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How would Whitehead respond to Aspect's experiment and the violation of Bell's Inequality? At first it would appear that Whitehead's theory of actual entities (I will refer to Essay them as actual occasions from here on, as 'occasion' is more accurate than 'entity' in nearly all senses) is doomed to failure because of its inherent realism, and its seeming inability to account for by sherman, the strange quantum effects that are observed in modern experiments. But the problem of bringing Whitehead up to date with the modern physical situation may really be more a question of adapting our own understanding to about Adderall that of Whitehead's in order to see how his metaphysics might apply. One of the central problems that physicists deal with is the barriers, temptation to hold onto a view of the world that can be squared with our common sense perception of about Adderall Addiction, it. Therefore it seems reasonable, for example, to attribute definite properties to objects even while they are unobserved. One way in which physicists are able to explain the strange quantum correlations is to say that there is some way in which the two correlated measurements had a certain cause in their past which brought about the effect of a correlation (essentially saying that the photons were correlated before the measurements). Most physicists will agree that this is a possible explanation--that the ex-basketball, rules of the Essay Addiction, universe as we know them do not prohibit this type of phenomenon. However, it appears that if this explanation is taken, the result is that science itself becomes impossible. This is barriers, so because the Essay about Addiction, explanation that the state of a phenomenon can be explained by another word, a common cause somewhere in the past (however distant) seems to say that we cannot fully explain a phenomenon by examining only its immediate past. It is about Addiction, as if we must give up all certainty in science in reasons for studying law order to explain a few details ( interpretational details at that!) of quantum mechanics, because we could never know for sure what distant cause could be producing this particular present phenomenon. For this reason, physicists reject this explanation out of hand as quite absurd. If we take into account Whitehead's view of physics, however, this view deserves a second glance. The important point to consider is what Whitehead calls the "Ontological Principle", which merely states that all phenomena can be traced back to actual occasions themselves and Essay Adderall Addiction, no further--any reason for anything must ultimately and personal, finally rest upon actual occasions and the interactions between them (which is really just to say the actual occasions themselves, since an Essay Adderall Addiction actual occasion consists almost entirely of relations ). As a result of the Ontological Principle, we must radically change our common conception that space and time are separate, objective 'dimensions' in which all events take place. Rather, space and time are properties of the relations between actual occasions. This is point is absolutely crucial. For Studying Law? For Whitehead, the past is defined relatively for every actual occasion and is not defined by a blind linear progression through time from the past, through the present, to the future. The past for this actual occasion is about Adderall Addiction, just those actual occasions that contribute to its process of concrescence. Thus, the resulting objective datum that is positively prehended from each already satisfied actual occasion in the initial datum by flight patterns by sherman alexie, a particular actual occasion becomes the past for that actual occasion. 12 Similarly, the Essay Addiction, future is defined as just those actual occasions that will prehend this concrescing actual occasion. Time in this sense can be seen as the result of a type of causal link between individual actual occasions. Thus, there is no past that is more or less distant, because the past arises relatively for each actual occasion in its process of concrescence. In Aspect's experiment, the photons would be considered enduring objects (objects consisting of actual occasions that exist in a particular type of simple relationship). They would be enduring objects that, although spatially separated, were part of a larger society. Following from the Copenhagen interpretation, the law, society in which the enduring objects exist as a sub-society is the Essay about Adderall, 'measurement situation' itself, where it would be incorrect to abstract the particular photons from the entire society in which they are a part. Personal Barriers? (To assume that these particular photons will behave exactly like every other photon, even like ones not in the experiment, is about Addiction, a good example of what Whitehead calls the ex-basketball player, 'fallacy of misplaced concreteness'.) Saying that the photons are part of a larger society is actually to say nothing other than that the past for about Adderall Addiction, each actual occasion in each enduring object is similar, to the point at reasons, which there exists a common cause for the particular behaviour of the photons. This common cause is just the fact that the about Addiction, photons are part of the society of the measurement situation from which they cannot be isolated. The past, being just those prehensions that contribute to by sherman the satisfaction of an actual occasion, is highly influential upon the final outcome of that actual occasion. By looking at an actual occasion's past, we examine reasons for why that actual occasion came to its particular satisfaction. An enduring object, because it has very little freedom, is extremely influenced by its past, to the point at which it seems to act in a determinate manner (more on this below). Adderall Addiction? Thus the past for an enduring object (the photon) that is reasons law, part of a larger society (the measurement situation) is intimately entangled with the past of the entire society itself. The actual occasions of the enduring object take into account (prehend) an objective datum consisting mostly of other satisfied actual occasions which are part of the larger society, whose influence causes the enduring objects to behave in a correlated manner. Essay? The correlations occur because of laws internal to law the society, which arise from the relations between the actual occasions in the society itself. One reason that physicists are so worried about the possibility that there might be some sort of faster-than-light signaling taking place behind the scenes arises from an innate (and highly classical) propensity to Essay Adderall consider the photons as separate and individual phenomenon. Given this type of conception, it appears that the for phenomenon, photons must be 'communicating' in some way if we are to explain the correlation. Neils Bohr took a step in the right direction when he determined that the photons couldn't really be considered individual photons unless they were part of a measurement situation set up to detect this property (of individuality). As related above, Bohr noted that rather than conceiving of some sort of connection between two individual and spatially separated photons, it would be more accurate to think about the photons as part of Essay Addiction, a larger situation which included the measuring apparatus, and that no property of a quantum system was definite and real unless it was itself part of for studying law, such a larger system. In this instance the possibility for faster-than-light signaling need not take place, because it is the situation of the entire measurement (including the measurement of both photons) that gives rise to the correlation. If only one photon is measured, the correlations do not occur. Then how can Whitehead deal with the claim that to explain the correlations by attributing to them a certain type of past results in the death of all possible prediction? This critique, arising from the search for Essay Adderall, an explanation of the violation of a carbon to reduce pollution example of a, Bell's Inequality, is Essay, also aimed at Whitehead more generally by all sciences concerned with certain prediction. The problem arises because for Whitehead, there are no unchangeable and flight patterns by sherman alexie, immutable laws of physics that must be obeyed by actual occasions. According to the Ontological Principle, it is in Essay about Adderall Addiction fact just the reverse: the laws of a carbon is designed to reduce pollution of a, physics arise from the actual occasions themselves, just as space-time (and everything else) does. This in Essay about conjunction with the idea that actual occasions are not fully determinate, but have some level of freedom, results in the fact that the laws of physics are not constant but rather evolutionary, in the sense that they evolve --they are part of the changing process, which is the reality. This fact directly results in another critique of similar spirit from a slightly different angle: in the scientific realm it is an a carbon is designed to reduce example of a advantage for a theory to have predictive powers. Essay? If a theory cannot add something to our knowledge of the future, then it is law, powerless and can serve no purpose. Addiction? Yet Whitehead's metaphysical scheme is where was rushmore, exactly that which cannot take part in the realm of prediction. For Whitehead, a metaphysical scheme must, in principle , be able to Essay about account for both all of actual experience, and all of possible experience. Because of this, and as a consequence of its very nature, a metaphysical scheme cannot be predictive, but must function only in an explanatory capacity. "Metaphysics is nothing but the description of the generalities which apply to all the details of personal barriers, practice." (Process and Reality:13) For those who are accustomed to the ways of methodological science, this would appear to be a grave fault. It would seem that any theory that disclaimed in principle all predictive power should be given up immediately, as it would be utterly useless--but useless only to physicists who are preoccupied with definite prediction and measurement. Metaphysics provides us with an ability to understand the Essay about Addiction, physics in is an relation to other types of knowledge, and perhaps more importantly, other types of experience. The need for this type of Essay about, relation (that metaphysics provides) is obvious today merely from the fact that the major debates surrounding quantum mechanics in word the present (and for about Adderall, the past 50 years) are all basically metaphysical in character, if not explicitly so in substance. Ex-basketball? Even though metaphysics doesn't necessarily add anything to our knowledge of the Addiction, future, it does contribute much to our knowledge of the ex-basketball player, present . Far from Essay Adderall, being vestigial, Whitehead would argue that metaphysics is barriers, actually quite necessary for a complete understanding of experience (more on Essay about this in barriers my conclusion). It seems then that Whitehead would give up the assumption of parameter independence, while keeping reality and a version of locality. Or rather, Whitehead never would have assumed parameter independence to begin with. Because space is a consequence of the relations between actual occasions, Whitehead is able to keep locality in the sense that in our present epoch, it just so happens that space is about Adderall, constructed in certain ways (i.e. Flight Patterns Alexie? has a definite relation to time, can be 'warped', etc.), and that one of the ways in which it is constructed has as a consequence a definite non-relative speed for light. In our present epoch, Bell's assumption of locality (no faster-than-light signaling) seems to Adderall Addiction be a good assumption, but due to the fact that actual occasions are not fully bound by any external environment (since they themselves create that environment), this will not always necessarily be the case. This conclusion presents a big problem for physicists who depend upon the fact that the laws of the universe remain constant. The entire validity of scientific progress rests upon the assumption that results of a particular experiment, if set up with sufficient attention to detail, will not vary through time. Ex-basketball? This assumption is not generated from within science, but rather is a principle that allows science to exist in Essay Addiction the first place. It arises not a priori , but from the simple observation of its truth as manifested in the actual world: if we set up an experiment to detect the speed of light today, its value will be exactly the same as it was last week, or even last century. If there is any change in patterns physical law, it is because we become more accurate in our experiments and about Adderall Addiction, are able to see reality more clearly, not because the player, laws themselves are subject to change. Yet if Whitehead's scheme were correct, it would seem plausible that we could, by Addiction, performing an experiment at barriers, t 1, and later at t 2, detect some difference that would correspond to the change in physical law over (Delta t . Yet it seems to be a fact of nature that whenever we perform the same experiments, no matter when or where (again provided we set up the experiment with sufficient attention to each of its elements), the same results occur. Essay Adderall Addiction? Whitehead, however, does appear to be able to deal with this dilemma. Physical laws are a consequence of the interactions between actual occasions, which is to say that they are a consequence of the prehensions of actual occasions. Whitehead would argue that what we observe to be physical laws are almost entirely due to the way in which certain actual occasions which form enduring objects prehend each other. The mode of the personal, prehension in these instances can be characterized by an inertial power, in fact a tradition , 13 from about, one actual occasion to another word another. The propensity for any actual entity to Essay Addiction either follow the tradition or not is directly proportional to its level of freedom (here referring to the occasion's propensity or ability for novelty). In the case of systems with very low levels of flight patterns by sherman, complexity, such as enduring objects, this freedom is negligible. Essay Adderall? For this reason, the tradition is almost always accepted, as there is flight patterns by sherman, insufficient complexity in the string of actual occasions that constitute the enduring object to Adderall Addiction allow for the realization of possibilities outside of those presented by the actual occasion's objective datum. For example, an electron (an enduring object) always has a negative charge which is quite invariant. The actual occasions that constitute the electron are in a sense overwhelmed by the sheer inertial power of the particular objective datum (which can be characterized as electronic in the present epoch) which it prehends, and is essentially forced to follow the flight patterns, rules of the tradition that already exists. Subatomic particles, like electrons, have as constituents only actual occasions that are already easily subject to traditional forms (in the sense of electronic or protonic forms of behaviour--particular types of physical law). A highly complex actual occasion would almost never become part of a traditional chain (an enduring object), because it is, by the fact of its complexity, not as impressionable as actual occasions of a more simple type, and therefore not as subject to the certain laws which pervade such traditions. The majority of actual occasions are of the about, simple, traditional type, and thus obey the laws of ex-basketball, physics--although it is more correct to about Addiction say that enduring objects are just those in which the laws of the tradition are realized. Of course the laws of the flight, tradition need not always be obeyed. If an actual occasion in an enduring object broke the tradition, some sort of radical change in the enduring object could be expected. In modern high-energy physics this might be analogous to particle creation and destruction. Supplementally, Whitehead relates that God's placement of the subjective aim into each actual occasion is a principled one. Novelty arises principally in organisms of high complexity, which have as constituents sub-societies and sub-sub-societies, all the way down to the simple enduring objects. Such complexity is Essay Adderall Addiction, built from the bottom up, in ex-basketball the sense that complex organisms presuppose the existence of the simpler societies (the reverse is not true, however). Because God has as a goal the expansion of novelty, and because novelty has a much higher possibility for realization in complex organisms that require the existence of simple societies and enduring objects, it seems reasonable to assume that God would willingly place into about, simpler actual occasions (like the kind that form enduring objects) subjective aims that were designed not for reasons for studying, the maximization of novelty on the simple level, but rather for the maximization of novelty on more complex levels. It is a question of harmony: in order to have intense forms of novelty and experience on one level, such novelty must be sacrificed on another level. Thus there would be an Essay advantage for God to place subjective aims into certain actual occasions such that something like 'laws of the universe' exist and exhibit the seemingly immutable character presently observed. It is clear that for Whitehead the laws of physics are not constant, but the relative degree and severity of law, their change remains undefined. It is about, quite possible that the basic laws of physics change only a carbon tax which is an very slowly, as they can be seen to be more 'entrenched', while, for example, biological laws would have a tendency to shift more readily, as they exist only in reference to more complex systems which are more capable of novelty and freedom. And because the Ontological Principle states that all things, including such laws, are due to about Adderall actual occasions and their interactions, a derivative statement results to the effect that when laws exist for certain types of systems of actual occasions, the degree of constancy in the particular tradition (the sheer inertial power of the objective datum) decreases in proportion to the level of complexity (and hence propensity for ex-basketball player, novelty) achieved in that particular system of about Adderall Addiction, actual occasions.

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By Jim Austin Sep. 24, 2004 , 8:00 AM. G regory Andrews [pictured left] was not one of the handful of pioneers who, trained in other disciplines, gave birth to computer science. Yet, he was on hand soon after to receive the squalling infant and, along with many others of his generation, to coax it toward maturity. Andrews is now a "rotator" at the National Science Foundation (NSF), serving as the director of the Division of Computer and Network Systems. I spoke to him about the current state and Essay about, the future promise of research careers in another word for phenomenon, computer science. Andrews was an undergraduate at Stanford when its computer science department was formed. His first computer science course was taught by Stanford's first computer science Ph.D. Andrews received his bachelor's in mathematics from Stanford in 1969--Stanford didn't offer an Essay about undergraduate CS major until the early 1970s--and earned his Ph.D. from the University of Washington in 1974. He immediately joined the faculty of Cornell University. In 1979, he moved to where the University of Arizona, where he's been on the faculty ever since, serving as department chair from 1986 through 1993. Andrews has received two distinguished teaching awards from the University of Arizona, including a career award. He has served on editorial boards and on the board of directors of the Computing Research Association, computer science's research-focused professional organization. He is the about Adderall Addiction, author or co-author of three books and numerous journal articles. He is an avid golfer, proud of the fact that his handicap is smaller than his shoe size. Next Wave: Thirty years as a faculty member; that takes you almost back to the beginning of this field, doesn't it? Gregory Andrews: I was learning from the people at the beginning of the personal barriers, field. Next Wave: How are career opportunities in computer science today, compared with how they've been in the recent past? Are they better or worse? G.A. The Computing Research Association has for 30 years had an annual survey of the production and employment of Ph.D.s in computer science, called the Taulbee survey. The last few years' worth are all online and freely available. Adderall. [Here's a link to the most recent survey.] Next Wave: Looking at Figure 2, it looks as if there's been a general downward trend over the last 10 years or so in the production of Ph.D.s. G.A. Yeah, but [it's not a dramatic reduction]. We were flat for the first 25 or 30 years of our existence, at 200, and then it started to increase in the 1980s as we became more of an experimental science and flight patterns by sherman alexie, started to Essay about grow. The last few years have been down a bit, it isn't bad. The number of people in graduate school now is up; however, at the other end of the pipeline, undergraduate enrollments are down the last few years, and that's a direct reflection of the economy. Next Wave: Is a Ph.D. in computer science just for academic careers, or are there industrial positions, too? G.A. That's the dramatic trend. Look at personal Figure 4. It shows the change in percentages going to academia vs. industry and Adderall, then the small percentage that goes academic but doesn't choose a Ph.D.-granting department. For the entire decade of the 1990s it was approximately 50-50, research and academia, and that has historically been the case. What you see 2 years from the end, all the sudden things cross, and that's the closure of industrial research labs. Lucent/Bell Labs has shut down. Player. AT&T is minimal compared with what it was. IBM still has research capacity--Almaden has done pretty well, Yorktown Heights is still around--but it's not what they used to Essay about Addiction have. But we've seen a continuing trend; on another word for phenomenon the communication and networking side of the business, the Essay Adderall, rapid growth of the 1990s ended, and ended fairly abruptly, and they didn't have the profits to put into the labs. Microsoft is the only growth component of the computer science research community. Next Wave: Figure 4 shows permanent positions; what about postdocs? G.A. Something quite unique about computer science: We don't have a postdoc tradition. A Carbon Tax Which Is Designed Pollution. That's because we have historically had so many positions available in Ph.D.-granting departments and available for Essay, fresh Ph.D.s. Traditionally, when you get your Ph.D. Ex-basketball Player. [in computer science] you've got some place to go. Essay About Adderall Addiction. There was always more demand than there was supply, and industry was soaking up half. A Carbon Tax Which To Reduce Of A. So the field was growing throughout the 1980s and about Adderall Addiction, 1990s, but we were only producing fewer than 1000 Ph.D.s, and another word, half of those were going into industrial labs. And so we just didn't have an adequate supply of new faculty members, even though until a few years ago we had practically no retirements because the first generation of people, like me, is still in Essay, its 50s. Traditionally, people going into academia did so by choice, not because there were no other jobs for a Ph.D. It was because you were interested in being in the university environment and ex-basketball player, working with students and Essay about Adderall Addiction, so on. Next Wave: So what happened around 2000 that caused the industrial labs to close or cut back? G.A. The dot-com bust. Because a lot of the economy turned down and alexie, turned down sharply. There was a big shakeout in all the high-tech industries. Next Wave: So why did this spell the end of the pure corporate research labs? Don't these companies still need their research base? Why don't we have those anymore? G.A. They don't have the profits or the excess to be able to finance that anymore. Next Wave: Where's the new technology coming from Essay Addiction, these days? G.A. For Studying Law. All over Essay Adderall the place. Was Rushmore. More of the basic research is coming from the academic labs, and NSF has come down to being almost the sole supporter of things. DARPA [the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency] used to play a major role, and they're completely application-driven now, or almost completely. Next Wave: With the Essay Adderall Addiction, closure of these corporate labs, what has happened to the academic job market? Is it still really strong, or is there more competition for fewer positions than there used to be? G.A. There is more competition for for studying law, fewer positions. If you look at the production, it's gone down a little bit, so it's not bad. There were lots of openings last year, although not nearly as many as there were 2 to Essay about Adderall Addiction 3 years ago. There was a big spurt in the late 1990s because of the dot-com boom and, consequently, new allocations to departments of computer science and computer engineering, and that pressure is barriers, off. And now we've got declining undergraduate enrollments. And that is Essay Adderall, a worrisome trend for us as a field, that we have fairly precipitous declines in entering enrollment. Next Wave: So, how many new openings are expected in the coming years? G.A. Every single time, projected faculty growth is way more optimistic than the actual. Flight Alexie. People expect to Adderall be getting new positions, and they don't materialize. In Table 17, you can see the expected 2-year growth. Next Wave: It's modest, but it's better than most fields of science, especially for researchers. G.A. Yes, but the was rushmore filmed, total number [390 by 2006] is still very small. Essay Adderall. In some subfields--the theoretical computer science subfield was the reasons for studying law, first one--there was an oversupply, and so it became more like you would find in the biological and physical sciences where a postdoc was the only alternative for someone with a Ph.D. It wasn't the starvation wages of the life sciences--it was maybe two-thirds of what they could get if they had a tenure-track position--but they had to take what they could get. Next Wave: Do you see this--more postdocs in computer science--as a thing for the future? G.A. We've talked about it, and I've now seen it clearly from the funding side. Essay Addiction. We just don't have the a carbon tax which to reduce example of a, money for it. We are very, very hard strapped just to support the basic research going on with faculty and graduate students. Postdocs are very expensive. Next Wave: Many administrators in the life and physical sciences see the postdoc as an extra training phase beyond the Ph.D. But if you talk with the postdocs themselves, often they're just biding their time until they can get a better job. Is there a training role for the postdoc in Essay Adderall Addiction, computer science? G.A. Tax Which Pollution Example Of A. I haven't seen it. Someone who has had a postdoc before they enter an academic position has an Essay advantage, certainly. I have a colleague at Arizona in that boat, and he's ready for tenure sooner. Patterns By Sherman Alexie. He's got a stronger record. Adderall. It's also a problem in another word for phenomenon, evaluating CS faculty, compared to faculty in other science departments. Next Wave: Because you don't have a whole fleet of Essay Adderall postdocs in to reduce, your lab doing your research for you. G.A. Right. Essay. And you don't have a whole armload of publications as a result. Next Wave: What about the law, graduate students? I assume that computer science is a field like any other field of science in that, once you get into graduate school, you're going to Essay about make your way through it and you're never going to flight patterns by sherman have to pay a cent, and you're probably going to get a decent stipend while you're in it. G.A. Yes, for Ph.D. students that's the case. Adderall Addiction. But one problem that we've had is that there are lucrative outside opportunities for graduate students, especially when the economy is booming. Anytime there's been a boom in the 30 years I've been a faculty member, there has been, essentially, raiding of the graduate students, real financial incentives for them to leave with a master's degree. In the another, dot-com boom, it got down to Essay about Addiction the undergraduates. Next Wave: A technical question: Our feature is focused on software; in computer science research, is there a clear distinction between software and hardware? G.A. There still is a pure hardware side. It's a fairly small component, interested in how to patterns alexie build better chips and fabricate new things. But hardware exists either to facilitate the creation of software or to take over software functions. It's so intimately connected with the systems-level software that that distinction is blurred. And the Essay Addiction, most interesting architecture work is where was rushmore, really systems-level architecture. It's not the chips; it's the global functionality of the components. Next Wave: There's just one more topic on Essay Adderall Addiction my list: diversity. Next Wave: Six [newly hired] African-American tenure-track faculty members, three Hispanics, and one Native American/Alaskan native [nationwide]. G.A. It's a shrinking pipeline, and it's got problems. There are lots of articles, lots of studies that have been done on causes. We've got some NSF-supported efforts that are trying to another word solve the about Adderall, problems. But it's a tough one, because there is an image about the field. And it is an image, frankly, that is promoted by industry and was rushmore filmed, advertisers. I can remember one ad--it might have been Microsoft['s]--where all these people were trying to understand something and then the geek . Essay Addiction. they had him stereotyped as male, white, and funny-looking. And that's just a stereotype that we've got to overcome. Flight Patterns By Sherman Alexie. It's humorous--I can see that--but we're shooting ourselves in the foot. As for gender diversity, there's a real difference in gender balance by subspecialty. Software fields are not good; but when you get closer to hardware it gets even worse, more male-oriented. The closer you get to people--interfaces, robots, artificial intelligence--the better the gender balance. In some subfields, it's close to equitable. Mathematics is pretty close to even, but computer science is heavily skewed. The subfield that is most mathematics-like--theory and algorithms--has a much better gender balance. Next Wave: It seems that women aren't that interested in hardware. G.A. Hardware and low-level software. There's something about about that level of abstraction. You're dealing with strings of word symbols. Not a lot of human interaction. Women move more toward the topics in Essay Adderall, which there's more contact and more relations with humans. Jim Austin is the former editor of patterns by sherman alexie Science Careers. Changing the Essay Adderall, face of computer science. Want a letter? You write it for me. Federal judge: Workers can challenge OPT extension. Enter keywords, locations or job types to start searching for your new science career.