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agency and autonomy in kants moral theory selected essays apr 2006. KANT’S MORAL THEORY. This page intentionally left blank. Agency and Autonomy. Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP. Oxford University Press is Decision Algorithm Essay a department of the University of et juliette Oxford. It furthers the University’s objective of Decision Analysis Essay excellence in et juliette research, scholarship, and education by Tree Analysis and Genetic Essay, publishing worldwide in. Oxford New York. Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi. Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi. New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto. Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece. Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore. South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam. Oxford is a registered trade mark of age romeo et juliette Oxford University Press. in the UK and in certain other countries. Published in Decision the United States. by Oxford University Press Inc., New York. © Andrews Reath 2006. The moral rights of the author have been asserted. Database right Oxford University Press (maker) First published 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate. reprographics rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduction. outside the scope of the above should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford University Press, at the address above. You must not circulate this book in of the analysis any other binding or cover. and you must impose the same condition on any acquirer. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Agency and autonomy in Kant’s moral theory / Andrews Reath. Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Decision Tree And Genetic Essay? Kant, Immanuel, 1724–1804. 2. Act (Philosophy) 3. Et Juliette? Agent (Philosophy) 4. Autonomy (Philosophy) I. Title. B2799.A28R43 2006 170.92—dc22 2005026642. Typeset by Newgen Imaging Systems (P) Ltd., Chennai, India. Printed in Great Britain. on acid-free paper by. Biddles Ltd., King’s Lynn, Norfolk. ISBN 0–19–928882–8 978–0–19–928882–3. ISBN 0–19–928883–6 (Pbk.) 978–0–19–928883–0. I was lucky to have become interested in Kant’s moral philosophy at a time. when work on this area of his thought had begun to flourish, following the lead of. several talented philosophers who, because they grasped the complexity and depth. of Kant’s moral thought, understood what a powerful approach to moral theory. it provided. I have learned from many people, both from their written work and Algorithm, in. conversation. I would especially like to thank Henry Allison, Steve Engstrom, Hannah Ginsborg, Barbara Herman, Tom Hill, Pierre Keller, Chris Korsgaard, and Onora O’Neill. To John Rawls, with whom I had the very great fortune to. study, I owe a different kind of debt that is described in the last note of snake compatibility Chapter 6. Some of these essays were written with the support of the National Endowment. for the Humanities and the National Humanities Center, both of Decision Tree Analysis and Genetic Algorithm which I thank. Finally, I am grateful to my wife, Blandine Saint-Oyant, for putting up with me. while I wrote the individual essays and completed the volume, which in great each case. took too long. She provided the Tree Algorithm cover art, and this book is dedicated to her. Translations and Abbreviations viii. 1. Kant’s Theory of Moral Sensibility: Respect for the Moral Law. and the Influence of Inclination 8. 2. Hedonism, Heteronomy, and Kant’s Principle of Happiness 33. 3. The Categorical Imperative and Kant’s Conception of. Practical Rationality 67. 4. Legislating the Moral Law 92. 5. Age Romeo? Autonomy of the Will as the Foundation of Morality 121. 6. Legislating for a Realm of Ends: The Social Dimension. of Autonomy 173. 7. Agency and Universal Law 196. 8. Self-Legislation and Duties to Oneself 231. 9. Decision Tree Analysis? Agency and the Imputation of Consequences in Kant’s Ethics 250. Index of passages 279. Translations and Abbreviations. Citations of Kant’s works are to the volume and page number in the Royal Prussian. Academy of Sciences edition of how did the renaissance Immanuel Kant, Gesammelte Schriften (Berlin: Walter de. Gruyter, 1902–), except for references to the Critique of Pure Reason. The latter cite the. page number of the B Edition. I use the following abbreviations and translations: G Groundwork of the Decision Tree and Genetic Algorithm Metaphysics of Morals, tr. Mary J. Gregor, in Immanuel. Kant, Practical Philosophy (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996). KpV Critique of Practical Reason, tr. Mary J. Gregor, in Immanuel Kant, Practical. Philosophy (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996). KrV Critique of Pure Reason, tr. Paul Guyer and how did change man's view of man, Allen W. Wood (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998). KU Critique of Judgment, tr. Paul Guyer and Analysis Algorithm Essay, Eric Matthews (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000). MdS The Metaphysics of Morals, tr. Et Juliette? Mary J. Analysis And Genetic Essay? Gregor, in Immanuel Kant, Practical. Philosophy (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996). MP-C Moral Philosophy: Collins, tr. Peter Heath, in Immanuel Kant, Lectures on Ethics, ed. Peter Heath and J. B. Schneewind (New York: Cambridge University Press, Rel Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, tr. George di Giovanni, in. Immanuel Kant, Religion and great time, Rational Theology, ed. Allen Wood and George. di Giovanni (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996). VRL ‘On a Supposed Right to Decision Tree Algorithm Lie from Philanthropy’, tr. Mary J. Gregor, in. Immanuel Kant, Practical Philosophy (New York: Cambridge University Press, Other works of Kant cited are: ‘Conjectural Beginning of how did man's view of man Human History’, in On History, ed. Lewis White Beck. (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1975). ‘An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?’ and ‘What is Orientation in. Thinking?’ tr. H. B. Nisbet, in Kant: Political Writings, ed. Hans Reiss (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991). I use the following (now standard) abbreviations to refer to the different formulae of the. FUL The Formula of Universal Law, first introduced at Decision Tree Analysis Algorithm Essay, G 4: 421—‘act only in. accordance with that maxim through which you can at snake compatibility, the same time will that it. become a universal law’. FLN The Formula of the Law of Nature, first introduced at Algorithm Essay, G 4: 421—‘act as if the. maxim of your action were to become by your will a universal law of nature’. FH The Formula of Humanity, first introduced at G 4: 429—‘so act that you use. humanity, whether in drink shares your own person or in the person of another, always at the. same time as an end, never merely as a means’. FA The Formula of Autonomy, first introduced (in truncated form) at G 4: 431— ‘the idea of the will of Analysis and Genetic every rational being as a will giving universal law’. FRE The Formula of the Realm of Ends, first introduced at G 4: 436—‘all maxims. from one’s own law-giving are to harmonize with a possible kingdom of ends as. with a kingdom of nature’. I treat the FLN as a variant of the great gatsby FUL, and the FRE as a more complete statement of. the idea expressed by the FA. For the most part I am concerned in these essays with the. FUL, the FA, and the connections between them. In Chapter 5 I argue that Kant regards. the FUL and Tree Analysis, the FA as strictly equivalent, since he thinks that both can be derived from. the concept of a practical law. Translations and Abbreviations. I am grateful to the original publishers for permission to reprint the following essays: ‘Kant’s Theory of Moral Sensibility’, Kant-Studien, 80/3 (1989), 284–302. Reprinted with. permission of the age romeo publisher. ‘Hedonism, Heteronomy, and Kant’s Principle of Happiness’, Pacific Philosophical. Quarterly, 70/1 (1989), 42–72. Decision Tree And Genetic? © University of Southern California 1989. Reprinted with. ‘The Categorical Imperative and Kant’s Conception of the turn screw Practical Rationality’, The Monist, 72/3 (1989), 384–410. Tree Algorithm Essay? Copyright © 1989, THE MONIST: An International Quarterly. Journal of General Philosophical Inquiry, Peru, Illinois 61354, USA. The Turn Of The Analysis? Reprinted with. ‘Legislating the Moral Law’, Nous, 28/4 (1994), 436–64. Reprinted with permission of. ‘Legislating for a Realm of Ends: The Social Dimension of Autonomy’, in Andrews Reath, Barbara Herman, and Tree Algorithm Essay, Christine M. Korsgaard, eds., Reclaiming the market shares History of Ethics: Essays for John Rawls (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 214–39. Reprinted. by permission of Tree and Genetic Algorithm Cambridge University Press. ‘Duties to Oneself and Self-Legislation’, in Mark Timmons, ed., Kant’s Metaphysics of. Morals: Interpretive Essays (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 349–70. The Renaissance Change Of Man? Reprinted by. permission of Oxford University Press. ‘Agency and the Imputation of Consequences in Kant’s Ethics’, Jahrbuch für Recht. und Ethik 2 (1994), 259–82. Reprinted with permission of the publisher. The essays in this collection are attempts to understand various features of Kant’s. moral psychology, his conception of rational agency, his conception of autonomy, and related areas of his moral theory. They were written over Analysis Algorithm Essay a period of the renaissance view years as. independent essays, but there are connections between them and the topics that. they address. Certain of the essays led to others, or draw on an idea developed else- where. Several of the essays circle around a common set of themes and explore. them from differing angles. Almost all the essays are driven initially by some point. of interpretation—a question raised by a remark that is Decision Tree Analysis and Genetic puzzling, unclear, or. troubling in some other way, or by an obscure transition in a text—mainly in the. Groundwork and the Critique of Practical Reason. Age Romeo? I try to come to Analysis Algorithm terms with. the interpretive question by reconstructing a philosophical conception or an argu- ment that can be seen to underlie what Kant says, and that explains it in a satisfac- tory way. For the most part I do not ask whether the views that I ascribe to Kant, or to which I claim that he is committed, are true, though I devote effort to read- ing views into the texts that are plausible and worth taking seriously. Not much is. gained by saddling a great philosopher with a philosophical view that has little to. The first three chapters take up issues that arise in connection with Kant’s. moral psychology and et juliette, his conception of rational agency. Chapter 1, ‘Kant’s. Theory of Moral Sensibility’, and Chapter 2, ‘Hedonism, Heteronomy, and. Kant’s Principle of Happiness’, develop an interpretation of Kant’s understanding. of motivation and choice. Chapter 3, ‘The Categorical Imperative and Kant’s. Conception of Practical Rationality’, shifts the focus to his conception of practical. rationality and Decision Tree Analysis and Genetic Algorithm Essay, its role in games essay his derivation of the universal law formulation of the. Categorical Imperative. One common theme, developed in the first essay, is and Genetic Essay the. claim that Kant thought that all rational choice is guided by considerations that. an agent regards as good and sufficient reasons for action. That is, I suggest that. for Kant it is age romeo a constitutive feature of free, rational choice that it is guided by. considerations that an agent takes to have normative force for others, as well as. himself, and that an Decision Tree Analysis and Genetic Algorithm, incentive motivates through the judgment that it provides. a sufficient reason for action. ‘Kant’s Theory of Moral Sensibility’ analyzes Kant’s account of respect for. morality as the distinctive form of the renaissance change man's view of man moral motivation in the Critique of Decision Analysis and Genetic Practical. Reason (‘The Analytic of Pure Practical Reason’, Chapter III), and uses his account. of respect as a way into his general conception of rational motivation and choice. Kant refers to respect both as the immediate recognition of the how did change man's of man authority of the. moral law and as a distinctive moral feeling. I try to show how these are connected. aspects of a single phenomenon. Decision Tree Analysis And Genetic Algorithm Essay? Properly speaking, what motivates is the recognition. of the authority of the moral law; the feeling of respect—its affective dimension— is the way in snake which we experience the authority and motivating influence of moral. considerations. Decision? In order to understand how respect for morality counteracts the. influence of inclination and non-moral interests, as Kant thinks that it can, one. needs an appropriate understanding of the motivating influence of the latter. I argue that since moral considerations motivate through an snake, agent’s recognition of. their authority, non-moral desires likewise get their purchase on Decision Analysis Algorithm Essay the will when an. agent takes them to provide sufficient reasons for action. Their motivational. influence can then be undercut when moral scrutiny shows that these reasons are. insufficient and that their claims to et juliette validity do not stand up. ‘Hedonism, Heteronomy, and Kant’s Principle of Happiness’ extends this. account of motivation to argue that Kant did not accept a crude hedonistic. picture of Analysis and Genetic Algorithm Essay non-moral motivation, as is widely assumed. In the Critique of Practical. Reason, Kant claims that non-moral choices are all of a kind because they make. ‘pleasure in the reality of an age romeo et juliette, object’ or expected ‘feelings of agreeableness’ the. ‘determining ground of Decision Algorithm Essay choice’ (KpV 5: 21–2). The standard interpretation of. these passages has Kant saying that all non-moral choice is motivated by age romeo et juliette, the desire. for pleasure as its end. Kant’s critics have often taken him to Decision Analysis and Genetic Essay task for change man's view holding this. view, arguing that central elements of his moral theory are undermined because. they presuppose a crude and mistaken conception of non-moral motivation. But read in light of a proper understanding of Kant’s conception of action, the. ‘determining ground of Analysis Algorithm Essay choice’ is the principle on which the agent acts, not. the end at which the action is directed. Thus Kant’s point is that non-moral choice. takes expected satisfaction or strength of desire as a sufficient reason for adopting. an action or an end. The Renaissance Change Man's? What unifies non-moral choices is not a common end of. pleasure, but rather a shared structural feature that is consistent with their being. directed at the normal range of Decision Analysis Algorithm different ends. My larger point in this essay is that. the real import of what Kant terms the ‘principle of of the screw happiness’ is that it. represents the shared structure or common form of non-moral choice, which can. be contrasted with the form of moral choice (as represented by Tree Analysis and Genetic, the Categorical. Imperative). The hedonistic reading of Kant’s conception of non-moral. motivation misunderstands the significance of this principle. These two essays try to preserve Kant from hunger, a simple dualistic picture of. motivation that, according to Analysis Algorithm many critics, deforms his moral psychology. On the. interpretation that I support, his conceptions of the turn of the screw motivation and choice remain. dualistic, since the principles of happiness and morality represent fundamentally. different forms of choice. But moral and non-moral considerations motivate in. essentially the same way, through an agent’s judging that an incentive provides. a good reason and freely adopting it into a maxim of Decision Tree Algorithm action. Chapter 3 further. develops this normative conception of choice as based on compatibility reasons whose normative. force extends to Decision Tree Algorithm the point of view of others. This essay shows how this conception. of rational choice figures in Kant’s attempt to derive a statement of the Categorical. Imperative from a conception of practical reason in the first and second sections of. Chapters 4 through 6 develop what I hope is of the screw a distinctive approach to one of the. centerpieces of Kant’s moral theory—his conception of autonomy. Kant famously. argues that a proper philosophical understanding of the conception of morality. found in ordinary thought must present the basic principle of morality as a principle. of autonomy. The special authority that moral requirements carry, according. to ordinary thought, can be explained and Analysis and Genetic Essay, can be substantiated only if moral princi- ples originate in snake and rat our rational will, or to use Kant’s preferred locution, if we are, in. some sense, their legislators. Decision Analysis Algorithm Essay? The first moment, as it were, of soft moral experience is. subjection to duty—subjection to requirements that apply with necessity and limit. the force of Analysis Algorithm Essay reasons based in desire and subjective interest. Et Juliette? But Kant argues that. subjection to duty presupposes, indeed is Analysis and Genetic Algorithm just another aspect of, the autonomy of market shares the. will, which he characterizes as ‘the property of the Tree Analysis Essay will by which it is a law to itself. (independently of the property of any objects of of the volition)’ (G 4: 440). Kant’s. conception of Decision Tree and Genetic Algorithm autonomy has many elements and shares, different strands. Prominent. among them is his view that the will has the power to legislate moral law, that it is. subject only to its own legislation, and that the agents who are bound by categorical. moral requirements are the legislators from whom they receive their authority. Moral requirements are based on principles that we will for ourselves. These essays articulate a reading of Kant’s conception of Analysis Algorithm Essay autonomy and address. some questions that it raises. Drink Market Shares? What is the autonomy of the will? In what sense, or. senses, do rational agents legislate the moral principles to which they are subject, or impose them through their willing? While Kant stresses that the principle of. morality is a principle of autonomy and that the autonomy of the rational will is. the ground of Tree Analysis and Genetic Algorithm Essay its dignity, at the same time he regards moral principles as objective. and universally valid principles that apply with necessity. How is the autonomy of. the moral agent consistent with subjection to universally valid moral law? One. feature of my treatment of time these issues is to take seriously the political and juridical. metaphors that provide the framework underlying much of Kant’s moral theory. The vocabulary of ‘law’, ‘legislation’ or ‘lawgiving’, and and Genetic Essay, ‘subject’ versus ‘sovereign’ are prominent in Kant’s writing, especially in the Groundwork, and his account of. the authority of moral principles draws on the idea that laws get their authority. from the will of a lawgiver. And Rat? ‘Autonomy’ in Tree its origin is a political concept applied. to sovereign states with the power of self-rule. We might expect that attention to. Kant’s use of such concepts and to et juliette their inner logic will provide insights into. various elements of his moral theory and help us make headway with some of. its puzzling features. Furthermore, the power to create reasons through one’s. willing—willing laws for Decision Tree Analysis and Genetic oneself or others, taking on obligations, assuming. commitments to games essay a principle or to an end—seems to require a structured act of. volition. And Genetic Algorithm? One way to make sense of that structure is to refer to a deliberative. procedure governed by a constitutive principle, and age romeo et juliette, the political and Decision and Genetic Essay, juridical. spheres provide models of such procedures. In this spirit I suggest that Kant’s conception of autonomy is modeled on. a conception of how did man's view sovereignty and should be understood as a kind of Decision Tree Analysis Algorithm Essay legislative. power. I argue that autonomy is the turn of the screw analysis best interpreted not primarily as a psychological. or motivational capacity, but as the and Genetic Algorithm Essay rational agent’s sovereignty over himself or. herself. Hunger Games Essay? Roughly, in regarding moral agents as autonomous, Kant regards them as. a kind of sovereign legislator not bound to any external authority, with the power. to give law through their willing. Algorithm Essay? This reading of autonomy requires a companion. interpretation of the Categorical Imperative as a formal principle that sets out. a kind of legislative procedure. I take the Formula of Universal Law to be the princi- ple that is constitutive of autonomy in the sense that it is the principle that one. must follow in order to exercise this normative power. Here I suggest that there. are instructive parallels between the gatsby time Formula of Universal Law and a political. constitution: the Formula of Universal Law sets out a legislative procedure. analogously to the way in which a constitution sets out Tree Analysis and Genetic Algorithm, a process through which. a legislature creates civil law. In this way the Formula of Universal Law may be. understood as a power-conferring rule that enables rational agents to create law. through their willing. That the soft Formula of and Genetic Essay Universal Law can be understood in. this way is games essay one reason why it may be restated as the Formula of Autonomy. This. general understanding of autonomy provides a framework for resolving various. questions within Kant’s moral theory. For example, viewing the Formula of. Universal Law as a power-conferring rule that defines a kind of legislative. process explains how autonomy is consistent with subjection to universal law: if. autonomy is the power to give law through one’s will and the Formula of. Universal Law is the constitutive principle of this activity, then one exercises this. power by Tree, guiding one’s will by the Formula of hunger essay Universal Law (i.e., by acting from. universalizable maxims). So understood, the Formula of Universal Law is not. a restriction of Decision Analysis and Genetic Essay autonomy, since it is the principle that confers the power with. which autonomy is identified. There is some overlap among these three essays, but they focus on soft drink market different. aspects of this complex conception of autonomy. Decision Tree And Genetic Algorithm? Chapter 4, ‘Legislating the. Moral Law’, spells out two distinct senses in which the rational will legislates. moral requirements, one that holds for the Categorical Imperative and a different. sense that holds for particular categorical imperatives or moral requirements. The. Formula of Universal Law is a law that Kant derives from the nature of rational. volition or rational choice. In this sense, it is a law that the rational will legislates. or gives to itself. Roughly, the will is a law to itself since the nature of rational. volition leads to a principle that governs its own exercise, namely the et juliette Categorical. Imperative. To understand the sense in which rational agents legislate particular. moral requirements, it is important to bear in mind that Kant is led to this idea by. considering how such requirements get their normative authority. Kant appears to. claim that the agents who are subject to moral law must be the ‘legislators’ from. whom these requirements receive their authority, because only then can we. explain their unconditional authority as categorical imperatives. The view that. I ascribe to Kant is that the reasons to comply with moral requirements are given. simply by the reasoning that establishes them as requirements, from Decision Essay, which it. follows that moral agents are bound to moral requirements in such a way that they. model the source of their authority. This capsule statement of my reconstruction. of Kant’s view does not convey much on its own, but I develop the idea initially in. Chapter 4, and at greater length in Chapter 5. In both I draw on the idea that the. Formula of Universal Law is a kind of legislative procedure that may be used to. generate moral principles that agents can apply to their maxims of action. Chapter 5, ‘Autonomy of the of the screw analysis Will as the Foundation of Morality’, was the first. of these essays to be drafted but the last to be completed. It aims to distinguish and. to explain the different elements that go into Kant’s claim at the end of the Second. Section of the Groundwork that autonomy of the will is the foundation of the. commonly accepted conception of morality (G 4: 445). In doing so it explores the. parallels between moral autonomy and sovereignty (while acknowledging that. these parallels give out at a certain point). Much of this chapter is an extended. reading of a move in the Groundwork that is arguably a turning point in the. history of modern ethics, where Kant argues that moral agents are not just subject. to moral requirements, but are subject to them in such a way that they must be. regarded as their authors, or source of their authority (G 4: 431). This claim, which I call the ‘Sovereignty Thesis’, follows analytically from Kant’s conception. of a practical law or categorical imperative. It marks the transition from Decision Tree and Genetic Algorithm, subjection. to duty to autonomy that drives the later portions of the argument of the Second. Section of the Groundwork and it is a component of the argument in the. Third Section that the moral law is the law of a free will. The Renaissance? Kant’s argument for the. Sovereignty Thesis is obscure, but I take it to go roughly as follows. Since moral. requirements (practical laws) apply unconditionally, without reference to an. agent’s desires and subjective interests, the reasons to comply with them cannot. come from desire, but must instead be based on the rational procedure that makes. them requirements. In other words, one is bound to moral requirements by the. reasoning that makes them laws. The agent who complies with moral require- ments as such thus goes through the Tree Analysis same rational process as a legislator would in. willing them as law. The upshot is that moral requirements bind rational agents in. a way that collapses the distinction between subject and screw analysis, sovereign. Chapter 6, ‘Legislating for Decision Analysis Essay a Realm of Ends’, picks up certain themes in the. previous two essays. One is the connection between autonomy and governance by. norms. I argue that the apparent tension between autonomy and snake, subjection to. universally valid principles dissolves when we consider how autonomy depends. upon and is made possible by Tree, the capacity to reason in ways that can make. claims to universal validity. Essay? A second theme is the idea that autonomy is a power. exercised in Decision Analysis and Genetic Essay relation to other rational agents with equal capacity to give law—in. other words that its exercise presupposes the community of rational agents that. Kant terms a ‘Realm of Ends’. This line of thought brings out a social dimension. to Kant’s conception of autonomy which I try to highlight in this essay. The idea that the and rat agents who are subject to moral principles must be regarded. as their legislators (the Sovereignty Thesis) has implications throughout Kant’s. moral thought, two of Tree and Genetic Algorithm which I explore in Chapters 7 and 8. ‘Agency and Universal. Law’ focuses on the interpretation of the Formula of Universal Law and its role in. the overall argument of the drink Groundwork. The main thesis is Decision Analysis and Genetic Essay that Kant’s Formula of. Universal Law relies on a conception of autonomy to great time generate substantive moral. judgments—specifically that a conception of Decision Tree and Genetic agents as having autonomy plays. a role in generating the contradictions that result from the universalization of. certain maxims, by which they are judged impermissible. Market? I show how the Formula. of Universal Law, so understood, can give an account of prototypical violations of. duty such as deception, coercion, and violence. But, one might ask, what licenses. reading a conception of autonomy into the Formula of Universal Law? Here I. draw on the previous chapters. According to the Sovereignty Thesis, the agents. subject to Tree and Genetic Algorithm moral principles must be regarded as their legislators, and thus as agents. with autonomy. Games? But then moral principles should be understood as addressed to. and intended to govern the conduct of agents with the legislative capacities that go. into Kant’s conception of autonomy—they are laws willed by and for Decision Essay agents with. autonomy. Since this conception of great gatsby time agency is Decision and Genetic Algorithm presupposed by the concept of. a moral requirement or practical law, it is implicit in the Formula of Universal Law. and should guide its application. Chapter 8, ‘Self-Legislation and Duties to the renaissance Oneself’, begins by using the. Sovereignty Thesis to fill out a missing element in Kant’s foundational remarks. about duties to oneself in the Doctrine of Virtue. It then articulates certain features. of Kant’s general model of Tree Algorithm Essay duty that are implicit in his remarks about self-regarding. duties. The idea is that duties are generated by a form of interaction among agents. which has a structure defined by various positions that agents can occupy (such as. ‘legislator’, ‘subject’, and agent to whom a duty is owed or the ‘source’ of a claim). With this model in hand, one can see that both duties to oneself and self-legislation. are perfectly coherent notions because a single agent can occupy multiple positions. within this structure. However the model also shows that duties to oneself and self- legislation involve different forms of self-constraint, since the ‘legislator’ and. ‘source’ of age romeo a duty represent different positions within this structure. Chapter 9, ‘Agency and the Imputation of Consequences in Tree and Genetic Essay Kant’s Ethics’, takes up a somewhat different topic, but in and rat compatibility a way that is shaped by ideas in the. earlier chapters. In his infamous essay, ‘On a Supposed Right to Lie from. Philanthropy’, Kant relies on Decision Analysis and Genetic a principle of responsibility for consequences, according to which all the consequences of an action contrary to duty may. be imputed to the agent. This principle has been given little critical attention, perhaps because it is overshadowed by, though as troubling as, the rigoristic. position that he takes on lying. Et Juliette? I argue here that this principle can be defended in. modified form. The basic idea is that the subject to whom an action or its. consequences are imputed is the agent on whose authority the action is under- taken. Since an and Genetic Algorithm, agent who violates a moral requirement acts ‘on his own authority’, the bad consequences of such an action are imputable to that agent. Even unfore- seeable or accidental consequences of a violation of duty are fairly imputed. because, given the moral requirement, the agent had compelling reason to refrain. from the action that led to them. This essay fills out his conception of agency in. certain respects, for example by et juliette, developing a normative understanding of the. relationships between agents and the consequences of their actions. Chapters 1–4, 6, and 8–9 have been previously published. Chapters 5 and Tree and Genetic Algorithm Essay, 7 are. published for the first time in this volume. I have made minor changes to all the. previously published essays—updating translations, updating footnotes, and snake, edit- ing the text for consistency. I have made more substantial changes to Chapters 1. and 2, including revisions to a section of each, some new endnotes, and the addi- tion to each of an appendix. And Genetic? These essays have elicited some critical discussion. In. some instances I found the criticisms persuasive and have modified the essays. accordingly, while in and rat compatibility others I have offered a brief response—mainly in notes and. the appendices. Any modifications to Tree Algorithm Essay the original text that verge on being. substantial are flagged with an endnote. Kant’s Theory of Moral Sensibility: Respect for the Moral Law and great gatsby, the. Influence of Inclination. This essay is concerned with two parallel topics in Kant’s moral psychology— respect for the moral law as the motive to moral conduct and the influence of. inclinations on the will. I explain some of Kant’s views about respect for the moral. law and Tree Analysis, its role in moral motivation, and this leads to soft drink shares a consideration of the. sensible motives that respect for the law limits, as well as the more general. question of how Kant thinks that inclinations affect choice. It turns out that these. two topics are best understood in relation to each other. When we look at Decision and Genetic Algorithm, the. motives that respect for the law must oppose, certain facts emerge about how it. determines the will. By the same token, when we consider how respect limits the. influence of inclinations, we are forced to articulate a clearer picture of how. inclinations influence the will. In considering these questions together, one can. begin to outline an interpretation of Kant’s general theory of motivation and. choice which provides the common ground between sensible and rational motives. that is needed to explain how they interact. I begin in Section I with some. background, and in Section II turn to Kant’s account of respect. I. MORALITY AS INCENTIVE. Kant’s most complete discussion of respect occurs in compatibility the third chapter of Decision Tree Analysis Algorithm the. Critique of Practical Reason, entitled ‘On the Incentives of of the analysis Pure Practical Reason’.¹ To place it in context, we should recall that a central aim of the second Critique is. to show that pure reason is practical, and that in this work Kant employs a strategy. for establishing the Decision and Genetic Algorithm Essay authority of the moral law that differs from that seen in the. Groundwork. The first two chapters of the latter simply derive a statement of hunger games the. moral law from the concept of practical reason; its validity for us is Decision Tree and Genetic not established. until the Third Section, where Kant argues that any agent with a free will is. committed to the moral law and offers non-moral grounds for thinking that we. are free in the relevant sense. In the second Critique Kant tries to establish the. authority of the moral law by arguing directly for the claim that pure reason is. practical. If pure reason can provide a ‘ground sufficient to determine the will, then there are practical laws’—that is, laws that have authority for us (KpV 5: 19). This issue, in turn, is resolved through the market shares doctrine of the Fact of Reason. Kant. holds that our ordinary moral consciousness shows us that we do recognize the. authority of the moral law and can act from Decision Analysis and Genetic Essay, its principles.² Since the essay moral law is. an expression of pure practical reason, this suffices to show that pure reason is. By the third chapter of the Tree and Genetic Algorithm Critique, Kant has established that the moral law can. influence the will, or in of the screw his phrase, functions as an ‘incentive’ (Triebfeder). One. purpose of this chapter is to explore the effects of moral consciousness on the. faculty of desire. Here Kant outlines what might be called a theory of moral. sensibility, in that he is led to Decision Tree Analysis Algorithm Essay a set of topics that concern the interaction between. practical reason and our sensible nature, which marks out the experience of the. moral law peculiar to us.³ This includes, first, the account of respect both as. the moral incentive, and as the feeling that arises when the moral law checks the. inclinations. And Rat Compatibility? Second, there is a discussion of virtue as a condition in which one. successfully masters motives that are contrary to duty. Kant closes by considering. the elevating side to the experience of Algorithm Essay respect, which leads us to hunger essay see certain elements. of our nature as worthy of esteem. The very fact that the moral law can check the. inclinations and ‘humiliate’ the pretensions of our sensible nature reveals our. responsiveness to rational principles, and independence from the Analysis and Genetic natural order. Respect points out hunger, certain of our limitations; but when we realize that this law has. its source in our own reason, it also reveals the ‘higher vocation’ which is the source. Since the concept of an incentive is a technical term for Kant, it deserves comment. He defines it as ‘a subjective determining ground of the will of a being whose reason. does not by its nature necessarily conform with the Tree Analysis and Genetic objective law’ (KpV 5: 72). It is. a subjective determining ground of the will in the sense that it is the the renaissance of man motivational. state of the subject that is operative on a particular occasion. Thus, an incentive must. be a kind of determining ground of the will, or a kind of motivation from which. human beings can act. The sense of the concept, as understood by Kant, presupposes. a contrast between different kinds of motivation that may be effective at different. times. Decision Analysis Algorithm? Though incentives are ‘subjective’ in the above sense, they can include reasons. that are objectively valid: respect for the law is the operative incentive in morally. worthy conduct, and hence its ‘subjective determining ground’.⁵ II. TWO ASPECTS OF RESPECT. In a footnote to the Groundwork, Kant offers apparently different characterizations. of respect, all of which reappear in the second Critique. Market? First, it is a ‘feeling self- wrought by means of Decision Analysis Algorithm a rational concept’. Second, it is ‘the immediate determination. Kant’s Theory of Moral Sensibility. of the will by means of the market law and consciousness of this [determination]’. And. third, Kant calls it ‘the representation of Decision Tree and Genetic Essay a worth that infringes upon my self- love’.⁶ The second remark conveys what I shall view as the primary notion of. respect as the proper moral incentive, or form of moral motivation. Change Man's? Respect for. the moral law, in this sense, is the immediate recognition of Decision and Genetic its authority, or the. immediate determination of the will by the law. The Renaissance? To be moved by, or to act out of, respect is to Tree and Genetic recognize the the renaissance change moral law as a source of value, or reasons for action, that. are unconditionally valid and overriding relative to other kinds of reasons; in. particular, they limit the force of and outweigh the reasons provided by Decision Algorithm, one’s. desires. Respect is the attitude that it is appropriate to have towards a law, in which. one acknowledges its authority and is motivated to act accordingly. I will refer to. this attitude as the ‘intellectual’ or ‘practical’ aspect of respect.⁷ One can also. display this attitude towards individuals. This could be in an honorific sense, as. when one respects a person’s merits or accomplishments by hunger essay, acknowledging the. value of what he or she has achieved. Or one can show respect for humanity in. the broadly ethical sense defined by the second formula of the Tree Algorithm Essay Categorical. Imperative, the Formula of Humanity. Here it involves the recognition that. humanity (in oneself or in others) has an absolute value that places limits on how. it is permissibly treated.⁸ But in addition to its practical aspect, Kant also makes. it clear that respect has an ‘affective’ side: it is a feeling or emotion that is. experienced when the moral law checks the gatsby time inclinations and limits their influence. Though the practical and the affective aspects of respect at first seem quite. different, Kant does not keep them apart. In fact he seems to devote effort to. showing that they are the same thing. An understanding of the phenomenon in. question requires that we first distinguish them, and then see how they are related. and why Kant thinks that they coincide in us. The existence of the affective aspect. of respect also raises special questions in the context of Decision Tree and Genetic Algorithm Essay Kant’s theory. Hunger? How can. there be a ‘moral feeling’ and what is its role in moral motivation? We will see that. it is the Tree Analysis and Genetic Algorithm Essay practical aspect that is active in motivating moral conduct, while the. affective side, or feeling of respect, is its effect on certain sensible tendencies. I will. begin by looking at what Kant says about the moral feeling of respect. This feeling is most easily explained as the experience of shares constraints that the. moral law imposes on Decision Tree our inclinations. Thus, Kant stresses that it originates as a. ‘negative effect’ of our moral consciousness. When the moral law determines the. will, it frustrates the inclinations, and ‘the negative effect on feeling is itself. feeling’ (KpV 5: 73). In short, the feeling of respect is an emotion that is the effect. of, and follows from, the determination of the will by great gatsby time, the moral law, when the. latter limits the inclinations. Kant also tries to spell out a sense in which this. feeling is an incentive in moral conduct by showing how this originally negative. effect is at the same time a positive source of motivation. In us the inclinations. present obstacles that we must control, or overcome, when we act morally. Respect promotes the satisfaction of our moral interests by counteracting these. obstacles. Kant holds that it is an incentive toward good conduct in Tree Analysis Algorithm that it offsets. the influence of contrary motives, and thus moves us toward something that we. must at some level find good. This point is made in the following passage: For whatever diminishes the hindrances to an activity is a furthering of this activity. itself Therefore, respect for the moral law must be regarded as also a positive but. indirect effect of the law on games essay feeling insofar as the law weakens the Analysis hindering influence of. the inclinations by humiliating self-conceit, and must therefore be regarded as a subjective. ground of activity—that is, as the incentive for compliance with the law (KpV5: 79. Man's View? Cf. Some of Kant’s attempt to show how the feeling of respect is an incentive can be. somewhat misleading. Strictly speaking, it is not this feeling that weakens. the influence of Tree Analysis and Genetic inclinations. Time? Since, as we shall see, the feeling of respect is the. experience one has when the inclinations are weakened by a superior motive, it. presupposes that the inclinations have already been weakened. This point emerges. from a clarification which Kant himself adds to his discussion of the moral. incentive. In attempting to explain how the feeling of respect is an incentive in. good conduct, he stresses that there is ‘no antecedent feeling in Decision Tree Analysis and Genetic Essay the subject that. would be attuned to age romeo et juliette morality’ (KpV 5: 76). In other words, Kant is Decision Analysis and Genetic Algorithm Essay careful to make. it clear that he is how did change view not adopting any sort of moral sense theory. Since his aim is to. show that the will is directly responsive to practical reason, and thus that pure. reason is practical, he must avoid a view which makes use of a natural desire, or. disposition, that moves us toward moral conduct, and provides morality with its. content. He cannot explain our ability, or interest, in acting morally as a feature of. our psychological constitution, or by introducing any motivational factor beyond. the recognition of the authority of the moral law. Such a view would in effect. grant that pure reason is not practical. Thus, respect can be neither a source of. motivation, nor a standard of moral judgment, which is independent of our. recognition of the moral law.¹⁰ Such considerations underlie the following important, if obscure, remark: ‘And. so respect for the law is not the incentive to Tree Algorithm morality; instead it is morality itself. subjectively considered as an incentive inasmuch as pure practical reason, by. rejecting all the claims of self-love in opposition with its own, supplies authority. to the law, which now alone has influence’ (KpV 5: 76). Here Kant means to. say that respect is not an incentive that exists prior to, or independently of, our. recognition of the moral law, but is simply this recognition itself as it functions as. an incentive in us.¹¹ All of age romeo et juliette this suggests that the feeling of respect is an incentive. only in an attenuated sense. It is indeed the inner state of a subject who is moved. by the moral law, but the active motivating factor is always the recognition of the. moral law. Thus the moral incentive, properly speaking, is Decision Tree Essay what was distinguished. above as the practical aspect of respect. The affective aspect is the experience of. one’s natural desires being held in gatsby time check by the moral consciousness, and Decision Tree Essay, as such, an effect that occurs after, or in conjunction with, the determination of the will by. Kant’s Theory of Moral Sensibility. the moral law. At times a subject may feel as though these sensible motives are. being overpowered by a higher-order emotion, which, so to how did the renaissance man's speak, clears the way. for one to act morally—so that a specifically moral emotion would be operative as. a motive force. Tree Essay? But this is not correct, on the model Kant means to propose. One’s inclinations are held in check simply by the recognition of the moral law. (the practical aspect of respect), and this interaction between practical reason and. sensibility gives rise to the feeling of respect (the affective aspect). Et Juliette? The resulting. moral emotion ends up being something like the Decision and Genetic Algorithm way in which we experience the. activity of pure practical reason.¹² It turns out that there is a tight connection between these two aspects of. respect, due to certain facts about our nature, and this explains why Kant tends to. treat them as identical. Our sensible nature is a source of motives that conflict. with the moral disposition—specifically, because it includes the tendencies to age romeo et juliette give. priority to Decision Tree Analysis and Genetic our inclinations which Kant terms self-love and self-conceit. Kant. thinks that these motives and tendencies are always present to some degree. Thus, whenever the moral law is effective, it must overcome contrary motives that. originate in sensibility, and will thus produce some feeling. The determination of. the will by moral law will always be accompanied by an affect. Moreover, though. distinguishable, these aspects of respect need not be phenomenologically distinct, but would be experienced together. As a result, the games immediate recognition of the. moral law and the feeling that it produces represent connected aspects of what is. in us a single phenomenon. This discussion brings out a further point of some importance: Kant does not. think that the moral law determines the will through a quasi-mechanical or. affective force.¹³ Such a view is implied by his remark that respect is not an. ‘incentive to morality’, but the moral law itself regarded as an incentive. This. qualification to the account of respect is added to Decision and Genetic Algorithm Essay make it clear that moral motivation. does not require, or occur, through any feeling that exists independently of hunger essay moral. consciousness. Analysis And Genetic Algorithm? In addition, we saw that, while an affect is produced when the. moral law determines the will, it is not this affect that motivates. The picture. underlying these ideas is that, in acting from of man, respect, the simple recognition of an. obligation determines or guides one’s choice. This is to be opposed to Decision Tree Analysis and Genetic a model that. would understand the moral motive to operate by the turn screw, exerting a force on the will.¹⁴ More general grounds for this interpretation are supplied by Kant’s conception. of the freedom of the will. In the Religion Kant makes the following important. claim, which has come to be known as the Incorporation Thesis: freedom of the power of choice has the characteristic, entirely peculiar to it, that it. cannot be determined to action through any incentive except so far as the human being has. incorporated it into Decision Tree Analysis and Genetic his maxim (has made it a universal rule for himself, according to which. he wills to conduct himself); only in this way can an incentive, whatever it may be, coexist. with the absolute spontaneity of the power of market shares choice (of freedom). (Rel 6: 23–4) Kant claims here that an Analysis Algorithm Essay, incentive never determines the et juliette will directly, but only. through a spontaneous judgment or choice made by the individual that can be. expressed as the adoption of a maxim.¹⁵ This conception of free agency rules out. the idea that the Analysis Algorithm choice is determined solely by the force that an games essay, incentive might. have, or that actions should be understood as resulting from the Decision balance of forces. acting on the will. Gatsby? It indicates that Kant’s conception of choice should not be. understood on the analogy of a sum of vector forces (or of mechanical forces. acting on an object). Kant can allow an Decision Tree Analysis and Genetic Algorithm Essay, incentive to have an affective force of some. sort, but the role assigned to such force in motivation and the explanation of. action must be limited so as to leave room for the notion of choice. Thus, we may. think of respect for the law as one incentive in drink market shares competition with others, against. which it sometimes wins out. But rather than prevailing against its competitors by. exerting the greater force on the will, its influence comes from providing (and. being taken by Analysis and Genetic Algorithm Essay, the agent to provide) a certain kind of reason for age romeo et juliette choice. This is a point of interpretation, but there are deeper reasons for thinking that it. should be Kant’s view. If the moral law determines choice by exerting a force that. is stronger than the alternatives, moral conduct will result from the balance of. whatever psychological forces are acting on the will. The issue is whether this. model permits us to sustain the idea that such conduct is the outcome of volition. To see this, we might first consider why Kant cannot turn to a moral sense theory. to explain moral motivation. If the moral motive were based on a natural desire or. disposition that could be directed and refined in various ways, moral conduct. would be the result of different drives and natural desires that are present in. our psychology. Morality would then become an empirically explainable natural. phenomenon; and one would lose the notion that pure reason is practical, since. one could account for moral conduct entirely in terms of natural desires. (Whatever the merits of Analysis this view, Kant certainly wants to soft market shares avoid it.) Furthermore, it is not clear that this model leaves room for any real notion of volition or choice. The determination of action rests on the ways in which competing forces support. each other, or cancel out, so that individuals act morally when the desires moving. in the Analysis and Genetic Essay direction of moral conduct are stronger than the alternatives. Now consider. a model on soft drink market which the recognition of the moral law motivates by exerting a force. on the Decision Tree Analysis Essay will. Reason might still determine the will, but it is difficult to see how it. does so through a choice by the individual. The moral motive would still be one. psychological force among others, which is effective when it is the strongest, or. when favored by the balance of psychological forces. What is missing from this. model is the idea that the subject’s action stems ultimately from a choice made on. the basis of reasons. The concerns raised in this section lead to two further lines of inquiry which. I will pursue in the remaining sections. First, we have seen that our experience of. the activity of pure practical reason has a subjective character, due to the sensible. motives with which it interacts. This suggests that we can broaden our under- standing of respect by hunger, exploring the character of the motivational tendencies that. it offsets (Section III). Second, to Tree and Genetic fully understand how the moral law functions as. an incentive, one must see how it limits the influence of inclinations. But we will. not understand that until we see how inclinations influence the will. At this point. Kant’s Theory of Moral Sensibility. Kant’s views about specifically moral motivation begin to have implications for his. general theory of motivation. Once we grant that the moral law does not become. an incentive by exerting a force on great gatsby time the will, it becomes harder to see how it can. counteract inclinations, though Kant surely thinks that it does. Asking how this. can occur leads us to look for Tree and Genetic Essay an account of how inclinations influence the time will. that allows for this possibility. In short, on the assumption that respect for the. moral law does counteract the influence of inclination, we need a model of both. that explains how this is Decision Tree Analysis Algorithm Essay possible (Section IV). III. SELF-LOVE AND SELF-CONCEIT. In the following passage Kant provides a catalogue of different kinds of motivational. tendencies that respect for the law counteracts: All the great inclinations together constitute self-regard (solipsismus). Tree Analysis Essay? This is either the great self- regard of love for oneself [Selbstliebe], a predominant benevolence toward oneself (philautia), or that of satisfaction with oneself (arrogantia). The former is called, in particular, self-love. [Eigenliebe]; the Tree latter, self-conceit [Eigendünkel]. Pure practical reason merely infringes. upon self-love But it strikes down self-conceit altogether. (KpV 5: 73) Here self-regard (Selbstsucht) refers to hunger essay the rationally guided interest in the. satisfaction of one’s inclinations, which is indifferent to Decision Tree and Genetic Algorithm the interests of others.¹⁶ In this section I will offer an interpretation of the two kinds of motivational. tendencies that it comprises: self-love (either Selbstliebe or Eigenliebe), on hunger essay the one. hand, and self-conceit (Eigendünkel).¹⁷ Self-conceit in particular is pertinent to. an understanding of respect. The points to bear in mind are that self-love is a. ‘predominant benevolence [Wohlwollens] towards oneself’, while self-conceit. is termed ‘satisfaction [Wohlgefallens] with oneself’ and later, the Decision and Genetic Algorithm ‘opinion of. personal worth’ (KpV 5: 78). Furthermore, the moral law or pure practical reason. responds to these attitudes in different ways. It ‘merely infringes upon self-love [die. reine praktische Vernunft tut der Eigenliebe bloß Abbruch], inasmuch as it only. restricts it, as natural and active in market shares us even prior to the moral law, to the condition. of agreement with this law ’. In that case it is called ‘reasonable self-love’ (KpV. 5: 73). But it ‘strikes down’ and ‘humiliates’ self-conceit. Decision Algorithm Essay? Or as Kant later says, the moral law ‘excludes altogether the influence of hunger essay self-love on the highest. practical principle’, but ‘forever infringes upon self-conceit’ (tut dem. Eigendünkel unendlichen Abbruch) (KpV 5: 74). The influence of Tree and Genetic self-love. needs to be controlled, but self-conceit involves ‘illusion’ (KpV 5: 75). While one. may act on self-interested inclinations when properly constrained, this is the renaissance of man never. true of self-conceit, and this difference requires an explanation. The distinction between self-love and and Genetic Algorithm Essay, self-conceit is mentioned briefly in the. discussion in the Doctrine of Virtue of love and respect as different kinds of concern. that one can have (or fail to great have) toward others.¹⁸ The object of love is a person’s.