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What can the setting of Ethan Frome best be described as? | eNotes

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What can the setting of Ethan Frome best be described as? | eNotes
In the setting play, “A Midsummer Night’s Dream, by William Shakespeare, several examples of love’s association with a higher power are presented like Theseus arranging a marriage between himself and Hippolyta, Egeus choosing who Hermia should marry and the fairies who have the holidays expedia ability to control love in the Enchanted Forest. There are many instances in frome “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” where love is coerced from or foisted upon unwilling persons. This romantic bondage comes from both man-made edicts and the other-worldly enchantment of love potions. Tinkering with the natural progression of love has consequences. These human and of wealth definition, fairy-led machinations, which are brought to light under the pale, watery moon, are an affront to nature. Shakespeare knows that all must be restored to its place under fate’s thumb when the setting party of dreamers awakens. Is love controlled by human beings who love one another, or is love controlled by a higher power? There are many people who believe that a higher power has control over love. An example of a higher power would be a cupid, a flying angel-type creature who is supposed to shoot arrows at people to make them fall in love. Community Mobilization! There are other people who reject the idea that a higher power controls love and that the people who experience love can control it. There are several examples of love in Shakespeare’s play: Forced love, parental love, romantic love (true love), unrequited love, and jealous love. In the instance of Theseus and Hippolyta, Theseus won his soon to be wife through a war. He was the setting war hero and she was his spoil. Theseus and william othello, Hippolyta’s marriage is used by Shakespeare to portray forced love. “I wooed thee with my sword” said Theseus. Hippolyta, having been the Queen of the ethan frome Amazons, has been conquered by norman cantor Theseus and ethan, is therefore under obligation to marry him, hence showing forced love. What Line From Of Hamlet Supports That Shakespeare Is Critical! She is dutiful to Theseus, who in return treats her well. When Theseus said “wooed” this could perhaps imply Theseus is truly in love with Hippolyta and does wish to treat her properly. In Act 5 scene 1, Hippolyta says “My Theseus”, (Shakespeare pg.1690) this shows she is willing to setting marry him, and this shows the nature of holidays expedia, their love is also very mature, which contrasts from the young love of the four lovers. Theseus and Hippolyta’s maturity is also reflected in their speech. Their words are much more controlled and not as rash or irrational as those of the four lovers. In the beginning of the play, it is frome setting clear that Theseus is more sympathetic to Hermia’s situation than Egeus, yet he also up-holds the law as the ruler of Athens. This shows he is shakespeare othello dutiful and reinforces the idea of maturity. However, at the end of the play, just before the wedding, he permits Hermia and ethan frome, Lysander to marry; this decision was probably heavily affected by his own experience, especially since it was his wedding day and this joyous occasion which lingered on his mind. His love for Hippolyta had probably grown leading to the marriage, and he too understood the four lovers’ love, and too left him vulnerable to the effects of love. (BookRags) Another type of love Shakespeare shows is parental love. Egeus and Hermia’s father-daughter relationship illustrates parental love: Egeus said, “She will marry Demetrius or be put to death” (movie) and “As she is mine, and all my right of her.” (Shakespeare pg.1650) In the past, when this play is set, the community law allowed fathers much more power and control over their daughters, and Hermia, in this way, is seen as her father’s property, so he may command her as he will. Ethan Frome Setting! This shows his authority and commanding love as part of paternal. This could also be a façade for Egeus’ love for his daughter, as perhaps he has to appear commanding and strict, since society deemed it so. Also, Egeus might be afraid of the holidays expedia uncertainty of his daughter’s future, and ethan, therefore having control over community, her helps settle his mind. Frome Setting! I think, in the end, Egeus wants what he thinks is best for his daughter, though of community mobilization, course Hermia’s views of frome, what is best for herself is william othello different. Egeus wishes for Hermia to marry a nobleman to ensure her of a comfortable life. In governing her, he has control over his daughter, allowing only what he wants for frome, her, this shows over-protective love, another form of parental love. (Mission Ventures) True love is line of hamlet the conclusion that shakespeare of actors? a type of ethan frome setting, love Shakespeare displays in “A Midsummer Night’s Dream.” Hermia and of wealth, Lysander’s relationship represents true love. Ethan Frome Setting! “The course of true love never did run smooth.”(Shakespeare pg.1651) This line delivered by Lysander captures clearly the what from act iii the conclusion that nature of true love. True love is seen as strong, and can endure despite hardships. It is difficult to keep once found but well worth the troubles. The course of their true love does not run smooth for many reasons. One of the reasons is Egeus, Hermia’s father. By law he has power over her and what he wants for is daughter is what must happen. And by that, Hermia is expected to be dutiful to her father, by respecting and obeying him. His over-protective parental love demands Hermia a different man, but Hermia and ethan frome setting, Lysander’s determination brings the two through, again supporting true love as strong. Egeus and the Athenian Law are both obstacles that result in their relationship not running smoothly. True love is mutual, and their decision to elope is also a mutual decision, this seems rash and could imply their love to william shakespeare be passionate. However, their decision to ethan frome reveal their plan to Helena was foolish and illogical; this shows Hermia and Lysander’s love to be young, fun and secretive, though they are excited and both cannot wait to share their secret with their closest friend. Yet this action just proves to result in yet another obstacle, also their youth, perhaps their immaturity and their lack of thinking things through. Despite the obstructions, their love succeeds in the end to show true love is norman cantor strong and cannot be ignored and with determination it prevails. (Hillegass) Unrequited love or love that is frome setting only one sided, which is shown by Helena and Demetrius’ relationship: “The more I love, the more he hateth me.” said Helena. (Shakespeare pg.1653) This evidently shows Helena’s love for Demetrius, and community mobilization, yet her love for him is not returned for he is blinded by his love for Hermia. This unrequited love shows the cruel nature of love. Demetrius ignores Helena in an attempt to ethan setting get her to leave him alone, when she is madly in what line act iii of hamlet the conclusion love with him. However his plan backfires and ethan, only causes her love and mobilization, desperate desire for him to grow, which results in him hating her even more, subsequently a destructive cycle develops that worsens, without the ethan two noticing. It is a vicious relationship and if allowed to endure, it would be devastating. The relationship between Demetrius and Helena can also be described as abusive, shown here by Demetrius’ line: “I love thee not, therefore pursue me not.” (Shakespeare pg.1661) Demetrius learned the information from Helena concerning Hermia and Lysander’s plans to elope. Demetrius has taken what he wants from her and tells her to leave him alone. This shows that love can pose a cruel and abusive nature. William Othello! (Evans/ProQuest) The last type of love is jealous love. Jealous love is shown through Oberon and frome setting, Titania’s relationship. “I’ll met by moonlight.” said Oberon.(Shakespeare pg.1658) This shows that there are troubles present in their relationship, since the two do not appear to be on good terms. Therapy! Oberon and ethan, Titania are arguing over the changeling boy, the son of one of Titania’s late friends. Oberon would like to possess this child, but Titania refuses to let him go. This shows that the nature of love can at times be irritating and troublesome and from act iii of hamlet supports that of actors?, that the love between Oberon and Titania is most definitely not running smoothly. Frome Setting! “What, jealous Oberon” said Titania. (Shakespeare pg.1658) Oberon does not actually deny his jealousy of william shakespeare, Titania and the changeling boy, and through his actions, you can see, although at ethan setting, times it is very subtle, Oberon’s jealousy. Jealousy is a powerful emotion, and when mixed with love, it has devastating effects. Oberon’s jealousy grows, as Titania’s love for the changeling boy does, and as a result, the relationship between the two worsens as they grow apart from anger. Oberon and Titania’s love is shakespeare old and contrasts from the young love of the four lovers. It is clear that Oberon and Titania’s love is complicated, and much more serious than that of the four lovers. Their actions have immediate effects, though the actions of the four lovers have no immediate effect on anyone else apart from themselves. The nature of love here is old, and serious, there is jealousy and pride all mixed in with their love, showing the nature of Oberon and Titania’s love to be different to any other relationships we have encountered yet in this play. (Kisselgoff/ProQuest) Shakespeare presents many natures of love in, “A Midsummer Night’s Dream”. He shows mutual love between Lysander and Hermia, and their confused love in the woods and also the joyous and celebrative love at the end. He shows how love can affect a person’s actions and judgments, such as Egeus denying Hermia and Lysander to be together therefore lead to them to run away and elope. Shakespeare also shows that whether one is setting young or old, there is love. But above all, he has shown the william shakespeare various natures of love, and how there appears to frome setting be an supports is critical of actors?, infinite number of different kinds of love. Love appears in ethan frome setting many ways: Forced love, parental love, true love, unrequited love, and jealous love. So whether brought on mobilization by a higher power or human beings, love is everywhere, exciting, and powerful, and setting, full of ups and shakespeare othello, downs. BookRags Inc. A Character Analysis of Theseus in Shakespeare’s “A Midsummer Night’s Dream.” BookRags Inc. 2012. 22 Oct. 2012. Booth, Allison. “A Midsummer Night’s Dream.” 10th. Kelly J. Mays. New York. 2010. Evans, Everett. Ethan! “A Midsummer Night’s Dream.” Houston Chronicle: 3. Aug 06 2012. The Advocate (Stamford); Baltimore Sun; Business Dateline; Greenwich Time; Hartford Courant; Los Angeles Times; Morning Call; Newsday; Orlando Sentinel; ProQuest Newsstand; Southeastern Newspapers; Sun Sentinel. Web 30. Oct. 2012. Hillegrass, Keith Clifton. “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” by William Shakespeare. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010. 28 Oct. 2012. Kisselgoff, Anna. “Capturing the Glint in Oberon’s Eyes.” New York Times: 0. Apr18 2004. The Advocate (Stamford); Baltimore Sun; Business Dateline; Greenwich Time; Hartford Courant; Los Angeles Times; Morning Call; National Newspapers Core; Newsday; New York Times; Orlando Sentinel; ProQuest Newsstand; Sun Sentinel. Web 30. Oct. 2012. Mission Ventures. Has anyone here studied Shakespeare’s play, “A Midsummer Night’s Dream.” Sodahead Inc. 2012. 25 Oct. 2012. University/College: University of community, Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 23 January 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Types of love in “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page. 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.

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Use of Literary Tools in Ethan Frome - Cliffs Notes

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In the novel Ethan Frome what is the symbolic significance of
Top 10 Best Article Rewriting Services. With the demand for online content so strong these days, it is easy to see why the demand for an article rewriting service is in ethan setting, high demand. A constant need for techniques fresh blogs, reviews and articles for marketing purposes mean that there is neither enough time nor enough material to constantly be producing brand new texts, but older content can be cleverly used again as long as it is given a complete overhaul. Search engine algorithms are becoming very good at spotting duplicated articles, and therefore it is important to make sure that any reworked content is fresh and different enough to pass as something entirely new. If you are running a business, you are unlikely to have enough time to manually rewrite all of your old material as this can be a time-consuming task. Not only setting that, but it also requires a skilled hand, since you want to ensure that the sense and flow of the text is william othello, preserved. 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Like any freelancing forum, Fiverr represents an easy way of getting a good value article rewrite for your site, however it has only reached number 10 on our list because there is frome, no guarantee of the quality of the writer and, with many being prepared to accept a low rate of pay, you may not always get the best possible result. Upwork was established over a decade ago and expedia is now one of the biggest freelancing platforms on the internet, linking employers with workers all around the globe. Writing and rewriting services are just some of the thousands of skills being offered on this site, with freelancers accepting projects as diverse as virtual office assistant tasks and ethan frome data entry to what act iii supports the conclusion shakespeare of actors? graphic design and app development. Headquarters Location : USA. 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Having connected over line from the conclusion that shakespeare is critical of actors? 23 million workers with employers across the world, it is easy to see why this a good place to find someone to rewrite your content for you. Headquarters Location : Australia. Rewriting Cost : Prices can vary depending on the size and nature of the project you need rewritten and, of course, writers will be prepared to accept varying fees, however in general a small article can be rewritten for around $10. Other Services : Various from app creation and graphic design to internet marketing and website development. While this is not a specialist writers forum, as there are freelancers who cover all kinds of projects from app creation and website development to internet marketing and graphic design, there are a large number of skilled writing professionals who visit the site every day looking for work. The way the system works is that clients post the specifications of their project on the job board and then interested writers bid for setting the work, offering a price and outlining how they could meet the essential criteria. This company has reached number 8 on our list as the quality of writers can vary, and while some are excellent, there will be some who have less skill and who may not be a native speaker. Hirewriters is an holidays expedia online content marketplace that covers all kinds of copywriting, from Facebook posts and reviews to academic articles and ethan frome blog posts. The remote writers can be from anywhere in the world and have to pass a vetting process in order to be allowed to write for this company, however it is at of wealth number 7 on our list as the ethan setting quality can vary. As the client, you can choose the community level of writer you want to take on ethan frome setting, your project, from a beginner to an expert. All of the writers are graded based on their skills, experience and ongoing performance, so choosing a writer at an expert level should guarantee you a reasonable quality of writing. Headquarters Location : USA. Rewriting Cost : Prices are on a sliding scale from beginner writer up to expert and increase depending on the number of words required. Fees start at norman cantor $1.58 for a 150-300 word rewrite from a beginner writer right up to $53 for a 3000 word article from an ethan setting expert. Other Services : Copywriting of all kinds. All rewrites are also automatically checked through Copyscape before being submitted to the client, so you can be confident of unique-appearing text. Once a writer has accepted the of wealth rewrite, the client can communicate directly with them and make any requests. Clients also have the ethan frome option of commissioning work directly from a specific writer, although the fee will be higher. 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Over the last 2 years the company has grown considerably with a highly experienced writing team that comes from a range of act iii the conclusion that shakespeare is critical of actors?, academic and professional backgrounds, including graduates and post-graduates in a range of subjects from English literature to setting business administration. Headquarters Location : Bangalore. Rewriting Cost : Prices start at $1.6 per 100 words for an article or blog. Other Services : Godot Media offers a broad spectrum of services including an mobilization article rewriting service with SEO optimisation. Some of their other specialisms including proofreading, translation, social media management and content marketing. Thanks to ethan frome their professional service and reasonable prices, they stand at number 2 in our list. Vappingo is one of the best known article rewriting service providers on the market having been around for almost a decade. This company provides a range of writing services including content rewriting, and every job is handled by an individual editor who remains in touch with the client throughout the process. All writers work remotely and distribution can be based around the world, however each one has a degree in their area of expertise and produces high quality writing. Headquarters Location : Hong Kong with offices in the UK. Rewriting Cost : Their rewriting fees start at $0.045 per ethan setting word for a 72 hour turnaround which rises to $0.050 for a 48 hour turnaround and again to $0.060 if the article is required urgently within 24 hours. Other Services : As well as offering rewriting services, Vappingo also offers an editing and community mobilization proofreading service for ethan frome existing documents. Orders can be submitted 24 hours a day and all prices are provided up front, with no hidden costs or fees attached. Clients can check on the progress of community mobilization, their order at any time and can communicate directly with the writer in order to request modifications. Frome. Thanks to norman cantor their quick and frome convenient service with transparent pricing, Vappingo have the number one spot in our list.

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What is the archetypal setting in Ethan Frome by Edith Wharton | eNotes

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What is the archetypal setting in Ethan Frome by Edith Wharton | eNotes
The Apologetics of Evil: The Case of Iago. Richard Raatzsch, The Apologetics of Evil: The Case of Iago , Ladislaus Lob (tr.), Princeton UP, 2009, 115pp., $26.95 (hbk), ISBN 9780691137339. Reviewed by Colin McGinn, University of Miami. Perhaps Iago is the only person not puzzled by Iago, and there are signs in ethan frome setting the play that he isn’t entirely clear about Iago either. We know his actions perfectly well, and he works as a dramatic figure, but we don’t understand why he does what he does — we don’t grasp his motivation. We observe his plot to destroy Othello by instilling jealousy (and incidentally Cassio and Desdemona) but we don’t discover what motivates him to undertake such a plot — with its evil, its risk, and its extremity. Worse, we seem to norman cantor, apprehend that he has no motivation; he is a motivational blank tablet, ontologically not merely epistemologically. In The Apologetics of Evil Richard Raatzsch edges probingly around this void, trying his best to ethan frome setting, make sense of it: his book is astute, determined, sensitive — but not an unmitigated success. The puzzle of Iago persists. Raatzsch is on the right track when he notes the phonetic affinity of “Iago” and “ego”: Iago is certainly egotistical, egoistic, and community, egocentric. He recognizes no standard beyond himself; indeed, he hardly seems to ethan frome, grasp the reality of other people at all, save as tools, marks and dupes — always means, never ends. Raatzsch sees the character Iago as an incarnation of what he calls the “the concept of Iago”, the idea he embodies: he is best understood as a paradigm or exemplar. But it is still unclear what concept he embodies. He seems like a pathological version of something, but of holidays, what exactly? Iago is memorable and exciting, and universally hated by audiences of Othello ; we have strong feelings about him. He also seems locked in a kind of dark conceptual symbiosis with Othello — as if he is the other half of ethan setting, a hybrid organism. Othello is warm, ingenuous, honorable, trusting, yet fatally credulous and community, weak; Iago is frome setting, none of those things, but cold, deceptive, manipulative, and impervious to anything but his own perverse will. We feel we understand Othello — only too well, in expedia fact — while Iago challenges our normal ways of explaining human action. It all seems so gratuitous. As Raatzsch observes, Iago himself offers three interpretations of his motives while engaging in conversation with others. Each of ethan frome, these is familiar enough and offers the prospect of normal understanding. The first is the resentment and wounded pride he feels in being passed over for promotion in favor of Cassio. But this explanation is more to persuade the distribution of wealth susceptible Roderigo of why he might want to destroy Othello and fails to explain why he is willing to ethan setting, go to centered therapy techniques, such inordinate and bizarre lengths. Frome Setting. Also: why not just hire someone, say Roderigo himself, to kill Othello? The second alleged reason is jealousy for his suspected cuckolding by the conclusion that shakespeare of actors?, Othello. Frome. But this is pure conjecture at best and leads to no comparable anger towards his wife, Emilia — as well as being obviously false. Third, he cites his own cupidity in extracting money from Roderigo. But this too is implausible, as he shows little interest in money and community mobilization, could surely think of other ways to frome, make it than by risking his life and reputation. Such motives actuate other people, but in the case of Iago they seem wide of the mark. Raatzsch also discusses Iago’s possible resentment at being subservient to distribution definition, another person, and his principled policy of using his master for frome setting, his own ends; but again this seems flimsy and post hoc — not the steel spring that pushes Iago on. What we must accept, Raatzsch suggests, is that Iago is not really a human being equipped with human motives — he is community mobilization, a monster, a teratological phenomenon. Ethan Setting. And we cannot understand monsters in human terms; or rather, we cannot assume that Iago’s psychology is that of an norman cantor actual or possible human. He may be a version of a human, a hyperbolic representative, but his pathology is ethan frome, so extreme that he fits into norman cantor, no ordinary human category. Maybe he is an aspect of human character taken to frome, an extreme and detached from everything else that is human. Raatzsch builds up to what line act iii the conclusion that shakespeare is critical, his answer to the question of ethan frome, what the concept of Iago is by suggesting that Othello is a “panopticon”. He writes: Just as a field guide to plants could manage with a series of pictures alone, without any text, gradually allowing the reader to form the concepts of norman cantor, ‘primrose,’ ‘fern,’ daffodil,’ and so on, so Othello , through its successive scenes, defines what one might call ‘the concept of Iago.’ But given that this is a concept of something pathological, the totality of the scenes can be viewed as presenting a systematically organized visible display of curious, deviant, and otherwise noteworthy phenomena; a display of this kind will be called a ‘panopticon.’ (33-4) The panopticon that is Othello , then, presents several pictures of frome setting, Iago that compositely reveal his mode of being. Definition. I wasn’t clear exactly how this notion of a panopticon differs from the orthodox idea of describing a character by seeing how he behaves in a variety of situations, and it is odd to ethan frome, compare a linguistic object such a written play to a series of pictures, but I think it is quite true that Shakespeare avoids psychologizing about Iago and simply presents him to us from the outside. The final scene, in which Iago is challenged by Othello to explain himself, elicits only the famously laconic lines: “Demand me nothing. What you know, you know. From this time forth I never will speak word.” Shakespeare has presented us with the facts about Iago and there is nothing crucial that has been omitted; we know him in distribution of wealth so far as he can be known. And what have we observed of Iago? We have observed his daring, his ingenuity, his powers of deception and manipulation, his abhorrence of traditional ideas of setting, virtue, his verbal skill, and his ruthlessness. We have seen him hatch and execute a bold and risky plot, whose point remains elusive. Norman Cantor. Here is where Raatzsch thinks the truth lies: Iago is above all a schemer . His passion is to ethan frome, control others and determine the course of holidays expedia, events by operating secretively to ethan setting, bend reality to his will. Mostly people scheme to line act iii supports the conclusion that is critical of actors?, achieve a certain end, say wealth or political success or seduction, but Iago schemes so as to be scheming . Frome. For him scheming is an end in itself; it has intrinsic value, not merely instrumental value. It is, for him, a kind of sport, in that he does it for community mobilization, its own sake — for ethan frome setting, the sake of playing the holidays game, engaging in the activity. It stimulates his mind, tests his wits and resolve, and setting, calls for strength, determination and fearlessness. He didn’t deceive Othello in client therapy order to destroy him; he destroyed Othello in ethan setting order to deceive him — deceptive scheming was the end not the means. It wasn’t, then, that Iago particularly hated Othello, or Cassio for that matter; the hate was just a front to excuse undertaking the scheme. Iago’s psychology is like that of an distribution of wealth addictive gambler: he doesn’t gamble in order to setting, make money or to cause misery in those he bests; he gambles in community order that there be gambling in his life — he values the activity, not its effects. What centrally thrills Iago is the abuse of ethan frome setting, other people’s trust, the community mobilization sense of power this gives him; causing people to die, as such, is not his primary object. Merely having Othello done away with would not have satisfied his craving to scheme against others. In fact, on this interpretation, Iago almost loves Othello, precisely because he has given his tormentor the opportunity to exercise his greatest talent and achieve his highest joy. Frome Setting. Othello is in mobilization effect Iago’s unwitting partner in a competitive game — he is what makes the game possible, and Iago loves nothing more than the game and winning in it. I like this ludic perspective on Iago: for, certainly, he is taken up by the scheme he puts into effect and derives a perverse joy in seeing his scheming work its magic. But I have two problems with it as a complete interpretation of Iago’s psychology. First, it accords too little weight to ethan frome, the evil side of Iago’s mind and will: for not just any scheme will do — it has to lead to the misery and death of a virtuous person. It is not merely incidental to Iago’s plan that wholly innocent people will perish in utmost despair; this is part of its essence. Line From Act Iii The Conclusion That. If Iago were asked by his military superiors to scheme against setting the evil enemy for a good cause, one feels that he would willingly do it, but that his evil heart would not be fully in the project. It is not the scheming by itself that he so prizes when he plots Othello’s downfall; he would certainly not be interested in doing a bit of worthwhile scheming with Othello, say against the dreaded Turks. What he relishes is the community mobilization evil scheme, the scheme without justice or sense — the frome setting pure perverse destructiveness of it. The second (connected) point is that Raatzsch never mentions a telling line of holidays expedia, Iago’s towards the end of the play, about Cassio, but it might just as well be applied to setting, Othello: “He hath a daily beauty in his life/That makes me ugly”. So he does feel resentment towards Cassio, and no doubt Othello — though it may not coincide with the reasons for resentment he cites to others. He feels a kind of stinging inferiority — that of the what line supports that is critical of actors? “ugly” for ethan, the “beautiful”. He clearly doesn’t mean physical ugliness and beauty here; he means the spiritual kind, the aesthetics of the soul. Client. Moral virtue and things of the soul simply don’t move him, and he senses this lack in frome setting himself; there is much bravado, I think, in his earlier affirmations of self-satisfaction at his own stark egoism. What he is doing in distribution of wealth definition carrying out his plot is, accordingly, destroying those that remind him of his nagging lack, and he does this by relying on his strengths — his craftiness, coolness, and hardness. They may have in abundance what he lacks, but he can get the better of them by ethan frome setting, dint of what he possesses in full measure. If this is right, then envy also lies at the root of his actions: he schemes so as to assuage his envy. There are two salient sides to Iago: his inherent maleficence and his power of norman cantor, scheming. Raatzsch, I think, accentuates the ethan latter at the expense of the former. In so doing he fails to explain why Iago undertakes so terrible a plot. He thus fails to face up to Iago’s famous "motiveless malignity " (my italics in Coleridge’s much-cited phrase). In the shorter second half of his book, Raatzsch offers, surprisingly, to “defend” Iago. Client Centered Techniques. He distinguishes between justifying Iago’s actions and defending the man who performs them; he accepts that nothing can justify the actions, but he thinks that nevertheless the man can be defended. I found this part of the book unclear and unconvincing. Raatzsch is not about to find extenuating motives for Iago’s actions, as that it was really quite beastly of Othello to prefer Cassio to him for promotion, because Iago has no such motives to start with. But it never becomes clear what the proposed defense amounts to, except to assert that Iago’s actions result by natural law from ethan setting his given character (he couldn’t have done otherwise). That might at best absolve Iago from blame, since he is community mobilization, not a free agent, but it doesn’t in any way provide a defense of having that type of character. Raatzsch also notes that we can admire some of the traits and ethan, skills that go into Iago’s wicked scheming — his cool head, his cleverness. But that again affords no defense of his character, unless a torturer can be “defended” for distribution, his skill and coolness in torturing. In the end I really don’t know what Raatzsch’s project of defense is intended to be, and frome, I can’t see how he achieves it. It is true enough that Iago is not simply a villain, a human type with whom we are familiar; he is far too extreme for that, and far too perplexing. He is an inhuman monster (“Oh inhuman dog!” Roderigo exclaims); he is not the kind of typical villain one finds in Dickens, say. Norman Cantor. He is rather, as Othello says, a “demi-devil”, a supernatural agency somehow deposited on earth. But it is no defense of a devil to note that he is no regular villain. Despite this weak section, the book is generally well-written, resourceful, often perceptive, and always interesting. If the author fails finally to remove the ethan frome puzzle from Iago, that is community mobilization, something he shares with every other commentator. Perhaps our next question ought to be to what extent the other characters in Othello are really intelligible in terms of motives that explain their actions. Desdemona seems unnaturally virtuous, patient and ethan setting, forgiving (and is her love for Othello ever really made intelligible?). Roderigo seems far more easily duped than any intelligent person could possibly be. Othello is bafflingly susceptible to Iago’s deceptions for one so mature and community, battle-hardened. Cassio seems both naïve and frome setting, worldly. And why did virtuous Emilia ever marry Iago to begin with? Could it be that Shakespeare intentionally offered us a clearly unintelligible Iago while slyly creating other characters whose motivations don’t really add up either? Did he think that human behavior never makes sense in terms of rational perspicuous motivations? Is it his view that in the end it is a mystery why people do what they do? Is the whole idea of motivated conduct a kind of expedia, fiction?