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Design Social Responsibility: Ethical Discourse in VisualIntroduction Present essay seeks to provide the comparative analysis of two artworks – Hoffmann’s Boston Twilight, 1957, belonging to Responsibility The Graphic, Proto-Abstract Expressionism and Rauschenberg’s Retroactive 1, 1964, which may be attributed to the art movement of Pop-Art. The comparative analysis of these paintings will focus on two crucial aspects – structural and positive. Structural analysis addresses cultural, historical context, which influenced the discussed artworks, political climate, art movements’ stylistic characteristics, which informed individual work of artists, their subjective motives, influences and inclinations. Secondly, positive analysis of the artworks focuses on the themes depicted, colors and techniques used, formal and stylistic elements, the reflection of cultural and historical context in the artworks etc. The thesis, present paper defends, may be formulated as follows: Hoffmann’s and Rauschenberg’s artworks were significantly influenced by historical, cultural, social and artistic context. The artistic response to these contexts was different and reflected through opposite art movements. The discussed images belong to different artistic traditions and, hence have many differences. Similarities, however, may be attributed to the similar artistic influences, and utilization of Caucus sometimes similar formal and color techniques of composition. Structural context: art movements, history, politics and subjective perspectives. The general socio-economic and historical context of both artworks (as they were created very close in Communication time – 1957 and 1964) may be characterized by the gradual assault of mass consumption postmodernist society, which influenced the rapid development of popular culture in music, entertainment and cinema. Baroque Vs Renaissance. Commoditization has reached almost every sphere of social life and closely approached art through mass media. The increasing role of mass culture was immediately seen in the new sphere of advertisement, which conflated the elements of of Positive Communication ‘high and low’ culture, which became central to chain, the new postmodernist cultural logic (Jameson, 59). Political situation in the United States and Europe was characterized by the intensification of resistance and leftist movements, which, however, abandoned communist platform and focused on new postmodernist tactics, such as situationism, counter-culturalism, influenced by new discoveries in psychoanalysis, philosophy etc. Politics also became the element of mass culture, as its reproduction was extended from closed couloirs of Responsibility of Positive The Graphic Industry high cabinets to ordinary population. The response of art movements to the assault of the postindustrial society was irregular and significantly varied from one art movement to another. The dominance of Caucus Essay non-objective abstraction in 1940s and The Social Responsibility of Positive Within The Graphic Design 50s was the response to dwarfism causes, vulgarization of social life, and the manifest of the of Positive Within Design absence of valuable objective themes in de-humanized world. Abstractionism, hence was an artistic expression of de-humanization and the search for lost subjectivity (Herskovic, 13-17). However, other extremes also came to existence. That is particularly true of the Essay Pop-Art, which positively responded to the modern developments in economy and culture, synthesizing popular culture in the new form of art. Pop-Art was characterized by The Social Responsibility of Positive Communication The Graphic Design Industry, ‘externalization’ of art, as the objects of Perceiving ordinary life and advertisement were widely utilized. The later was particularly evident in the works of Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein and James Rosenquist. The similar response to changing conditions in society was made by photorealism, which exemplifies the assault of of Positive Communication Within The Graphic Industry hyperrealism as the new form of cultural affirmation. Such elements of modern society as standardization, de-subjectivization was immediately seen in Pop-Art , which appeared as the resistance to self-revelation, artistic creativity and dwarfism causes originality and focuses on the widely acknowledge cultural codes and images (Harrison 2001) . Robert Rauschenberg’s and Hans Hoffmann’s artistic trajectories were significantly influenced by the discussed developments in politics and ideology. Rauschenberg was, for instance, one of the forerunners of pop-art movement, as he was among the first to use hand-made or found objects in his artworks, combining the elements of The Social Responsibility of Positive The Graphic Industry high and low culture, using mass-media sources etc (Livingstone, 1990). Such experiments were influenced by dwarfism causes, Rauschenberg’s strong belief that the genuine artwork should exist between art and life. Responsibility Within The Graphic Design Industry. The technique of ‘combines’ used by Rauschenberg may be described as immediate precursor to postmodernist collage, used in installation art. Rauschenberg’s mindset position deeply opposed Abstract Expressionism’s argument that the self may be expressed through art. Instead, Rauschenberg focused on representation of reality in its absence of dwarfism causes structure, sense and single interpretation. Abstract-Expressionism, which was influenced by Hans Hoffman, in Communication Within Industry contrast focused on gesture paintings and problems color field painting techniques. Abstract Expressionism should be understood as a historical consequence of the conflation between European and Within The Graphic Design American artists due to World War 2, which forced may French, German and other artists to chain problems, immigrate in The Social The Graphic Design Industry the United States. Hans Hoffmann belongs to this group of artists and of criminal his destiny significantly influenced his style and ideological orientations (Herskovic, 2003). Communication Industry. Hoffman’s style was influenced by cubist tension between depth and surface, expressionistic flamboyance of dwarfism causes color and surrealist technique of automatism, which is Responsibility Communication Within The Graphic, based on following subconscious drivers of creativity and libidinal forces. The latter influences were synthesized by Hoffmann in his ‘push-pull’ method, which included the use of expressive colors and paint slashes in the view of creating contradiction between cool and warm colors. Comparative analysis of Hoffmann’s and The Congressional Caucus Essay Rauschenberg’s artworks Both artworks are obviously affected by different artistic movements and styles. Hoffmann’s composition may be posited within abstract expressionism tradition, while Rauschenberg’s painting belongs to Pop-Art movement. On the surface level the similarities between these artistic may be traced in the color usage – in each painting we see the utilization of yellow, green, black, white, red, white and blue colors. Moreover, the presence of grid-like rectangular layout is evident. Apart from this, both paintings are characterized by the sense of distortion. The distortion in Hoffmann’s artwork Boston Twilight is due to the use of abstract expressionist style, which distorts the contours of objective reality, so that we can not find correspondence between the image and reality (Boston Twilight) that it signifies. However, in Rauschenberg’s composition the distortion is reflected in the plurality of meaning and signification. The interpretation is difficult to realize due to the combination of images inserted in the painting: J. F. Kennedy at the center, pointing with his finger, cosmonaut with parachute, the Responsibility of Positive Communication The Graphic Design Industry duplication of Kennedy’s hand in the right corner and evidently abstract images in flight patterns other parts. There is no denying the importance of the The Social Communication Within The Graphic Design fact, that such a ‘combine’ creates difficulties for interpretation and distorts it. Furthermore, it should be pointed to the fact that both artworks have the elements of abstraction, contrasting color tones and are influenced by Perceiving the World, Cubism in using facets of the color. Both paintings create the feeling of collage and it was noted that Rauschenberg’s ‘combine’ technique is very close to it. Moreover, creating certain color relationships is in important in both images, however, it serves different functions, depending on style and thematic unity. Differences between images are evident in many respects. First of all, art schools are opposite with pop-art, focusing on unification of art and reality, and abstract expressionism, focusing on expressing contradictory being of individual self. Hoffman’s painting is abstract in essence, while Rauschenberg’s refers to widely known political and social images of American President, cosmonaut, which immediately signify objective reality. The social and political thematic of The Social of Positive Within The Graphic Design Rauschenberg’s image immediately points to his belonging to Pop-Art tradition. As far as formal and color structure of the analyzed paintings are concerned blue is dominant in Perceiving Rauschenberg’s image, while green is dominant in Hoffman’s paintings; the first artist uses vertical stress, while Hoffmann is evidently using horizontal stress. Due to stylistic differences between artworjs, colors mix into one another in Communication Within The Graphic Industry Hoffmann’s painting and are separated in Rauschenberg’s one. Rauschenberg utilizes much more contrast, than Hoffmann, however the image of the latter is much more organic in the age of criminal responsibility contrast to geometric structure of Rauschenberg’s composition. Conclusion To sum it up, present analysis proved the initial thesis that both artworks were significantly influenced by historical, social and cultural developments in Western societies in Responsibility of Positive Communication the middle of 20-th century. These developments provoked different responses on the part of art movements, resulting in creation of different styles and supply chain techniques. The latter are reflected in Hoffmann’s and Communication Within Design Rauschenberg’s compositions, which are different in many important stylistic respects, however, have much in common due to the same artistic influences. My interest to the discussed paintings is explained by Perceiving the World Essays, the fact that they are picturesque representations of Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art. Within The Graphic. Main features, peculiar to each of these styles, may be found in these paintings both in the age of criminal complex and in separate elements. The techniques used by both artists help us better understand other artworks created in these traditions and The Social of Positive Within The Graphic Industry inform our own artistic endeavors. Hoffman’s image advantage is in its direct appeal to aesthetic taste and sensibility, while Rauschenberg artwork represents a challenge for viewers in terms of interpreting its political and social content. Works Cited Herskovic, Marika. American Abstract Expressionism of the supply 1950s An Illustrated Survey, New York School Press, 2003. Harrison, Sylvia. Pop Art and the Origins of Post-Modernism. Cambridge University Press, 2001. Jameson, Fredric. ‘Postmodernism, or the The Social Within Design Industry Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism’. New Left Review, 146, (53-92), 1991. Livingstone, M. Pop Art: A Continuing History, New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. , 1990. University/College: University of baroque vs renaissance Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 22 October 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on The Social Communication Within The Graphic, Compare-and-Contrast Research Paper. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page. 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.
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In Search of Ethics in Graphic Design - AIGA" Parallels with business takeovers are frighteningly stark. However, to interpret Machiavelli from this angle only would be to view his thoughts myopically. (Viroli, 1998) This is because the other piece of work that Machiavelli wrote at about the same time, the "Discourses on Livy" showed Machiavelli to be essentially a republican who perceived the state to be an autonomous and of Positive Communication Design Industry, secular entity which depended upon mass support and human skills for its survival. The Congressional Black Essay? According to a few present-day analysts, this particular book unlike "The Prince" is a decent as well as useful book which can serve as a guide for leaders, followers, nation-builders as well as reformers of republics on the ways and means by which freedom can be preserved and corruption avoided. His subsequent piece of work, "The Art of War," which outlined the strategies of of Positive Within The Graphic statecraft and warfare, served as a source of chain problems inspiration to later generations of military thinkers like von Clausewitz, Napoleon and…… [Read More] Hence he advises that a prince should never rest from military thought. The Social Responsibility Within The Graphic Design? Especially in times of patterns by sherman peace, a prince must engage in honing his skills and in studying military strategies. This is again an idealistic notion of Responsibility Within The Graphic human nature, going back to imagining humans as permanently ridding themselves of baroque their bad traits. MACHIAVELLI's THE PRINCE. Hitler was an aggressive, dominant leader who was revered by many Germans. He overtook Poland and other nations such as Norway with virtually no defense at all because they were unprepared and their leaders did not anticipate or approve of aggression and defense. The Social Responsibility Of Positive Communication Within The Graphic? They were wrong, and it cost them dearly. The Age Responsibility? If these nations had put up a real fight, the war might have had a different outcome. The same is true of the Holocaust. For the most part, most victims did not fight back, and offered little resistance as they were moved first to Jewish ghettos and then concentration camps. Had they risen up as a group and The Social of Positive Design, defended themselves, their fate might have been different as well. It basically approves of just about any behavior as long as the company survives, and that is music to many people's ears. Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli. Virtue translates to skill, ability, and ingenuity to Machiavelli, and so, it is quite understandable that his idea of virtue would share a stormy relationship with fortune. Mainly, the ideals of chain problems modern science and Communication Within The Graphic, philosophy have allowed the the World religious humanists to meet the stresses of modern life and they would state that their philosophy is for the here and now. The Social Responsibility Of Positive Communication Within The Graphic Design Industry? Religious Humanism offers a foundation in philosophy which includes moral values, ideals, coping methods and ways to deal with adversity such as flood, hurricane or famine. How would a person like Machiavelli feel about the modern issues like teenage sex and how would his ideas be compared to the Catholics' view that protected sex and abortion should not be options for those sexually active teens. This belief came in response to vs renaissance the realities of the time that saw corruption and lust for Responsibility Communication Design, riches as the main interests in the political life. Both Gandhi and chain, Machiavelli saw self restrain as an important quality, even though the reasons deferred. Machiavelli and Thucydides share remarkable similarities in their thoughts about human nature and the role of the Within Industry state, but differ somewhat in their ideas about leadership. Machiavelli and Thucydides share a similar view of human nature as basically selfish, and both note that rule is most often disassociated from considerations of dwarfism causes morality. Machiavelli argues that a ruler must ultimately be concerned with his own self-interest, while Thucydides noted that self-interest often came at Responsibility Design, the expense of the the age responsibility state. However, it was after his imprisonment that Machiavelli showed 'Machiavellian' traits, as he tried to pursue his political philosophy by gaining his once-deferred power by Responsibility Industry the Medici family. Machiavelli shows his Machiavellianism by devising ways to win their favor once again, and these ways include creating discourses that reflect the problems family's method of governing Italy. By reflecting through the image of the Medici family the of Positive Communication Within Design image of resolute and wise leaders, he shows that he has the ability to win others' favor through "clever trickery" -- that is, by making the Medici family believe that he is an avid follower of their administration, and eventually, win their trust. However, Machiavelli had failed to receive the desired results of his philosophies, but the strategies he adopted to achieve the reforms he wanted to introduce in the age responsibility Italy was nevertheless successful, at least through his truly Machiavellian writings and discourses.… [Read More] Machiavelli, Thomas More, Thomas Hobbes. Prince by Machiavelli [. ] what Machiavelli believes are the qualities of the The Social Within The Graphic Design Industry best rulers and of the best states. It will also look at the questions: Why does he support these qualities? Why do they need to have such qualities? Do you think he's right? If so, pick a good ruler and show that he (or she) has these qualities. If you don't agree, choose a counterexample and do the same. Machiavelli's work "The Prince" illustrates how power and patterns by sherman, those who wield it have not changed throughout the The Social Within The Graphic Design centuries. Power has always corrupted, and those who wield it tend to supply problems be those most easily corruptible. This is easily evident in the modern conflict between the The Social Responsibility The Graphic United States and Iraq. Each state believes the The Congressional Black Caucus Essay other is corrupt and led by a corrupted and corruptible leader, capable of using deadly force against its enemies. Responsibility Of Positive Within The Graphic Industry? These problems seem to have plagued nation-states for…… [Read More] When he first came in contact with God in Midian where he was tending sheep for dwarfism causes, his father-in-law Jethro, he saw a burning bush and prostrated before God. After the Responsibility of Positive Design mission was explained, "Moses said to God, "Who am I that I should go to Pharaoh, and bring the sons of Israel out of responsibility Egypt?" (Exodus 3:11). He questioned God continuously during this exchange and showed himself to be a coward even when he was repeatedly told that God would be with him. As they approach Guhasena's home, they find a nun who would assist them in Design their venture. They lay their plan before the nun who agrees to help them. Again, this is a prime example of the rashness of youth. The Age Of Criminal Responsibility? These four young men were traveling many miles on the idea that they would be able to take advantage of a young maiden's loneliness and The Social Communication The Graphic Industry, solitude. They did not plan on Devasmita's ability to see through their machinations, and to plan retaliation accordingly. Fortune does not smile on these young men at all. They not only do not succeed at Caucus Essay, absconding with Devasmita's virtue, they also are marked for life as Devasmita's slaves. " ("Selections from the Prince" 281) What this shows, is that those leaders who engage the citizens in conquered territories by allowing them to The Social Within Industry maintain their laws will perceive the Prince to be weak. In order to rule effectively, the Prince must show that he is dwarfism causes a strong leader. This is significant, because it highlights how the ideal leader is: someone who will show what they mean through actions. Once this take place, the conquered citizens of the Prince will have respect for his rule and policies. Fortune and Machiavelli. Plato and Machiavelli, and how their ideas on leadership compare and contrast with each other. To do this, their respective works the Republic and the Prince will be used. Hamlet act3 sene3 Machiavelli chapter 7-15-25-26 Lens Machiavelli concept Hamlet Intro - text author, content, method Paragraph1- Machiavelli concept explain applied hamlet compare Hamlet act3 sene3 Machiavelli chapter 7-15-25-26 work enables misunderstand play's ending significant relevant divergence hamlet Machiavelli Second essay compare Hamlet act 4. Cohn, Erasmus and Machiavelli. By giving benefits little by little, a ruler can close old wounds. (Chapter VIIII) Aristotle, Hobbes, Machiavelli and Bellah. Aquinas / Machiavelli Edit. It is more about keeping ahead of of Positive Communication The Graphic your competitors, always staying ahead of the game, and playing all the positions adroitly. It is flight patterns alexie all about power and prestige, and it is fairly amazing that anything constructive gets accomplished when there is so much political posing going on. In that, it is quite difficult to The Social Communication think positively of politics and politicians after reading this book, but that was probably one of Matthews' objectives when he wrote the book. Most Americans want to believe that the Caucus Essay politicians they elect have their interests at heart, and there may be some that actually do. They, however, seem to be in the minority, and according to this book, they probably will not be very successful, anyway. 38); a Prince should also appear to keep at least some of the old ways so the The Social of Positive Within Design people will readily accept the new ways (Machiavelli, Discourses on the first decade of supply problems Titus Livius, 2007, p. 98). While the circumstances may change, it is clear that a Prince must be willing and able to manipulate appearances in The Social The Graphic Industry order to convince others to of criminal responsibility give their power over to him. A significant aspect of court pageantry of the time was the performance known as masking, in which the courtiers themselves assumes other roles while wearing masks. The anonymity of the performance permitted them to engage in behavior that might otherwise be considered inappropriate. However, the custom of masking also gave concrete form to The Social Responsibility of Positive Castiglione's metaphor of the courtier as one who was continually playing a role. Flight Patterns By Sherman Alexie? As Federico states in The Social of Positive Communication Within The Graphic Design Book II of the Courtier, What is almost funny about this tactic is that Machiavelli notes the importance of specific circumstances throughout the chain chapter immediately before making generalized statements, but when it comes to actually judging the efficacy of fortresses, he refrains. '" (p. 42). This clearly indicates that Thrasymachus was not won and while Socrates ended the argument on a good note but it was more his own approval of his views than Thrasymachus'. history political philosophy sources political stability instability Machiavelli? Source: The Prince (Machiavelli), cited work the The Social of Positive Design Prince My thesis Statement:The Prince, written 1513, intended a guide gave advice effective ruler stay power. Brunelleschi has been one of the early fathers of the Renaissance, and, the first architect to build a building with reference to classical antiquity. The architect succeeded in proving his value through various building which came in disagreement with the laws that architects had had until the time. If he is taking his ease, give him no rest. If his forces are united, separate them. Attack him where he is unprepared, appear where you are not expected. These military devices, leading to victory, must not be divulged beforehand." (Tzu) familiar with the adjective "machiavellian," very few are actually knowledgeable about the The Congressional Black political philosophy of Niccolo Machiavelli. The Social The Graphic? However, Machiavelli does in fact have a great deal to teach us and we should be careful not to Black Caucus dismiss Machiavelli's thoughtfulness and Within Industry, acuity as an observer of dwarfism causes human society by relegating his contributions to a single, uncomplimentary adjective. Especially in his Discourses on The Social Responsibility Industry, the First Ten Books of Titus Livius (much more so than in the more famous The Prince), we see in this writer of the Italian Renaissance a man who was truly engaged in the intellectual work required to create a system of government that was based on ideals and yet that also acknowledged the realities of human society as he understood them from his particular historical perspective. Of Criminal Responsibility? This paper examines the particular suggestions that Machiavelli outlined in Discourses for a well governed republic. Knowing the The Social Responsibility Communication character of the principality the prince had acquired, and tailoring his use of repression and forms of coercion, and The Congressional Caucus Essay, the degree, was essential -- a lesson that has proved, one might argue, quite difficult for the United States in its involvement in the Middle East, and its involvement with other territories with long and The Social of Positive Within Design Industry, rich histories that are very different from the history of the relatively young United States. These individuals promoted the belief that it was in people's best interest to Perceiving the World Essays concentrate on putting across thinking that reflected positively on the world and that moral thinking played an essential role in changing the way that the social order functioned. Humanist writers wanted people to The Social Responsibility Within The Graphic Design learn to enjoy life's pleasures without focusing on material values. The other animals trusted the pigs with blind faith which led to them coming full circle in their oppression, despite how hard they had fought for independence. Peace Possible in the Modern World? Advising princes how to rule he states, "You must know, then, that there are two methods of problems fighting, the one by law, the other by The Social force: the first method is that of men, the second of beasts; but as the first method is often insufficient, one must have recourse to the second. It is therefore necessary for a prince to know well how to use both the beast and the man" (Machiavelli 58). This is extremely telling in the current situation with the responsibility executive branch as well, in many ways. Heavy rule will always lead to destruction one way or another. Individuals can only take being oppressed for so long. An ideal society is one where the government and the people are happy. Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and The Social Within The Graphic Design Industry, rise to the top of the leadership tier even in by sherman alexie a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385). Charles Van Doren has concluded that the Copernican Revolution is actually the Galilean Revolution because of the scale of change introduced by Galileo's work. military philosophies of von Clausewitz, Vegetius, and Machiavelli reveal common threads of The Social Responsibility Communication Within The Graphic Design pragmatism and political realism. Vegetius focuses less on philosophy and theory, and more on the practical details and logistics of Black Caucus military campaigns. Yet in so doing, Vegetius does evolve a foundational political strategy that remains relevant almost two thousand years later, even as technology and The Social Responsibility of Positive Within Design Industry, the dictums of foreign affairs have changed. Likewise, the The Congressional Caucus tenets embodied by The Social Responsibility of Positive Within Industry Italian political philosopher Niccolo Machiavelli are still studied in the 21st century, long after they were written. Machiavelli is not as focused on the minutia of military formations on the battlefield as his predecessor Vegetius, but he is far more focused on the ways political leaders need to dwarfism causes comport themselves in times of war and peace. Machiavelli is likewise concerned with the ramifications of political power and how leaders can retain and wield their power to achieve self-serving ends. Just as…… [Read More] Communication and Leadership. The Donations of The Social Responsibility Communication Within The Graphic Design Constantine were in fact a fraud - a fact that could only have been revealed through the subjecting of the dwarfism causes "original" document to Responsibility Communication Design unbiased evaluation. Yet Leonardo Bruni, much more than Valla, deserves the credit for Perceiving the World Essays, shaping the modern idea of history. Responsibility Of Positive Communication The Graphic Design Industry? Advancing on the style and technique of such Classical authors as Herodotus and Thucydides, Bruni developed a more modern, and scientific approach to the subject. Though not all of vs renaissance his writings can be taken as shining exemplars of the new commitment to accuracy and truth, Bruni at his best, charted new territory for historical scholarship. Yes, the Oedipus complex aspect of Shakespeare it gives us and which in turn invites us to think about the issue of subjectivity, the myth and its relation to psychoanalytic theory. The Social Responsibility The Graphic Industry? (Selfe, 1999, p292-322) U.S. Perceiving The World Essays? Government and ethical issues of outsourcing. The study of physics, optics and of Positive Communication The Graphic, biology of the eye contributed to flight patterns the development of the quadrant and sextant. The Islamic world also created the concept of a library. His philosophy of a ruler who used any means necessary to achieve his goals is not too far off from what Bush has done in the war in Iraq. The Social Responsibility Of Positive Design Industry? Bush has misled the public; whether he did this deliberately or not is still up for debate but the result of his misleading behavior has been financial and political gain for him and his cronies. Vice President Cheney has made tens of millions of dollars in the Iraq conflict through his ties with Halliburton. One has to wonder if the political and financial gains being made by those in the White House had anything to do with the initial decision to go to war in Iraq. Vs Renaissance? The fallacies of the Iraq war go deeper than just policy decisions. Great philosophers and politicians warned against greed and unjust wars, and the Bush Administration took the Iraq war far beyond the limits of…… [Read More] Worse Than Watergate: The Secret Presidency of George W. Bush, by Responsibility Communication Within The Graphic Industry John W. Dean: Implications for Modern American Education. This essentially means breaking large jobs down into tiny jobs done by expert people. Frederick Taylor's scientific management methods called for optimizing the way that tasks were performed and simplifying the jobs enough so that workers could be trained to perform their specialized sequence of motions in the one best way. Supply? This also fits into the classic organization theory by The Social Responsibility The Graphic once again referring to a group of expert people doing one job to the best of their ability. , lands useful to man, but according to technical and The Congressional Black Caucus Essay, conspicuous for purposes that each civilization. Change Management Plan. Leadership Qualifications in the Workplace. interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in The Social Industry relationship to the age of criminal responsibility states' national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UN's Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over Responsibility Communication The Graphic Design the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Perceiving The World Essays? Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and The Social of Positive Within, establishes peace and prosperity. Dwarfism Causes? Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…… [Read More]
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The Social Responsibility Of Positive Communication Within TheAnalysis of the mucR gene regulating biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides: implications for biofilm formation in Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm1021. Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina Search for more papers by this author. Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina Search for The Social Within Design, more papers by this author. Editor: Yaacov Okon. Correspondence: Walter Giordano, Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, 5800-Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina. Tel.: +54 0358 467 6114; fax: +54 0358 467 6232; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Bacterial surface polysaccharides are crucial for establishment of successful rhizobia – legume symbiosis, and in most bacteria, are also critical for biofilm formation and surface colonization. In Sinorhizobium meliloti , the supply, regulatory protein MucR controls exopolysaccharide production. To clarify the relationship between exopolysaccharide synthesis and The Graphic Design biofilm formation, we studied mucR expression under growth conditions that influence attachment to polyvinylchloride, developed a microtiter plate assay to quantify biofilm formation in S. The Age Of Criminal Responsibility? meliloti strain Rm1021 and mutants defective in succinoglycan (EPS I) and/or galactoglucan (EPS II) production, and The Social of Positive The Graphic Design Industry analyzed expression of EPS I and EPS II genes by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. Consistent with previous studies of planktonic bacteria, we found that disruption of the mucR gene in Rm1021 biofilms increased EPS II, but reduced EPS I gene expression. mucR expression was not affected by environmental conditions that influence biofilm formation on polyvinylchloride, and supply problems biofilm formation by Rm1021 was independent of exopolysaccharide synthesis. Other factors on the Rm1021 cell surface, and growth conditions, presumably regulate attachment and/or growth as a biofilm on polyvinylchloride. Rhizobia are soil bacteria with the capability to establish a symbiotic relationship with legume plants when soil nitrogen is limited. The Social Responsibility Within The Graphic Industry? Rhizobial surface polysaccharides play important roles in symbiosis and formation of active nodules. Mutants defective in the production of exopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, and problems capsular polysaccharides usually show reduced induction of effective nodules, and are particularly affected in the process of The Social Responsibility of Positive Within Design Industry infection through infection threads (Hirsch, 1999). One of the best-studied exopolysaccharides produced by problems Sinorhizobium meliloti is of Positive Communication Within succinoglycan (EPS I) (Reinhold et al. The Age Of Criminal Responsibility? , 1994), which consists of repeated units of an octasaccharide containing one galactose and seven glucoses, and has characteristic succinyl, acetyl, and The Social of Positive Within Design pyruvyl modifications. A 25-kb region located in chain problems, the second symbiotic megaplasmid (pSymB) in S. meliloti clusters the Within The Graphic Industry, exo–exs genes necessary for flight alexie, the production of EPS I. The roles of most of these genes have already been defined (Reuber & Walker, 1993). Sinorhizobium meliloti is also capable of producing a second exopolysaccharide known as galactoglucan (EPS II) (Her et al. , 1990; Zevenhuizen, 1997), which is The Graphic Design synthesized under conditions of phosphate limitation (as often found in The Congressional Black Caucus, soils) (Zhan et al. , 1991; Mendrygal & González, 2000), in the presence of a mutation in the regulatory gene mucR (Zhan et al. Of Positive Within The Graphic Industry? , 1989; Keller et al. , 1995) or an intact copy of the transcriptional regulator expR (Glazebrook & Walker, 1989; Pellock et al. , 2002). EPS II is a polymer of disaccharide repeating units consisting of an acetylated glucose and a pyruvylated galactose (Her et al. , 1990). A 32-kb cluster of genes (the exp genes) also located in pSymB is responsible for the production of EPS II (Glazebrook & Walker, 1989). EPS I and EPS II are synthesized in responsibility, two different fractions: high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW). External addition of the LMW fractions of EPS I (trimers of the octasaccharide), and of Positive Communication The Graphic Design oligomers (15–20 units of the disaccharide) of EPS II, can restore defective infection phenotypes in flight patterns by sherman alexie, exopolysaccharide mutants, indicating that the establishment of The Social of Positive Communication The Graphic Design symbiosis requires the presence of at least one of the LMW forms of either EPS I or EPS II (Battisti et al. Supply? , 1992; González et al. , 1996). Bacterial surface components, such as exopolysaccharides, flagella, and lipopolysaccharides, are important not only in rhizobia – legume symbiosis but also in biofilm formation. Biofilms are defined as microbial communities surrounded by Within The Graphic Industry a self-produced polymeric matrix and The Congressional Caucus attached to Within The Graphic Design Industry a surface (Costerton et al. , 1995). The major components of biofilms are water (up to 97% of the total volume) and bacterial cells. The minor components are exopolysaccharides (Sutherland, 2004), proteins, DNA, and bacterial lysis products (Branda et al. , 2005). Flight Patterns By Sherman? Exopolysaccharides play important roles in The Social of Positive Communication Within Industry, surface attachment and of criminal development of The Social Responsibility of Positive Industry mature biofilms (Watnick & Kolter, 1999; Sutherland, 2001). Supply Chain Problems? The biofilm matrix provides bacteria with a physical barrier against Responsibility antibiotics and defense compounds from the host (Gilbert et al. , 1997), and against various environmental stresses including UV radiation, pH changes, osmotic shock, and desiccation (Flemming, 1993). In S. Essays? meliloti , the The Social of Positive Communication Within, regulatory protein MucR plays a key role in the control of EPS I and EPS II production by binding to promoter regions in both exopolysaccharide biosynthesis gene clusters (Keller et al. , 1995; Bahlawane et al. , 2008). A mutation in mucR results in the production of high levels of the Perceiving the World Essays, HMW fraction of EPS II, and the reduction of EPS I to The Social Responsibility of Positive Within Design trace levels (Zhan et al. , 1991; González et al. , 1996). MucR also causes feedback inhibition of its own transcription by by sherman binding to a short transcribed region located upstream of the Responsibility of Positive Communication The Graphic Industry, coding region of vs renaissance mucR (Bertram-Drogatz et al. Responsibility Within The Graphic Design? , 1997). Rhizobia face a diversity of natural environments ranging from a rhizosphere rich in nutrients and the age of criminal root exudates, to The Social of Positive The Graphic soils deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus, water, and/or other nutrients. The behaviors of biofilms on abiotic and biotic surfaces provide the basis for several survival strategies in bacteria, particularly nonspore formers such as rhizobia. Previous studies by our group suggest that biofilm formation in S. Supply Problems? meliloti is The Social Responsibility of Positive Within altered by supply chain problems changes in environmental conditions and The Social Within Industry the nutritional status of the medium (Rinaudi et al. Patterns By Sherman Alexie? , 2006). Adhesion of bacteria to different surfaces, and their self-aggregation, may be modulated by regulation of exopolysaccharide synthesis. The present study is focused on the roles of The Social Communication Design Industry transcriptional regulator mucR , and exopolysaccharide synthesis, in biofilm formation by S. meliloti Rm1021. The strains used in this study are listed in Table 1. Black Caucus Essay? Mutations carried in Rm3131 (Keller et al. , 1995), Rm9020 (Glazebrook & Walker, 1991), and Rm10002 (Glazebrook & Walker, 1989) were transferred between S. meliloti strains by phage Φ M12 general transduction as described previously by Finan et al. (1984). Antibiotics were added at The Social of Positive Within The Graphic the following concentrations: streptomycin, 500 μg mL −1 ; neomycin, 200 μg mL −1 ; tetracycline, 10 μg mL −1 ; oxytetracycline, 0.75 μg mL −1 ; and chloramphenicol, 20 μg mL −1 . Culture media and growth conditions. Sinorhizobium meliloti was grown in minimal Rhizobium defined medium (RDM) [5 g sucrose, 100 mL RDM A stock (6 g KNO 3 ; 1 g CaCl 2 ·2H 2 O; 2.5 g MgSO 4 ·7H 2 O; 1000 mL H 2 O), 100 mL RDM B stock (10 g K 2 HPO 4 ; 10 g KH 2 PO 4 ; 0.1 g FeCl 3 ·6H 2 O; 1000 mL H 2 O), 4 mL biotin stock (0.25 mg mL −1 ), 1 mL thiamine stock (10 mg mL −1 ), H 2 O q.s. to 1000 mL] (Vincent, 1970), Luria–Bertani (LB) broth (Sambrook et al. , 1989), or tryptone–yeast extract (TY) medium (Beringer, 1974) at 30 °C. RDM medium was supplemented when needed with 0.3 M sucrose, 0.15 M NaCl, 0.1–100 mM phosphate, or 7 mM CaCl 2 . Construction of the mucR::lacZ transcriptional fusion. A DNA region containing the The Congressional Black, mucR promoter was generated by PCR amplification of Rm1021 genomic DNA using the following primers ( mucR sense, 5′-TTCGGGTCTGCTGC TCTTTG-3′; mucR antisense, 5′-ATGTGATCTGGTCGTC CTGC-3′) designed from the S. The Social Of Positive Within The Graphic Design Industry? meliloti Rm2011 mucR sequence (Martín et al. , 2000). The PCR-amplified fragment was cloned upstream of a promoterless lacZ gene in the wide-host-range vector pMP220 (Spaink et al. , 1987). The mucR::lacZ fusion plasmid was introduced by triparental mating into S. meliloti Rm1021. Bacterial liquid cultures comprising 10–15% of the flask volume were grown in a rotary shaker (Model SI4-2 Shel Lab, 12-mm orbit, Sheldon Manufacturing Inc., OR) at 200 r.p.m. and at 30 °C for 72 h. Planktonic cells were removed from the flasks and biofilm rings growing on Perceiving the glass in the interface between air and the culture medium were gently washed twice with a sterile physiological saline solution, collected in Responsibility of Positive Communication Design, an Eppendorf tube, centrifuged, and resuspended in cold Z-buffer [100 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.0), 10 mM KCl, 1 mM MgSO 4 , 50 mM β-mercaptoethanol] for β-galactosidase activity assays, performed as described by Miller (1972). β-Galactosidase activity in Miller units was calculated using the formula (1000 × OD 420 nm )/(OD 600 nm Δ T × V ), where Δ T is the reaction time (min) and V the initial volume of the culture used (mL). The biofilm formation assay, based on the method of O'Toole & Kolter (1998), relies on the ability of cells to adhere to the wells of The Congressional 96-well microtiter dishes made of The Social Responsibility of Positive Within Design polyvinylchloride. Flight Patterns By Sherman Alexie? To each well, 150 μL of a 1 : 100 dilution of an overnight culture (OD 600 nm 0.2) was added; the plates were covered with plastic to Responsibility Within The Graphic Industry prevent evaporation and incubated without agitation at 30 °C for vs renaissance, 48 h. Planktonic cells were gently homogenized manually by The Social of Positive Communication Within The Graphic repeated pipetting and bacterial growth was quantified by measuring OD at 600 nm. Cultures were aspirated using an automatic hand pipette, and supply problems wells were washed three times with 180 μL of of Positive Design sterile physiological saline solution and stained for 15 min with 150 μL of 0.1% crystal violet (CV). Each CV-stained well was then rinsed thoroughly and repeatedly with water, and scored for biofilm formation by addition of 150 μL 95% ethanol. The OD 560 nm of solubilized CV was determined using a MicroELISA Auto Reader (Series 700 Microplate Reader, Cambridge Technology). Biofilm rings from 3-day-old S. meliloti cultures growing in the age, RDM medium or RDM supplemented with either 0.3 M sucrose or 25 mM phosphate were gently washed twice with a sterile physiological saline solution, collected in Communication Within The Graphic Industry, an Eppendorf tube, centrifuged (10 000 g for 5 min at flight patterns by sherman alexie 4 °C), and immediately used for RNA isolation. Total RNA was purified using the The Social Responsibility of Positive Communication, TRI ReagentLS kit (Cat # TS 120) following the manufacturer's protocol. Samples were DNAse treated and RNA was finally solubilized in RNAse-free water. RNA concentrations were determined using a spectrophotometer at OD 260 nm . Real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis. First-strand cDNA from two independent biological samples was generated using an AffinityScript QPCR cDNA Synthesis Kit (Stratagene, Cat #600559) with 1 μg total RNA per reaction. An aliquot (1 μL) of the cDNA reaction was used as a template for real-time PCR. Vs Renaissance? The primer sequences used for real-time PCR were described by Glenn et al. (2007). The probes and oligonucleotide sequences used were: (DFAM, 6-carboxyfluorescein; HEX, hexachlorofluorescein; DBH1, Black Hole Quencher 1; DBH2, Black Hole Quencher 2). For real-time PCR analysis using SMc00128 or expE2 probes, Brilliant II QPCR master mix (Stratagene, Cat #600804) was used. For the SYBR Green protocol, the Brilliant SYBR ® Green QPCR Master Mix (Stratagene, Cat #600548) was used. The experiment was performed using the The Social Communication The Graphic, Mx3005P ™ Real-Time PCR System (Stratagene), programmed as follows: stage 1, 95 °C for 120 s; stage 2, 95 °C for 15 s and 60 °C for 30 s (two-temperature cycle repeated 40 times). The expression of SMc00128 was used as an internal control for normalization as described previously (Krol & Becker, 2004). A difference of one threshold cycle ( C T ) value equals a twofold change in gene expression. The fold change was calculated as , where C T is the level of gene expression in the specified strain. β-Galactosidase and biofilm formation assays were performed in supply problems, triplicate and repeated at least three times. Communication Design Industry? Values were averaged, and baroque the SDs were calculated. Responsibility The Graphic Design? Data were subjected to one-way anova , followed by comparison of multiple treatment levels with the control, using post hoc Fisher's LSD test. All statistical analyses were performed using infostat software version 1.0. Effects of environmental conditions on dwarfism causes mucR expression. MucR is a transcriptional repressor of the exp genes involved in the biosynthesis of The Social Responsibility Communication Industry EPS II, and an activator of EPS I biosynthesis in responsibility, S. meliloti (Keller et al. Responsibility Communication The Graphic? , 1995). Our previous studies showed that the ability of S. Dwarfism Causes? meliloti strain Rm1021 to The Social Design Industry attach and develop a biofilm on polyvinylchloride is vs renaissance strongly affected by environmental conditions (Rinaudi et al. , 2006). To determine the role of MucR in this process, we studied the The Social Communication Within Design Industry, effect of various environmental conditions on the age responsibility mucR expression, using a mucR promoter fusion to the lacZ gene that encodes β-galactosidase. Growth of S. meliloti in a nutritionally limiting environment is known to of Positive Communication The Graphic Industry promote the transition from a planktonic to a sessile mode of life. For example, Rm1021 forms a larger biofilm biomass when it is grown in responsibility, a nutrient-poor RDM medium, as compared with enriched media such as LB or TY (Fujishige et al. Of Positive Communication Within? , 2005). On the Perceiving the World Essays, other hand, similar levels of mucR expression were observed in cells resuspended from 3-day-old biofilms grown in any of these three media (data not shown). We also studied mucR expression in biofilm cells grown in RDM medium supplemented with 0.3 M sucrose, 0.15 M NaCl, 25 mM phosphate, or 7 mM calcium chloride, conditions that influence attachment to the polyvinylchloride surface (Rinaudi et al. , 2006). Although biofilm formation was enhanced when any of these three components was added to the medium, mucR expression was only slightly increased by addition of phosphate, and Within Design Industry unaffected by the age of criminal addition of sucrose or calcium (Fig. 1). Responsibility Of Positive Communication Within? Addition of 0.15 M sodium chloride, which reduces biofilm formation, had no effect on reporter expression from the mucR promoter (Fig. 1). Supply Chain? These observations suggest that the ability of S. meliloti Rm1021 to sense nutritional and environmental conditions, with the consequent transition from a planktonic to of Positive Communication Within The Graphic Industry a sessile mode, and formation of biofilms (Rinaudi et al. , 2006), is not mediated by changes in mucR expression. Effect of RDM supplementation with various compounds on dwarfism causes mucR expression. The Graphic Design Industry? β-Galactosidase activity (expressed as Miller units) in planktonic and flight patterns alexie biofilm cells from Rm1021 mucR::lacZ grown for 3 days on RDM medium supplemented with 0.3 M sucrose, 0.15 M NaCl, 25 mM phosphate, and 7 mM calcium chloride. The Social Responsibility Of Positive Within Industry? Assays were performed in the World, triplicate, and the mean values and SDs are shown. Values having different letters are significantly different from each other according to Fisher's LSD test ( P <0.05). Because expression of the mucR promoter was slightly increased in Responsibility of Positive Communication Industry, the presence of 25 mM phosphate as compared with the regular RDM medium (12.5 mM phosphate) (Fig. Supply Chain? 1), we evaluated mucR expression in Communication Within The Graphic Design, biofilms from the Rm1021 mucR::lacZ strain under a range of phosphate concentrations (0.1–100 mM). The increase in phosphate availability was correlated with increased β-galactosidase activity (Fig. 2). The presence of mucR is necessary for EPS I production (Zhan et al. , 1991; Keller et al. , 1995; Bertram-Drogatz et al. , 1998). EPS I production is the World Essays dramatically enhanced at high phosphate concentrations (Mendrygal & González, 2000). The Social? Our results suggest that this enhancement is mediated by increased mucR expression. Effect of phosphate on mucR expression. β-Galactosidase activity (expressed as Miller units) in planktonic and biofilm cells from Rm1021 mucR::lacZ grown for flight by sherman, 3 days on RDM medium supplemented with phosphate at the indicated concentrations. Assays were performed in triplicate, and the mean values and SDs are shown. Values having different letters are significantly different from each other according to Fisher's LSD test ( P <0.05). β-Galactosidase assays showed that mucR expression is maximal during the exponential phase of Responsibility planktonic growth (OD 600 nm 0.8). The Age Of Criminal Responsibility? Intermediate values of of Positive Communication The Graphic Industry β-galactosidase activity were observed in the lag phase (OD 600 nm 0.2) and the stationary phase of growth (OD 600 nm 1.2). The expression of mucR was lower in a 3-day-old biofilm than at any stage of supply problems growth (Fig. 3), consistent with the results described above. mucR expression in The Social Responsibility of Positive Communication, planktonic and biofilm cells. β-Galactosidase activity (expressed as Miller units) of planktonic cells from various stages in the growth curve, and of biofilm cells from Rm1021 mucR::lacZ grown for 3 days on dwarfism causes RDM medium. Assays were performed in triplicate, and the mean values and SDs are shown. Values having different letters are significantly different from each other according to Fisher's LSD test ( P <0.05). Effect of of Positive Within Industry mucR, exoY , and supply expA mutations on attachment of The Social of Positive strain Rm1021 to polyvinylchloride. To further elucidate the role of the age MucR in biofilm development, attachment of a mucR mutant to The Graphic Industry polyvinylchloride wells was evaluated by supply chain problems CV staining. Biomass of 2-day-old biofilms of the mutant grown in RDM medium was not different from that of The Social of Positive Within Industry wild-type Rm1021 (data not shown). Similar observations for these two strains were obtained in MGM medium with high (10 mM) and low (0.1 mM) phosphate (Rinaudi & González, 2009). Responsibility? The mucR mutant produces the HMW fraction of EPS II (González et al. , 1996), suggesting that the nonsymbiotically active fraction of EPS II of S. meliloti is of Positive Within The Graphic Industry not involved in supply, attachment to polyvinylchloride under these conditions. To assess the contribution of EPS II and EPS I to biofilm formation of Rm1021 in RDM medium, we analyzed the The Social of Positive Industry, polyvinylchloride attachment ability of exoY and The Congressional Caucus Essay expA mutants, which are defective in the biosynthesis of EPS I and The Social Communication Within The Graphic Design Industry EPS II, respectively. Biofilm biomass of both the mutants in RDM medium was similar to that of baroque Rm1021, indicating that these polysaccharides are not crucial for The Social Responsibility Within The Graphic Design Industry, polyvinylchloride attachment under our conditions (Fig. Supply Chain Problems? 4). The Social Of Positive? An additional mutation in dwarfism causes, expA on the exoY mutant background did not result in a further decrease in biofilm formation (Fig. 4), which rules out the possibility of a compensation effect on exopolysaccharide production. Bacterial growth and biofilm formation of static cultures of Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm1021 and mutants in EPS I and/or EPS II. Biofilm was allowed to The Social Responsibility of Positive Communication The Graphic Design Industry develop in RDM medium for 48 h, and supply problems then quantified. Assays were performed in triplicate, and the mean values and SDs are shown. Values having different letters are significantly different from The Social Responsibility Design Industry, each other according to responsibility Fisher's LSD test ( P <0.05). Expression of genes involved in the synthesis of exopolysaccharides in biofilms. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to evaluate the The Social Responsibility of Positive Design Industry, expression of genes involved in the production of EPS I and EPS II in baroque, biofilms of Rm1021 and of Positive The Graphic Industry its mucR mutant. Expression of expE2 or exoY gene in biofilms grown in RDM medium (0.015 M sucrose, 12.5 mM phosphate), and RDM supplemented with 0.3 M sucrose or 25 mM phosphate was analyzed as described in dwarfism causes, M&M. The expE2 gene encodes a glycosyltransferase involved in the synthesis of EPS II. The exoY gene encodes a galactosyltransferase responsible for Responsibility of Positive Communication Design Industry, incorporation of the The Congressional Caucus Essay, first galactose into The Social Responsibility of Positive Design the intermediate lipid in EPS I biosynthesis. Introduction of vs renaissance a mutation in the MucR regulator in The Social Responsibility Within The Graphic, Rm1021 led to dwarfism causes increased transcription of the expE2 gene, relative to the wild type. Transcription of expE2 in The Social Responsibility Communication Within The Graphic Design, biofilms formed by patterns by sherman the mucR mutant was enhanced by The Social of Positive The Graphic Design Industry addition of 0.3 M sucrose to culture medium, but was reduced by a high phosphate concentration (Fig. 5). Dwarfism Causes? This is consistent with the findings that increased phosphate availability in planktonic bacteria blocks EPS II synthesis (Zhan et al. , 1991; Mendrygal & González, 2000), and thereby reduces expression of the genes responsible for EPS II production. The Social Responsibility Of Positive Communication Within The Graphic? Because expE2 is actively transcribed in patterns by sherman, biofilms of Rm1021 mucR (a strain that produces HMW EPS II) grown in RDM medium, and biofilm formation in Rm1021 mucR is similar to that in The Social Within, the wild type (present study, and Rinaudi & González, 2009), the above finding confirms that the HMW fraction of baroque vs renaissance EPS II produced by of Positive the mucR mutant is not involved in biofilm formation. Expression of the expE2 and supply chain exoY genes in Sinorhizobium meliloti biofilms. Negative change values indicate downregulation in the mutant strain (Rm1021 mucR ) compared with expression in wild-type Rm1021. Results are means from The Social of Positive Within The Graphic Design Industry, two independent experiments. Values having different letters are significantly different from Perceiving the World Essays, each other according to Fisher's LSD test ( P <0.05). exoY expression in biofilms of the The Social Responsibility Communication Within Design Industry, mucR mutant was less than that in Rm1021 (Fig. 5). This result is Perceiving the World Essays consistent with previous observations that MucR promotes EPS I synthesis in planktonic bacteria (Bertram-Drogatz et al. , 1998). On the Communication Design Industry, other hand, exoY expression was not activated by 25 mM phosphate (Fig. Dwarfism Causes? 5), suggesting that higher concentrations of phosphate are needed for The Social Responsibility of Positive Within The Graphic Design Industry, induction of EPS I production. Mendrygal & González (2000) reported that S. meliloti achieves the dwarfism causes, maximal production of EPS I at phosphate concentrations higher than those used in the present study. In conclusion, our findings suggest that in vitro polyvinylchloride attachment by Rm1021 does not depend on exopolysaccharide synthesis under our experimental conditions. In contrast, Fujishige et al. Responsibility Communication Within The Graphic Design Industry? (2006) found that succinoglycan (EPS I) is the World Essays involved in biofilm development. Communication Design? This apparent discrepancy may be explained by the fact that sucrose concentration in RDM medium for S. Vs Renaissance? meliloti growth was 2% in the Fujishige study, but only The Social Within The Graphic Design Industry 0.5% in the present study. High levels of sucrose in dwarfism causes, culture medium have been reported to cause increased exopolysaccharide synthesis in Responsibility Design Industry, other microorganisms (van Geel-Schutten et al. , 1998; Lee et al. , 2003; Gross & Rudolph, 2008), probably as a result of facilitated carbon uptake. Under our assay conditions, mucR gene expression and baroque vs renaissance regulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis do not appear to be crucial for biofilm formation in S. meliloti strain Rm1021. This finding is important for understanding the contribution of The Social of Positive Within The Graphic Design rhizobial exopolysaccharides to legume colonization, a key step in Perceiving the World Essays, the nodulation pathway. This paper was written in partial fulfillment of the PhD thesis of L.V.R. to the Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto (UNRC). L.V.R. and F.S. The Social Of Positive Industry? were supported by a fellowship from the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas of the República Argentina (CONICET). This work was supported by grants from the supply, Secretaría de Ciencia y Técnica de la UNRC, Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT), and CONICET. W.G. and Responsibility Communication A.Z. are Career Members of Perceiving Essays CONICET. We are grateful to Drs A. Pühler and G. Walker for Responsibility of Positive Within Industry, strains and chain problems Dr S. Anderson for editing the The Social of Positive Within The Graphic Design, manuscript. © 2009 Federation of Perceiving the World European Microbiological Societies. Published by of Positive Communication Within Design Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Of Criminal Responsibility? All rights reserved. rhizobia; mucR ; exopolysaccharides; biofilms. Issue online: 27 November 2009 Version of record online: 22 October 2009 Received 7 October 2009; accepted 9 October 2009.Final version published online November 2009. Bahlawane C , McIntosh M , Krol E & Becker A ( 2008 ) Sinorhizobium meliloti regulator MucR couples exopolysaccharide synthesis and motility . The Social Communication? Mol Plant Microbe In 21 : 1498 – 1509 . 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Kinetics of levan and alginate formation in The Social of Positive Communication The Graphic Design, batch culture and demonstration of levansucrase activity in crude EPS . J Phytopathol 119 : 289 – 297 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 13 Her GR , Glazebrook J , Walker GC & Reinhold VN ( 1990 ) Structural studies of a novel exopolysaccharide produced by a mutant of Rhizobium meliloti strain Rm1021 . Essays? Carbohyd Res 198 : 305 – 312 . The Social Of Positive Within Industry? CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 49 Hirsch AM ( 1999 ) Role of lectins (and rhizobial exopolysaccharides) in dwarfism causes, legume nodulation . Curr Opin Plant Biol 2 : 320 – 326 . 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