translation to a new dialect, or social science research that would form the basis for a new means of attracting unchurched people to church meetings). Pure research begins with scholarly interest and attempts to contribute new knowledge to a scholarly discipline. The goal is to advance understanding. Star Essay? The research topic is selected not because some specific practical problem needs to declaration importance be solved, but because the lynch researcher thinks he sees a way to contribute to the discipline. The topic may or may not have great theoretical significance. There may or may not be an of independence importance obvious practical application. Pure research is also called fundamental or basic research. See also research. Query by example/QBE . A search mechanism which attempts to find more documents that are similar to a chosen document. "More documents like this one". There are several different ways to define similarity. At its simplest, similar could mean documents with the same subject heading, for Is Teaching example. Statistical document similarity is a much more sophisticated way of defining similarity, but it is implemented on very few commercial search engines. See Fuzzy matching. Ranking . Sorting retrieved records or documents by weight. See weight. Recall . Importance? For information about recalling an item on loan, see Recall of Why I Degree Essay a loan. Importance? For information about search recall (completeness) see Search precision and recall. Recall of a loan . A notice the library sends to a borrower requiring the return of the borrowed item before its due date. Immediate return is labour mandatory. This is extremely rare; I estimate we recall less than five items each year. Declaration Importance? The library sometimes recalls books in order to put them on course reserves. In other words, we take the book away from one person so it will be available for many people. Not to be confused with Search Recall. See also Please return if not needed. Record . A unit of information in define labour turnover a database. Here we are only interested in bibliographic records in a computer database. A database record consists of one or more fields. Each record is about one "thing" (entity), and each field is about one specific aspect of the declaration of independence thing. For example, a record might be about one book and might include fields for author, title, publisher, subject, etc. A record might also be about a multivolume set of The Game Essay books, or about declaration importance a single essay in a single book. A record can include the document itself as well as metadata about the document. See also Metadata. See also Full-text vs full-image database. Reference works . Quick look up resources designed to provide brief amounts of information about a wide range of issues in a given subject domain such as a encyclopedias, dictionaries, handbooks, statistical compendia, etc. William Letter? They typically focus on one subject area (e.g., biblical archaeology or famous theologians or worship), consist of many brief articles on declaration of independence importance facets of that subject, provide a bibliography for define each article, and of independence importance, have alphabetical or classified arrangement with indexes and cross references. A reference work is often a very good place to begin research on a topic. Almost any work can sometimes be used for reference purposes (i.e., for quick look up of limited info), and the main reference collection (1st floor Turpin) includes some books not originally designed for reference use. Relevance of search results . A document is all cells have relevant (pertinent, germane, apposite) if it provides the information the searcher wants. Declaration Of Independence Importance? However, there are degrees of relevance. Essay? Further, students often do not know exactly what they need at the time they search (because they are in a learning process). The perception of what is relevant changes as the researcher reads more and more. Documents may be considered relevant because they are about the declaration of independence importance desired subject in a straightforward and objective way. A document can be relevant in that sense but still fail to provide the specific information a user is looking for. Documents may be considered relevant because they are applicable to the problem at hand even though they are NOT about the originally specified topic. For example, someone looking for information on the ten commandments in Exod 20 may find an all cells have article about US constitutional interpretation helpful if the "real" problem in of independence Exod 20 concerns a point of legal hermeneutics addressed in labour the article. This concept of relevance is of independence importance very slippery. Renew a loan . Extend due date for materials already on The Game Arena Essay loan from library. Declaration Importance? Learn how to renew items yourself. See also Circulation. Research . Research in the most general sense is william letter simply a search for knowledge or truth. The search process itself may be as simple as informally consulting a friend or as complex as designing and implementing a formal billion dollar scientific study. Formal research is always characterized by careful attention to method, and original research (primary research) is a complex expert investigation. See also Primary research, Secondary research, Pure vs applied research and declaration of independence importance, Discovery vs validation phase of research. Search engine . Software used to find and retrieve documents/information. Search precision and at the, recall . Precision and declaration, recall are the terms usually used to describe two aspects of search success. Define Turnover? Precision refers to accuracy, and recall refers to completeness. Both are percentages. Precision and of independence importance, recall are usually defined as follows. If d = number of documents retrieved in for Me? Essay a search, and R = number of of independence importance relevant documents in the database, and labour turnover, r = number of relevant documents retrieved by the search, then precision of that search = r/d and recall = r/R. For example, suppose you want a lot of declaration information about the illegal drug cocaine, also called crack and coke. So you search for cocaine OR crack OR coke. Am Pursuing A MBA Essay? You retrieve 10,000 documents. Declaration? Some are about cocaine. Most are irrelevant, like those about Coca Cola (the soft drink) and cracks (fissures). Define Turnover? All together, 1000 of the 10000 are relevant. So search precision is 1000/10000 = 10%. The database actually contains 20000 documents truly on cocaine. Your search retrieved 1000, so the recall is declaration of independence 1000/20000 = 5%. Precision and recall are inversely related; a high precision search is usually a low recall search; likewise, a high recall search is define labour usually a low precision search. Often you can design a search to of independence be high precision or high recall, but it is Should usually difficult to execute a perfect search (high precision, high recall). Search statement . The combination of terms, operators and options that constitute a search. For example "grace OR mercy" is importance a search statement. This definition assumes the searcher is using a procedural command language with operators to explicitly tell the search engine what to do (in contrast to using a natural language interface). Secondary research . Heuristic research. Learning. Define Labour? In contrast to primary research, secondary research is aimed at finding a pre-existing answer. The researcher learns from others. Secondary research usually focuses on searching recorded knowledge (e.g., published stuff) but also embraces searching un-recorded knowledge (e.g., knowledge possessed by declaration of independence importance living experts). Most student research papers are secondary research. Primary and a MBA, secondary research have many features in common. In particular, both critically assess prior work in the field (and so document prior work). Both require the declaration of independence importance researcher to think for himself. Secondary research can be creative and it may even be original in the narrow sense that something about the composition or argument is distinctive and Star Later? Essay, unique. But secondary research does not make a cumulative contribution to human knowledge; it is not integrated into of independence the "canon" and others do not build on it. See also Research and Primary research. Secondary source . A resource which is not a primary source, that is, not raw data or factual evidence. Typically a secondary source interprets and evaluates primary sources. In theology, almost all books and journals are secondary sources. But any work can be both a primary source for one purpose and a secondary source for another. See Primary source for details. You may hear references to all cells have tertiary sources. A tertiary source is a special kind of secondary source that is of independence supposed to sum up scholarly consensus. Encyclopedias are supposed to be tertiary. Serial . A publication issued in parts over many years and generally intended to be continued indefinitely. A periodical is a serial that is issued in successive consecutive parts on Should School Star Later? a regular schedule (e.g., monthly or quarterly). See also periodical. Series . Like a serial, this is a publication issued in parts over declaration of independence importance, many years and lynch, generally intended to be continued indefinitely. A monographic series is a series of books on some common general subject area (such as Old Testament studies or Reformation history). Each book has its own title, but the group as a whole has a shared common title, the series title. Often each volume has a unique series number. A series is sometimes indistinguishable from a multi-volume set which has a collective title for of independence importance the whole set with separate titles for each volume. But you must attempt to make the for Me? Essay distinction when you write research papers because sets and series are cited (footnoted) differently. Declaration Importance? A multi-volume set is usually issued over just a few years and then completed according to plan. A set usually tries to systematically cover every major aspect of Is Teaching some domain. The very organization of the set shows it is complete (e.g. alphabetical A-Z, chronological organization, broad topical organization, etc.) and the first volume often shows an outline of the entire set. A true series never has a pre-planned completion and declaration importance, rarely tries to systematically cover every aspect of a domain. Publishers often call multi-volume biblical commentaries sets "series" although they are actually sets. William Letter? It is traditional to cite these as series. Sharing . The basis of the library. Shared resources, shared funding, shared access. Stacks . Area of the library where books are stored on shelves, one shelf stacked above another. Stemming . Of Independence Importance? Search mechanism which analyzes a search word, determines the stem or root, and then matches all words with the same stem. For example, enter the term "baptize," the system determines the stem is "bapt-" and it matches baptism, baptized, baptist etc. It may also match Anabaptist and rebaptize, depending on how stemming is performed in define labour turnover the particular system. Since English words are mostly inflected with suffixes, stemming is often equivalent to truncating the end of a word. But this is not so in Hebrew, for example, which regularly inflects with prefixes and suffixes and declaration, infixes. So stemming can be quite superior to truncation. See also lemma. Stopword or noise word . Specific words that a system will not search for. To save time and disk space, some retrieval systems ignore some very common words that carry little meaning such as conjunctions, prepositions and articles. The theory is that you do not need to search for "the" or "a" or similar words. Is Teaching Essay? But you do. (For example, "a" is necessary in a search for declaration Vitamin A). Labour Turnover? Some systems will search for a stopword if you put the stopword in quotes. OCLC FirstSearch and EBSCOHost have stopwords. Subject headings . Terms (words and phrases) assigned to documents to indicate the subject/topic. Of Independence Importance? Descriptors. Normally these terms are drawn from a Thesaurus which lists all the authorized standardized headings. William Lynch Letter? See also Library of Congress Subject Headings. See also Controlled vocabulary Database. TexShare borrowing privileges . TexShare is a Texas library resource sharing program. If a library is a member of the of independence importance TexShare card program, it will allow TexShare card holders from define turnover, other libraries to borrow books. DTS students who reside in Texas and wish to borrow books directly from other Texas libraries may contact Turpin Library at DTS to declaration obtain a TexShare card. Thesis of Should School a research paper . Main point to be demonstrated. Everything in a well written research paper supports the thesis. Superfluous material is excluded. Scholars working on complex research projects often develop a hypothesis or working thesis during the early discovery phase of research, then refine this idea during the of independence importance validation phase. Why I A MBA Degree Essay? It is possbible to declaration of independence importance write a helpful scholarly paper that does not have a specific thesis. For example, a critical review of recent research on one specific topic could be helpful to others without advancing a thesis. See also Research. Thesaurus . In the for Me? context of database searching, a thesaurus is a list of standardized or officially endorsed terms (subject headings, descriptors) that can be used in a particular controlled vocabulary database, along with definitions and of independence importance, cross references that create a hierarchical network of terms. Truncation search operator . An operator which allows partial word matches by truncating (cutting off) part of the word, usually the final part. Degree Essay? A wild card operator. A character mask operator. Truncation is usually indicated by punctuation such as $, #, +, *, !, and ?. For example, in declaration of independence some systems bapt* matches any word that starts with the four letters "bapt"(such as baptism and baptist), and Arena Essay, lab*or matches any word that starts "lab" and ends "or" such as "labor" and "labrador". Declaration Of Independence? See summary of common search operators. Some string search operators allow initial truncation as well (like the find command in your word processor). See also Stemming and Pattern match. URL . Uniform Resource Locator. Web address. Example: Weight . Document or record weight is an estimate of the goodness of a given document for a given search. Goodness is letter usually defined as a combination of factors like relevance, reliability/authority, popularity, date, etc. Some systems sort or rank documents by weight in an attempt to show the best documents first. Work . "Intellectual content" which has been recorded as a document in of independence some format (book, movie, letter, painting, etc.) One work may have many different manifestations, as for example a play may manifest as a written script or a recorded performance. If distinguished from the document, then work = content, and Why I am Pursuing Degree, document = physical manifestation of the work.