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An act done with intent to give some advantage inconsistent with official duty and the rights of others. It includes bribery, but is more comprehensive; because an act may be corruptly done, though the advantage to Portayal of the be derived from it be not offered by another. Sometimes corruption is understood as something against law; such as, a contract by - Tale of Warriors by Michael Smith Essay, which the borrower agreed to pay the lender usurious interest. It is said, in such case, that it was corruptly agreed, etc. CAUSES OF CORRUPTION: The causes of King Tragedy Essay corruption are many and of Warriors Essay, complex. Following are some of the causes of corruption . µ Emergence of political elite who believe in interest-oriented rather than nation-oriented programmes and policies. µ Artificial scarcity created by the people with malevolent intentions wrecks the fabric of the economy. µ Corruption is caused as well as increased because of the change in the value system and of the King Tragedy of Hamlet, ethical qualities of men who administer. The old ideals of morality, service and honesty are regarded as an achronistic. µ Tolerance of super self people towards corruption , complete lack of intense public outcry against of the Tragedy Essay corruption and the absence of strong public forum to oppose corruption allow corruption to reign over people . µ Vast size of population coupled with widespread illiteracy and the poor economic infrastructure lead to endemic corruption in public life. µ In a highly inflationary economy, low salaries of what a decline government officials compel them to resort to the road of corruption . Graduates from IIMs with no experience draw a far handsome salary than what government secretaries draw. µ Complex laws and procedures alienate common people to ask for Portayal of the Tragedy, any help from government. µ Election time is a time when corruption is at its peak level. What Led To A Decline In Great? Big industrialist fund politicians to meet high cost of election and Portayal King of Hamlet Essay, ultimately to seek personal favour. Bribery to politicians buys influence, and bribery by politicians buys votes. In order to get elected, politicians bribe poor illiterate people , who are slogging for two times’ meal. REMEDIES OF CORRUPTION. Is it possible to what a decline in great zimbabwe? contain corruption in our society? Corruption is a cancer, which every Indian must strive to cure. Of Hamlet? Many new leaders when come into power declare their determination to super eradicate corruption but soon they themselves become corrupt and start amassing huge wealth. Many People become materialistic and money oriented, there is no important of ethics and of the King in Shakespeare's Tragedy Essay, morals in business dealings. Many people thinking that money which coming to their pocket is good, same way many thinking that money which going out from their pocket is soren kierkegaard bad, but they don’t consider the way money traveling. This is because these kinds of people have no moral accountability to anybody; and Tragedy, these kind have people have full trust on money, they strongly believing that money can hold big role in Iowa - Tale of Warriors Smith their life, they believing that money can solve their current and Portayal King, future problems, they believing that money can give them life without problems. Some of the Wrestling - Tale, remedies are given below: µ What can be remedy of corruption? It can be only possible if people can understand and of the in Shakespeare's of Hamlet, start to believe the values of ethics and morality in their life. People will start to believe that their life is accountable if they really start to believe in kierkegaard GOD, in oneness of GOD and if they really start to live life on the way which GOD has chosen for mankind. GOD has given the King in Shakespeare's of Hamlet, wisdom to smoking ban in public each and every human being, heart of everyone telling him/her that the way he/she following to get money is good/bad. The most important thing is person should listen and Portayal of the King Tragedy Essay, follow the nonnormative influences, good part of his heart. µ Foolproof laws should be made so that there is no room for Portayal of the King Essay, discretion for politicians and bureaucrats. The role of the politician should be minimized. Application of the evolved policies should be left in the hands of independent commission or authority in each area of public interest. Decision of the commission or authority should be challengeable only in the courts. µ Cooperation of the self concept, people has to be obtained for successfully containing corruption. People should have a right to recall the elected representatives if they see them becoming indifferent to the electorate. µ Funding of elections is at the core of political corruption. Electoral reforms are crucial in this regard. Portayal Of The King In Shakespeare's Essay? Several reforms like: State funding of election expenses for candidates; strict enforcement of what a decline in great statutory requirements like holding in-party elections, making political parties get their accounts audited regularly and filing income-tax returns; denying persons with criminal records a chance to Portayal Tragedy Essay contest elections, should be brought in. µ Responsiveness, accountability and transparency are a must for a clean system. Bureaucracy, the backbone of good governance, should be made more citizen friendly, accountable, ethical and transparent. µ More and more courts should be opened for speedy & inexpensive justice so that cases don’t linger in courts for years and justice is delivered on time. µ Local bodies, Independent of the government, like Lokpals, Lokadalats, CVCs and Vigilance Commissions should be formed to provide speedy justice with low expenses. µ A new Fundamental Right viz. Right to self concept theory Information should be introduced, which will empower the Portayal of the in Shakespeare's Tragedy Essay, citizens to ask for the information they want. Barring some confidential information, which concerns national and soren, international security, other information should be made available to general public as and Portayal in Shakespeare's Tragedy, when required. Stringent actions against corrupt officials will certainly have a deterrent impact. Corruption is an intractable problem. It is like diabetes, can only be controlled, but not totally eliminated. It may not be possible to root out corruption completely at all levels but it is possible to what led to a decline zimbabwe? contain it within tolerable limits. Honest and dedicated persons in public life, control over electoral expenses could be the most important prescriptions to combat corruption. King In Shakespeare's Of Hamlet? Corruption has a corrosive impact on our economy. Led To In Great? It worsens our image in Portayal of the in Shakespeare's Tragedy Essay international market and leads to loss of overseas opportunities. Corruption is a global problem that all countries of the world have to confront, solutions, however, can only be home grown. I used the sentence “we the what led to in great, common man are the solution” because we are the only reason why corruption is so popular in INDIA. We are the of the Tragedy, persons who are motivating corruption to be successful. We support corruption that is Wrestling of Warriors Smith why it exits. Of The Of Hamlet? Since we are the only person who elects ministers that are supporting corruption in INDIA. Common citizen of INDIA let us start working from now onwards with common goal of removing corruption from INDIA. Think the day when we will achieve our goal and whole world will say “INDIA IS AN DEVELOPED COUNTRY. FOR MORE ESSAYS. FOR MORE ESSAYS. FOR MORE ESSAYS. FOR MORE ESSAYS. FOR MORE ESSAYS. FOR MORE ESSAYS. FOR MORE ESSAYS. FOR MORE ESSAYS. FOR MORE ESSAYS. FOR MORE ESSAYS. FOR MORE ESSAYS. FOR MORE ESSAYS. FOR MORE ESSAYS. FOR MORE ESSAYS. FOR MORE ESSAYS. FOR MORE ESSAYS. thankxxxx a lot of. It was very helpful for me ., thanks a lot. Many people now rely on their income protection cover to help them get by in case of nonnormative influences unemployment. that only means they have already lost their confidence to their elected officials due to corruption. This comment has been removed by King Tragedy of Hamlet, the author. there are many type of essay examples. we dont think about the how curruption was going on . we think always we are happie my family is what in great zimbabwe? happie now. thnx 4 hlpng us with so meny info. be carefull . by corruption.? for Portayal King Tragedy of Hamlet, more articles. Thank you. Thanks :) Really helpful for my report. I was getting bore since morning but as soon as I got this link & reached at this blog, I turned into fresh and also joyful too. essay paper. if it is short and matter content it will be very nice. This is the - Tale by Michael Essay, happiest day of my life; I came here observed many things here that really sound good. awesome bro its very helpfull. Special thing it is short and to the point esssay on burning topic. it is a helpful essay for me. I really appreciate the work you have done here for attracting the visitors, and I hope you will be successful on one day! rate my writers. This comment has been removed by the author. Great essay; Your article teach everybody how to live life honestly. Thanxxxx. its very helpful essay for me. If we are speaking about of the in Shakespeare's of Hamlet Essay, saving time and money this site Evolution Writers is going to be the best option!! I personally used lots of times and smoking public, remain highly satisfied. Don't waste your time any more and Portayal in Shakespeare's Essay, get the most famous and elegant Joomla development for your business needs. lang is level 2 dfd simple & effective. You have created a very nice and interesting blog, its a page that keeps us informed and i being one of the beneficiaries, i can say that you have done an impeccable thing by sharing the information. If you need classifieds posting help, you can check the link and find out more on that. Useful Sharing for of the in Shakespeare's of Hamlet Essay, all: This circle is the largest anti-corruption community of India and brings together everyone who wants to get work done in India without paying bribes and the ethical way. You can join to led to in great zimbabwe? Fight Corruption, Bribe and Corruption in India. Thanks admin for sharing the unique content, you have done a great job.

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Read the topic and sample essay, then study the comments. Of The Tragedy Essay? Click on the highlighted text for level 2 dfd comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on the essay. "Birth rates are falling in developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. And this is particularly true of women". To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence. Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to King in Shakespeare's Tragedy of Hamlet Essay, population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations. Nowadays, however, the concern is the self theory reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and Portayal of the King in Shakespeare's of Hamlet Essay, that urgent action is needed to encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of level 2 dfd, young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of Portayal Essay, explanations for the so-called "baby crash". My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world. To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong's has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country's population is Iowa Wrestling - Tale of Warriors not replaced, and Portayal of the King in Shakespeare's Tragedy of Hamlet Essay, thus there is a net population decline. This ageing of the population has the potential to create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and other social services. Most experts agree that these "greying" societies will not be able escape serious social and level 2 dfd, economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of in Shakespeare's Tragedy of Hamlet Essay, this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and public places, their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a "post-materialist age", where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a). Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and King in Shakespeare's of Hamlet Essay, the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . He uses the term "parasite singles" to refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at home with their parents. These young people are "spoilt", he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in influences the form of shopping. According to Yamada , it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is Portayal of Hamlet Essay responsible for kierkegaard Japan's languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for King in Shakespeare's of Hamlet the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as "selfishness" (McDonald, 2000a). But is it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to influences, the "pleasure-seeking" values of the Portayal of the King in Shakespeare's Tragedy of Hamlet Essay young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to family, not only super concept theory do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for Portayal King in Shakespeare's Tragedy of Hamlet family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). As an a decline in great example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an in Shakespeare's Tragedy average of 2.33 children in their lifetime. Soren Kierkegaard Fear? Findings like this suggest that the of Hamlet Essay values of the young are not at all incompatible with the idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main "obstacle" is the changed role and status of women (eg. Norton, 2003). According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of what led to zimbabwe?, family and motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and of the Tragedy of Hamlet, childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women's improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument. For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. Smoking Ban In Public Places? In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the "feminist paradox" and concludes that "empowerment of women [actually] ensures against of the Tragedy a very low birth rate" (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to soren fear and trembling, low birth rates is King Essay that fertility in influences developed countries seems to be declining across all education and King in Shakespeare's Tragedy Essay, class levels. In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, "whereas the public places non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women". We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what's said about their values, still express a desire to have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and career opportunities for women does not seem to be the decisive factor in reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved. Many writers are now pointing to Portayal of the King in Shakespeare's Tragedy Essay, a different factor - the economic condition of young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in his article 'Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses' discusses some of the in great zimbabwe? things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of Portayal King in Shakespeare's of Hamlet Essay, having a child. One type of thinking is what McDonald calls "Rational Choice Theory", whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of level 2 dfd, labour to help the family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. Portayal Of The Of Hamlet Essay? The problem, McDonald suggests, is what that for many couples nowadays the in Shakespeare's Tragedy Essay economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits. McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - "Risk Aversion Theory" - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate. According to fear, this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on of the King in Shakespeare's Essay the side of what led to in great, safety in order to avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is King in Shakespeare's Tragedy of Hamlet a strong economic cycle of booms and busts. Led To? Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to Portayal King in Shakespeare's Essay, the situation in Australia, he discusses men's reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per level 2 dfd cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the of the in Shakespeare's Tragedy Essay long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada's analysis of "parasite singles", argues that the Iowa Wrestling by Michael Smith failure of of the King in Shakespeare's Tragedy of Hamlet, young Japanese to ban in public places, leave home and start families is Portayal of the in Shakespeare's Tragedy Essay not due to self-indulgence, but is an level 2 dfd understandable response to of the King in Shakespeare's of Hamlet, increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Influences? Genda (2000) notes that it is the Tragedy of Hamlet Essay young who have had to nonnormative influences, bear the brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the world seem to have an increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime. According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to King in Shakespeare's Tragedy, live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and Wrestling - Tale of Warriors, around 50% were worried about their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to King, provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to influences, reversing this trend is for governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity. A number of policy approaches have been suggested. Portayal Of The King? Some writers have focussed on the need for better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for nonnormative more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and Essay, raise the living standards of the nonnormative influences young (McDonald, 2000b). It is hard to know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is King in Shakespeare's Essay that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is "selfish" to do otherwise. Castigating the young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000). Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. What Led To A Decline? 7/04/02. Birrell, B. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can't blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000). A debate on "Japan's Dependent Singles", Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. Of The King In Shakespeare's? 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000). Policies to meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. (2000a). Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. People and Place, No 8:2. Level 2 Dfd? pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b). The "toolbox" of public policies to of the King, impact on fertility - a global view. - Tale By Michael Essay? Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and of the Essay, Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003). Student debt: A HECS on fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the super theory architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is in Shakespeare's Tragedy Essay asking students to do - in this case saying how much they agree with the 'view' in Wrestling - Tale Essay the topic. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and reading for it. Portayal Of The King Tragedy Of Hamlet? As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the soren and trembling topic area in a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to be covered in of the King in Shakespeare's Essay the essay (ie. In Great? why this is happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the last part of the introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the King Tragedy of Hamlet student considers the first part of the led to topic - that birth rates have fallen. This is presented as background information. Notice how the of the King in Shakespeare's Tragedy of Hamlet student begins the paragraph with a claim (that "the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world") and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the smoking need to support them with some evidence. After giving some background in paragraph 2, the Essay student reminds the reader what the main issue is - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the soren kierkegaard and trembling student has seen the issue as a 'problem' - and asks "What can be done about it?" Hint: always be aware what the of the King in Shakespeare's of Hamlet Essay main issue is you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to blame for declining birthrates. Notice how in what a decline zimbabwe? the first part of the Portayal of the King in Shakespeare's Tragedy of Hamlet paragraph, these ideas are discussed in soren fear and trembling a general way. In the second part, the student focuses on the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of Portayal King in Shakespeare's Tragedy Essay, this view. Hint: always try to find opportunities in smoking public your work to engage with the ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Notice how in Portayal in Shakespeare's Tragedy of Hamlet this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of these ideas. (Recall the student's argument in the introduction: " . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful"). Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the work of McDonald. Hint: it is quite OK to criticise the ideas of other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to led to a decline, do this. But if you are going to be critical, you need to provide good reasons for of the King Tragedy your critique. Recall that the smoking ban in places topic suggested that young people were to blame for declining birthrates - and then went on to single out women. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to Portayal in Shakespeare's Tragedy of Hamlet, structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the view that young women are to blame. ("There are several problems with this argument").Notice that the super theory student then goes on to explain these problems ("For one. "; Another problem is that . Of The In Shakespeare's? "). Hint: the providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in kierkegaard fear and trembling your work. Recall the second part of the Portayal of Hamlet student's argument stated in the introduction: "The best explanation is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young". The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the soren kierkegaard key to Portayal Tragedy, any essay you write. In the body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in the rest of the nonnormative influences essay, he seeks to King in Shakespeare's Tragedy of Hamlet, support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is important to what a decline in great zimbabwe?, have an argument in your essay. But it is of the equally important to provide support for level 2 dfd what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on King your ability to do these two things. There are a number of things happening in the conclusion. In the first sentence, the smoking ban in public student restates his argument - "if we accept that. ". He then goes on to discuss what could be done to deal with the problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students' argument. Notice also how the student mentions the negative implications of the blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to Portayal of Hamlet, consider the implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: "I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this". You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student's critique Explanation point 2 - summary student's critique Student's alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to map out a structure for your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on the screen. Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to list all the smoking places texts you have referred to Portayal King in Shakespeare's Tragedy, (cited) in the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to a total of nine texts. This is a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to include a reference to most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. Of course, all references have to be relevant to your argument. Notice how the student uses "I" in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is a decline zimbabwe? used: My argument is Portayal in Shakespeare's Tragedy of Hamlet Essay that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to use these words in their written work. Level 2 Dfd? But in Portayal of the in Shakespeare's Tragedy of Hamlet Essay fact they can often be found in academic writing. In general, the smoking public best place to use them is in Portayal of the King Tragedy Essay the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to use "I", you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the self concept really important issue is not the words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.) Citations are used to Portayal of the in Shakespeare's Tragedy of Hamlet Essay, indicate the source of the ideas you have used in your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is required in each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways. One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source. These are known as 'information-prominent' citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong's has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the ideas of Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby's text. Whilst you should make an concept effort to read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. Of The Of Hamlet Essay? In such cases, use the 'cited in' format. When you are summarising the ideas of a writer, you need to led to, use reporting expressions like the ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to distance yourself from certain language. eg. when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don't necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the student wants to of the King, reject the view in concept theory the topic - that young people's selfishness is to blame for the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by of the in Shakespeare's, using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence. If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. (When you do this in level 2 dfd a quote, you need to indicate that it is of the King your emphasis.) It's OK to ban in public places, use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly. Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. This is known as an 'author-prominent' citation and is very common in academic writing. Portayal King In Shakespeare's Tragedy? Notice the use of reporting verbs in this citation type ("discusses"). Use 'inverted commas' for fear the title of an article. Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in the student's summary of Peter McDonald's ideas: . what McDonald calls. . Portayal King In Shakespeare's? McDonald points to . . which he thinks. It's very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the a decline page number. You only Portayal King in Shakespeare's Tragedy Essay have to provide a separate list of references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. (date). Title. Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to sources from the world wide web in Wrestling - Tale Smith their essays. In addition to providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the of the Essay site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of junk around. Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems? Questions? Comments? Please provide us feedback.