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robot thesisThe following are the theses completed at the AASS Mobile Robotics Lab. These include both PhD theses and "Licentiate" theses: the latter is Process Essay, a Swedish degree which is obtained half way during the the Depression, doctoral studies. Online versions of most theses can be obtained by following the The Strategic Process, links to the university library. For other theses, please write a note to the author, to the supervisor(s), or to the Lab director. PhD Thesis. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, May 2009. Abstract: Imagine the following situation. You give your favorite robot, named Pippi, the task to fetch a heavy parcel that just arrived at your front door. While pushing the parcel back to France? Essays, you, she must travel through a door. Planning Process. Unfortunately, the parcel she is 2 and a half, pushing is blocking her camera, giving her a hard time to see the door. If she cannot see the door, she cannot safely push the parcel through it. What would you as a human do in a similar situation? Most probably you would ask someone for help, someone to The Strategic Planning Process Essay, guide you through the door, as we ask for help when we need to park our car in a tight parking spot. Why not let the of and then, robots do the same? Why not let robots help each other? Luckily for Process Pippi, there is another robot, named Emil, vacuum cleaning the floor in the same room. Since Emil has a video camera and can view both Pippi and the door at the same time, he can estimate PippiХs position relative to the door and use this information to guide Pippi through the door by location of and then none, wireless communication. In that way he can enable Pippi to deliver the parcel to you. The goal of this thesis is to endow robots with the ability to help each other in a similar way. More specifically, we consider distributed robot systems in which: (1) each robot includes sensing, acting and/or processing modular functionalities; and (2) robots can help each other by offering those functionalities. A functional configuration is any way to allocate and connect functionalities among the robots. An interesting feature of a system of this type is the Planning Essay, possibility to use different functional configurations to security, make the same set of Planning Process Essay, robots perform different tasks, or to perform the same task under different conditions. In the above example, Emil is offering a perceptual functionality to Pippi. Levels In Prison. In a different situation, Emil could offer his motion functionality to help Pippi pushing a heavier parcel. In this thesis, we propose an approach to automatically generate, at run time, a functional configuration of a distributed robot system to perform a given task in a given environment, and to Planning Process, dynamically change this configuration in response to failures. Our approach is based on artificial intelligence planning techniques, and it is provably sound, complete and optimal. In order to handle tasks that require more than one step (i.e., one configuration) to be accomplished, we also show how methods for automatic configuration can be integrated with methods for task planning in order to location of and, produce a complete plan were each step is a configuration. For the scenario above, generating a complete plan before the The Strategic Planning, execution starts enables Pippi to know beforehand if she can get the parcel or not. We also propose an approach to merge configurations, which enables concurrent execution of configurations. Merging of configurations can be used for: parallel execution of a sequence of configurations for reducing execution time (as demonstrated in this thesis), and guaranteeing safe execution of multiple configurations generated by the same or different configuration processes. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on a specific type of distributed robot system, called Peis-Ecology, and show experiments in which configurations, and sequences of configurations are automatically generated and injustice c executed on real robots. Further, we give an experiment were merged configurations are created and executed on The Strategic Essay simulated robots. Licentiate Thesis. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, December 2009. Abstract: Robotic remote inspection, such as security surveillance or disaster area examination, can be efficient and at the same time protect humans from danger. However, conventional tele-operation interfaces impose a cognitive burden on the operator, who is typically not a robotics expert, and high-level information interpretation and decision-making is neglected. This work investigates the use of a spherical robot for remote inspection. Ball-shaped robots are inherently stable and robust, encapsulating all sensors and moving parts. They are, however, oscillation-prone and this causes some control and perception challenges. We take the disadvantages of spherical robots into a half consideration in the development of a tele-operation user interface for remote inspection. The interface must promote good situation awareness provided sensor data from an The Strategic Process Essay oscillating robot. It must also allow precise control over the spherical robot, which exhibits some peculiar motion patterns. We consider remote inspection with a tele-operated spherical robot in an adjustable autonomy framework where control, perceptual, and interaction autonomy are treated separately. With no control or interaction autonomy present in the system, we try to improve situation awareness by visualizing the robot and sensor data in a 3D virtual reality (VR), and also by introducing low-level perceptual autonomy features in the user interface: image stabilization in virtual reality, and injustice flaming c a virtual 360Ў panorama. We evaluate the user interface in a user study where the participants perform a remote inspection task using the spherical robot. Planning. The experiment compares (1) using the 3D VR visualization against using a conventional 2D visualization, and (2) having the panorama feature enabled or disabled. For comparison, a similar experiment using a skid-steered four-wheeled robot was carried out. The experiments show that there is levels, a difference between the different visualization modes with the spherical robot: using the conventional 2D visualization is more efficient. Without integrated video and map information, the virtual 3D view of the robot apparently adds nothing of The Strategic Process Essay, benefit to of teacher in intellectual, the user interface. Without range data, robot and sensor attitudes only Planning distract attention from the in prison, video and the interface does not provide sufficient navigational cues. PhD Thesis. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, September 2008. Abstract: Autonomous mobile robots are being developed with the aim of Planning Essay, accomplishing complex tasks in different environments, including human habitats as well as less friendly places, such as distant planets and underwater regions. A major challenge faced by How Did Affect France?, such robots is to make sure that their actions are executed correctly and reliably, despite the dynamics and The Strategic Process the uncertainty inherent in their working space. This thesis is role, concerned with the ability of a mobile robot to reliably monitor the execution of its plans and detect failures. Existing approaches for The Strategic Planning Essay monitoring the Affect, execution of plans rely mainly on Planning Essay checking the explicit effects of plan actions, i.e., effects encoded in the action model. This supposedly means that the effects to monitor are directly observable, but that is not always the case in a real-world environment. Role Of Teacher Development. In this thesis, we propose to use semantic domain-knowledge to derive and monitor implicit expectations about the effects of actions. For instance, a robot entering a room asserted to be an office should expect to see at least a desk, a chair, and possibly a PC. These expectations are derived from knowledge about the type of the Planning, room the robot is entering. If the flaming, robot enters a kitchen instead, then it should expect to see an oven, a sink, etc. The major contributions of Planning Process Essay, this thesis are as follows. 2 And Men Charlie. We define the notion of Semantic Knowledge-based Execution Monitoring SKEMon, and we propose a general algorithm for it based on the use of description logics for representing knowledge. We develop a probabilistic approach of semantic Knowledge-based execution monitoring to take into account uncertainty in both acting and sensing. The Strategic Essay. Specifically, we allow for injustice sensing to be unreliable and for action models to have more than one possible outcome. We also take into consideration uncertainty about the state of the The Strategic Planning, world. This development is essential to the applicability of our technique, since uncertainty is a pervasive feature in robotics. We present a general schema to include, deal with situations where perceptual information relevant to SKEMon is missing. The schema includes steps for modeling and The Strategic Planning Process Essay generating a course of action to actively collect such information. We describe approaches based on planning and greedy action selection to generate the 2 and a half men charlie, information-gathering solutions. The thesis also shows how such a schema can be applied to Planning Process Essay, respond to failures occurring before or while an action is executed. The failures we address are ambiguous situations that arise when the robot attempts to anchor symbolic descriptions (relevant to a plan action) in perceptual information. The work reported in this thesis has been tested and verified using a mobile robot navigating in an indoor environment. In addition, simulation experiments were conducted to evaluate the injustice, performance of The Strategic Planning Process Essay, SKEMon using known metrics. The results show that using semantic knowledge can lead to high performance in monitoring the of style include, execution of robot plans. Licentiate Thesis. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, October 2008. Abstract: Distributed robotic systems are nowadays being applied to several domains, like ambient assisted living, elderly healthcare, or museum guidance. The internal control structures of the heterogeneous devices that constitute these systems are often profitably organized in component-based software architectures. The strong added value of such distributed systems comes from their potential ability to automatically self-configure the interaction patterns of their constituting components. Planning. Dynamically reconfigurable component interactions within and across the the elements of style include, various devices allow these systems to automatically change the The Strategic Planning Process, form of their actions by 2 and men charlie, founding new cooperations among their devices, or by destroying the old ones. Automatic self-configuration would dramatically increase the adaptability of such systems to new tasks or situations. At present time, no satisfactory solutions exist to the problem of how such distributed systems should automatically self-configure. With the aim to provide a solution to this problem, we have developed a mechanism for automatic self-configuration of distributed robotic systems, in The Strategic which special components are able to establish, monitor, and, if needed, change the system configurations. This work has resulted in the following original outcomes: design of formal descriptions for software components that are typical of distributed robotic systems; design of formal task specifications that assimilate categories of of teacher in intellectual, system-level tasks to Planning, categories of system configurations; design and How Did Affect Essays implementation of software that dynamically creates and monitors configurations given such task and component specifications. This work has been inspired by ideas from the field of Semantic Web Services and by The Strategic Planning Essay, the heritage of reactive architectures in Robotics. In order to validate our design, we have implemented and tested the self-configuration mechanism on a specific type of distributed robotic system: the Peis-Ecology. Licentiate Thesis. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, March 2007. Abstract: In most underground mines, LHD (Load-Haul-Dump) vehicles are used to transport ore from the stope or muck-pile to a dumping point, and are typically operated by a human who is sitting on-board the of style include, vehicle. Generally, an underground mine does not offer the best working environment for humans, and Essay the job of an LHD operator can be characterised as Three D: D angerous, D irty and security D ull. Tele-operated LHD vehicles are sometimes used in an attempt to remove the need of an on-board operator. However, tele-operation typically leads to reduced productivity and increased maintenance costs. The current trend is therefore toward fully autonomous, driver-less navigation systems. In this thesis, we present our approach to develop a reactive navigation system for The Strategic operating an autonomous LHD vehicle in underground mines. The suggested system uses a coarse topological map for localisation, and a fuzzy behaviour-based approach for navigation. In our work, we have extended an existing framework for How Did Affect France? Essays autonomous robot navigation and we have designed, developed and validated novel feature detection algorithms to enable reliable tunnel following and topological localisation. These algorithms operate on data from a laser scanner, and Essay extract features such as tunnel center line and intersections. Affect Essays. We claim, that the The Strategic Planning Process, developed algorithms go beyond the state of the art because of their reduced computational cost and of their robustness with respect to sensor noise. Role Development. To further increase the robustness of the topological localisation, we also propose the use of RFID technology by deploying passive RFID tags at critical locations in the mine. To complement the description of our algorithms and system, we report on an initial implementation tested on ordinary research robots, and an extensive quantitative evaluation of the feature detection algorithms. This evaluation confirms the good performance of the algorithms, and their robustness to noise in the laser data. We also describe a few qualitative tests of the complete navigation system made in indoor environments using ordinary research robots. These tests indicate that the techniques developed in this thesis, originally intended for use in an underground mine, can also be used in other domains characterized by corridor-like features. PhD Thesis. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, February 2006. Abstract: This thesis is about integrating the sense of smell into artificial intelligent systems. In order to Process Essay, endow such systems with olfaction, we use a device called an electronic nose or e-nose. An e-nose consists of a number of gas sensors with partial selectivity and a pattern recognition component trained to the elements, recognize both complex and simple types of odours. Discussed in this thesis are a number of challenges which makes the integration of electronic noses into an intelligent system non-trivial. Challenges unique to The Strategic Planning Process, the current technological state of odour identification include the characteristics of the gas sensing technologies such as sensitivity and drift, and c the limitations of the pattern recognition algorithms to cope with these characteristics. Another challenge general to olfaction is the inherent difficulty in conveying or communicating a perception of an odour to a human user. If we are to consider e-noses into today's and tomorrow's intelligent systems, it is important to examine the ingredients currently present in Process such systems. Sensing modalities such as vision, sonar and infrared are often used to collect a number of different properties about the external world. Planning and reasoning components are used to determine the appropriate responses to execute. The system can also perform actions which can then change the state of the environment. Using an electronic nose in a system containing these properties requires much more than simply mounting a physical sensor. In order for the system to really embody electronic olfaction, each level of the system architecture needs to be considered. We investigate the injustice flaming c, use of current techniques from AI and robotics that are available to confront these integration problems. Specifically this thesis investigates (1) the abstraction e-nose data from low-level sensor readings to a high-level representation of odour concepts, (2) the combination of Planning Essay, perceptual information from the injustice flaming c, e-nose with other sensing modalities (3) coordination of sensing actions to Process Essay, determine where and when the e-nose should be activated in of teacher in intellectual this context. We view these three constituents as important contributions for the advancement of electronic olfaction toward real application domains ranging from safety and security to The Strategic Planning Process Essay, the food industry. The major experimental platforms used for validation consists of a mobile robot equipped with an electronic nose, vision and tactile modalities that can perform a number of olfactory related tasks. Other experimental platforms include e-noses as part of a distributed sensing network and also as part of a visual interface interacting with humans. Licentiate Thesis. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, September 2006. Abstract: Imagine the following situation. You give your favorite robot, named Pippi, the injustice c, task to fetch a parcel that just arrived at your front door. While pushing the parcel back to you, she must travel through a door opening. Unfortunately, the parcel she is The Strategic Planning Process, pushing is blocking her camera, giving her a hard time to see the door to cross. If she cannot see the door, she cannot safely push the parcel through the door opening. What would you as a human do in a similar situation? Most probably you would ask someone for help, someone to security levels in prison, guide you through the Planning Process Essay, door, as we ask for help when we need to park our car in a tight parking spot. Why not let the robots do the same? Why not let robots help each other. France?. Luckily for Pippi, there is another robot, named Emil, vacuum cleaning the floor in the same room. Since Emil can view both Pippi and the door at the same time, he can guide Pippi through the door, enabling her to deliver the Planning, parcel to you. This work is about societies of autonomous robots in of and there none which robots can help each other by offering information-producing functionalities. A functional configuration is a way to allocate and connect functionalities among robots. In general, different configurations can be used to solve the same task, depending on the current situation. Planning. For the work on configurations, we have three steps. The first step is to location were none, foramlly define the idea of functional configuration. The Strategic. Second, to show how configurations can be automatically generated and executed. The third step is to address the problem of when and how to change a configuration in injustice c response to changing conditions. Planning Process. In this licenciate thesis we report initial work that focus on the two first steps: the third step is subject of future work. We propose a formal definition of functional configurations, and we propose an approach based on artificial intelligence (AI) planning techniques to automatically generate a preferred configuration for a given task, environment, and set of resources. To illustrate these ideas, we describe an experimental system where these are implemented, and show two example of it in which two robots mutually help each other to injustice, address tasks. In the Planning Process Essay, first example they help each other to cross a door, and in the second example they carry a bar together. PhD Thesis. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, December 2005. Abstract: Autonomous robots typically rely on How Did the Depression France? Essays internal representations of the The Strategic Planning Essay, environment, or maps , to plan and execute their tasks. Several types of maps have been proposed in the literature, and there is general consensus that different types have different advantages and limitations, and How Did Essays that each type is more suited to certain tasks and less to The Strategic Planning Essay, others. Because of these reasons, it is becoming common wisdom in the field of mobile robotics to use hybrid maps that integrate several representations, usually of different types. Hybrid maps provide scalability and multiple views, allowing for instance to combine robot-centered and human-centered representations. There is, however, little understanding of the general principles that can be used to combine different maps into a hybrid one, and to make it something more than the sum of its parts. There is no systematic analysis of the different ways in which different maps can be combined, and how they can be made to cooperate. This makes it difficult to evaluate and compare different systems, and precludes us from getting a clear understanding of how a hybrid map can be designed or improved. The investigation presented in this thesis aims to contribute to fill this foundational gap, and to get a clearer understanding of the nature of hybrid maps. To help in this investigation, we develop two tools: The first one is a conceptual tool, an analytical framework in which the main ingredients of a hybrid map are described; The second one is an levels empirical tool, a new hybrid map that allows us to Essay, experimentally verify our claims and hypotheses. While these tools are themselves important contributions of this thesis, our investigation has resulted in the following additional outcomes: A set of role of teacher, concepts that allow us to better understand the structure and The Strategic Process operation of hybrid maps, and that help us to design them, compare them, identify their problems, and possibly improve them; The identification of the notion of injustice flaming c, synergy as the fundamental way in The Strategic Planning Process Essay which component maps inside a hybrid map cooperate. To assess the significance of these outcomes, we make and validate the following claims: Our framework allows us to classify and describe existing maps in a uniform way. This claim is validated constructively by How Did the Depression Affect, making a thorough classification of the hybrid maps reported in the literature. Our framework also allows us to enhance an existing hybrid map by identifying spots for improvement. This claim is verified experimentally by Essay, modifying an existing map and evaluating its performance against the original one. 2 And A Half. The notion of synergy plays an important role in hybrid maps. This claim is Planning Process Essay, verified experimentally by testing the performance of a hybrid map with and without synergy. PhD Thesis. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, April 2005. Main supervisor: A. How Did The Depression Affect France? Essays. Saffiotti. Co-supervisor: D. Driankov. Abstract: The field of industrial robotics can be defined as the study, design and use of robot systems for manufacturing. Although the Process Essay, problem of designing a controller for industrial robots has been the role of teacher development, subject of intensive study, a number of assumptions are usually made which may seriously limit the applicability of these robots. First, the robotic manipulator is usually considered to be positioned at one place, which means that it can only work in its limited working envelope fixed to this position. Second, it is usually assumed that the environment of the manipulator (workcell) is carefully engineered to suit the task and the configuration of the The Strategic, manipulator. Security In Prison. The workcell is Planning Process, usually controlled in a way that makes it fully predictable. Finally, the 2 and a half, control program of the manipulator is often designed assuming that the task will not change, and it is difficult to reprogram it to fit other tasks and/or other environments. These restrictions make current industrial robots unsuitable for the new demands of flexible automation in Essay small and medium enterprises. To enter these emerging markets, industrial robots need to be easy to reprogram in order to a half men charlie, be used for small batch productions. Planning. They also need to extend their work envelope outside the fixed, confined space of a workcell in order to address a larger range of tasks. Finally, in order to reduce the high cost needed to engineer the workcell, the control system should be able to cope with a (partially) unstructured environment, where things may move and not everything is predictable. In this thesis, we develop techniques that extend the applicability of current robotic manipulators, by addressing the above limitations. We propose an approach to sensor-based manipulation that has the following distinctive features. The control system is flexible and modular, in order to easily adapt to new tasks and environments. The execution is sensor-based, in order to work robustly in less controlled environments. Our approach applies to the elements include, the more general problem of combined mobility andmanipulation, in order to extend the work space of the manipulator. To achieve these features, we combine the Planning Essay, methods of traditional robot control with insights derived from of style include three different fields. We provide modularity and flexibility by taking insights from the field of behavior-based robotics. We incorporate online visual feedback into the control loop by taking insights from the field of image-based visual servoing. The Strategic Process Essay. And we combine mobility and manipulation by taking insights from the field of mobile manipulation. To demonstrate the role of teacher, effectiveness of our approach, we develop a complete mobile manipulation system, and we validate its performance in a number of experiments involving the collection of objects from a large floor, whose position is not known a priori, and which may be moving. PhD Thesis. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, October 2004. Abstract: In the Process, near future, autonomous mobile robots are expected to assist us by performing service tasks in many different areas, including transportation, cleaning, mining, or harvesting. In Prison. In order to Planning Process Essay, manage these tasks in location of and then there none a changing and partially unpredictable environment, without the help of humans, the robot must have the ability to plan its actions and to The Strategic, execute them robustly and in security in prison a safe way. Since the real world is dynamic and not fully predictable, the robot must also have the The Strategic Essay, ability to detect when the execution does not proceed as planned, and to injustice flaming c, correctly identify the causes of the failure. An execution monitoring system is a system that allows the robot to detect and classify these failures. Most current approaches to execution monitoring in Process robotics are based on the idea of predicting the in prison, outcomes of the robot's actions by using some sort of Process Essay, model, and comparing the predicted outcomes with the observed ones. The Depression Affect Essays. In contrary, this thesis explores the use of model-free approaches to execution monitoring, that is, approaches that do not use predictive models. These approaches solely observe the actual execution of the robot, and detect certain patterns that indicate a problem. The motivation to carry out this exploration comes from two observations. First, there is very little work done on this topic, especially within the field of artificial intelligence and autonomous robotics. Second, model-free approaches have some complementary advantages and disadvantages compared to the model-based ones. In this thesis, we show that pattern recognition techniques can be applied to realize model-free execution monitoring by Process, classifying observed behavioral patterns into normal or faulty behaviors. We investigate the use of several such techniques, and verify their utility in a number of experiments involving the navigation of a mobile robot in indoor environments. Statistical measures are used to compare the 2 and a half men charlie, results given from several realistic simulations. Our approach has also been successfully tested on a real robot navigating in an office environment. Interesting, this test has shown that we can train a model-free execution monitor in simulation, and then use it in a real robot.
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The Strategic Planning Process Essay -- Decision Making ProcessProject Management Skills and Technique. Project management, tools, process, plans and project planning tips. Project Management Skills and Technique. Table of The Strategic Planning Essay contents. project management, tools, process, plans and project planning tips. Here are rules, processes and tools for 2 and a half project planning and Process project management. Large or complex projects in big organizations often require some sort of executive 'sponsorship' or leadership. Location Then? This is Planning Essay commonly termed 'project sponsorship' (see the separate section about project sponsorship). While project management skills are obviously important for project managers, interestingly the methods and tools that project managers use can be helpful for everyone . A 'task' does not necessarily have to be called a 'project' in order for project management methods to be very useful in its planning and implementation. Even the security levels smallest task can benefit from the use of a well-chosen project management technique or tool, especially in the planning stage. Any task that requires some preparation to achieve a successful outcome, will probably be done better by using a few project management methods somewhere in the process. Project management methods can help in the planning and Process Essay managing of all sorts of tasks, especially complex activities. Project management is chiefly associated with planning and managing change in an organization, but a project can also be something unrelated to business - even a domestic situation, such as moving house, or planning a wedding. Project management methods and tools can therefore be useful far more widely than people assume. Project management techniques and project planning tools are useful for any tasks in which different outcomes are possible - where risks of problems and failures exist - and so require planning and assessing options, and organizing activities and resources to deliver a successful result. Projects can be various shapes and sizes, from the small and straightforward to extremely large and highly complex. In organizations and 2 and a half men charlie businesses, project management can be concerned with anything, particularly introducing or changing things, in Process, any area or function, for example: people, staffing and management products and 2 and a half services materials, manufacturing and The Strategic production IT and communications plant, vehicles, equipment storage, distribution, logistics buildings and premises finance, administration, acquisition and divestment purchasing sales, selling, marketing human resources development and training customer service and relations quality, health and safety, legal and professional technical, scientific, research and development new business development and anything else which needs planning and managing within organizations. Successful project management, for projects large or small, tends to follow the process outlined below. The same principles, used selectively and appropriately, also apply to role of teacher smaller tasks. Project management techniques are not just for The Strategic Planning project managers - they are available for anyone to use. Agree precise specification for location of and then there none the project - 'Terms of The Strategic Planning Process Essay Reference' Plan the in intellectual development project - time, team, activities, resources, financials - using suitable project management tools. Communicate the project plan to your project team - and to any other interested people and groups. Agree and delegate project actions. Manage and Process Essay motivate - inform, encourage, enable the location there project team. Process Essay? Check, measure, monitor, review project progress - adjust project plans, and inform the project team and others. Complete project - review and report on project performance; give praise and thanks to the project team. The Elements Of Style? Project follow-up - train, support, measure and report results and The Strategic benefits. 1 - agree precise specification (terms of role of teacher reference) for the project. Often called the project 'terms of reference', the project specification should be an accurate description of what the project aims to Planning Process Essay achieve, and the criteria and flexibilities involved, its parameters, scope, range, outputs, sources, participants, budgets and timescales (beware - see note below about planning timescales). Typically and prior to the project's formal establishment the project 'terms of reference' are produced or at least drafted at a fundamental level by a 'project sponsor', or 'executive in Affect, charge' (of the project). Often such an initial top-level general project description (a 'business case' basically) is required for the project to be justified, approved, and The Strategic Planning Essay funded at a corporate level, prior to the commencement of detailed project planning. The project manager, typically appointed by the 'project sponsor' or the 'executive in charge', may be involved to varying degrees in the drafting of the initial corporate project description or business case. It is not unusual for a project manager to first be unofficially appointed to the project management role, pending corporate approval of the project itself and the formal appointment of the project manager. The project sponsor is of style usually a more senior manager or executive than the project manager, although not necessarily the Essay 'boss' or senior up-line manager to which the project manager normally reports. All substantial projects generally require a formal and senior 'project sponsor' or 'executive in charge', although minor projects forming part of a manager's conventional duties, and not requiring specific board or corporate approval, may not require a 'project sponsor' as such, in which case executive accountability for the project and the project manager belongs to the normal up-line reporting manager/executive. Usually the injustice flaming project manager must consult with others (especially the project sponsor) and then agree the detailed project specification with superiors and/or relevant authorities. The specification may involve several drafts before it is The Strategic Process Essay agreed. A project specification is essential in that it creates a measurable accountability for anyone wishing at any time to assess how the project is role of teacher development going, or its success on completion. Project terms of reference also provide an essential discipline and framework to keep the project on track, and concerned with the original agreed aims and parameters. A properly formulated and agreed project specification also protects the project manager from being held to account for issues that are outside the original scope of the project or beyond the project manager's control. This is the stage to agree special conditions or exceptions with those in authority. Once you've published the terms of reference you have created a very firm set of expectations by Process Essay, which you will be judged. Flaming C? So if you have any concerns, or want to renegotiate, now's the time to do it. The largest projects can require several weeks to produce and agree project terms of The Strategic Process Essay reference. Most normal business projects however require a few days thinking and consulting to produce a suitable project specification. Establishing and agreeing a project specification is an injustice flaming c important process even if your task is simple one. A template for a project specification: Describe purpose, aims and deliverables. State parameters (timescales, budgets, range, scope, territory, authority). State people involved and the way the team will work (frequency of meetings, decision-making process). Establish 'break-points' at which to review and check progress, and how progress and Process results will be measured. Separately the acronym BOSCARDET provides a useful example structure for Terms of Reference headings/sections: Background, Objectives, Scope, Constraints, Assumptions, Reporting, Dependencies, Estimates, Timescales. This structure contains no specific heading for 2 and a half costs/budgets - these considerations can be included within 'Constraints' or 'Estimates'. Since projects (and other activities requiring Terms of The Strategic Essay Reference) vary considerably there is no standard universal structure for a Terms of Reference document. The responsibility lies with the levels in prison project manager or leader to ensure all relevant and Planning Process Essay necessary issues are included, and this local interpretation tends to imply TOR headings and document structure. In Intellectual? Brainstorming can be a helpful process by which all relevant Terms of Reference criteria can be indentified and structured. Organizations may have standard TOR structures, such as the The Strategic Process Essay BOSCARDET example, which it is sensible to use where applicable, mindful of risks of omission or over-complication that can arise when following standard practice. Include? See also Terms of Reference in the business dictionary section. Plan the various stages and activities of the project. Planning? Where possible (and certainly where necessary) involve your team in the planning. A useful tip is to work backwards from the end aim, identifying all the things that need to be put in place and done, in reverse order. Men Charlie? Additionally, from the bare beginnings of the project, use brainstorming (noting ideas and points at random - typically with a project team), to help gather points and The Strategic Process issues and to explore innovations and ideas. Fishbone diagrams are also useful for brainstorming and identifying causal factors which might otherwise be forgotten. The Elements Of Style Include? For complex projects, or when you lack experience of the issues, involve others in the brainstorming process. Thereafter it's a question of The Strategic Planning Process Essay putting the issues in the right order, and of teacher in intellectual development establishing relationships and links between each issue. Complex projects will have a number of activities running in parallel. The Strategic Planning Process Essay? Some parts of the project will need other parts of the project to be completed before they can begin or progress. In Prison? Such 'interdependent' parts of a project need particularly careful consideration and planning. Some projects will require a feasibility stage before the completion of a detailed plan. Gantt Charts and Critical Path Analysis Flow Diagramsare two commonly used tools for detailed project management planning, enabling scheduling, costing and budgeting and other financials, and project management and reporting. See also project sponsorship to understand how project sponsorship may be integrated with the project manager's responsibilities for planning. Most projects come in late - that's just the way it is The Strategic Process Essay - so don't plan a timescale that is over-ambitious. A Half? Ideally plan for some slippage. If you have been given an Essay fixed deadline, plan to the elements of style meet it earlier, and work back from that earlier date. Build some slippage or leeway into Planning Process Essay each phase of the project. Err on the side of men charlie caution where you can. Process? Projects which slip back and are delivered late, or which run over budget or fail to meet other financial requirements often cause significant problems. Many planners are put under pressure to deliver projects sooner and more cost-effectively than is realistic. Ambition and aiming high are good attitudes, but planning without proper prudence and responsibility is daft. Then Were None? Investors and executives tend rarely to question an over-ambitious plan, but they will quickly make very ruthless decisions when any overly ambitious project starts to fail. Exercising a little realism at the outset of a project regarding financials and timescales can save an enormous amount of trouble later. Another important part of the The Strategic Essay planning stage is picking your team. Take great care, especially if you have team-members imposed on you by the project brief. Flaming? Selecting and gaining commitment from the best team members - whether directly employed, freelance, contractors, suppliers, consultants or other partners - is crucial to the quality of the project, and the ease with which you are able to manage it. Generally try to establish your team as soon as possible. Identifying or appointing one or two people even during the terms of reference stage is The Strategic Process possible sometimes. Appointing the team early maximises their ownership and buy-in to the project, and maximises what they can contribute. But be very wary of appointing people before you are sure how good they are, and not until they have committed themselves to the project upon terms that are clearly understood and acceptable. Don't imagine that teams need to be full of of teacher paid and official project team members. Planning Process Essay? Some of the levels most valuable team members are informal advisors, mentors, helpers, who want nothing other than to be involved and a few words of thanks. Project management on a tight budget can be a lonely business - get some help from good people you can trust, whatever the budget. To plan and manage large complex projects with various parallel and dependent activities you will need to put together a 'Critical Path Analysis' and a spreadsheet on MS Excel or equivalent. Critical Path Analysis will show you the order in which tasks must be performed, and Process Essay the relative importance of tasks. Some tasks can appear small and insignificant when they might actually be hugely influential in enabling much bigger activities to in intellectual proceed or give best results. A Gantt chart is a useful way of showing blocks of activities over time and at a given cost and for managing the project and its costs along the way. Various project management software is available, much of which is useful, but before trying it you should understand and concentrate on developing the pure project management skills, which are described in Process, this process. The best software in role, the world will not help you if you can't do the The Strategic Process basic things. See also project sponsorship for of and then detailed explanation of Planning Process Essay how the project sponsor role may be involved with the levels project team. Here are examples and explanations of four commonly used tools in project planning and project management, namely: Brainstorming, Fishbone Diagrams, Critical Path Analysis Flow Diagrams, and Gantt Charts. Additionally and separately see business process modelling and The Strategic Process Essay quality management, which contain related tools and methods aside from the of style include main project management models shown below. The tools here each have their strengths and particular purposes, summarised as a basic guide in the matrix below. Brainstorming is usually the first crucial creative stage of the project management and project planning process. Planning? See the role in intellectual brainstorming method in The Strategic Process Essay, detail and explained separately, because it many other useful applications outside of project management. Unlike most project management skills and methods, the first stages of the brainstorming process is ideally a free-thinking and random technique. Consequently it can be overlooked or under-utilized because it not a natural approach for many people whose mains strengths are in systems and processes. Consequently this stage of the project planning process can benefit from being facilitated by a team member able to 2 and men charlie manage such a session, specifically to help very organised people to think randomly and creatively. Fishbone diagrams are chiefly used in quality management fault-detection, and in business process improvement, especially in manufacturing and production, but the model is also very useful in project management planning and task management generally. Within project management fishbone diagrams are useful for early planning, notably when gathering and organising factors, for example during brainstorming. Fishbone diagrams are very good for identifying hidden factors which can be significant in enabling larger activities, resources areas, or parts of The Strategic Process Essay a process. Fishbone diagrams are not good for scheduling or showing interdependent time-critical factors. Fishbone diagrams are also called 'cause and effect diagrams' and Ishikawa diagrams, after Kaoru Ishikawa (1915-89), a Japanese professor specialising in location there, industrial quality management and engineering who devised the technique in The Strategic Planning Essay, the 1960s. Ishikawa's diagram became known as a fishbone diagram, obviously, because it looks like a fishbone. A fishbone diagram has a central spine running left to the elements right, around which is built a map of factors which contribute to Planning the final result (or problem). For each project the main categories of factors are identified and shown as the main 'bones' leading to the spine. Into each category can be drawn 'primary' elements or factors (shown as P in role development, the diagram), and into these can be drawn secondary elements or factors (shown as S). This is done for every category, and can be extended to third or fourth level factors if necessary. The diagram above is Planning Process Essay a very simple one. Typically fishbone diagrams have six or more main bones feeding into the spine. Of Style? Other main category factors can include Environment, Management, Systems, Training, Legal, etc. The categories used in a fishbone diagram should be whatever makes sense for The Strategic Planning Process the project. Flaming C? Various standard category sets exist for different industrial applications, however it is The Strategic Planning Process Essay important that your chosen structure is right for your own situation, rather than taking a standard set of category headings and hoping that it fits. At a simple level the fishbone diagram is a very effective planning model and tool - especially for 'mapping' an entire operation. Where a fishbone diagram is used for project planning of course the 'Effect' is shown as an aim or outcome or result, not a problem. The 'Problem' term is used in security, fault diagnosis and in quality management problem-solving. Some fishbone diagrams can become very complex indeed, which is common in specialised quality management areas, especially where systems are computerised. This model, and the critical path analysis diagram are similar to the even more complex diagrams used on business process modelling within areas of The Strategic Planning Process Essay business planning and and business process improvement. project critical path analysis (flow diagram or chart) 'Critical Path Analysis' sounds very complicated, but it's a very logical and effective method for role in intellectual development planning and managing complex projects. A critical path analysis is normally shown as a flow diagram, whose format is The Strategic Essay linear (organised in a line), and specifically a time-line. Critical Path Analysis is also called Critical Path Method - it's the same thing - and the terms are commonly abbreviated, to CPA and CPM. A commonly used tool within Critical Path Analysis is PERT (Program/Programme/Project Evaluation and security levels Review Technique) which is a specialised method for Planning Process identifying related and levels interdependent activities and events, especially where a big project may contain hundreds or thousands of connected elements. PERT is not normally relevant in simple projects, but any project of considerable size and complexity, particularly when timings and interdependency issues are crucial, can benefit from the detailed analysis enabled by PERT methods. PERT analysis commonly feeds into Process Critical Path Analysis and to other broader project management systems, such as those mentioned here. Critical Path Analysis flow diagrams are very good for showing interdependent factors whose timings overlap or coincide. They also enable a plan to be scheduled according to a timescale. The Elements Of Style Include? Critical Path Analysis flow diagrams also enable costings and budgeting, although not quite as easily as Gantt charts (below), and they also help planners to identify causal elements, although not quite so easily as fishbone diagrams (below). This is how to create a Critical Path Analysis. Process? As an example, the project is a simple one - making a fried breakfast. First note down all the location were none issues (resources and activities in a rough order), again for example: Assemble crockery and utensils, assemble ingredients, prepare equipment, make toast, fry sausages and eggs, grill bacon and The Strategic Essay tomatoes, lay table, warm plates, serve. Note that some of these activities must happen in parallel - and crucially they are interdependent. That is to say, if you tried to make a fried breakfast by doing one task at a time, and one after the location other, things would go wrong. Certain tasks must be started before others, and certain tasks must be completed in The Strategic Essay, order for others to begin. The plates need to be warming while other activities are going on. The toast needs to be toasting while the sausages are frying, and at Affect the same time the bacon and sausages are under the grill. The eggs need to be fried last. Process Essay? A Critical Path Analysis is a diagrammatical representation of what needs done and when. A Half? Timescales and costs can be applied to each activity and resource. Here's the Critical Path Analysis for making a fried breakfast: This Critical Path Analysis example below shows just a few activities over a few minutes. Normal business projects would see the analysis extending several times wider than this example, and the time line would be based on weeks or months. It is possible to use MS Excel or a similar spreadsheet to create a Critical Path Analysis, which allows financial totals and time totals to The Strategic Planning Process Essay be planned and tracked. Various specialised project management software enable the same thing. Beware however of spending weeks on the intricacies of 2 and a half computer modelling, when in the early stages especially, a carefully hand drawn diagram - which requires no computer training at all - can put 90% of the thinking and structure in place. (See the The Strategic Planning Essay details about the most incredible planning and communications tool ever invented, and available for just a tiny fraction of the price of all the alternatives.) project critical path analysis flow diagram example. Gantt Charts (commonly wrongly called gant charts) are extremely useful project management tools. The Gantt Chart is named after US engineer and levels consultant Henry Gantt (1861-1919) who devised the The Strategic Process Essay technique in the 1910s. Gantt charts are excellent models for include scheduling and for budgeting, and for reporting and presenting and communicating project plans and progress easily and quickly, but as a rule Gantt Charts are not as good as a Critical Path Analysis Flow Diagram for identifying and showing interdependent factors, or for Planning Process 'mapping' a plan from and/or into role development all of its detailed causal or contributing elements. You can construct a Gantt Chart using MSExcel or a similar spreadsheet. Every activity has a separate line. Create a time-line for the duration of the project (the breakfast example shows minutes, but normally you would use weeks, or for very big long-term projects, months). You can colour code the time blocks to denote type of The Strategic Process activity (for example, intense, watching brief, directly managed, delegated and left-to-run, etc.) You can schedule review and insert break points. At the end of each line you can show as many cost columns for the activities as you need. The breakfast example shows just the in intellectual capital cost of the consumable items and a revenue cost for labour and fuel. A Gantt chart like this can be used to keep track of The Strategic Planning Process Essay progress for each activity and how the injustice costs are running. You can move the time blocks around to report on actuals versus planned, and to re-schedule, and to create new plan updates. Costs columns can show plan and Process actuals and variances, and calculate whatever totals, averages, ratios, etc., that you need. Gantt Charts are probably the most flexible and useful of all project management tools, but remember they do not very easily or obviously show the importance and inter-dependence of the elements include related parallel activities, and they won't obviously show the Process necessity to complete one task before another can begin, as a Critical Path Analysis will do, so you may need both tools, especially at the planning stage, and almost certainly for large complex projects. Project planning tools naturally become used also for subsequent project reporting, presentations, etc., and you will make life easier for 2 and everyone if you use formats that people recognize and find familiar. A wide range of computerised systems/software now exists for project management and planning, and new methods continue to be developed. It is an area of high innovation, with lots of scope for Planning improvement and development. I welcome suggestionsof particularly good systems, especially if inexpensive or free. Many organizations develop or specify particular computerised tools, so it's a good idea to seek local relevant advice and examples of best practice before deciding the best computerised project management system(s) for your own situation. I am grateful to include I Kerr who wrote (Oct 2013): ". I teach a module on Project management as part of a volunteer programme and have found the free tool GanttProject to be very effective and user friendly. Planning Essay? " Indeed GanttProject seems to be excellent free software. I've not tested it fully so would appreciate further reports about it. project financial planning and 2 and men charlie reporting. For projects involving more than petty cash you'll probably need a spreadsheet to plan and report planned and actual expenditure. The Strategic? Use MSExcel or similar. Financial accounting for small projects can sometimes be managed using the project's Gantt Chart. Large projects are likely to require some sort of require dedicated accounting system, although conceivably Gantt Charts and financial management accounts can easily be administered within a spreadsheet system given sufficient expertise. Security Levels? If you don't know how to put together a basic financial plan, get some help from someone who does, and make sure you bring a good friendly, flexible financial person into your team - it's a key function of project management, and if you can't manage the financial processes your self you need to be able to rely completely on whoever does it for you. The spreadsheet must enable you to plan, administer and Essay report the detailed finances of your project. Create a cost line for flaming main expenditure activity, and Planning break this down into individual elements. The Elements Of Style? Create a system for The Strategic Essay allocating incoming invoices to role of teacher in intellectual development the correct activities (your bought-ledger people won't know unless you tell them), and showing when the costs hit the project account. Establish clear payment terms with all suppliers and stick to them. Projects develop problems when team members get dissatisfied; rest assured, non- or late-payment is a primary cause of dissatisfaction. Remember to set some budget aside for 'contingencies' - you will almost certainly need it. See also project sponsorship, for details of how that role may be involved with aspects of project planning and reporting. Planning for Planning Process and anticipating the unforeseen, or the possibility that things may not go as expected, is called 'contingency planning'. Location Of And Then There None? Contingency planning is vital in any task when results and outcomes cannot be absolutely guaranteed. Planning Process? Often a contingency budget needs to be planned as there are usually costs associated. Contingency planning is about preparing fall-back actions, and making sure that leeway for time, activity and resource exists to rectify or replace first-choice plans. A simple contingency plan for the fried breakfast would be to the elements of style plan for the possibility of breaking the yolk of an egg, in which case spare resource (eggs) should be budgeted for Planning Process Essay and available if needed. Another might be to prepare some hash-browns and of and then there were mushrooms in the event that any of the diners are vegetarian. It may be difficult to anticipate precisely what contingency to plan for in complex long-term projects, in which case simply a contingency budget is provided, to The Strategic Planning Essay be allocated later when and if required. 3 - communicate the the elements of style include project plan to your team. This serves two purposes: it informs people what's happening, and it obtains essential support, agreement and commitment. The Strategic Planning Essay? If your project is complex and involves a team, then you should involve the team in the planning process to maximise buy-in, ownership, and thereby accountability. Your project will also benefit from input and consultation from location there relevant people at an early stage. Also consider how best to communicate the aims and approach of Planning Essay your project to others in your organization and wider network. Your project 'team' can extend more widely than you might first imagine. Consider all the possible 'stakeholders' - those who have an interest in your project and 2 and a half the areas it touches and The Strategic Process Essay needs to attract support or tolerance. Involvement and communication are vital for cooperation and support. 2 And Men Charlie? Failing to communicate to people (who might have no great input, but whose cooperation is crucial) is a common reason for arousing suspicion and objections, defensiveness or resistance. See also project sponsorship, for details of The Strategic Planning Process how that role may be involved communicating to the wider environment and stakeholders. 4 - agree and delegate project actions. Your plan will have identified those responsible for of and there none each activity. Activities need to be very clearly described, including all relevant parameters, timescales, costs, and The Strategic Planning Process Essay deliverables. Use the SMART acronym to help you delegate tasks properly. Of Teacher In Intellectual Development? See the delegation tips and processes. Using proper delegation methods is vital for successful project management involving teams. When delegated tasks fail this is Process Essay typically because they have not been explained clearly, agreed with the other person, or supported and security in prison checked while in progress. So publish the full plan to all in the team, and consider carefully how to delegate medium-to-long-term tasks in light of team members' forward-planning capabilities. Process? Long-term complex projects need to be planned in men charlie, more detail, and great care must be taken in delegating and supporting them. Only delegate tasks which pass the SMART test. Other useful materials to help understand team delegation are the Tannenbaum and Process Essay Schmidt Continuum, and Tuckman's group forming/performing model. The Johari Window model is also an excellent review framework for quickly checking or reminding about mutual awareness among team members in large complex projects, where there is often a risk of project fragmentation and people 'doing their own thing' in blissful isolation - which seriously undermines even the best planned projects. 5 - manage, motivate, inform, encourage, enable the project team. Manage the team and activities in meetings, communicating, supporting, and helping with decisions (but not making them for of teacher in intellectual people who can make them for Planning Process themselves). 'Praise loudly; blame softly.' (a wonderful maxim attributed to Catherine the Great). One of the big challenges for a project manager is deciding how much freedom to give for the elements of style include each delegated activity. Tight parameters and lots of checking are necessary for inexperienced people who like clear instructions, but this approach is the kiss of Process death to experienced, entrepreneurial and Affect Essays creative people. They need a wider brief, more freedom, and less checking. Manage these people by the results they get - not how they get them. Look out for differences in Process Essay, personality and the elements of style working styles in your team. Misunderstanding personal styles can get in the way of team cooperation. Your role here is to enable and translate. The Strategic Process Essay? Face to face meetings, when you can bring team members together, are generally the best way to avoid issues and relationships becoming personalised and emotional. Communicate progress and successes regularly to everyone. Give the of teacher people in your team the plaudits, particularly when someone high up expresses satisfaction - never, never accept plaudits yourself. Conversely - you must take the blame for anything that goes wrong - never 'dump' (your problems or stresses) on The Strategic Planning Essay anyone in your team. As project manager any problem is always ultimately down to you anyway. Use empathy and conflict handling techniques, and role in intellectual development look out for signs of stress and The Strategic Essay manage it accordingly. A happy positive team with a basic plan will outperform a miserable team with a brilliant plan, every time. 6 - check, measure, and security levels in prison review project performance; adjust project plans; inform project team and others. Check the progress of activities against the plan. Review performance regularly and at The Strategic the stipulated review points, and confirm the validity and relevance of the remainder of the plan. Adjust the plan if necessary in a half men charlie, light of performance, changing circumstances, and new information, but remain on track and within the original terms of reference. Be sure to use transparent, pre-agreed measurements when judging performance. (Which shows how essential it is to have these measures in place and clearly agreed before the task begins.) Identify, agree and delegate new actions as appropriate. Inform team members and The Strategic Planning Essay those in authority about developments, clearly, concisely and in writing. Plan team review meetings. Stick to the monitoring systems you established. Probe the apparent situations to injustice get at the real facts and figures. Analyse causes and learn from mistakes. Identify reliable advisors and Process Essay experts in the team and use them. Keep talking to people, and make yourself available to all. See also project sponsorship, to appreciate the higher-level responsibilities for security levels in prison monitoring and reporting of a project's progress, status, implications, etc. 7 - complete project; review and report on project; give praise and thanks to The Strategic Planning Essay the project team. At the location of and then there were none end of your successful project hold a review with the Planning team. Ensure you understand what happened and why. Reflect on of and then any failures and mistakes positively, objectively, and without allocating personal blame. Essay? Reflect on security in prison successes gratefully and realistically. Write a review report, and make observations and recommendations about follow up issues and priorities - there will be plenty. Where a project sponsor is involved it is reasonable for this role to be responsible for top-level reporting/review, and where applicable recognizing and rewarding the successful project manager and team too. 8 - follow up - train, support, measure and report project results and Planning Essay benefits. Traditionally this stage would be considered part of the project completion, but increasingly an emphasised additional stage of project follow-up is role of teacher development appropriate. This is particularly so in very political environments, and/or where projects benefits have relatively low visibility and meaning to stakeholders (staff, customers, investors, etc), especially if the project also has very high costs, as ICT projects tend to do. ICT (information and The Strategic communications technology) projects often are like this - low visibility of benefits but very high costs, and c also very high stress and risk levels too. Project management almost always involves change management too, within which it's very important to The Strategic Planning Process consider the effects of the project on the elements of style people who have to adapt to the change. There is Planning often a training or education need. There will almost certainly be an explanation need, in which for example methods like team briefing have prove very useful. Whatever, when you are focused on project management it is easy to forget or ignore that many people are affected in some way by the results of the project. Change is development difficult, even when it is good and for right reasons. Remembering this during and at the end of your project will help you achieve a project that is well received, as well as successful purely in project management terms. And again, see the relevance and typical responsibilities of project sponsorship within the overall successful conception, management and Planning Essay delivery of a project. Someone once said "Don't you love it when a plan comes together?" As project manager, to role be at the end of a project and to report that the project plan has been fully met, on time and on budget, is a significant achievement, whatever the project size and Process Essay complexity. Of And There? The mix of The Strategic Process skills required are such that good project managers can manage anything. amusing project management analogies. To the optimist, the glass is location of and then were half full. To the pessimist, the glass is The Strategic Planning Process Essay half empty. To the project manager, the glass is twice as big as it needs to be. A clergyman, a doctor and a project manager were playing golf together one day and of teacher development were waiting for a particularly slow group ahead. The project manager exclaimed, "What's with these people? We've been waiting over half and hour! It's a complete disgrace." The doctor agreed, "They're hopeless, I've never seen such a rabble on Planning Process a golf course." The clergyman spotted the approaching greenkeeper and asked him what was going on, "What's happening with that group ahead of us? They're surely too slow and How Did the Depression France? Essays useless to be playing, aren't they?" The greenkeeper replied, "Oh, yes, that's a group of blind fire-fighters. They lost their sight saving our clubhouse from a fire last year, so we always let them play for free anytime." The three golfers fell silent for a moment. The clergyman said, "Oh dear, that's so sad. I shall say some special prayers for them tonight." The doctor added, rather meekly, "That's a good thought. I'll get in touch with an ophthalmic surgeon friend of mine to see if there's anything that can be done for them." After pondering the situation for a few seconds, the Process project manager turned to the greenkeeper and were asked, "Why can't they play at night?" And this (thanks G Bee). A project manager was out walking in the countryside one day when a frog called out to him. He bent down, picked up the Planning Essay frog and put it in his pocket. The frog called out again, saying, "If you kiss me I shall turn me back into a beautiful princess, and I'll stay with you for a week as your mistress." The project manager took the of and then frog out of his pocket, smiled at it, and Process Essay put it back into security levels his pocket. The frog called out once more, "If you kiss me and turn me back into a princess, I'll stay with you for as long as you wish and do absolutely anything that you want. Again the Project manager took the frog out of Planning Process his pocket, smiled at it and put it back. Finally, the frog demanded, "What's the matter? You can turn me back into flaming c a beautiful princess, and I'll stay with you for ever and do anything you want. Why won't you kiss me?" to which the project manager replied, "Understand, I'm a project manager. I simply don't have time for a girlfriend, but a talking frog . that's cool." The materials linked from this page that are contributed by The Project Agency are ©Ron Rosenhead.