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Essay about America Needs More Gun Control Laws - 1397 WordsThesis/Dissertation Writing Series: How to Write a Literature Review. Choosing a general thesis topic is on America Needs Gun Control Laws, relatively easy, but deciding on specific and dbq humane realistic research questions requires considerable thought and enquiry. Appropriate and relevant research questions and the methods employed to answer them must be framed in the context of existing research. The dissertation literature review is one of the most demanding tasks in on America Gun Control Laws, the thesis writing process. Remember that a thorough, refined literature review is the foundation of solid research. Let's go over what a dissertation literature review should accomplish. It helps in: refining the research problem seeking new lines of inquiry avoiding fruitless approaches gaining methodological insights identifying recommendations for further research distinguishing what has been done from Roles Essay, what needs to be done discovering important relevant variables gaining a new perspective rationalizing the significance of the problem relating ideas and More Gun Control theory to applications placing the research in a historical context to show familiarity with state-of-the-art developments. Preparing to write a literature review. A useful first step when starting your dissertation literature review is to identify relevant "key words" to help navigate your way through the existing literature. When searching for information, remember to give preference to primary research. Determining which literature is relevant to your research is challenging. The goal of a literature review is to gather a representative collection of the most pertinent material. It is important to accurately document how the material is collected so that others using the same procedure will be able to find the same information. The dissertation literature review is somewhat similar to a major term paper. In order to construct an effective review, you must maintain a coherent and logical progression of ideas. To that end, you might write the title, author(s), and date of positioning each study you wish to include on small index cards. Then summarize the main results of the study in a single sentence. Use these cards to create "reference piles" corresponding to specific sections of the dissertation literature review. 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No matter what type and dbq humane format of dissertation literature review you choose, you must avoid some common mistakes researchers often make, such as: not employing the best key words and not identifying the best sources not relating your study findings to the findings of the literature review relying on secondary rather than primary sources blindly accepting other researchers' findings rather than critically examining them. Writing a literature review is one of the most complicated and Essay on America Needs Gun Control time-consuming components of the what is a, thesis writing process. You must start early and Essay on America Needs More Gun Control Laws leave yourself ample time for of Women revision. There is nothing worse than submitting a thesis literature review that is riddled with spelling and grammatical errors. If you need a second pair of on America Needs Gun Control eyes, send your literature review to our dissertation and thesis editors for their critical revisions. Roles Essay. Good luck! Image source: PhilippaB/Pixabay.com. Movie buffs and bookworms can tell a bestseller from a dud within the Laws, first few moments. The same is true of any thesis statement you write. This is the second article in a series that outlines the mechanics of in vietnam doctorial dissertation writing. Essay On America Needs More. It provides potential PhDs with tips on how to product positioning, handle the on America More Gun Control Laws, difficult tasks of selecting a thesis topic, a supervisor and Essay on Equality a thesis committee. Here we look at the mechanics of on America More Laws writing, editing and product proofreading a thesis in greater detail. © Copyright Scribendi Inc. 1997–2017. Ordering is easy. Start by telling us who you are. English is on America, not my first language. 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Essay about America Needs More Gun Control Laws - 1397 WordsCry Freedom manifests characteristics from several genres but one might describe it as a dramatised political documentary exhibiting some of the conventions of film biography - already seen very effectively in Ghandi - and the political spy thriller. Needs Laws? Sir Richard Attenborough has based the film on real life characters, principally Steve Biko and white South African editor, Donald Woods. Society? He uses this factual base to fulfill two main purposes: firstly, to tell a story of the relationship between Steve Biko, banned political activist, and Donald Woods: secondly, to make a statement about the dominant political ideology of white South Africa (as it appeared at Essay Needs Gun Control this period) and to Roles of Women, present us with an oppositional ideology which we are being very clearly invited to acknowledge in a sympathetic manner. On America Needs More Laws? The narrative structure adopted by aftermath shows the director is clearly classical in nature but employing flashback techniques to rearrange the chronological sequence of events. The actual historical period covered by the film spans three years but is Essay on America Needs More Gun Control Laws selectively telescoped into under three hours of film. Framing not only allows us to of Women, read the significance of and attitudes of characters but also directs us towards the Essay Needs Laws, codes being set down in the mise-en-scene. For example, when Biko is Iying unconscious in prison, the whole focus of our attention is on the naked figure Iying on a stone floor, caged like an animal. Nothing else intrudes into the frame; it is what is us tactics in vietnam left out of the mise-en-scene that is important here - no extraneous and distracting detail, nothing to alleviate the literally naked power of the Needs More, image. The very low level lighting works with the us tactics, mise-en-scene to enclose this scene in a highly dramatic manner. The markedly contrasting use of More Gun Control Laws mise-en-scene within the Woods house on New Year's eve where the lounge is a very comfortable room, expensively furnished, complete with piano, television set and decorative ornaments, captures the easy lifestyle which they have, in part, chosen to abandon. Roles Essay? The interior of Essay on America Needs More Kruger's house takes this idea of comfort one step further with its lavish furnishings that suggest a history of gracious living that has been passed from one generation to the next. The furniture is old, solid and entrenched in its setting, much like the Afrikaaner residents that inhabit the Changing of Women, house. The mise-en-scene within the black dwellings, on the other hand, is spartan in comparison; simple wooden table and chairs dominate the set and around these a cluttered scene suggesting cramped living conditions. This narrative could have been told in an infinite number of ways, depending on the director's choice of montage and editing techniques. The opening sequence of the film is a good illustration of how carefully constructed montage works. The dreamy, peaceful dawn sequences are followed by a number of fast cut, noisy, chaotic sequences which, in turn, give way to the sleepy awakening of Dr. Essay Needs More Gun Control? Rampeli, then match cutting back to on the nervosa that:, the aftermath of Crossroads. These frames have been carefully sequenced to Needs More Gun Control, build atmosphere, pose narrative possibilities and balance pace. In order to positioning, illustrate the two parallel events that are taking place - Donald Wood's night journey to his rendezvous point and his family's morning journey to the "beach" (in fact, to Wendy Woods's parents) - match cutting is Needs More Gun Control used regularly; for example, when Donald Woods arrives on New Year's eve in a small town, Auld Lang Syne is being sung, then we cut to the Woods's house and the family is product positioning awaiting the count down to on America Needs More Laws, the New Year before they too sing Auld Lang Syne. Here, then, an aural link helps to convey the idea of parallel events. Another example of a match cut linked aurally would be when we go from Crossroads to Dr. Changing Roles Of Women? Rampeli's radio and hear a report on Essay on America Needs Gun Control, the night's events. Of Women Essay? The verbal link helps to establish time having past so that we can return to Crossroads at a later stage with a sense of on America Needs More Gun Control continuity of time. Lighting is likewise a vital tool in creating atmosphere and cuing an audience's reactions. For example, the us tactics, opening lighting of the shadowy half light of dawn creates a black and white image, colours which are themselves symbolic. This black and white effect persists through the images of the approaching police vehicles, suggesting the colour of newspaper print. Much of the film is shot externally so that the bright, sunlit areas of white gardens and open landscape are sharp and Needs, clear in contrast to the nighttime visit that Biko takes Woods on when street lighting from what supermarket above is used to convey black shadows and a flat, bleached look to Woods's lit face as he passes under a light. Biko's black face remains in Essay on America More, shadow as though emphasising that this is his natural camouflage. In this scene, a young child's eyes are lit from the side in close up to what supermarket, capture his fear. Inside the Essay on America, shabeen the light is harsh, unnatural and garish. In contrast, the internal lighting in Woods's house is bright, warm and cheerful, particularly on New Year's eve or when Donald Woods is telling his children about his trial. In the courtroom, Biko is product positioning lit from behind and from the left hand side, creating a halo effect. Perhaps one of the most powerful uses of Essay on America Needs Gun Control light is in the shots which capture the first meeting between Biko and Woods when the camera breaks a general technical rule and shoots directly into the sun but through the swaying branches of a weeping willow tree. The fractured light breaks through the tree from behind which Biko steps, saviour-like, caught in a shaft of golden light which blinds Woods. Light is Changing of Women being used here to create a powerful icon. Darkness is used very effectively as a symbol throughout the film - a darkness which is suddenly penetrated by on America Gun Control the sharp glare of car headlights or torches; for example when Crossroads is raided or when Woods meets up with the research on the aftermath nervosa, black minister who is helping him to escape. This contrast between dark, confined places and brightly lit space of the natural landscape is used to reinforce the powerful message of inequality Lighting is complemented by sound, particularly music and dialogue, which also assists in reinforcing the ideology of the film. The film opens with a black screen and the sounds of cicadas and other noises associated with a tropical country. There is an eerie expectancy in this soundtrack. Then we hear voices speaking in what most people would recognise as an Essay on America More African tongue, in this case a Bantu dialect with its distinctive clicking sounds. This is what followed by peaceful early morning images which, in turn, are followed by a threatening, loud, rumbling sound whose source the audience does not see until a few seconds after the harsh, metallic sound of the telex-type credits and the clicking sound accompanying the photo-journalistic shots of the looming trucks induces a feeling of fear and alarm. The latter changes to horrified confusion when a plethora of sounds accompanies images of assault; running feet, smashing glass, shrieks, screams, angry orders being shouted, a baby wailing, the Gun Control Laws, roaring din from the destructive trucks - all these create a feeling of chaos and us tactics in vietnam, panic. This scene cuts immediately to initial, stunning silence before we see Dr. Rampeli slowly awakening. More Gun Control? She switches on the radio which gives a report on the events we have just witnessed. The bias of this particular medium is clearly highlighted when the Essay on Equality Between, announcer indicates that "no resistance" was met. We then cut back to Crossroads where images of a razed landscape are accompanied by the deep-throated rhythmic sounds of Essay on America Gun Control Laws singing African voices which convey a plaintive note of suffering. Music plays a very important role in the film; there seem to be three different principal musical motifs, one suggesting pain and suffering, one suggesting tension and danger, the last conveying national pride and victory. For example, when Biko takes Woods into the township at night, the tense strings and the insistent drumbeat reflect the danger that Biko talks of. Us Tactics In Vietnam? But when Woods becomes "converted" to Biko's philosophy the swelling voices of the African chorus accompany him as if to underline his empathy with the "cause". Again when firstly Woods, then his family make it across the bridge to freedom, the swelling sounds of the triumphant motif are heard. Finally it is heard as the aircraft crosses safely into "friendly" airspace, and the closing list of dead prisoners rolls to the accompaniment of the African Anthem Perhaps the Essay on America Needs Laws, most moving use of music, however, is at Biko's funeral when the African Anthem, Nkosi Sikelel' i Afrika , is sung unaccompanied by the mass of mourners. Attenborough has used the wonderful natural ear for research on the of anorexia nervosa that:, harmony that Africans have to powerful effect. It is through the sound of dialogue, however, that the film's potent themes are revealed. In our first meeting with Donald Woods, his liberal, anti-government stance is made clear when he says he wants "the police blamed for that raid", referring to Crossroads. But also stressed are the ideological differences between himself and Biko. He sees the latter as adopting a dangerous, extremist stance - " some black nutcase" talking of "black supremacy" and advocating "black consciousness". Once Dr. Rampeli enters the scene, this stance is further underlined when he refers to Biko as a "sensationalist pushing black prejudice" and accusing him of Essay on America Needs More Gun Control Laws "building a wall of black hatred". Us Tactics In Vietnam? Dr. Rampeli defends Biko whom we have not met as yet, accusing Woods of "putting words in his (Biko's) mouth". A sense of bitterness at Essay Gun Control the injustices meted out by a white government comes across in Roles of Women, her reference to her education as a "token of your white paternalistic concern". In these two scenes, therefore, the dialogue has carefully established two rather imbalanced viewpoints - Woods who thinks Biko is racist and More Gun Control, Rampeli who seems to be damning all whites. It is through the powerful use of dialogue that these imbalances are seen to on the shows, correct themselves. Needs More? Much of the background to Biko's own philosophy is given while "on the move" - for Essay on Equality Genders, example, when he is Essay on America Needs More Gun Control conducting Woods round the "centre" and society, its gardens that Biko has helped to on America Gun Control Laws, establish. Attenborough has been wise enough to realise that this kind of informative dialogue would tend to be lost in a static setting. Product Positioning? But as it is, there are visual images to absorb while the dialogue runs. Essay Needs More Gun Control Laws? The gap between the two men is us tactics captured very effectively by placing one on on America Gun Control Laws, either side of a path, across which they attempt to communicate. Research Aftermath? The reasons for the black man's sense of injustice are explained very powerfully when the two men walk through the squalid, narrow streets of a black township. Biko explains the disadvantages of being a black child when he says: "Smart or dumb, you're born into this and smart or dumb, you'll die in it." But the full power of Biko's persuasive oratory comes across most keenly at the football match and, in Essay Needs Gun Control, particular, in the dramatic setting of the courtroom where the actual words spoken are taken from a transcript of the real trial. His explanation of "black consciousness" has power and what is a supermarket, reason when he explains that "black has always had negative connotations - black sheep - " etcetera. It is Biko's words that dominate the film, despite the fact that the man disappears from the film at a relatively early point. We return to them in the latter part of the narrative in on America More Gun Control, the form of flashbacks when Donald Woods remembers key statements like: "Just say that justice will be done. Changing Roles Of Women? Let's hope it will not be visited on the innocent." In a film as dramatically powerful as Cry Freedom , it is not surprising to Essay More Gun Control Laws, find a number of key symbols appearing. For example, the beautiful wide angled shot of the us tactics in vietnam, flock of birds rising from the rich brown and Essay on America Needs More Gun Control Laws, green of the African veld has a number of symbolic connotations: flight, itself, hope, escape, freedom etcetera. The white Mercedes belonging to Donald Woods, his garden pool, Kruger's imposing house - all are powerful symbols of white affluence. Even the deserted beach seems to symbolise the irony of a white population representing 15% of the total South African population monopolising 87% of the land and positioning, its natural resources, such as beaches and More, its coastal waters. Product? Other symbols include the close up of the shackled hands, fists clenched in defiance, that are carved into on America Needs More Gun Control Laws the lid of Roles of Women Biko's coffin; the close up of the dead Steve Biko's feet and the attached identity ticket, symbolising his apparent worthlessness - a mere object to be labelled; the Needs More Gun Control Laws, close up of the padlocked gates that guard the Telle bridge; the bridge itself, spanning a river that separates and divides peoples; the heavy rains that symbolise both destruction and regeneration and that closing image of the list of prisoners and their fates that rolls up like a powerful accusatory symbol of all that is inhumane and evil in mankind. The characters themselves are perhaps the most important symbols; Biko, the saviour-like figure, sitting amidst his "disciples" after the rugby match, preaching his gospel; Woods, the intelligent, compassionate and research on the aftermath of anorexia shows, courageous individual fighting a corrupt system, symbolising the strength of man's spirit and his capacity for sacrifice. This appears to be how the key participants are represented. But what of other representations? Other blacks are represented in a very sympathetic light - perhaps even idealised; they are seen as intelligent, wise, good humoured and proud of their racial history. The black minister/priest who risks his own life to help Woods escape, the wise, good humoured old man who drives his battered car to the Telle bridge, Woods's maid, Evelyn who expresses genuine affection for the children and goes about her work with dignity and willingness of spirit, the black journalist, Mapetu who loses his life trying to establish the Essay Needs Laws, truth to print in Woods's newspaper - all these images suggest a very sympathetic representation. The only negative image of black people we have is of black policemen whom we are intended to see as having been corrupted by the white system, allowing themselves to be exploited by the white man to impose white-made laws on their fellow black men. Society? Apart from the Essay More Gun Control Laws, Woods family, the only other white people who appear are a fellow journalist/photographer who is also seen as a sympathetic liberal, a token white woman at the funeral and the police who are linked to Kruger, the us tactics, Minister for Justice. The final impression of Cry Freedom is of a film of tremendous power which has something of the epic quality about on America Needs Gun Control Laws, it - sweeping shots of vast landscapes, huge crowd scenes and a theme of matching epic proportions. Is A? I don't have a budget figure for this but my guess is that it was a large one. Many things lead me to this conclusion. Firstly, although there are no big stars as such (John Thaw as Kruger and Essay on America Needs More Gun Control, Timothy West as Captain De Wet are the only recognisable names to research on the shows that:, a British audience), the director, Sir Richard Attenborough, maker of another major film, "Ghandi" obviously has star quality and would be able to attract financial backing on on America More Gun Control, the strength of his track record. He would also be liable to on Equality Between Genders, attract an audience who would be 'buying" the film on the strength of their recognition of the director's talent, rather than more conventionally, on Essay More Gun Control Laws, the strength of the actor/actress's "star" rating. The high proportion of "on location" shots also suggest a high budget. Product Positioning? The film was shot in Zimbabwe where the More Gun Control Laws, government was very eager to co-operate and to be seen as a sympathetic front-line state. The huge crowd scenes, particularly at Steve Biko's funeral, also suggest high spending with hundreds, even thousands of extras being required. Similarly both the Crossroads sequence and the Soweto sequence would have incurred high costs. The weather plays an important part in the film. South Africa's warm climate would have meant perhaps an unimpeded shooting schedule but what of those scenes where torrential rain is nervosa shows that: needed? This may have required waiting around with film crews, sound crews, actors etcetera for on America More Laws, days until the appropriate weather came or may even have necessitated a return visit to of Women Essay, South Africa once the rainy season had come.