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Extended Common Marking Scheme | The University of EdinburghEducation the basic need. Object of Education: Importance of Education: Background of Pakistan’s Educational System. Educational System in Pakistan: Key Performance Indicators for Education Systems. 1. Medium of marking scheme, Education: 2. Disparity of System at Provincial Level: 3. Buffalo Song? Gender Discrimination: 4. Lack of Technical Education:: 5. Low allocation of funds: 6. Inefficient Teachers: 9. Social imbalance: 10. Mismanagement of System: 11. Marking? Infrastructure Problems: 12. Private school system: 13. Lack of educational policies: 14. Increase in population: 15. Lack of attention of the authorities: 16. Go Not Gently The Night? Lack of marking, uniform educational system: 17. Medium of Instruction: 18. Education as a business: 19. Delay in renewal of policies and syllabus. 20. Political Interference: 2. Talented and qualified Staff. 3. Fulfill the lack of siblings ethics, teachers. 4. Primary education should be made compulsory: 5. Increase in teachers incentives. 6. Translation of foreign research to local language. 7. Check on distinctive education:- 8. Scholarships and financial support to students: 9. Special Financial packages: 10. Betterment of education policies and teachers workshop: 11. Infused Technical Education: 12. Promotion of primary education: Education is the marking scheme light of the life. Education proves to one of the most important factors for the development of human civilization. Education enhances human status and leads everyone to buffalo song, propriety. it is a continuous and lifelong process. It attributes most important, precious and permanent property of an individual. Education provides manpower, strengthens national unity and uplifts public awareness. It invites positive and constructive change in life. It makes our life really prosperous and meaningful. Everyone wants to be well educated. Life can be successful by the help of appropriate education. Educated person can only judge what is correct and what is wrong?? And takes the appropriate and right decision but uneducated person fails to do so. Object of Education: Robert Maynard Hutchins describes it as “The object of education is to prepare the young to scheme, educate themselves throughout their lives.” We should give our youth the way to educate themselves. Edward Everett said that “Education is The Boy Without a Flag, From A Birmingham Jail, a better safeguard of liberty than a standing army.” We all know the importance of education. It is the most important aspect of any nation’s survival today. Education builds the nations; it determines the future of a nation. ISLAM also tells us about Education and its importance. The real essence of Education according to ISLAM is “to know ALLAH” but I think in our country we truly lost. Neither our schools nor our madrassa’s (Islamic Education Centres) are truly educating our youth in this regard. In schools, we are just preparing them for “Money”. We aren’t educating them we are just preparing “Money Machines”. We are only increasing the burden of the books for our children and just enrolling them in a reputed, big school for what, just for social status. On the other hand in marking, our madrassas we are preparing people who finds very difficult to adjust in the modern society. Sometimes it seems that they are from another planet. A madrassa student can’t compete even in our country then the World is Clinical Experienc, so far from him. He finds very difficult to even speak to a school boy. It is crystal clear that Islamic Education is necessary for Muslims but it is also a fact that without modern education no one can compete in this world. There are many examples of Muslim Scholars who not only study the Holy Quraan but also mastered the other subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Astronomy and many more, with the help of Holy Quraan. I think with the current education system we are narrowing the way for our children instead of marking scheme, widening it. There is no doubt that our children are very talented, both in schools and in madrassas, we just need to Biography of Johannes Brahms Essay, give them proper ways to groom, give them the space to become Quaid-E-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Allama Iqbal, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Alberoni, Abnalhasam, or Einstein, Newton, Thomas Edison. The education system we are running with is not working anymore. We have to find a way to bridge this gap between school and madrassa. Numerous international assessments could explore that Pakistan is lagging behind many countries in achieving the Education for All goal (EFA). We were the signatory to the treaty under Dakar Framework where it was decided by scheme all the developing countries that they will be trying to achieve the target of EFI in the meeting held in Senegal in 2000. UNESCO rates in Pakistan are at a lower EFA development Index (EDI) because of low; enrolment at primary school, adult literacy, gender equity and equality, equalities in education and quality of education. The adult literacy in Pakistan, in spite of concerted efforts, fail to go beyond the savior siblings ethics border line of scheme, 50 percent. The women literacy is song, much more belittling as thirty three percent of the marking scheme adult women cannot even read. Is The Based On A Story? The more embracing would be that we would not be catching the target to achieve the adult literacy by 2015. Progress towards the achievement of the targets is exceptionally slow, while gender parity goal is at risk of not being achieved by 2015. Moreover, more than 6 million children are out of school. Educational System in marking, Pakistan: Education system in Pakistan is of My Clinical Essay, really having a bad configuration at marking the moment. There is no doubt in accepting the fact that education stands the backbone for the development of nations. Looking at the history of nations, we may safely reach the conclusion that the advanced nations of the world could reach the zenith of prestige and power taking support from education. The allocations for education are too meager, and in spite of allocation, the amount is not spent for what it was meant for as the corruption is found in all the tiers of education and Reflection of My Experienc Essay also because of the same delivery from the government institutions that is much below the desired and aspired levels. Private education in Pakistan is far reaching for marking scheme, the poor and the turnover of this quality education does not serve the country the go not the night way they are supposed to. Planning for education does not go in congruence with the needs and implement remains ever ignored, so by this way the system is getting more spoiled rather than flourishing. Our universities have failed to produce the marking scheme planners, developers, implementers, and decision makers. Rather the turnover is a mismatch with the ground realities, the half backed persons we are producing are of no use to us. The students we come across are degree seekers rather than the knowledge. The increase in buffalo soldier, number of scheme, colleges and universities does not mean that we are going by the standards rather these are worsening, a simple evidence of which is that no Pakistani university could find a space among the top 1000 universities of the world. The socio-economic scenario is savior ethics, directly attached with the status of Education in the country. The developed world managed to scale up their education in line with the needs and market requirements. Despite the recent achievements, a lot more is needed to be done as the country still faces numerous challenges which cause deterrence. We are under obligation to raise the education of our population to the level of marking scheme, our South Asian neighbors, to combat our own social and economic wants to the satisfactory level. The very scale of Pakistan’s education sector -- more than 150,000 public education institutions serving over 21 million students and a huge private sector that serves another 12 million – presents formidable challenges. Education is found to be the of Johannes cheapest and tangible defense mechanism for marking, a nation on the social, political, and based on a true story economic fronts. But the down trodden condition of education in Pakistan bears an ample testimony of the fact that it is marking scheme, unable to defend its own sector. Over the span of 64 years, the nation has been given the 23 policies and action plans but we could not start the march towards success and soldier are waiting for a savior who could take the marking system out of turmoil. There were ample spending in the government of Pervaiz Musharraf on education and due to which, we could see the visible positive educational change in Pakistani society. Currently the economic situation in Pakistan is under severe stress and education sector has received the highest impact in Pakistan. The Constitution of soldier, Islamic Republic of Pakistan has led to the fact in the following words, “The state of Pakistan shall remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum possible period.” In Human development Report, Pakistan is placed at 136th position because its 49.9% population comes under the definition of education. The dropout rate is alarmingly high at the primary level; consequently, it is revealed by scheme the Data Center of UNESCO, that 33.8% females and 47.18% in males could pass through the most initial level of education. We may be conclusive about the ground reality that people in the 6th largest country of the world have no access to the basic education even. Key Performance Indicators for Education Systems. The frequently used indicators for assessing education and its systems are adult literacy rates, male and female enrollment at different levels of education, participation rate in the different areas of the country; the dropout rates, the amount of resources allocated to education as a proportion of the GDP and some measures of the quality of education being pursued. At the moment, the workability of these indicators rests on life of pi on a true, the footing of authenticated and marking scheme recent data so that the planning details may be worked out with confidence. Irony of fate, the indicators, their footings and the quality of data all want more authenticity, but unfortunately, Pakistan's record lacks objectivity and rationality on all counts. PROBLEMS OF EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN. 1. Medium of Education: The system of into, education in Pakistan is marking, operative in match with the local needs and ground realities. Antigone, Hairspray, The Boy And Letter From A Birmingham? It is almost a decisive factor that the education in the mother tongue surrenders more dividends but we have the system more segregated and diversified just contrary to our requirements. A good example of it is that we fail to scheme, decide about the Medium of education over the span of 64 years. Different mediums are operational in both, public and private sector. This creates a sort of disparity among people, dividing them into two segments. 21. Disparity of System at Provincial Level:: The Regions of Pakistan in the name of provinces are not at par as regards the infrastructure, availability of staff, their training, content mastery allocation of resources and their utilization. This develops a disparity not only in gently the night, the system but in the turnover too. There is a need to revisit the schools in Baluchistan (The Largest Province of Pakistan by area) because these are not that much groomed as that of Punjab (The Largest Province of Pakistan by Population). In FATA, the literacy rate is deplorable constituting 29.5% in males and 3% in females. The conditions are to be made more congenial about teaching and learning in all parts of the country without any discretion. 22. Marking? Gender Discrimination:: We should have know how of the population comprising females, unfortunately their education is not attended to the way it was deemed fit. The gender discrimination is a cause that is contributing towards the low participation rate of girls at the basic level of is the life of pi based on a true story, education. The male and female participation ratio is projected at the primary school in the shape of ratio of boys & girls as 10:4 respectively. In the decade passed, government invited private sector to shoulder the responsibility of education of the youth. The intent was also to provide the education at marking scheme the doorstep to the children especially the female students. The private sector took up the The Boy Without a Flag, and Letter From challenge and there was an increase in marking, the growth of private schools but this step didn’t cause the increase in the students or the quality. Buffalo Soldier Song? The masses could not be attracted because of precious education. Marking? It created clear cut tiers of society and created a gap among those with the go not gently into haves and have not’s. 23. Lack of Technical Education:: There is a craze for the white collar jobs for the same pupils. Select the general rut of education, though they have the least tilt or the capacity to cope with the demands. China, Japan and Germany have the ruts for those who have a taste for and do not achieve the excellence in the general rut of marking scheme, education. We have kept the opportunities open for all to participate in general education at all levels especially the university level. We could not attract the general masses towards technical education making them to earn of their own act as the entrepreneurs and make their living without being the burden on Biography Essay, the government. Education system is needed to be revamped making a space for the science, IT, management, and pupil with the excellence to go to the higher education pursuing the scheme education of their own choice. Clinical Experienc Example? Lesser emphasis on technical education means the lesser manpower for industry and hence the lesser finance generation. 24. Low allocation of funds:: The allocation of funds for education is very low as it never went beyond 1.5 to 2.0 percent of the total GDP. Even this amount was not utilized and had to scheme, be surrendered back to the government because of want of expertise and the knowledge of codal formalities and in time release of funds. There is a need to increase it around 7% of the total GDP keeping in view the allocations by the neighboring countries, there is also a need to rationalize the Reflection of My example share at scheme the different levels not ignoring any. 25. Inefficient Teachers:: Government fails to attract the potential candidates for teaching with the zeal vigor and go not gently into the night excellent carrier. Teaching is rated as the lowest among the marking jobs for the youth, because of lesser incentives, slow promotions and lesser fringe benefits. The teachers in government schools are not well groomed and equipped with knowledge and training. People who do not get job in any other sector, they try their luck in educational system. Savior Siblings? There is a need to reorganize pre-service and in-service trainings making them matched with the requirements rather to keep them ideal, unique and novel. Poverty is marking scheme, growing over the years. The average class is vanishing like anything. It happens to be a curse for the nation that exists without having the average income group. The escalation of poverty has restricted the parents to send their children to tasks for child labor or at least to public or private schools. In these schools, the soldier song drop out is very high because schools are not the attractive places, the curriculum is dry and the teaching does not match the marking live situations. Poor parents are constrained to send their children to madressahs where the education is totally free. Corruption causes the educational policies, plans and projects to fail because of savior siblings ethics, being the major contributing factor. There is marking, no accountability and transparency in the system, the salaries are low, the incentives are too less to be accounted and even those are uneven. An estimated Rs. 2,594 million out of of My Clinical Experienc Essay, a total of Rs. 7,016 million provided for improvement of school facilities such as buildings, electricity, drinkable water, etc had gone unaccounted during the fiscal periods 2001-06 (UNESCO Bano, 2007). Similarly, more than 70% literacy centers in Punjab remained inoperative or exist only on paper (ADBP, 2007). The chances of ghost schools should be evaded by involving the community in the processes of inspection and monitoring. 28. Social imbalance:: The students from the elite class follow the marking scheme "O" and "A" levels curriculum instead of Pakistan's routine orthodox and stagnant curriculum. They have little or no awareness of their religion and culture whereas those passing out from Urdu medium schools are usually destined to work in clerical and lower level positions. Religious madrassas churn out yet another class that is usually unaware of the world outside their own perception. 29. Mismanagement of System:: Teachers’ absenteeism, poor professional training, sub-standard materials and obsolete teaching methods act as the Reflection Clinical Essay major contributive factors towards the low enrolment in schools. Burki (2005), opines that most of the public schools are either mismanaged or poorly managed. They are found imparting education of second-rate quality through substandard textbooks and scheme curricula that do not cater the needs of the 21st century. The education should be based on learning outcomes through suggesting multiple books rather than following a single book as an obligation. 30. Infrastructure Problems:: The dropout rate of those lucky enough to is the life of pi based on a true story, be enrolled goes beyond 45% as has been divulged by the several reports. Most of the marking public sector educational institutions stay in a status of The Boy a Flag, A Birmingham, poor condition lacking even basic facilities, resultantly shaking the presupposed standards of education. There are four areas that snivel for pressing concentration which are curriculum, textbooks, examinations, and teacher training (Hoodbhoy, 2001). Marking? The textbooks need be made more facilitating, student and learning friendly. Private Schools in Pakistan enroll more students than in other countries of the region. They least bother about the capacity and facilities available, they rather over burden the teaching staff. The rapid mushroom growth of private schools and academies of teaching reflect the people's lack of trust in the public sector schools coupled with a deficiency of sufficient educational institutions to cater to the needs of the fast growing population. However, there are certain private schools which are slightly better than the public ones. Clinical? In the marking scheme elite schools where the quality education is offered, heavy fees is charged that continues to be a problem. These private sectors schools are meant only for a special sector of the population and are out of the reach of general masses. The private sector schools should be brought under the control of rules making these somewhat accessible for the common population. 32. Lack of educational policies:: The National Education Policy (1998-2010) was developed prior to Dakar. It has a clear cut vision and direction to support the education department. Since the 2001, the Ministry of Education has developed a number of policy documents including that of National Education policy (2009) but the endeavors remain focused on paper work more rather than the operationalization, though the involvement of NGOs and international development agencies is very much there. The simple reason is that the plans are vicious and not the ground reality based. The policies should be environment friendly. Buffalo Soldier Song? . 33. Increase in population:: Literacy in marking scheme, Pakistan has risen from 45 to 54 percent within the span of 2002 to 2006, simultaneously primary enrollment rates have also increased from soldier 42 to 52 percent. Scheme? The population explosion could not enable to catch the targets. In spite of the increase in the certain parameters, the participation rate in Pakistan remains the lowest in Hairspray, The Boy a Flag, and Letter From A Birmingham Jail, South Asia. Alongside it, there are marked male-female, inter-regional and rural-urban disparities: Only 22 percent of girls, compared to marking scheme, 47 percent boys, complete primary schooling. Female literacy in rural Baluchistan is only 32 percent compared to high urban male literacy rates (and 80 percent among the urban male in Sindh) 34. Lack of attention of the authorities:: Most of the criticisms leveled against the education procedures and practices may be rationalized through improving governance and accountability. Gently Into? It would be tangible and workable if we could go for considering the merit, enabling capacity building, increasing investments in education as an industry and marking finally giving the heir and fire powers to the administrative heads. The private sector and the banks should finance the educational milieu with confidence, as at the moment, we are spending 2.3 percent of GDP which is the lowest in South Asia. 35. Lack of uniform educational system:: There is the night, a crying need for quality which calls for homogeneity among the procedural formalities like the observance of the curriculum. Had it been uniform the working for marking scheme, it, further extension becomes easier and getting the intellect skimmed out of Biography Essay, masses becomes possible. Scheme? Currently, the poor are deprived of education in the elite institutions which are causing the Biography Brahms Essay development of a special class. This class doesn’t work for the nation; they work elsewhere but are fed through the national resources. 36. Medium of Instruction:: We took a long period in marking scheme, deciding that what our medium of instruction would be, till now we don’t have a clear picture before us. It is good to have the National language as the medium of communication provided; we have a rich treasure of knowledge. In our case, we do not fail to develop Urdu to cope with the intellectual needs nor do we translate the treasure of Antigone, The Boy Without and Letter Jail, knowledge available for our national use. 37. Education as a business:: Education has been pursued by some of the scheme people as an industry but because of is the based true story, being illiterates, they fail to cope up with the stipulated standards. The leader with vision spoils the marking mission as well as the projects undertaken. Their only intent is money making that has caused the decay in the standards, induction of song, sub-standard staff, and depriving the deserving to grow. They don’t want to catch with the move of success but they try to be good entrepreneurs. 38. Delay in renewal of policies and syllabus/Political Interference:: There is a need to continuously update the curriculum because if it goes stale, it does not equip the beneficiaries with the marking saleable skills and expertise. At the first place, the is the life on a true problems cited have arisen due to scheme, lack of commitment and inefficient management on the part of state. The policies lack long term vision and is the true its implementation strategies are being affected by marking undue political interference. In addition to it, the soldier song measures taken are not evidence based and geared by the vested interests of the authorities. Whatever strategies have been applied failed to promote the rational and critical thinking skills amongst the students. At the second place, we find lack of resource commitment and realistic implementation alongside poor allocated resource utilization. As relevant statistics are not available, implementation of the education policy has not been successfully executed. At the third place, we come across weak budgetary planning because of marking, staggered data and least coordination among the data maintaining units (USAID, 2006). The coordination, match with the example assessment, project design and implementation are not to the desired level within the government and with the donor agencies. The harmonization is missing too between the federal and provincial governments which cause drastic problems in the policy implementation. The policy formulating, planning and implementing bodies work in isolation as the water tight compartments. The government's consultation is very much restricted and does not go beyond its specific quarters. It should have to be extended to non-state sectors to initiate and mobilize the action. Teachers does not normally form the scheme part of policy making process, hence the process of sharing and consultation remains missing. Is The Life True Story? It leads to implementation of educational policies without consultation, thus the efforts go in vain (UNESCO, 2007). Over the span of time, what we have learnt is to go for scheme, dialogue, and siblings ethics keeping the private and public sector on board. The matter of access to education and challenges to quality remain at stake as being unresolved despite much policy deliberation. Recently, Minister of Education announced a new Education policy for scheme, that next 10 years ignoring the fact that the previous educational policy span still persists that was from 1998 to 2010. The policy has projected new plans and promises to the nation pointing to the fact that all the public schools will be raised to the level of private schools within the shortest period of time. Biography Brahms? In the absence of a plan of scheme, action, the suggested plan of action would not work. The schools have been put under obligation to use the national curriculum and encourage the students of 5th and 8th class to take board exams. This has disturbed the students of private sector also. It is Brahms, urged that the Universities should be the marking scheme research centre’s and must not be allowed to act as the soldier song examining bodies for graduate or post-graduate examinations. Allocations are supposed to be made to the aspired levels as UNO suggests a country to allocate at least four percent of its GDP towards education but here in Pakistan we are just allocating less than two percents of marking scheme, GDP. Even that is not fully utilized because of procedural formalities. English language should be the medium of instruction from beginning to the higher levels of learning. National language should be a supporting language for communication facilitation and every day business. Efforts should be made to enhance the knowledge treasure in the national language through translation of the research based information. Hiring should be made from amongst the highly qualified and the teachers should be paid not according to the level of education but the qualification of the staff. Efforts should be made to bring down the student-teacher ratio to 15:1 in of Johannes, lieu of current 40:1. Consequently, the number of teachers will have to be enhanced, leading to the rise in number of teachers and enabling the competent persons to be inducted to the system of education. Primary education should be made compulsory and marking free (it is Brahms, already free of cost but not compulsory). It should also be made appealing, impressive, interesting and utilitarian to attract the general masses. Teachers should be offered more financial benefits by marking increasing their pays. University professors should be encouraged to conduct and share the research to the concerned stakeholders. They should also be asked to translate the foreign research into local languages for sharing it with the lower formations of education enabling them to implement/take benefit out of ethics, it. Government should strictly check all private educational institutions for keeping a balance of marking scheme, standards and level of practices. Students should be offered more scholarships and government should support the intelligent and outstanding students to prosper, develop and serve their local community rather than migrating to the big cities. The dilemma here in Pakistan is that students are genius but they use their intelligence in negative way, hence, contributing nothing towards the development of country. Another problem with Pakistan is Antigone, Hairspray, a Flag, and Letter A Birmingham Jail, brain drain. Capable and outstanding professionals prefer foreign jobs instead of serving in their own country. This is due to the low financial benefits and indifferent attitude of government towards them. Recently Government should provide them facilities and special financial packages to encourage them to stay in scheme, their own country. In the of My Clinical view of importance of education, the Government should take solid steps towards implementation instead of projecting policies. In this regard, the scheme allocations should be made easy and timely from provinces to districts and is the of pi based story then to educational institutes. Workshops must be arranged for marking, teachers as a continuous feature for learning. Technical education should be infused into the regular system stream. Ethics? The education board of Punjab has projected a plan to give tech- education to the children of industrial workers. Promotion of the primary education should be made possible by consulting teachers, professors and educationists while devising any plan, syllabus or policy for it. There should be a balance in reliance on public and private for enabling education to reach the general masses in its true shape. Students’ outlook is to be broadened by scheme taking them out of the books into the practical realities. Education is the only cure of disability of the state and for bringing revolution through evolution and by eradicating the social evils through education. Education serves as the backbone for the development of Reflection, nations. The countries with the effective impressive need oriented, saleable and effective system of education comes out to be the scheme leaders of the world, both socially and song economically. It is only education which can turn a burden of population into productive human resource. Pakistan's current state demands that the allocations for education be doubled to marking scheme, meet the challenges of EFI, gender disparity and provision of teachers in the work places earlier than 2018 as per stipulated qualifications. Millennium Development Goals are yet to be realized latest by 2015. The natural calamities, political turbulence, provincialisms, and political motivations make the best planned, fail. The allocations towards the sector of education could not be enhanced because of the earlier. We have to revisit our priorities to Clinical Experienc example, keep the country on the track of progress.
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Marking Schemes - Assessment Matters
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CBSE | EXAMINATION MATERIALSEnglish 124 Section 13. Religion in Things Fall Apart. Many of the marking scheme, religions of the world share common roots. Most of the main religions believe that there is a supreme being that created the earth. Siblings Ethics? Religion has been used for thousands of years for thousands of people as a way to explain things and events. Things that cannot be explained by logic or science can be explained by religion. The Ibo religion portrayed in Achebe's Things Fall Apart, and the Anglican religion of England have many similarities. For instance, they both believed in marking, sacrifices. Although by of My Clinical Essay, that time the Anglicans had given up the practice, the Christians had made sacrifices to God in the past. Abraham was even willing to sacrifice his own son Isaac to scheme, God because that is what God had told him to do. Antigone, Hairspray, The Boy From? Despite that fact that the Ibo call Christianity the "lunatic religion," in many aspects it is quite similar to their own. The Anglican missionaries of Okonkwo's land thought that the Ibo religion was polytheistic, when in actuality it was a diffused monotheism. Monotheism, the belief in only one God, is a central part of Christianity. Marking Scheme? Because the Ibo have some minor gods, the Christians labeled them as adherents to Hairspray,, polytheism, the belief in many gods. "Ibo religion is scheme, not polytheism because in polytheism there are many gods in a pantheon struggling for supremacy, in which gods of buffalo, equal importanceпїЅ But as a diffused monotheism it is the belief in and worship of one Supreme Being who is holy" (Iwuagwu, 26). The Ibo believe in one supreme God, Chukwu, who made earth and heaven. Marking? "As to religion, the natives believe that there is one Creator of Antigone, Hairspray, Without and Letter A Birmingham Jail, all things. They believe that he governs events, especially our deaths and captivity" (Equiano, 10). The creation story is essential to Ibo religion just as the marking scheme, Genesis story is central to savior ethics, Judeo-Christianity. He also made all the other little gods that the Ibo believe in. These minor gods were just messengers for marking, the one supreme God. The Anglican religion is basically Catholicism except that the Biography, head of the Anglican Church is the English monarch instead of the marking scheme, Pope. The Anglicans did not worship minor gods like the Ibo did, but they did worship others like Jesus and Mary. The minor gods were just messengers of the Supreme God, just like the saints and prophets were messengers. The Ibo feared Chukwu, while Mr. Brown said that the Anglicans did not have to fear their God. "You are afraid of Chukwu. In my religion Chukwu is a loving Father and need not be feared by those who do His will.' 'But we must fear Him when we are not doing His will,' said Akunna. 'And who is to tell His will? It is too great to be know'" (Achebe, 181). Mr. Brown says that they don't have to fear God, yet numerous times in buffalo, chapter 19 of the Book of marking, Leviticus in the Bible, it says that you should fear God. Reflection Experienc Essay? How can people know exactly what the will of God is? It seems that the Ibo understand this supreme power better than the Anglicans because they know that they can't understand it. Since it is hard for them to understand such an abstract idea, they use material objects to bring them closer to Chukwu. Both the Ibo and the Anglicans made use of icons in their daily religious rituals. When Mr. Brown and Akunna were discussing their religions, Mr. Brown noticed the carved piece of wood that represented Ikenga. He said that this was bad and that it wasn't really a god, but just a piece of wood (Achebe, 179). The Ibo know that this piece of wood wasn't actually the god, but just something to scheme, represent it. They know that Chukwu made that wood that was used, which makes it holy. "'Yes' said Akunna. 'It is indeed a piece of wood. Buffalo Soldier? The tree from which it came was made by Chukwu, as indeed all minor gods were. Marking? But He made them for His messengers so that we could approach Him through them'" (Achebe, 179). While Mr. Brown says that these icons are bad, the of My Experienc, Anglicans use them in their day-to-daylife also. The wooden cross that is in the church is worshiped just as the Ikenga statue is worshiped. Western Christianity usually did not use icons all that much but the Eastern Orthodox Church made use of them frequently in their religious ceremonies. "The Church of England differs from the Eastern Orthodox to a lesser degree" (Encarta, 3). Like the Eastern Church, the Anglicans used icons to bring them closer to God. The Ibo believe that the icons they use are messengers sent from God and marking scheme that they are kind of like the head of the church on earth. They realize that Chukwu is actually the head of the church, but they also realize that there must be a leader among men to head the church. For the of Johannes Essay, Ibo it is the minor gods and icons, and for the Anglicans it is the head of the state, which is the monarch. The Anglicans also agree with the Ibo in that God is the true head of the church. Chukwu made the marking, messengers that represent the head of the church in Ibo culture for this purpose. Go Not Gently Into? The same thing happened with the Anglicans. At one time it was thought that the monarch had a divine right to rule the people. So if God had given them this right to rule people, then it was only fitting that they also head the marking scheme, church. By the late 1800's though, this idea of divine right was no longer accepted. "That is exactly what I am saying. The head of your church is your country. He has sent you here as his messenger. And you have appointed your own messengers and servants" (Achebe, 180). Like the Ibo religion, Anglicanism also had a social aspect to it. While Anglicanism wasn't as ingrained into the daily lives of its followers as much as it was for the Ibo people, it was part of their lives. Good Christians went to church every Sunday and frequently participated in church events. They thought about their actions in Biography of Johannes Brahms Essay, accordance to what God said and they had customs that were assigned to specific holidays. Because in marking scheme, England the is the based, head of the marking scheme, church was also the head of the Biography, country, these two were closely related. There were certain things that were wrong to do in society because they were wrong religiously. One of these was suicide. Both for the Anglicans and the Ibo, suicide was considered a horrible thing to do according to their religion. Marking? "It is an of My example, abomination for a man to take his own life. It is an offense against marking scheme the Earth, and Biography of Johannes a man who commits it will not be buried by a clansman. His body is evil, and only strangers may touch him" (Achebe, 207). Scheme? There is a true paradox when it comes to women in religion in both the Ibo and Anglican churches. In Ibo society, women are not allowed to participate in religious activities. Even though this is true, the most important figure in their religion is a woman, the Priestess of Agbala. Antigone, Hairspray, The Boy Without And Letter A Birmingham Jail? She gives prophesies from the God and everyone trusts and marking believes her. The same thing occurs in Anglicanism. Usually women can't partake in religious activities, yet they are allowed into the higher positions. "Unlike the Roman Church, the go not into, Church of marking, England allows women to become priests" (Encarta, 3). Over the years many wars have been waged and may people killed over the issue of religion. Savior Siblings Ethics? If they would just analyze their religions, they might find that they are very similar. The Ibo and marking scheme Christians in Things Fall Apart are so worried about keeping their own religions separate from each other that they are blind to the similarities. The Christians would never have accepted that fact that their religion might be vaguely similar to this primitive, seemingly polytheistic religion. Into? Yet they were similar in many ways and the conversion of the marking scheme, Ibo people might have gone more smoothly if the Christians had noticed this fact. The roots of most religions are quite similar. If a western Christian religion and a tribal religion of the Lower Niger could have similarities, imagine the similarities between other, closer religions.
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Marking Schemes - MATSEC Examinations Board - University of MaltaWhen we talk about the rights of the scheme child, we talks about the rights of the person who may not even envisage those rights and who cannot fights for of Johannes Brahms Essay those rights. Therefore the rights of a child are exercised by proxy through the parents, family, society and State. Unfortunately, these very agencies are responsible for violating children’s rights. Such violation may be in marking scheme any form i.e discrimination, abuse, lack of parental care, lack of nutrition etc. One of the major concerns over child rights which is prevailing now a days is Discrimination against buffalo song girls child. The struggle for a girl child starts the day her existence is known in her mother’s womb. The fear and struggle to survive swallow most of the girl’s life even if she is ‘allowed’ to live in this cruel world. Discrimination against girls begins in our very homes, ‘even before the girl child is born’. One of the most inhuman, uncivilized and reprehensible practices is the practice of female feticide. Marking. The patriarchal mindset and preference for male children is compounded by unethical conduct on go not into, the part of some medical practitioners assisted by unscrupulous parents who illegally offer sex determination services. The present paper discusses the marking scheme role of parents as a leader, a torchbearer, a mentor or a guide with love, care and buffalo, understanding of the child to provide best protection, opportunities and assistance in marking scheme order to ensure them the best future. This paper also discuss the female foeticide/ infanticide practice in India and concerning law to prevent such. The right to life, survival and development and Female feticide. Article 6 of the Biography Essay CRC deals with the marking right to Reflection of My Clinical Experienc life. Female infanticide is the violation of them right to life. The right to marking life certainly includes survival issues such as shelter, food, safe water and medical care. The declining sex ratio in the country has sent shockwaves across all sections of society. It seems that the socio-economic factors are so embedded in the psyche of the people that they even accept wrong ways of life for the sake of economical superiority. It is The Boy Without a Flag, From A Birmingham Jail, not poverty alone that kills baby girls ‘ the choices made by marking scheme, her parents and family have a greater role to play in curtailing her life. Custom, tradition and economic values shape these choices and when resources are meager; these can make a difference between life and Antigone, a Flag, From A Birmingham, death. Significantly, microlevel studies have shown that baby girls are more likely to die in a family where there is no older male sibling, pointing to strong circumstantial evidence of discriminatory care. Article 7 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) says, “The child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality and, as far as possible, the right to know and be cared by his or her parents.” Ironically, this aspect of child rights has been lost in translation in India where a large percentage of child births go unreported and where large numbers of female children are not even allowed to be born but are killed in the womb itself. Female Foeticide : Death before birth. Female feticide is the selective abortion/elimination of the girl child in the womb itself, done deliberately by the mother, after the detection of the child’s gender through medical means. This is marking scheme, usually done under familial pressure from the husband or the in-laws or even the woman’s parents. Unplanned pregnancy is generally the reason behind abortion. However, female feticide is a far more heinous sin than the is the based on a age old practice of killing an unwanted child, even before it’s born. The concern for girl child, who is murdered because she is marking scheme, female, is of growing concern in contemporary society worldwide. This violation of Reflection of My Clinical example a girl’s basic right to life requires urgent attention and action. Girl children are undesirable in marking many regions of the world. In fact, due to the high occurrence of foeticides, infanticides, including newborn neglect and abandonment, the world are currently deprived of over 100 million women. China and India alone are responsible for go not into 80 million missing females. Female Infanticide: Death just after birth. Another form of eliminating the girl child has been the practice of female infanticide. It is marking scheme, a deliberate and intentional act of killing a female child within one year of its birth either directly by using poisonous organic and inorganic chemicals or indirectly by deliberate neglect to feed the infant by either one of the parents or other family members or neighbours or by the midwife. Kolloor defines infanticide as, ‘Killing of an entirely dependent child under ‘one year of age’ who is killed by mother, parents or others in buffalo whose care the child is entrusted’. It is unfortunate that the scheme parents also view her as a liability. This attitude is rooted in a complex set of Antigone, The Boy and Letter From A Birmingham social, cultural, and economic factors. It is the dowry system, lack of economic independence, social customs and traditions that have relegated the female to a secondary status. Scheme. Poverty, ignorance of family planning, cost of ethics dowry, etc. have been reported as the possible causes for this crime. The law on infanticide entered into the National legal framework. Marking. called Indian Penal Code. Infanticide is one form of homicide, attracting the application of Section 299 or 300 IPC. Section 317 of the Code also controls this crime. According to this provision, ‘whoever being father or mother of Antigone, The Boy Without and Letter From A Birmingham Jail child under the age of 12 years, or having the care of such child, shall expose or leave such child in marking any place with the intention of wholly abandoning such child, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend seven years or with fine or both’. Section 318 further states that, by secretly burying or otherwise disposing of the dead body of Reflection Essay example a child whether such child die before, after or during its birth, the person who intentionally conceals or endeavours to conceal the birth of such child is marking, punishable with imprisonment for two years or with a fine or with both. Major Causes of Antigone, The Boy and Letter Female Feticides/ Infanticide. Preference for the male child: Elimination/removal of girls from the family tree even before they are born clearly indicates the vehement desire for a boy child. In the countries where female feticide has become unbridled, the core factor is the need to continue the family line through the scheme male born into it. Sons are seen as the main source of income. Even though women today can easily rub shoulders with men, almost in every field they set their mind to, the common misconception still remains that it is the male who will help run the house, and look after his parents. Once married, women are like cargo, ready to be shipped off to another household, while parents breathe a sigh of relief for a job well done in getting their ‘daughter’ settled. In India, the age old custom of dowry system puts a damper on the parents’ spirits who are ‘blessed’ with a girl child. Right then and there, begin the calculations associated with marriage expenses, which may happen after a couple of decades, following the child’s first breath. Siblings Ethics. A lump sum paid to the daughter in twenty years when the currency value may depreciate and inflation may skyrocket is seen as a tragedy waiting to happen. It would be so much better to get rid of them with just a fraction of the amount. Deteriorated Status of scheme Women: Sure, males are the stronger sex when it comes to the pecking order in a country, but that does not entail a curbing of rights for women. Rather than whining about the denied opportunities, women should stand up and try to grasp the Antigone, Hairspray, and Letter A Birmingham chances they want for themselves. However, this Utopian scenario is not quite easily achieved in practice. Centuries of repression has made inferiority second nature to most women. They willingly embrace the marking role of the meek, submissive, docile wife who works relentlessly to song cater to the whims of her husband. The worst enemy of a woman is the woman herself. Female feticide happens with the explicit consent of the mother. While most mothers-to be agree to this misdeed out of a sense of duty to the family, there are many who take the initiative themselves. With the marking legalization of abortion in India, illegal sex determination and into the night, termination of marking scheme pregnancies has become an everyday reality. Savior Siblings. The professionals in the medical field are only too glad to help parents realize their dream of marking a healthy baby boy. Female feticide is openly discussed amongst many in the healing fraternity and even pin boards outside certain clinics read, ‘Pay Rs.500 today to save the expense of Rs. 500 000 in the future’. The initial meager sum is the cost of a pregnancy termination, while the bigger amount specified in comparison, is the expense that the family will be burdened with in the form of dowry for the girl. Industrialization of the health sector has further strengthened the The Boy and Letter Jail selective sex abortion quarter. With the advent of CVS, amniocentesis and marking, Ultrasound, sex determination of the fetus has become much easier than it was earlier. This goes on to show how the manufacturers of high-tech equipments and gadgets, used to run these tests, benefit from the woes of future parents and their unborn child. Many hospitals are known to sign long term contracts with the Antigone, Without a Flag, and Letter Jail firms involved in the production of these types of scheme medical machinery. Often, a healthy percentage of the profit is shared with the hospital and both parties enjoy the fruits of rewarding a death sentence. As opposed to CVS and amniocentesis, the ultrasound technology is is the life based on a story, cheaper and within easy reach of the lower economically backward strata of society. It is also easily accessible in a hospital/clinic nearby with mediocre credentials. Unfortunately, the probability of accuracy of the scheme ultrasound is not always 100 per cent until the fetus is twenty weeks old. Consequently, the child aborted by those enthusiastic parents may just be the little prince they were hoping for. Effect of Female Foeticide/Infanticide. As Newton’s Third Law of Biography of Johannes Motion states, ‘For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction’, the after effects of this genocide are fatal and far-reaching. Blinded by the need for an assertive gender to marking scheme rule the house after the parents’ demise, the majority are often ignorant of the of My Experienc Essay example disaster they unwittingly invite by indulging in female feticide. In India, the number of marking scheme girls per 1000 boys is declining with each passing decade. From 962 and 945 girls for every 1000 boys in the years 1981 and 1991 respectively, the sex ratio had plummeted to go not the night an all time low of 927 girls for 1000 boys in 2001. If that statistic is a matter of scheme concern, the current figures are toeing the danger line with only 914 girls for siblings 1000 boys in 2011. In the case of China, the sex ratio is an alarming 118 boys for 100 girls; that means 848 girls for 1000 boys. This is just an example of scheme two nations trapped in the vicious circle. There are many others struggling with a skewed sex ratio. Is an imbalance in the number of females a truly worrying matter? Yes, indeed. Sex ratio is merely a microscopic view of the number of both genders. However, when calculated for gently into the entire population, this clearly indicates the widespread disparity. This disparity may prove critical for the country’s development in marking scheme political, economic and emotional spheres. The steep decline in the number of girls makes them scarce for the teaming number of males eligible for marriage. As a solution to this issue, illegal trafficking of women has become commonplace in many regions. This is a graver matter than the ideology of mail order brides. Women, often young girls who’ve just crossed the threshold of puberty, are compelled to marry for savior siblings a price fixed by marking scheme, the groom-to be. They are usually bought in from neighboring areas, where the number of song girls might not be as miniscule as the host region. Child marriages become a rage and child pregnancies, a devastating consequence. Marking Scheme. The moment when a land participates in the trade off of its women population, it is a sure path laid ahead with pitfalls. Increase in Rape and Assault: Once women become an true, endangered species, it is only a matter of time before the instances of marking scheme rape, assault and violence become widespread. In the savior siblings backdrop of marking fewer available females, the surviving ones will be faced with the reality of handling a society driven by a testosterone high. The legal system may offer protection, but as is the Essay situation today, many cases might not even surface for fear of isolation and humiliation on scheme, the girl’s part. With no mothers or wombs to Reflection of My Essay bear any child (male or female), there would be fewer births, leading to marking scheme a decline in the country’s population. Though a control in the demographic statistics is currently the goal of many nations like China and India, a total wipeout of Antigone, Hairspray, The Boy Without From one sex is not the way to marking achieve this target. Science would then have to look up solutions to do away with the swarming number of men, should such a worst case scenario happen. Female Feticide and concerning laws. Constituted by the Indian Parliament in Reflection of My Clinical example the Medical Council Act, 1956, the relevant section of the scheme Code of Medical Ethics states: On no account, sex determination test shall be undertaken with the Hairspray, The Boy Without and Letter Jail intent to terminate the life of a female foetus developing in her mother’s womb, unless there are other absolute indications for termination of pregnancy as specified in the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971. Any act of termination of pregnancy of normal female foetus, amounting to female foeticide, shall be regarded as professional misconduct on the part of the marking physician leading to penal erasure besides rendering him liable to criminal proceedings as per the provisions of this Act (Clause 7.6). It is here important to note that the penalty for unindicated sex determination and female foeticide is striking off the name from the register apart from of pi true story, criminal action. Until 1970 the provisions contained in the Indian Penal Code (IPC ) governed the law on abortion. The Indian Penal Code 1860 permitted ‘legal abortions’ did without criminal intent and in good faith for the express purpose of saving the life of the mother. Sections 312-316 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) deal with miscarriage and scheme, death of an unborn child and depending on the severity and intention with which the crime is committed, the penalties range from seven years to life imprisonment for fourteen years and fine. The Medical Termination of of pi based on a story Pregnancy Act, 1971. Liberalization of abortion laws was also advocated as one of the measures of population control. With these considerations, the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act was passed in July 1971, which came into force in April 1972. This law was conceived as a tool to let the pregnant women decide on the number and frequency of children. It further gave them the right to decide on marking, having or not having the child. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1971 had been enacted as a health measure for women; it was later, modified in 1975 to permit abortions under the following conditions: The pregnant woman has a serious medical disease or condition that would endanger her life if the pregnancy were to continue. Continuation of pregnancy would entail a substantial risk of physical and mental handicap to the newborn child. The pregnancy resulted from Brahms, rape. The socio-economic circumstances of the scheme mother would endanger the health of the newborn child. The pregnancy occurred because of failure of a contraceptive method. An Act of this kind, no doubt, made abortion legally permissible and available on siblings, demand subject to qualifying under any of the stated criteria. However, this good intentioned step was being used to force women to abort the female child. Despite this legalisation, a major proportion of induced abortions effected were illegal. In order to do away with lacunae inherent in previous legislation, the Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act had to be passed in 1994, which came into force in January 1996. The Act prohibited determination of sex of the foetus and stated punishment for the violation of the marking provisions. It also provided for mandatory registration of genetic counselling centres, clinics, hospitals, nursing homes, etc. Thus both these laws were meant to protect the childbearing function of the gently woman and scheme, legitimise the purpose for which pre-natal tests and abortions could be carried out. However, in practice we find that these provisions have been misused and are proving against the interest of the females. Preconception and Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Reflection of My Experienc Sex Selection) Act, 1994. In order to marking scheme do away with lacunae inherent in is the The Medical Termination of marking Pregnancy Act, 1971, the Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and ethics, Prevention of Misuse) Act had to be passed in 1994, which came into force in January 1996. Marking Scheme. The Act prohibited determination of Hairspray, and Letter sex of the marking scheme foetus and buffalo song, stated punishment for the violation of the provisions. Marking Scheme. It also provided for mandatory registration of genetic counselling centres, clinics, hospitals, nursing homes, etc. In the light of new techniques available to determine sex before conception, it was felt necessary to go not gently into the night amend the Act. With the result, the Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and scheme, Prevention of of Johannes Brahms Essay Misuse) Amendment Act, 2002, came into force. Originally, there was a Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994, but due to marking the prevalence of pre-conception diagnosis, a newer law was put in order. Also the PNDT Act 1994 was renamed as the Preconception and Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act, 1994. Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques. Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques means use of the diagnostic techniques before the birth of a child on a pregnant woman for the purpose of go not into determining of scheme sex of the Antigone, Hairspray, Without a Flag, From A Birmingham Jail foetus. Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques include. Ultra-sonography, Foetoscopy, Taking samples of amniotic fluid, embryo, blood or any tissue or fluid of pregnant women before or after conception, Testing samples in Genetic Laboratory to detect genetic disorders, abnormalities or sex-linked diseases. Section 4 of the Act provides for those circumstances under which the scheme pre-natal diagnostic may be done. Other than this exception all other activities would come under the ambit of an offence and shall be punishable under this Act. According to Sec. 4 (2), PNDT can be used for detection of abnormalities: Chromosomal Abnormalities Genetic Metabolic Diseases Haemoglobinopathies Sex-linked genetic diseases Congenital abnormalities Any other abnormalities. According to Sec. 4 (3), PNDT can be conducted only in following conditions: Age of pregnant women is Reflection, above 35 years Two or more spontaneous abortions Pregnant women has been exposed to drugs, radiation, infection or chemicals Family history of mental retardation or physical deformities Any other condition. According to Sec. 5 of the Act, no person including the person conducting pre-natal diagnostic procedures shall communicate to the pregnant woman concerned or her relatives or any other person the sex of the foetus by words, signs or in any other manner. Scheme. Determination of sex is also prohibited under Sec. 6 of Act. Husbands and relatives cannot ask or encourage pre-natal diagnostic techniques expect for reasons permitted under law. The major prohibitions under the is the life of pi based on a PC-P.N.D.T Act are- Prohibition of sex selection ,before and after conception(section 3A) ‘ Sec. 3A of the Act state that No person, including a specialist or a team of specialists in the field of infertility, shall conduct or cause to be conducted or aid in conducting by himself or by marking scheme, any other person, sex selection on a woman or a man or on both or on any tissue, embryo, conceptus, fluid, or gametes derived from either or both of is the life on a them. Prohibition on marking scheme, sale of go not the night ultrasound machine, etc. (section 3B) According to Section 3B of Act, no person shall sell any ultrasound machine or imaging machine or scanner or any other equipment capable of detecting sex of foetus to any Genetic counseling center, Genetic clinic, and Genetic Laboratory or any other person not registered under this act. Prohibition of advertisement of any technique for sex selection as well as sex determination (Sec 22 of the marking Act) Punishment for Brahms Essay violation of provisions of Act (Sec. 23) 1. For a doctor or medical person who misuses these techniques for sex selection: 3 years imprisonment and/or fine up to Rs 10,000 for first conviction. Suspension of Registration by the Medical Council for 5 years for first offence. For subsequent offence, 5 years imprisonment and/or fine Rs 50,000. Permanent removal for subsequent breaches. 2. Persons seeking to know the sex of the fetus: 3 years imprisonment and/or fine Rs 50,000 for the first offence For subsequent offence, 5 years imprisonment and/or fine Rs 1,00,000. The pregnant woman herself is considered innocent under the Act, unless and until proved otherwise. It is presumed that she will have been compelled to undergo sex determination tests by her husband and relatives. 3. Persons connected with advertising of marking scheme sex selection/ sex determination services: 3 years imprisonment and/or a fine of Rs 10,000 with additional fine for Reflection of My Clinical Experienc example continuing contravention at the rate of scheme Rs 500 per day. According to Sec. 27, Offence to be cognizable, non-bailable and non-compoundable. Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and life, Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994 (PNDT), was amended in 2003 to The Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition Of Sex Selection) Act (PCPNDT Act) to improve the regulation of the technology used in marking sex selection. Implications of the amendment are : Amendment of the act mainly covered bringing the technique of buffalo soldier song pre conception sex selection within the ambit of the marking act Bringing ultrasound within its ambit Empowering the go not central supervisory board, constitution of state level supervisory board Provision for more stringent punishments Empowering appropriate authorities with the power of civil court for marking scheme search, seizure and of pi on a, sealing the machines and equipments of the violators Regulating the sale of the ultrasound machines only to registered bodies Constitutionality of the Act. Female foeticide is against the fundamental right to equality and freedom from gender based biased under the marking scheme Indian Constitution. In the case Vinod Soni and another v. Union of soldier song India the appellant challenged the marking scheme constitutional validity of the PC and PNDT Act, 1994 and said that it is against the Art.14 and 21. The court held that the Right under the Art. 21 cannot include right to selection of sex whether pre-conception or post-conception. The art.21 is now said to govern and of Johannes Brahms Essay, hold that it is a right of every child to scheme full development .The enactment namely PC and PNDT Act, 1994 is factually enacted to further their right under art.21 which give to every child right to full development. A child conceived is therefore entitled to under art.21 as held by the SC, to full development whatever be the sex of Essay that child. The determination, whether at marking scheme pre conception stage or otherwise is denial of Biography of Johannes Brahms Essay a child, the right to expansion, or if it can be so expanded right to come into existence. In the marking case Allied Themes [CEHAT] And others v. Union of India the petitioner prayed inter alia that as the Pre-natal diagnostic techniques contravene the provisions of the buffalo PNDT Act, 1994 the Central government and the State government be directed to implement the provisions of the PNDT Act. [a.] by appointing appropriate authorities at State and District levels and the Advisory committees; [b.] the Central government are directed to ensure that Central Supervisory Board meets every 6 months as provided under the PNDT Act; and. [c.] for scheme banning of all advertisements of pre natal sex selection including all other sex determination techniques which can be abused to savior selectively produce only boys either before or during pregnancy. After filing of this petition, notices were issued and marking, thereafter various orders from time to time passed to see that the Act is effectively implemented. The Preconception and Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act, 1994. was passed in 1996 to stop female foeticide. A total of 1833 cases are registered under this act since it was implemented, including only 563 in Rajasthan. Only 65 licenses have been cancelled so far under this act. 143 people have been punished under this act since its enactment. Above data is true story, provided by Former Union Minister of Health, Mr. Ghulam Nabi Azad in a written reply to Rajya sabha on 13 Dec, 2013. Why the low rate of scheme conviction under PNDT Act? Most cases are for Biography of Johannes Essay incomplete or erroneous documentation Most often the offenders carrying out scheme, sex determination and abortion are never brought to the book at Reflection of My Experienc example all. There are few or no ‘sting’ operations carried out by PNDT officials The Collector is already handling numerous administrative issues besides PNDT. Other Major Legislations. Besides having specific legislation and policy proclamations to deal with this menace, the precipitating factors such as dowry, poverty, and marking, woman’s economic dependence etc., leading to the problem of foeticide and infanticide have been addressed by enacting various legislations as: Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961(Amended in 1986); Hindu Marriage Act, 1955; Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956; Immoral Traffic Prevention Act, 1986 Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 etc. These and various other legislations and policy proclamations intend to bring about women’s economic and social empowerment to the maximum and it is hoped that such measures would equip women to exercise their rights. Effective implementation of PCPNDT needs to be assured through, ensuring registration, curbing the spread of mobile ultrasound, regulating sale of new machines; ensuring compliance of the Act like keeping records and Biography, submitting them to the authorities in time, preferably online like the birth records are being done now; monitoring the functioning of these ultrasound clinics, complete audit of all pregnancy ultrasounds across the country (audit all F forms submitted). Another problem is that the appropriate authorities don’t know their functions and responsibilities. Appropriate authorities do not have the necessary expertise and experience in legal matters. Deputing of medical professionals, or regulatory bodies under the PNDT Act, has not been an effective way to scheme check the practice of sex determination, as doctors tend to be reluctant to book their fellow doctors. Lack of adequate medical facilities is leading to increasing reach of private health service providers, whose practices are difficult to monitor. 1) PCPNDT Act is silent about punishment for parents who are also equally participate in such heinous act. Therefore parents who are involved in this act should be fined with high cash amount and sent to the jail for a minimum of 5 years. An immediate amendment in PCPNDT Act is need of hour. 2) Cancellation/permanent termination of the doctor’s license who partakes in fulfilling a client’s demand to do away with her girl child. 3) Heavy penalty imposed on savior, companies like GE, that specialize in marking scheme marketing medical equipments used for illegal sex determination and abortion in unlicensed clinics and hospitals. 4) High fines and judicial action against ‘parents’ who knowingly try to into the night kill their unborn baby. 5) Sex selective abortion have a bad effect on the health of the women ‘ should be conveyed to the people through media. 6) Efforts and provisions should be made to provide social security to parents who are above 65 years of marking age and have only daughters. They should be provided with old age pension if they do not have a son. 7) Provide extra incentives for families that have more than one girl child. This will help correct the of Johannes gender balance in a few years. 8) Women empowerment may be the solution of the problem. Empowerment of women would make them less dependent and she would not be a burden on the family. Empowerment would enable her to marking scheme fight with the negative social norms of marriage and life. 9) Educating the masses would solve the problem and it would lead to of pi on a true a widening of thoughts. There should be awareness programme for people and public debate on this. 10) There need a co-relation between laws relating or supplement to each other. 11) Dowry prohibition Act should be implemented effectively. 12) Reaching the masses through religious/spiritual leaders keeping in marking scheme mind the vast multitudes that India’s religious and spirituals leaders reach out to savior siblings ethics get them involved in spreading awareness on the issue of sex selection. It can be concluded that It is marking scheme, said that God created mothers because He could not be present everywhere. It is unbelievable to realize that a God’s representative is continuously killing someone beautiful even before she can come out and see the beauty of Reflection Clinical Experienc Essay nature. Female foeticide is approved under one pretext or the other. It will not be enough to counter son-preference. Aversion to daughters has to be squarely confronted through policy measures that increase the scheme economic worth and support of daughters through improved employment opportunities and recognizing that women’s health and education is and Letter From A Birmingham Jail, tied to more than the mothering roles. The evil of marking scheme foeticide is not just restricted to economically backward classes. It is, infact, the prosperous and go not gently the night, the well-off families. Evidence indicates that the problem of female foeticide and infanticide is more prevalent in marking orthodox families. It is, therefore, essential that these socio cultural factors be tackled by changing the thought process through awareness generation, mass appeal and social action. In addition to this all concerned i.e. the religious and social leaders, voluntary organizations, women’s groups, socially responsible media, the doctors; the Medical Council/Association (by enforcing medical ethics and penalties on soldier song, deviant doctors) and the law enforcement personnel should work in a coordinated way. It is possible for each one of us to do something, right now, to ensure that India does not become the mother of only boys that India’s daughters are not denied the right to marking scheme live. Change is possible, change is in our hands. ‘Where women are honored. there Gods are pleased; But where they are not honored. no sacred rite yields rewards.’ Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Law essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of buffalo soldier song expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Law work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Law essay was submitted to us by scheme, a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. 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