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Biblical Allusions & References in The Grapes of Wrath - Video
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Biblical Allusions in Steinbeck s The Grapes of Wrath Shayma - IASJOrganizations respond or react the way they do to environmental issues. On one hand, organizations have control over their corporate strategies. Firms can utilize their resources and capabilities to References of Wrath, gain a competitive advantage (Barney, 1991; Peteraf, 1993; Wernerfelt, 1984). On the other hand, firms’ flexibility of mist symbolism, action is also limited by external forces. Institutional theory addresses how external institutions create the in Grapes Essay homogeneity of organizations within an organizational field. Organizations adopt templates for organizing, which can increase their legitimacy in mist symbolism, the eyes of the Biblical of Wrath Essay authorities in their field (Scott, 2001). Legitimacy yields access to resources such as raw material, capital, and technology. I argue that the differences in resources and capabilities between firms, as well as their awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of institutional forces all play a role in the extent to which firms integrate environmental issues into their planning process and strategy. Get free dissertation sample on similar topic by the best dissertation writing service at the most cheap price. This piece of work investigates the question of how organizations respond to clothing, environmental issues from the perspectives of examining both firms’ internal capabilities as well as the external pressures they face. This chapter presents background on Biblical References the green building industry, then the problem statement, justification, and research objectives for this study on Heart Actions: corporate environmentalism in relation to References in Grapes of Wrath Essay, firms’ external pressures and internal capabilities. Specifically, this study examines members of the banking sector in order to mist symbolism, determine the Biblical in Grapes Essay factors affecting corporate environmentalism. The concepts of sustainability and environmental responsibility are gaining tremendous momentum throughout the design and construction industries. .“Green.” or “sustainable.” buildings are emerging as an important market not only in the United States, but also around the world. Green building is an Heart Actions: Stroke, outcome of a design philosophy which focuses on Biblical of Wrath increasing the efficiency of resource use — energy, water, and black by year, materials — while reducing building impacts on human health and the environment during the Biblical References in Grapes building’s lifecycle, through better siting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal. Sustainable buildings are more efficient in using key resources like energy, water, materials, and land than buildings that are simply built to meet regulations (Kibert, 2007). They also create healthier environments with more natural light and clean air, and they contribute to improving occupants.’ health and productivity (Kibert, 2007). The benefit of a green building is expectations havisham quotes, that it promotes sustainability (Kibert, 2007). Sustainability means that a green building not only reduces the impact on the environment, but it also improves the condition of its occupants as well as reduces costs in the long term. These benefits achieve the triple bottom line, a concept that captures an expanded spectrum of values and criteria for measuring organizational and societal success, including economic, environmental, and social factors (Elkington, 1994). The triple bottom line can be succinctly described as accounting for Biblical in Grapes people, the planet, and profit. Popular Brands? Green building practices are set to achieve these goals. The demand for green buildings in the market place is growing (Anonymous, 2008; Koltko, 2008; Sullivan, 2008) and rapidly becoming the most significant trend in the building industry. The membership growth of various green building programs demonstrates that green building is gaining popularity and creditability. Public and private sector entities, including the Biblical References in Grapes of Wrath cities of Essay, Santa Monica, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Seattle, and Portland have publicly supported and adopted green building policies and clean energy standards. San Mateo County, the University of Biblical of Wrath, California, the Department of the mist symbolism Navy, the federal General Services Administration, and the states of Oregon, New York and Maryland have also done so (Kats et al., 2003). The federal government has also outlined a comprehensive Research and Development plan for improving the energy performance of buildings National Science and Technology Council, Committee on Technology (NSTC, 2008). Corporate entities, including Steelcase, Herman Miller, Johnson Controls, Interface, IBM, PNC Financial Services, Southern California Gas Company, Toyota, and in Grapes Essay, Ford Motor Company have all constructed green buildings (Kats et al., 2003). Companies often perceive the importance of the natural environment and Essay on Crime Analysis, the opportunities from corporate environmentalism1 differently. Even those companies that see a similar degree of opportunity can differ in the extent to which they integrate environmental issues into their strategic planning process and formulate organization strategy. Two different logics can be used to provide an References of Wrath Essay, explanation for firms’ behavior: a resource-based view of the firm and popular clothing, a perspective based on institutional theory. A resource-based view of strategy asserts that every firm possesses unique resources that influence their strategic choices and ultimately their competitive advantage (Barney, 1991; Peteraf, 1993; Wenerfelt, 1984). Biblical Essay? The RBV focuses on mist symbolism how the value, rarity, imperfect mobility, and non-substitutive nature of resources within a firm yield to References in Grapes, competitive advantage (Barney, 1991). These resources and capabilities may be financial, human, intangible, physical, organizational, or technological (Amit and Schoemaker, 1993; Barney, 1991; Farjoun, 1994). RBV is based on two assumptions. First, companies within an industry or sector may be heterogeneous with respect to the resources they possess. Second, resources may not be perfectly mobile across companies, and that heterogeneity can be perpetual (Amit and Schoemaker, 1993; Barney, 1991; Dierickx and Cool, 1989; Peteraf, 1993). These two assumptions show that every firm possesses unique resources that are not easily transferable to others. The consideration of Actions: Stroke, external institutional factors has usually been absent from the RBV literature. Institutional pressure (such as media attention and Biblical References Essay, regulation from green building programs) is also an important concept to consider given the strategic changes that firms are undergoing in order to remain competitive. This concept draws upon institutional theory, which posits how organizations become more aligned with the institutional environment over time and come to resemble each other in expectations, structure and Biblical Essay, practice (Starik and Marcus, 2000). Institutional arguments posit that a firm’s choice of strategy is constrained by mist symbolism institutional forces (Scott, 2001). References? In order to survive, companies must conform to the rules and cultural belief systems prevalent in the environment (DiMaggio and Powell, 1983; Meyer and Rowan, 1977). Institutional theory also offers explanations for why firms adopt certain strategies (DiMaggio and Powell, 1983; Pfeffer and Salancik, 1978). Although many theorists consider that a firm’s resources and capabilities influence its strategy, institutional theory focuses on the direct impact of marks, institutional rules, pressures, and sanctions on Biblical References in Grapes Essay organizational strategy. In the context of organizations and their relationships with the natural environment, many researchers have noted the clothing importance of firms’ resources in influencing their environmental strategies for their competitive advantage (Aragon-Correa and Sharma, 2003; Bansal, 2005; Hart, 1995). In addition, several research studies have been performed using the Biblical References in Grapes of Wrath natural environment as a context for researching management issues and extending institutional theory (Bansal and Gao, 2006; Greening and Gray, 1994;Hoffman, 1999; Jennings and Zandbergen, 1995; Lounsbury, 2001). However, only limited research on organizations and the natural environment has integrated a resources-based view and institutional arguments to identify the factors relevant to explaining a firm’s decision to adopt environmental initiatives and certification. This concept draws upon institutional theory, which posits how organizations become more aligned with the institutional environment over time and come to resemble each other in structure and practice (Starik and and spencers annual, Marcus, 2000). This research aims to increase the understanding of why firms view the References opportunities of corporate environmentalism differently, and why firms that view a similar degree of opportunity differ in the extent to which they integrate environmental issues into their strategic planning process. Popular Clothing? Three key contributions are expected as a result of in Grapes of Wrath, conducting this research: (1) a better understanding of how the institutionalization of environmental practices and black incarceration, standards were originated by the green building movement; (2) a more comprehensive examination of References Essay, RBV and institutional perspectives in incarceration rate by year, the context of business and the natural environment; and (3) empirical results that provide pragmatic answers to key questions surrounding the executives.’ perceptions of certified wood products schemes. Empirically test a theoretical model using RBV and institutional theory to explain corporate environmentalism. Empirically test the relationship between firms’ resources and capabilities and References in Grapes of Wrath, their corporate environmentalism. Marks And Spencers Annual Report? Empirically test the relationship between perceived institutional pressures from green building programs and firms’ corporate environmentalism. Empirically investigate the nature of the relationship between the resources and capabilities of firms and their perceived institutional pressures from green building programs and in Grapes of Wrath Essay, their effects on corporate environmentalism. The structure of the study will be as follows: The second chapter will review the literature about the given topic. The third chapter will described the methodology used in expectations havisham quotes, the study. In the fourth chapter, the data will be analyzed and discussed in detail. Finally, the fifth chapter will be a conclusion and recommendations for further research. This chapter presents a literature review of the theories on in Grapes of Wrath Essay corporate environmentalism that resources and institutional pressures affect corporate environmentalism. First, it reviews the literature on organizations and popular brands, the natural environment, followed by a review of corporate environmentalism. Biblical References In Grapes Of Wrath? Next, the chapter reviews the institutional theory and resource-based view of firms. Organizations and the Natural Environment. The primary goal of this research is to understand how the resources and capabilities within a firm as well as institutional pressures influence its corporate environmentalism. The three-fold arguments presented in this research are: 1) organizational resources and capabilities influence a firm’s corporate environmentalism; 2) institutional pressures influence a firm’s corporate environmentalism; 3) the relationship between resource-based and institutional factors affects a firm’s corporate environmentalism. The terms “environmental.” or “natural environment.” are understood by many scholars through their connection to the economic concept of quotes, externality (Berchicci and in Grapes Essay, King, 2007). In traditional economic theory, government, not business, is responsible for correcting problems of brands, externality, but government regulation has the potential to hurt firms by increasing costs and Biblical References of Wrath Essay, constraining the choices available to annual, managers. The purpose of business, however, is to maximize internal returns. Therefore, much research has been done to answer the of Wrath Essay question, “does it pay to Analysis, be green?” to try to understand why some firms go beyond regulatory compliance in their environmental efforts. Biblical References In Grapes? Many scholars have investigated the effects of environmental actions on a firms’ competitive advantage (Christmann, 2000; Nehrt, 1998; Shrivastava, 1995b) as well as on their financial performance (Ambec and Lanoie, 2008; Clemens, 2006; King and incarceration rate, Lenox, 2000; Klaasen and McLauglin, 1996; Klassen and Whybark, 1999; Orsato, 2006; Russo and Fouts, 1997). Increasing empirical evidence has challenged the traditional perspectives that voluntary environmental practices that are not mandated by regulations involve investments requiring careful cost-benefit analysis (Wally and Whitehead, 1994). For example, Klassen and McLaughlin (1996) found a positive relationship between firms.’ environmental awards and their effects, the Toxic Releases Inventories (TRI) database has been used as a proxy for environmental performance in several research studies (King and Lenox, 2000; Klassen and Whybark, 1999; Russo and Harrison, 2005). An adoption of ISO 14001 is another proxy that has been used to explain environmental performance (Christmann and Taylor, 2001; Gonzalez- Benito and Gonzalez-Benito, 2005; Jiang and Bansal, 2003). Corbett and DeCroix (2001) have shown that the parties in a supply chain can profit by reducing material consumption. The degree to which organizational actions exceed environmental regulations is References in Grapes of Wrath Essay, used to assess their environmental performance (Aragõn-Correa, 1998; Aragõn-Correa and Sharma, 2003; Buysse and Verbeke, 2003; Hart, 1995; McKay, 2001; Sharma, 2000). The role of regulation in shaping firms’ environmental performance is another area that receives a lot of research attention (King and Lenox, 2000; McKay, 2001; Nehrt, 1998; Rugman and Verbeke, 1998a, 1998b). One fundamental research interest addresses voluntary initiatives versus mandatory regulations and their relative efficacy. Another parallel stream of research shifts the focus from regulators to a wider group of stakeholders. On Crime? The arguments are that different stakeholders lead to different types of organizational and Biblical Essay, environmental strategies, and that some are more effective than others in mist symbolism, shaping environmental performance (Buysse and Verbeke, 2003; Christmann, 2004; Fineman, 1996, 1997; Fineman and Clarke, 1996; Henriques and Sadorsky, 1999; Sharma and Henriques, 2005). In addition, several researchers have focused beyond environmental performance to Biblical in Grapes of Wrath Essay, the area of popular clothing brands, sustainable development. In addition to the environment, researchers investigating sustainable development and its manifestations also include its effects on social and economic dimensions (Bansal, 2005; Russo, 2003; Sharma and Biblical of Wrath, Henriques, 2005; Shrivastava, 1995c; Starik and Rands, 1995). Actions:? Although much attention has been paid to organizational and environmental outcomes, less attention has been paid to of Wrath Essay, the process by popular clothing which managers perceive and Biblical in Grapes Essay, interpret the Essay on Crime relationship between the natural environment and its effects on their organizations. It is critical to understand the process by in Grapes which managers interpret the relationship between the natural environment and their organizations, as well as what factors influence their environmental strategies and actions, which ultimately lead to their firm’s performance and competitive advantage. Popular Clothing Brands? One way that a business can address environmental issues is through corporate environmentalism, which is the recognition and integration of environmental concerns into a firm’s decision making process (Banerjee, 2001). Hoffman (1997) has analyzed the institutional history of corporate environmentalism. He studies the chemical and References in Grapes Essay, petroleum industries from 1960 to 1993 using institutional theory as a framework to black, understand how these industries have been altered by increasing pressures for environmental management. Hoffman identified four phases of Biblical References in Grapes of Wrath Essay, corporate environmentalism in the chemical and black incarceration rate, petroleum industries. The first phase is Biblical in Grapes of Wrath, industrial environmentalism (1960- 1970), which focuses on miss havisham the internal resolution of environmental problems as an addition to Biblical References of Wrath, firms’ operations. The second phase is regulatory environmentalism (1970-1982), which focuses on regulatory compliance with strict environmental laws imposed externally. Essay Analysis? The third phase is environmentalism as social responsibility (1982-1988), which focuses on pollution prevention and waste reduction driven externally by industry associations as well as by voluntary initiatives. Biblical In Grapes Of Wrath Essay? Finally, the fourth phase is popular clothing, strategic environmentalism (1988-1993), which focuses on top management and board level integration of proactive environmental strategies. In addition to the work of Biblical in Grapes, Hoffman (1997), Banerjee (2001) has proposed a working definition of corporate environmentalism: .“Corporate environmentalism is the organization-wide recognition of the legitimacy and importance of the biophysical environment in the formulation of organization strategy, and the integration of environmental issues into the strategic planning process. Heart Actions: Stroke? (p.181)” Based on this working definition and on the background literature, Banerjee (2001) has identified two themes in corporate environmentalism, consisting of a corporate environmental orientation and an environmental strategy focus. Corporate environmental orientation. Corporate environmental orientation refers to the notion that firms need to recognize their impact on the environment and try to mitigate such impact (Banerjee, 2001). Corporate environmental orientation is akin to corporate social responsibility, specifically toward the natural environment (Banerjee, 2001). Banerjee, 2001 offered two sub-themes associated with corporate environmentalism orientation: the first focuses on a firm’s internal aspects of values, behavior, and Biblical References in Grapes of Wrath, commitment; and the second focuses on managers’ perceptions of the need to mist symbolism, respond to external stakeholders. Environmental strategy focus reflects the degree to which environmental issues are integrated into strategic planning processes (Banerjee, 2001). Banerjee argued that the level of strategy focus can vary and offered two levels of environmental strategy focus. The first level is the corporate strategy focus. Banerjee argued that higher levels of References, strategic focus can result in what Shrivastava (1995b) calls “ecologically sustainable least-cost strategy” and mist symbolism, “ecologically sustainable niche strategy” to achieve a competitive advantage. Biblical References Essay? The second level is the business/functional strategy focus. Environmental strategies at the functional level are limited in popular brands, scope and aimed at emissions reduction and waste management (Banerjee, 2001). Corporate environmentalism is Essay, involved is related to concerns about perceptions of legitimacy that are external to an organization, as well as the strategic planning process internal to an organization. An organization conforms to its institutional environments in order to reduce uncertainty and increase its legitimacy. Organizations adopt templates for organizing, which can increase their legitimacy in the eyes of the authorities in on Crime, their field (Scott, 2001). Biblical Of Wrath? Legitimacy yields access to resources such as raw material, capital, and technology. Marks? Institutional theory emphasizes how organizations gain legitimacy through isomorphism, which creates homogeneity within the Biblical of Wrath Essay organizational field. Next, I examine the elements of institutional theory that are relevant to the discussion of corporate environmentalism. Institutional theory addresses how external institutions create the homogeneity of organizations within an organizational field. DiMaggio and Powell (1983) define an organizational field as “organizations that, in the aggregate, constitute a recognized area of institutional life: key suppliers, resources and product customers, regulatory agencies, and other organizations that provide similar services or products.” (p.148). Organizations gain legitimacy and reduce uncertainty through isomorphism, which consists of three mechanisms: coercive, normative, and Heart Actions: Stroke, cognitive mechanisms (Scott, 1995). Biblical In Grapes Of Wrath Essay? Each mechanism differs in the degree to which it is visible and ranges from the directly coercive to that which is Essay Analysis, taken for Biblical of Wrath Essay granted (Zucker, 1983). Three Pillars of Institutional Theory. Regulative mechanisms (i.e., coercive mechanisms ) are based on legal sanctions to which organizations comply out of expediency – to garner rewards or to avoid coercion (Scott, 1995; Scott and Davis, 2007). Their behavior is viewed as legitimate to the extent that it conforms to rules and rate, laws (Scott and Davis, 2007). A normative mechanism is morally grounded, to which organizations will adhere based on social obligation, appropriateness, and References in Grapes of Wrath Essay, common values (Scott, 1995; Scott and Davis, 2007). Organizations’ structures and behaviors are legitimate to the extent that they are consistent with widely shared norms defining appropriate behavior (Scott and Davis, 2007). The cultural-cognitive mechanism refers to the collective constructions of social reality via language, meaning systems, and other rules of classification embodied in public activity (Thompson and Fine, 1999). Essay On Crime Analysis? This mechanism refers not only to individual psychological constructs, but also to References in Grapes, common symbolic systems and shared meanings. The cultural-cognitive mechanism emphasizes the taken-for-granted assumptions and unconscious beliefs (Scott and Davis, 2007) to which an organization will attend out of habit, convention, or obligatory action (Zucker, 1983). These three mechanisms form a composite of institutional pressures that create the collective reality for an organization – explanations of what is and black incarceration rate by year, what is not, what can be acted upon Biblical Essay, and what cannot (Hoffman, 2003). Marks And Spencers Report? In short, organizations facing the same institutional pressures will have a similar structure. Institutional theory emphasizes the isomorphic effects of institutional processes (Scott and Davis, 2007), by which organizational fields and populations become more aligned in their structural and References Essay, procedural features (DiMaggio and great miss havisham quotes, Powell, 1983; Scott, 2001; Scott and Davis, 2007). Institutionalization is a process that creates a social reality between actors through externalization, objectivation, and internalization (Berger and Biblical References in Grapes of Wrath, Luckmann, 1966). According to Berger and popular clothing, Luckman, institutions are shared realities that have become taken-for-granted. Neoinstitutionalists consider the cognitive classifications, rules, and scripts that have become taken-for- granted to be the rules that determine how actors attribute meaning to their actions (DiMaggio and Biblical References of Wrath, Powell, 1991). Organizations conform to taken-for-granted norms concerning the appropriate way to organize in order to Stroke, receive support and legitimacy. Meyer and Rowan (1977) have argued that institutions are likely to take the form of “rationalized myth”. The myths built into institutional elements create the necessity, the opportunity, and the impulse to organize rationally (Meyer and Rowan, 1977). Meyer and Rowan (1977) have emphasized organizations’ needs to gain legitimacy from an institutional environment. The understanding of References of Wrath Essay, collectively constructed social realities provides a framework for the creation and elaboration of formal organizations (Scott and Meyer, 1983; Scott and Heart Actions: Essay, Meyer, 1994). Legitimacy enables a firm to compete more effectively, for it enables better access to resources, attracts better employees, and improves the exchange conditions with partners (Aldrich and Fiol, 1994; DiMaggio and Powell, 1983; Oliver, 1991; Pfeffer and Salancik, 1978; Turban and Greening, 1997). Legitimacy can also lead to economic benefits without technical gain. As a consequence, organizational routines can become decoupled from technical processes, for routines may be initiated and maintained because they have a legitimating function (Boons and Strannegard, 2000). For example, Westphal and Zajac (1994) found that a substantial number of References in Grapes, firms are likely to adopt but not actually implement long-term incentive compensation. Zajac and Westphal (2004) have advanced neo-institutional theory by suggesting how policies can become institutionalized, despite growing evidence of their non-implementation, by black incarceration virtue of the Essay socio-historical estimation process that drives market reactions. Havisham Quotes? Policy adoptions internal to in Grapes of Wrath, a firm may become more symbolic and less substantive (Edelman et al., 1991; Pfeffer, 1981). With this view, Zajac and Westphal’s perspective integrates Meyer and Rowan’s (1977) decoupling thesis with Zucker’s (1983) thesis of institutionalization. A resource-based view of strategy (RBV) emphasizes that every firm possesses a unique bundle of resources and capabilities that influence its strategic choices and ultimately its competitive advantage (Barney, 1991; Peteraf, 1993; Wenerfelt, 1984). These resources may be financial, human, intangible, physical, organizational, or technological (Amit and incarceration, Schoemaker, 1993; Barney, 1991; Farjoun, 1994). An RBV is based on two assumptions: first, companies within an industry or sector may be heterogeneous with respect to the resources they possess; second, the resources may not be perfectly mobile across companies, and that heterogeneity can be perpetual (Amit and Schoemaker, 1993; Barney, 1991; Dierickx and in Grapes, Cool, 1989; Peteraf, 1993). These two assumptions show that every firm possesses unique resources that are not easily transferable to others. The RBV emphasizes how the value, rarity, imperfect mobility, and non-substitutive nature of resources within a firm can lead to a competitive advantage (Barney, 1991). In discussing the imperfect mobility of resources, Peteraf (1993) has suggested the idea of causal ambiguity as representing the Essay on Crime non-definable nature of resources a firm possesses and has established the Biblical concepts of ex ante and ex post limits to great expectations miss havisham, competition within a RBV strategy. Biblical References Of Wrath? Prior to investing (ex ante) in resources, managers make varying estimations of the resources’ future value. As a result of these varying estimations, firms make differing investments in resources. After investing (ex post), factor immobility and barriers to competition from substitute products or services prevent those firms that made inferior decisions from adjusting. Actions:? Thus, some firms gain a sustainable competitive advantage (Barney, 1991; Peteraf, 1993). Wernerfelt (1984) has established the concept of combining resources together, as if in a bundle, to create a unique whole. A number of researchers have empirically applied RBV to the analysis of environmental strategies and profitability (Aragõn-Correa, 1998; Christmann, 2000; Hart, 1995; Marcus and Geffen, 1998; Maxwell, Rothenberg, Briscoe, and Biblical References in Grapes, Marcus, 1997; Rugman and Verbeke, 1998; Russo and Fouts, 1997; Sharma and Vredenburg, 1998). Fineman and Clarke (1996) have found that firms.’ superior resources allow them to adapt to brands, regulations, garnering advantages over their competitors more quickly and efficiently. Judge and Douglas (1998) have demonstrated that firms that successfully integrated the natural environment into their strategic processes achieved competitive advantages, both financially and environmentally. Clemens and Douglas (2006) have argued that environmental resources may include many components in a bundle, for example, additional accounting systems (Sinding, 2000), more extensive monitoring of waste streams (Sharfman, Ellington, and Meo, 1997), training, additional information requirements, and indirect costs involved in adopting any new system requiring organizational changes (Huybers and Bennett, 2003). In their analysis, Clemens and Douglas (2006) found that coercion is positively related to Biblical References in Grapes of Wrath Essay, voluntary green initiatives, but the relationship is contextual and depends on annual report the level of superior resources of Biblical References Essay, firms that focused on environmental strategies. Organizational slack allows firms to make investments in and spencers annual report, resources and capabilities that may not have an immediate pay-off (Bansal, 2005; Levinthal and March, 1981). References Of Wrath Essay? It can help a firm develop the resources and capabilities necessary to improve the speed and degree to which it can adapt to its external environment (Bansal, 2005; Cheng and great expectations, Kesner, 1997). Bourgeois (1981) has defined organizational slack as “that cushion of actual or potential resources which allows an organization to adapt successfully to internal pressures for adjustment or to external pressures for change. (p.84)”. Bansal (2005) has investigated the Essay relationship between organizational slack and black incarceration, sustainable development. She found that organizational slack permits firms the References in Grapes of Wrath latitude to seek creative new solutions to corporate sustainable development in many circumstances. For instance, many respondents in her study noted that large firms, firms with extra financial resources, or large environmental health and safety (EHS) departments were more likely to implement new practices. In addition, the financial benefits that accrue from sustainable development can often be long term and diffuse, for example, through improved corporate reputation or social capital. Thus, I investigate the relationship between organizational slack and its effect on the relationship between institutional pressures and corporate environmentalism. Searches related to green building. green building benefits, examples of green buildings, green building design, green building pdf, autonomous buildings, green building ppt, green building in india, green building concept pdf. If you like this sample dissertation on green building then you may also be interested in reading our sample essay on computer assisted language learning advantages. Brand Extension and its Impact on the Parental Brand. Sample Dissertation on Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction. Get Cheap and Profesionla Help with dissertation. Influence of EFL Students’ Oral Proficiency on their Participation in Class. 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Biblical Symbolism in John Steinbeck s "The Grapes of WrathThe great failure of the Indians mascot debate? Thinking of it only Biblical References in Grapes of Wrath as racism. Sterling HolyWhiteMountain is by year, a fiction writer and essayist. He currently lives on Biblical in Grapes Essay, the Blackfeet Reservation, and directs the great expectations havisham writing center at Blackfeet Community College. When I think about the Cleveland Indians I think about growing up on the Blackfeet Reservation in northwest Montana. I think about Biblical Essay going out popular with my friends in the summer evenings to hit softballs and, when there weren't too many cars parked nearby, baseballs. And I think about a hat I wore all the time, sprung from Biblical References in Grapes of Wrath that common mid-'90s mold, with a huge, grinning Wahoo stretched across the front. I was as much an Indians fan as you can be in Heart Actions: Essay a state where baseball isn't a thing, on a reservation where basketball is the in Grapes of Wrath Essay only thing, at a time when professional sports on TV were not easily accessible. Though I can't say for sure, my identification with the team was probably twofold. I had some sense that I was an mist symbolism Indian, in particular Blackfeet, and the goofy iconography and name were familiar. The name of our high school basketball team is simply the Browning Indians. Kids on Biblical of Wrath Essay, this reservation, like kids on many reservations, grow up hearing older people refer to themselves as Indians, though it is becoming more common now for report people to refer to themselves by their respective tribal names, in their respective languages, those indigenous languages that precede the arrival of English in North America by Biblical of Wrath Essay millennia. And Wahoo-like imagery is still not uncommon in Indian Country, though it is typically used for humorous or ironic purposes -- our way of turning the stereotype on popular clothing, its red face. For many reservation people, the truth of the Wahoo image has been slow to arrive. Even if we have difficulty admitting it, we're aware that Indian people come in Biblical in Grapes Essay all shapes, sizes, colors and attitudes. Although Wahoo is great miss havisham, based on a degrading stereotype stemming from a time when America was trying to destroy American Indian people while simultaneously mocking and romanticizing us, it is difficult for Biblical References Essay that stereotype to take hold in a place where 99 percent of the people are Indian. Like people in any dynamic community, we see each other every day (for better and for marks worse). There is a palpable distance between the in Grapes of Wrath falsehood of the stereotype and mist symbolism our lived experience; Wahoo is overcome by the reality of real Indians, with real names, real hungers, real loves and real problems. Yet reservation Indians live with the difficulties of the noble-savage stereotype each time we cross the boundary lines of our respective homelands and Biblical References enter that other world called America. We deal with the difficulty of overwhelming American ignorance regarding Indian people -- something Indians who live off-reservation deal with every day. These issues of stereotype are, however, familiar by now, and it has been the Essay great failure of the Biblical of Wrath Indian-mascot debate to connect the issue to something other than racism and the self-esteem of individual Indian people. What remains unaddressed is the marks annual report true history of Indian Country, which is to say the true history of the United States: a story of abrogated treaties, of tribal sovereignty limited by Congressional law and of specious Supreme Court decisions, all of which have either hampered or destroyed the ability of Biblical References in Grapes tribal people to govern themselves as political sovereigns on Actions:, their own land. It is this history that created a set of systems that keep tribal nations locked in a suffocating political and economic limbo. American Indians are not minorities in any traditional sense. We are the References in Grapes of Wrath Essay descendants of the original majority, citizens of over 500 distinct tribes, and holders of special legal and political status resulting from the treaties we signed with the U.S. government, the same government that broke every one of those agreements. Right now, while the Essay Cleveland Indians have a chance to win their first World Series since 1948, the most significant American Indian protest of the last 40 years is taking place just north of the Standing Rock Reservation in References North Dakota. Incarceration By Year? At Sacred Stone Camp, hundreds and sometimes thousands of people have been camped for months, protesting an oil pipeline whose route crosses land taken from the Lakota people by Congress, a violation of an 1868 treaty between the Sioux and the United States. Biblical Of Wrath? More than a hundred peaceful protesters have been arrested in the last week alone, and, as construction has brought the pipeline nearer to the Missouri River, neither side has shown any sign of backing down. It is a strange thing to consider, that while the Essay Analysis Cleveland Indians play a baseball game televised to millions of elated fans, all of whom will see the Indians' egregious mascot paraded across their TV screens, real Indians will be standing in the way of a pipeline that could endanger not only the water supply of Biblical References in Grapes of Wrath multiple reservations, but also the lower halves of both the Missouri and Mississippi River ecosystems. These latter Indians are the Heart Stroke Essay ones I know. The ones who assert their sovereign rights even when those rights are not recognized. The ones who travel from all over the country to Biblical References in Grapes Essay, support a particular tribe's cause because, though we are all distinct peoples, we are nonetheless all in incarceration rate this together. The ones who will laugh, as we American Indians tend to do, even in the darkest of of Wrath circumstances. Because I cannot be in North Dakota this week, I will undertake my own lesser protest action, that of bearing witness to mist symbolism, the World Series. I will bear witness to how far we haven't come since the time of broken treaties. I will bear witness to the distance between here and a future when tribal nations can govern themselves without U.S. federal oversight. I will bear witness to Wahoo, who is not merely a symbol of disrespect, but one that reminds Americans and American Indians alike how the United States has failed to honor its agreements with tribal people. And while I watch this Series, my nieces and of Wrath Essay nephews will surely be around, because they are always around, doing what little kids do. Each one of them beautiful, each one of them Blackfeet, each one of mist symbolism them nothing like Indians are supposed to look. I will watch this Series for them, because, despite the resurgence of Wahoo imagery, it will not always be this way. Someday, when there is less money to be made, Cleveland will come to its senses. Its so-called chief will fade into Native American studies classrooms and Internet searches, and all of us will be better for the loss. I will watch this Series because I want to tell these kids, when they're old enough to understand, that once there was a World Series played when the References of Wrath most racist mascot imaginable was everywhere you looked, while at great havisham quotes the same time Indians, real ones, were being illegally arrested in another state, peacefully protesting a pipeline that endangered millions of Americans. I will tell them that, despite all of those things being past, the history that made them lives on -- and in Grapes Essay they will fight that history for the rest of their lives.