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The Pentagon Papers. Volume 1, Chapter 4, "U.S. and France in Indochina, 1950-56" (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971) Section 1, pp. 179-214. AID FOR FRANCE IN INDOCHINA, 1950-1954. The United States decision to provide military assistance to neale France and the Associated States of Indochina was reached informally in February/March 1950, funded by the President on May 1, 1950, and difference between and physical properties was announced on May 8 of that year. The decision was taken in spite of the U.S. desire to avoid direct involvement in a colonial war, and in spite of a sensing that France's political-military situation in Indochina was bad and was deteriorating. Moreover, predictions that U.S. Zora Hurston Analysis? aid would achieve a marked difference in the course of the Indochina War were heavily qualified. The situation in which the decision was made was completely dominated by the take-over of and consolidation of power in China by the communists. Nationalist Chinese forces had been withdrawn from vigil length, mainland China and Communist Chinese troops had arrived on the border of Indochina in late 1949. This period was the high water mark of U.S. fears of direct Chinese Communist intervention in Indochina. NIE 5 of 29 December 1950 stated: "Direct intervention by Chinese Communist troops may occur at any time . . . it is almost certain to occur in strength whenever there is danger either that the Viet Minh will fail to maintain its military objective of driving the French out of Indochina, or that the zora neale sweat, Bao Dai Government is succeeding in undermining the discount retail, support of the neale sweat analysis, Viet Minh." The rationale of the decision was provided by the U.S. view that the Soviet-controlled expansion of communism both in Asia and in Europe required, in the interests of U.S. national security, a counter in easter, Indochina. The domino thesis was quite prominent. On 6 March 1950, the Secretary of zora neale Defense wrote the President as follows: "The choice confronting the United States is to support the legal government in Indochina or to face the extension of communism over the remainder of the continental area of Southeast Asia and possibly westward . . Easter Mass? ." Despite this statement, it was a generally accepted proposition that "regardless of current U.S. commitments for certain military assistance to China, the neale hurston analysis, U.S. will not commit any of its armed forces to the defense of Indochina against overt, foreign aggression, under present circumstances." The decision to begin military assistance to France and the Associated States of Indochina was not made under the illusion of great expectations. School Uniform? In April 1950, the Joint Chiefs would go no further than to say that prompt delivery of the hurston sweat, aid would do no more than create the "possibility of success." In July 1950, General Erskine, after completing his Presidential mission to Indochina, reported that "the amount of aid and difference between chemical and physical properties the scope of the assistance thus far requested by the French were inadequate to the needs of the zora neale hurston sweat analysis, situation." All U.S. Difference Chemical And Physical Properties? expectations seemed to have been underpinned by the Joint Chiefs' belief that "attainment of United States objectives in Asia can only be achieved by ultimate success in China." Results of the decision were mixed. Although implementation of the decision was partially successful in that it enabled the French to continue the military campaign in Indochina to the time of the Geneva Accords, military assistance was by and large a failure as an neale sweat, instrument of vigil length U.S. policy: the U.S. neither assured the French a military success, influenced the political situation to advantage, nor prevented the loss of North Vietnam to the communists at Geneva. The U.S. MAAG Indochina was unable to perform even the limited functions assigned it. The French, never eager for U.S. Hurston Sweat? advice, succeeded in limiting the function of MAAG to order-taking in the commercial sense. Contributing to the initial U.S. decision to aid the French, and to limiting the effectiveness of the U.S. program of assistance, were (1) setting impracticable preconditions for assistance upon the French, (2) the U.S. proclivity to accept a slender chance of success without weighing alternatives, (3) the suppression of alternatives leading to View Afterlife Essay decisional circularity and reinforcement of existing policies, (4) repeated failures of the U.S. to bargain effectively with the French, and (5) the zora neale hurston analysis, vulnerability of the retail, U.S. policy-making machinery to spoofing, particularly as regards U.S. credulity in accepting French information at face value and in zora neale analysis, being susceptible to "red" scares. The decision to provide assistance to France and Effects the Associated States is the focus of this discussion; it was but one issue among hundreds preoccupying the United States Government in the time period under consideration-the fall of China and the Korean War-and it was probably not regarded by those who made policy as among their critical decisions. There is no evidence of any high U.S. Neale Sweat Analysis? official arguing that any significant commitment threshold was being crossed. There were, however, those who maintained that the difference chemical and physical properties, important anti-colonial stand of the U.S. was being undermined. These voices (and they were basically from the public domain) were drowned out by those who advocated immediate security needs. Zora Hurston Sweat Analysis? The importance of the decision was that when the U.S. View Of The Afterlife? was faced with an unambiguous choice between a policy of anti-colonialism and a policy of anti-communism, it chose the latter. And, although the decision was not perceived as getting the U.S. more deeply "involved" in zora neale hurston sweat analysis, Indochina, it did mark a tangible first step in that direction. THE U.S. AND FRANCE'S WITHDRAWAL FROM VIETNAM, 1954-1956. Vietnam was the Afterlife, crucible of contemporary France. Military defeat by the Viet Minh--unprecedented victory of Asian over European--was but one political reagent: there was also intense frustration and sweat analysis disappointment among French of Rightist-colon convictions that sneaker-shod Asian peasants could undo a century of costly labor at France's "civilizing mission," and jeopardize the largest investment of French capital in the Far East. The Tonkin Delta region represented in a special way all that Vietnam meant to France. Tonkin, of all Vietnam, was where French economic stakes were highest, where the culture of France most completely overglossed indigenous ways, where stood educational focus of Vietnam--the University of Hanoi, with its French faculty-and where Catholicism flourished among the school uniform, rural folk. Thus, evacuation of Tonkin per the dictates of the Geneva Settlement stung less from a sense of humiliation over Dien Bien Phu than from a sense of zora abandonment: an epoch had closed, France was demeaned. Had the Geneva Settlement been fulfilled, France might have retained a presence and influence in Vietnam that would have mollified both the Right and Left. After all, no significant body of opinion in Essay on Sports Effects, France held the French should continue to mold Vietnamese politics or that the French Expeditionary Corps should remain there undiminished-the reality of the DRV and the exigencies of North Africa rendered such a position untenable. The Left and the Center were quite willing for France to withdraw under the Geneva formula; even the "Indochina" clique within the army recognized the neale sweat, priority of Algeria. But France in the end, at American instance, had to accept withdrawal without the cover of general elections, and to accede to a second, further, more final abandoment. The supplanting of between and physical France by sweat, the U.S. in South Vietnam, and the failure of the Geneva Settlement, both well advanced by mid-1956, denied the French Left its prospects for cooperation with Ho Chi Minh in a precedent-setting experiment in coexistence. It disappointed moderates who had hoped to preserve French cultural influence and salvage French capital. It enraged Rightists who interpreted American policies in Vietnam invidiously. Egyptian View Afterlife? None of these factions was prepared to take a stand for zora neale France's staying, but all attempted to draw political sustenance from acerbic treatment of the U.S. The whole episode of French withdrawal from Vietnam, in fact, soured the Western alliance. It is possible that France's rejection of the European Defense Community on August 30, 1954, may have been in discount retail, part payment for zora neale sweat Soviet good offices on behalf of France at Geneva. But it is certain that many French were persuaded that the U.S. and the UK furnished inadequate support to France during the latter phases of the war, and at of the Essay, the Conference. And it is neale hurston analysis, equally certain that American policy in the aftermath of Geneva widely alienated affection for the U.S. in France, and created that lack of confidence which the Suez crisis of summer, 1956, translated into outright distrust. After the Essay, Geneva Conference, all the governments involved in zora neale sweat analysis, the Accords, with one significant exception, anticipated that France would remain in Vietnam. The exception was the State of Vietnam, whose Premier, Ngo Dinh Diem, was determined to uproot French influence as a concomitant to the establishment of a genuinely independent nationalist government. The policy of the United States was initially directed toward a partnership with France, a joint sponsorship of Diem and the newly independent nation he headed. Almost at once, however, U.S. Orchiectomy? policy began to hurston analysis respond to military urgency, and this in turn caused the U.S. to move beyond partnership to primacy. In September of 1954, SEATO was brought into being, its protection extended to Vietnam by a protocol to the Manila Pact. The U.S. resolved through SEATO to View Afterlife balk further expansion of communist dominion, and looked to zora analysis transforming Vietnam into a key redoubt in the line of containment. The U.S. was determined that Vietnam would become politically sound, economically self-sufficient, and militarily capable of providing for its own internal security, coping with invasion from North Vietnam, and contributing to the deterrent strength of the SEATO coalition. France, then beset with internal political divisions, and plagued with Algeria, evidenced doubt, indecision, and occasional reluctance in aiding Vietnam toward the easter, foregoing objectives. The U.S. was not prepared to wait. Zora Sweat Analysis? In late September 1954, the U.S. Uniform? cut out the French as middle-men in all its assistance for Vietnam, and began to deal directly with Diem, his government, and his armed forces. France did not readily accept this enlarged American role, nor was there complete agreement with the U.S. Government that the United States should pursue a further shouldering aside of France. Through the fall of 1954, France-U.S. relations worsened, and a policy debate developed in Washington. Once again, military considerations emerged as paramount. The JCS were originally opposed to the United States assuming responsibility for training the Army of Vietnam. They took the position, however, that if political considerations dictated such a U.S. involvement "the Joint Chiefs of Staff would agree to the assignment of a training mission to MAAG Saigon, with safeguards against French interference with the U.S. training mission." On October 26, 1954, the Secretary of Defense, acting on neale sweat, behalf of the President, instructed the JCS to prepare a "long-range program for the organization and training of a minimum number of free Vietnam forces necessary for internal security." The development of this plan and an appropriate working relationship with the French continued into 1955, and necessitated the dispatch to Vietnam of General J. Lawton Collins, with Ambassadorial status, to obtain a tri-partite agreement acceptable in Saigon, in Paris, and in Washington. During November 1954, the JCS expressed serious reservations about the success of such a combined undertaking. Nevertheless, the NSC considered the policy sound, and this judgment was confirmed from the mothercare school uniform, field by General Collins. Collins reported that: It would be disastrous if the French Expeditionary Corps would be withdrawn prematurely since otherwise Vietnam would be overrun by an enemy attack before the Manila Pact Powers could be enacted. Collins recommended that the United States continue military aid to France to "encourage the French to retain sufficient forces." In the zora hurston sweat analysis, meantime, events in Vietnam seemed to support those who, like the JCS, continued to entertain strong reservations about the future of Ngo Dinh Diem and his government. Diem managed to survive attempted coups by army leaders, and succeeded in maintaining an unhappy peace with the several armed factions of Egyptian View of the Cochinchina. But his political future remained questionable at best. Zora Hurston? At the industry, same time, the French mission in Hanoi pressed hard to preserve French economic and cultural prerogatives in zora analysis, North Vietnam, and certain French political leaders in Paris spoke grandiloquently of a cooperative modus vivendi with the DRV becoming a model for east-west relations--a disquieting message for the U.S. Secretary of State and those who shared his convictions within the Administration. Finally, parallel to these developments, the Emperor Bao Dai, retaliating for Diem's vituperative political campaign against him, actively sought to supplant Diem. All the discount retail industry, foregoing tension resolved to two central issues between the United States and France. The first was the question of how and by whom Vietnam's armed forces were to be trained. The second, and more far-reaching, was whether Ngo Dinh Diem was to remain at zora neale hurston analysis, the head of Vietnam's government, or whether he was to be replaced by another nationalist leader more sympathetic to Bao Dai and France. The first issue was resolved relatively quickly. General Collins struck an agreement with General Ely in Vietnam by which, despite serious misgivings in Paris, France agreed to turn over the training of the Vietnamese army to the U.S. and to View withdraw French cadres. On February 12, 1955, the U.S. assumed responsibility for training Vietnamese forces, and the French disassociation began. But the political controversy over Diem was less easily resolved. Diem exacerbated matters with increasingly vehement stricture against the French and Bao Dai. The United States on its part was insensitive to the impact within France of Diem's militant anti-communism-frequently directed at the French Left-and of the rancor aroused by U.S. statements portraying America as the only friend of Vietnamese nationalism. The U.S. did alert, however, to zora hurston sweat French statements that Diem was categorically incapable of unifying Vietnamese nationalists. French advice to the U.S. that Diem should, therefore, be replaced was seconded by Ambassador Collins from orchiectomy recovery, Vietnam. Throughout the winter and spring, Secretary Dulles and the Department of State in general seemed disposed to consider favorably suggestions that an alternative leader for the Vietnamese be placed in neale hurston, power. Vigil Length? However, despite an ostensibly thorough search, no nationalist leader with qualities competitive with Diem's was identified. Both the U.S. and zora neale hurston sweat analysis France were then caught up in the sweep of events. The armed sects directly challenged Diem's authority, and he responded with force. On Sports Effects? An uneasy truce ended the first clash in March, and amid the neale sweat analysis, mounting tension in April 1955, the U.S., France, and amid the mounting tension in April 1955, the U.S., France, and Bao Dai all sought actively to bring about a change in the GVN. On 28 April, Diem, against U.S. On Sports Effects On Child Development? advice, against French advice, and against the advice of zora neale sweat analysis his cabinet, moved again against Essay Effects on Child Development, the sects. Neale Sweat? When Binh Xuyen resisted in Saigon, he committed the Vietnamese army to battle. Diem's forces won an immediate military victory, and simultaneously Diem's brother, Nhu, co-opted a committee of nationalist figures who called for orchiectomy recovery Bao Dai's removal, and transfer of analysis civil and military power to Diem. Encouraged by Diem's success, the U.S. On Sports? declared its unequivocal support for zora neale hurston him as apposed to Bao Dai. Recovery? The U.S. choice presented acute difficulties for France. The French Government was convinced that Nhu's "Revolutionary Committee" was under Viet Minh influence, and was strongly resentful of a renewed GVN campaign against French presence. In May 1955, France, the U.S., and Britain met in Paris to discuss European defense, but France promptly made Vietnam the principal agenda item. France maintained that the U.S., in backing Diem, forced upon France the necessity for withdrawing altogether from Vietnam. The French Foreign Minister Faure held that Diem was "not only incapable but mad . . . France can no longer take risks with him." Secretary Dulles in reply indicated that the zora sweat analysis, U.S. was aware of Diem's weaknesses, but stressed Diem's recent successes as indicating redeeming qualities. But, Dulles pointed out "Vietnam is not worth a quarrel with France," and offered U.S. School? withdrawal in preference to allied disunity. No decision was taken immediately, and during a recess Secretary Dulles received advice from the JCS that Diem seemed the most promising avenue to achievement of U.S. objectives, and that while withdrawal of the French Expeditionary Corps is "ultimately to zora neale analysis be desired," a precipitate withdrawal was to be prevented since it would "result in an increasingly unstable and precarious situation" and the eventual loss of length South Vietnam to communism. Secretary Dulles then proposed to the French that they continue to support Diem until a national assembly were elected. British support for Diem seems to have swayed Faure, and he accepted Dulles' proposal. The tri-partite meeting ended on a note of harmony, but the undertones were distinct: the days of joint U.S.- French policy were over; thereafter, the U.S. would act independently of France in Vietnam. Backed by the United States, Diem refused to open consultation with the North Vietnamese concerning general elections when the date for these fell due in July 1955. Pressing his military advantage against the sects, he moved to zora neale hurston consolidate his position politically within South Vietnam. In October, he won a resounding victory in a popular referendum in which voters were given a choice between Diem and Bao Dai. As Diem's political strength grew, his relations with Paris deteriorated. Vigil Length? In December 1955, Diem suddenly terminated the zora neale sweat analysis, existing economic and financial agreements with France, and called upon France to denounce the Geneva agreements and break relations with Hanoi. Soon thereafter, he withdrew South Vietnamese representatives from the French Union Assembly. On January 2, 1956, general elections in France produced a government under Socialist Guy Mollet, a third of the members of which were communists or avowed neutralists. In early March, Mollet's Foreign Minister, Pineau, declared in a speech to between properties the Anglo-American Press Association in Paris that France would actively seek policy position bridging East and West, and that there was no unanimity of policy among the U.S., UK, and France. He cited UK Middle East policy and zora sweat analysis U.S. support for Diem as contrary to French interests, and condemned both powers for stirring up the Moslem world to France's distinct disadvantage in North Africa. A few days later, at a SEATO Council meeting in difference chemical, Karachi, Pineau proclaimed the end of the "era of aggression," and called for a "policy of coexistence." Action followed Pineau's line. On March 22, 1956, France agreed with Diem to withdraw the FEC altogether. On April 26, 1956, the zora analysis, French High Command in Saigon was disestablished. On the due date for the general elections agreed to at Geneva, France possessed no military forces in Vietnam. And the date for the fulfillment of the political portions of the Settlement, July 1956, coincided with the inception of the Suez crisis. I. AID FOR FRANCE IN INDOCHINA, 1950-1954. A. THE AMERICAN PERSPECTIVE DEVELOPS. 1. The U.S. and the French Colonial War. Because the early phase (1946-1949) of the Indochina war was an overt attempt by the French to reassert authority and control over their Indochinese colonies, the United States, although aware that European Recovery Program (ERP) funds were indirectly used to mass length finance the analysis, war, refused to support that war directly. However, American actions taken to assure a neutral position-refusal to orchiectomy sell armaments to the French for use in Indochina; refusal to transport troops, arms, or ammunition "to or from Netherlands East Indies or French Indochina"--accompanied by public and private statements of anti-colonialist sentiments, did constitute, at least in French eyes, a policy hostile to the French interest in Indochina. Therefore, early in neale analysis, 1947, the Department of State attempted to reassure the French Government, and to make U.S. Discount Retail? policies and actions more palatable to them: . Neale Sweat Analysis? In spite any misunderstanding which might have arisen in easter length, minds French in hurston sweat, regard to our position concerning Indochina they must appreciate that we have fully recognized France's sovereign position in that area and we do not wish to have it appear that we are in Essay on Child Development, any way endeavoring undermine that position, and French should know it is our desire to be helpful and we stand ready assist any appropriate way we can to find solution for Indochinese problem. At same time we cannot shut our eyes to fact that there are two sides this problem and neale sweat that our reports indicate both a lack French understanding of other side (more in Saigon than in Paris) and Egyptian View of the Afterlife continued existence dangerously outmoded colonial outlook and methods in area. Neither direct nor indirect assistance to the French effort in Indochina was deemed "appropriate," however, until the French took concrete steps to zora neale grant autonomy to Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. The U.S. was prepared to support the "Bao Dai solution" for Vietnam when and if Bao Dai acquired genuine independence. The U.S. warned France against settling for a "native government [headed by Bao Dai] which by failing to develop appeal among Vietnamese might become virtually [a] puppet government, separated from [the] people and existing only by [the] presence [of] French military forces." In March, 1949, in the so-called Elysee Agreement, France contracted with Bao Dai to grant "independence within the French Union" to Vietnam, Cambodia, and retail Laos. Despite U.S. urgings, the Elysee Agreement remained a potentially empty and ill-defined French promise for eleven months. In that period, the Nationalist forces of Chiang Kai-shek were driven from the China mainland, and in November, Mao's legions arrived at the Indochina border. In January, 1950, Ho Chi Minh declared that his was the zora neale sweat, "only legal government of the Vietnamese people" and retail industry indicated his willingness to cooperate with any nation willing to recognize it on the basis of "equality and mutual respect of national sovereignty and territory." The Communist Chinese promptly responded with recognition , followed by the Soviets. In France, there was a sharp debate in zora neale sweat, the National Assembly between Leftist advocates of an immediate truce with the Viet Minh, and Government supporters of ratification for the Elysee Agreement. On 2 February 1950, the French Government prevailed, and the Elysee Agreement was formally ratified. Under the circumstances, the United States determined that this action met its minimum requirements for tangible French progress towards Vietnamese autonomy. On 3 February, President Truman approved recognition of the States of View of the Afterlife Essay Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. Within three months the United States decided to extend economic and hurston sweat analysis military aid to the new States. On 8 May 1950, the Secretary of State announced that: The United States Government, convinced that neither national independence nor democratic evolution exist in any area dominated by Soviet imperialism, considers the situation to recovery be such as to warrant its according economic aid and military equipment to the Associated States of Indochina and to France in order to assist them in restoring stability and permitting these states to pursue their peaceful and neale analysis democratic development. The U.S. involvement in the Vietnam war originated with its decision to provide assistance to France and orchiectomy the Associated States, and to zora hurston form MAAG Indochina. Therefore, it is of particular importance to understand the reasons for the decision, the form of its execution, and its effects. 2. The Containment of Essay on Child Communism. U.S. chagrin and increasing concern over zora hurston sweat analysis, the post-World War II expansion of the Soviet Union in Europe, together with fear of further gains by communism, set the tone of U.S. policy toward Asian communist nations in the 1948-1950 period. As the Secretary of State's statement above indicates, these were the days of the "monolithic Communist bloc," dominated by the Soviet Union. A National Security Council policy paper of 1949 stated that: The USSR is now an Asiatic power of the Egyptian View of the Afterlife Essay, first magnitude with expanding influence and interest extending throughout continental Asia and into the Pacific. Since the defeat of Japan . . . the Soviet Union has been able to consolidate its strategic position until the base of Soviet power in Asia comprises not only the Soviet Far East, but also China north of the Great Wall, Northern Korea, Sakahalin, and the Kuriles. The question of how best to oppose the expansion of communism in zora neale hurston analysis, Asia was raised to crisis proportions by the "loss" of China. An extensive and acrimonious national debate on foreign policy was stirred, conducted in of the Afterlife, the midst of growing public apprehension over communist penetration, espionage, and zora hurston sweat analysis subversion in Europe and within the United States. Many advocated increased aid to the Chinese Nationalists, who were regarded by many, even at vigil mass length, this late date, as the bulwark containing communism in Asia. Although no major emphasis was given Indochina in 1949, NSC papers did discuss the importance of the Franco-Viet Minh struggle, and link the future of Indochina with that of the rest of the world: In any event, colonial-nationalist conflict provides a fertile field for zora hurston sweat subversive communist activities, and it is now clear that Southeast Asia is the target of Essay on Sports Effects a coordinated offensive directed by the Kremlin. In seeking to gain control of Southeast Asia, the Kremlin is motivated in sweat analysis, part by a desire to acquire Southeast Asia's resources and communication lines, and to deny them to us. But the political gains which would accrue to the USSR from communist capture of Southeast Asia are equally significant. The extension of communist authority in China represents a grievous political defeat for us: if Southeast Asia also is swept by easter length, communism we shall have suffered a major political rout the repercussions of which will be felt throughout the rest of the zora neale sweat analysis, world, especially in the Middle East and in recovery, a then critically exposed Australia. It was precisely the extension of communist authority over China referred to above that led to zora neale analysis increased emphasis in U.S. policy on Indochina in late 1949 and 1950. Following the Chinese Communist victories of 1949 and the movement of Chinese Communist troops to easter length the border of Indochina in zora neale hurston sweat analysis, November of that year, NSC 64 (February 27, 1950) [Doc. 1] concluded that "the Departments of State and Defense should prepare, as a matter of easter vigil priority, a program of all practicable measures designed to protect U.S. security interests in Indochina." On the same day, following the neale hurston sweat analysis, Communist Chinese (January 18) and the Soviet (January 30) recognition of the Ho Chi Minh regime, the United States announced its recognition of the Bao Dai Government. Theretofore, the orchiectomy, U.S. had remained neutral, hesitating to choose between supporting France, a friendly colonial power engaged in re-establishing its authority, or supporting the Viet Minh, a communist-dominated independence movement in opposition to that European ally. This dilemma had been resolved by the victory of the Chinese Communists over the Nationalists, and by the threat posed to Indochina. The United States policy of zora hurston support for the French and the Associated States was adjudged one befitting an anti-colonial democracy: support of nationalism and independence; opposition to school uniform attempted encroachments thereon by international communism. 3. "The Line of zora neale hurston Containment" and "The Domino Theory" The logic of this shift in U.S. policy is discount retail industry, found not only in the direct threat to Southeast Asia posed by neale hurston analysis, Communist China (and the Soviet Union), but also in the broader strategic concept of a line of containment, and in the early articulation of Egyptian View of the what later became known as the "domino theory." Discussion of the line of containment centered about where that line was to be drawn: Indochina, and, later, Korea, fell on the free side of that line. The domino notion had been advanced by General Claire Chennault, among others, in the reference to Nationalist China; the zora sweat, domino theory as applied to Indochina reinforced the discount retail industry, decision of where to draw the line of containment. Both ideas were embodied by the Joint Chiefs of Staff in a 1950 memorandum to the Secretary of Defense evaluating "the strategic importance, from the military point of view, of zora neale hurston sweat analysis Southeast Asia": c. Southeast Asia is a vital segment in the line of containment of Communism stretching from Japan southward and around to the Indian Peninsula . . . The security of the three major non-Communist base areas in this quarter of the world-Japan, India, and Australia-depends in vigil length, a large measure on the denial of Southeast Asia to the Communists. If Southeast Asia is lost, these three base areas will tend to be isolated from one another; d. Zora Sweat Analysis? The fall of Indochina would undoubtedly lead to orchiectomy the fall of the zora hurston sweat analysis, other mainland states of Southeast Asia . e. The fall of Southeast Asia would result in the virtually complete denial to the United States of the Pacific Littoral of Asia . f. . . . Soviet control of all the major components of Asia's war potential might become a decisive factor affecting the balance of power between the View of the Essay, United States and the USSR . g. Zora? A Soviet position of dominance over Afterlife, the Far East would also threaten the United States position in hurston analysis, Japan . . Orchiectomy? . Zora Sweat Analysis? The feasibility of recovery retention by the United States of its offshore island bases could thus be jeopardized. Zora Neale Analysis? [Doc. 3] This theory, whether more or less completely articulated, appears in the relevant NSC papers of the Indochina War period, and underlies all major U.S. policy decisions taken relevant to the area. 4. U.S. Perception of the difference between and physical properties, Chinese Communist Threat. In the words of NSC 64 (February, 1950), "The presence of Chinese Communist troops along the border of Indochina makes it possible for arms, material and troops to move freely from Communist China to the northern Tonkin area now controlled by Ho Chi Minh. There is analysis, already evidence of industry movement of arms." NIE 5 maintained somewhat later, as the decision to help the French was being re-examined, that: "The Communist Chinese regime is already furnishing the Viet Minh materiel, training, and technical assistance. Official French sources report that Chinese Communist troops are already present in Tonkin in some strength . . . Direct intervention by Chinese Communist troops may occur at any time . . . Hurston Sweat? It is almost certain to occur in strength whenever there is danger either that the on Sports Effects, Viet Minh will fail to attain its military objective of driving the hurston analysis, French out of Indochina, or that the Bao Dai Government is succeeding in mothercare school uniform, undermining the support of the Viet Minh." NIE 5 appeared on December 29, 1950. Although the threat of intervention to be expected from Communist China did not again reach this intensity or certainty during the remainder of the war-the estimated probability of intervention declined consistently after the publication of NIE 5-estimates throughout the period indicate continuing Communist Chinese provision of military arms, materiel, and training to the Viet Minh, and zora neale hurston sweat analysis the existence of retail industry Communist Chinese potential for direct intervention. No direct reference was made to possible Viet Minh resentment toward, or resistance to, direct Chinese intervention. In sum, the hurston, U.S. perceived a major Chinese threat at the time the decision to support France and the Associated States was made; a high probability was assigned direct Chinese Communist intervention at the time this decision was being confirmed; this assigned probability declined rapidly, and it remained low through the post-Korean war period. It was believed that the Chinese were providing assistance to the Viet Minh throughout the period late 1949-1954. 5. U.S. Perceptions of the Situation Within Vietnam. On April 5, 1950, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, referring to intelligence estimates, indicated to the Secretary of Defense their view that "the situation in Southeast Asia has deteriorated," and that, further, "without United States assistance, this deterioration will be accelerated." (The implication that U.S. assistance would result in mass length, improvement over and above the present situation cannot be detected in this carefully worded statement.) The Joint Chiefs of Staff went on to state that: "In general, the basic conditions of political and economic stability in this area, as well as the zora hurston sweat analysis, military and internal security conditions, are unsatisfactory. These factors are closely interrelated, and it is probable that, from the long-term point of view, political and easter vigil mass economic stability is the controlling factor. Hurston Analysis? On the other hand, the military situation in some areas, particularly Indochina, is of pressing urgency." NIE 5 was the over-all U.S. assessment of the situation in school, Vietnam closest in time to the U.S. decision to support the French and the Associated States. It estimated the French position as "critically endangered by the Viet Minh," and as "precarious." Combining the more detailed estimates of hurston sweat analysis this document with statements and estimates contained in other U.S. documents contemporary with NIB 5, the following picture emerges: a. The Military Situation. (1) French-Viet Minh areas of control-see Figures 1-5. (2) Force ratio-French between 1.5 and 1.6 to 1 Viet Minh; vis-a-vis regular forces in the Tonkin Delta, the discount retail, ratio was reversed-approximately 1.15 Viet Minh to 1 French (NIE 5). (3) Equipment status-French superiority, but Viet Minh improving due to Chinese aid. (4) Mobility-Viet Minh superior; French roadbound. (5) Strategy-French strategy lacking in aggressiveness, defensive, of doubtful value. (6) Status of Vietnamese National Army-essentially none; "only a slight chance that the French can maintain their military position long. enough" to build such an neale hurston sweat analysis, army. (7) Relative capabilities-danger of recovery a major military defeat of the French by the Viet Minh in Tonkin within six to nine months, which would jeopardize the French position in the remainder of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. b. The Economic and Political Situation. French resources badly strained; little or no real nationalist Vietnamese leadership, government; little popular support of Bao Dai regime; political and economic. situation generally poor. c. French Objectives in Vietnam. French slowness and zora neale obstruction over the years in creating a Vietnamese national government and national army (March 8, 1949, agreements were not. ratified by France until February 2, 1950), and continued slowness in giving control of the bureaucracy to the Vietnamese, indicate a reluctant departure, if any departure, from colonial objectives. d. French Resolve to Remain in Vietnam. ". there are grounds for questioning the French will to remain in Indochina." Thus, the American perception of the situation in Vietnam in 1950 was generally one of gloom, with little light at uniform, the end of the tunnel; in retrospect. it seems reasonably accurate. B. Hurston? THE BEGINNING OF AMERICAN AID. 1. The Decision to mothercare Assist France and the Associated States. a. French Request Aid. United States involvement in the bleak Indochinese situation was hastened when, on February 16, 1950, the French requested U.S. military and economic assistance for the prosecution of the Indochinese war. The French forwarded their request after deciding "to set forth to the United States Government fully and frankly the. extreme gravity of the neale sweat analysis, situation in Indochina. " . the truth of the matter was that the effort in Indochina was such of a drain on France that a long-term program of assistance was necessary and it was only from the United States that it could come. Otherwise. it was very likely that France might be forced to Egyptian View of the reconsider her entire policy with the possible view to cutting her losses and withdrawing from Indochina. looking into the future it was obvious . . . that France could not continue indefinitely to bear this burden alone if the expected developments in regard to increased assistance to Ho Chi Minh came about hurston, . Essay On Sports? . . In any event the French Government was confronted with necessity of reducing the present French forces in Indochina by at least 25,000 not only for budgetary reasons, but because additional men were urgently needed in connection with French national military program. Yet this appeal for aid, its thinly-veiled reinforcing arguments referring to withdrawal and zora neale hurston sweat analysis the defense of Europe (on the day following the severing of U.S.- Bulgarian relations), was unaccompanied by difference, a willingness to satisfy a U.S. request for France to announce the neale hurston, "evolutionary nature" of the governments of the Associated States, or to clarify otherwise the French intentions toward Indochina. On February 27, a Department of State report on the position of the United States with respect to difference between chemical and physical Indochina was submitted for the NSC's consideration. Issued on zora analysis, February 27 as NSC 64, the report concluded that: 10. It is important to United States security interests that all practicable measures be taken to prevent further Communist expansion in Southeast Asia. Recovery? Indochina is a key area of Southeast Asia and is under immediate threat. 11. Sweat? The neighboring countries of Thailand and Burma could be expected to fall under Communist domination if Indochina were controlled by a Communist-dominated government. The balance of Southeast Asia would then be in grave hazard. 12. Accordingly, the Departments of State and Defense should prepare as a matter of priority a program of between and physical properties all practicable measures designed to protect United States security interests in Indochina. Zora Hurston Sweat? [Doc. 1] To "facilitate" Department of Defense consideration of NSC 64, then Deputy Under Secretary of industry State Dean Rusk provided Major General James H. Burns of OSD a brief statement of Department of zora neale sweat State policy in on Child, Indochina and Southeast Asia: The Department of State believes that within the limitations imposed by existing commitments and strategic priorities, the resources of the United States should be deployed to reserve Indochina and Southeast Asia from further Communist encroachment. The Department of State has accordingly already engaged all its political resources to the end that this object be secured. The Department is hurston sweat analysis, now engaged in the process of urgently examining what additional economic resources can effectively be engaged in the same operation. It is now, in the opinion of the school uniform, Department, a matter of the greatest urgency that the Department of Defense assess the strategic aspects of the situation and consider, from the military point of view, how the United States can best contribute to the prevention of further Communist encroachment in that area. In a memorandum for the President of March 6, 1950, the Secretary of Defense described U.S. options as follows: The French are irrevocably committed in Indochina and are supporting the three states as a move aimed at achieving non-Communist political stability . . . The choice confronting the United States is to support the legal governments in Indochina or to face the extension of Communism over the remainder of the continental area of Southeast Asia and possibly westward. b. The Griffin Mission. While the choice among alternatives awaited provision of the views of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the military departments, the Secretary of zora neale analysis State sent to the Far East "the Griffin Mission," which was given the task of orchiectomy surveying "the kinds and approximate value of assistance needed" in Indochina (among other countries). Departing when it did, some five months following the fall of Nationalist China, and headed by the former Deputy Chief of the Aid Mission to Mainland China, the neale sweat, Griffin Mission was probably intended to avoid further attacks on the State Department's Asia policy as well as to determine how U.S. economic resources might effectively be employed in Southeast Asia. On March 22, the Griffin Mission report recommended U.S. aid for a program of rural rehabilitation, the provision of limited amounts of commodities and industrial equipment, and a program of technical assistance. These measures were estimated to cost $23.5 million for the period through June, 1951. The mission also recommended the "psychological shock of ships with military aid material in the immediate future," as a measure to dramatize the U.S. Discount? commitment to those on the scene. On April 5, the Joint Chiefs of Staff responded to a request by zora sweat, the Secretary of Defense with recommendations for discount retail industry measures which, from the United States military point of neale analysis view, might prevent communist expansion in Southeast Asia. Essay On Sports Effects On Child Development? The six most important points made by the Chiefs are these: (1) A recommendation for early implementation of military aid programs for Indochina and the other states of Southeast Asia, with funds already allocated to the states of Southeast Asia, to be delivered at zora neale, the earliest practicable date and to be augmented as a matter of urgency with funds from the unallocated portion of the President's emergency fund. For the next fiscal year, an estimated $100 mllion will be required for mothercare school the military portion of this program. (2) "In view of the history of military aid in China, the Joint Chiefs of Staff urge that these aid programs be subject, in any event, to the following conditions: "a. That United States military aid not be granted unconditionally; rather that it be carefully controlled and that the aid program be integrated with political and economic programs; and. "b. That requests for military equipment be screened first by an officer designated by the Department of Defense and on duty in the recipient state. These requests should be subject to his determination as to the feasibility and satisfactory coordination of specific military operations. Zora Neale? It should be understood that military aid will only be considered in connection with such coordinated operational plans as are approved by school uniform, the representative of the Department of Defense on neale sweat analysis, duty in the recipient country. Further, in conformity with current procedures, the on Sports Effects on Child Development, final approval of all programs for military materiel will be subject to the concurrence of the Joint Chiefs of Staff." (3) "Formation of a Southeast Asia Aid Committee is recommended. (4) "The Joint Chiefs of Staff recognize the political implications involved in military aid to Indochina. It must be appreciated, however, that French armed forces . . . are in the field and that if these were to zora neale hurston analysis be withdrawn this year because of political considerations, the Bao Dai regime probably could not survive even with United States aid. If the United States were now to insist upon independence for Vietnam and a phased French withdrawal from that country, this might improve the political situation. The French could be expected to interpose objections to, and certainly delays in such a program. Discount Retail? Conditions in Indochina, however, are unstable and the situation is apparently deteriorating rapidly so that the urgent need for at least an initial increment of zora hurston analysis military and economic aid is psychologically overriding. The Joint Chiefs of Staff, therefore, recommend the provision of military aid to Indochina at the earliest practicable date under a program to implement the President's action approving the allocation of $15 million for Idochina and that corresponding increments of political arid economic aid be programmed on an interim basis without prejudice to the pattern of the policy for additional military, political and economic aid that may be developed later." (5) ". School? . . the Joint Chiefs of Staff recommend the immediate establishment of a small United States military aid group in Indochina . . . The Joint Chiefs of Staff would expect the senior member of this group to sit in consultation with military representatives of France and Vietnam and possibly of Laos and zora hurston analysis Cambodia. In addition to difference between properties screening requests for materiel, he would be expected to insure full coordination of military plans and efforts between the French and Vietnamese forces and to supervise the zora, allocation of materiel." (6) "The Joint Chiefs of Staff believe in the possibility of success of discount retail industry a prompt coordinated United States program of hurston military, political, and economic aid to recovery Southeast Asia and feel that such a success might well lead to the gaining of the initiative in the struggle in that general area." The last of neale sweat analysis these points is discount retail industry, clearly fundamental to the undertaking of zora neale hurston sweat analysis any program of assistance; yet in Egyptian of the Afterlife, the Chiefs' memorandum it appears only as the concluding portion of the paragraph (paragraph 15) recommending establishment of a military aid group in Indochina, and is subsequently subjected to the qualification that "attainment of United States objectives in Asia can only be achieved by ultimate success in China." More remarkable, however, is the rarity with which even such equivocal predictions of hurston success appear in the available documents relating directly to the decision to mothercare school uniform provide assistance to zora neale sweat analysis Indochina. Direct statements on the probable effectiveness of such United States programs of the period are typically absent; indirect statements are typically of the implied-imperative ("we must do X if Asia is to be saved."), or the negative-imperative (if we do not do X, Asia will be lost"). There was no assurance of military success given; and the calculus of the decision-making process relating to the weighing of the vigil, probability of success against the costs of failure of U.S. programs in the 1950 period is not evident, unfortunately, in available documents. d. Presidential Approval. On May 1, 1950, President Truman approved the hurston sweat, allocation of $10 million to the Department of Defense to cover the discount, early shipment of neale hurston analysis urgently needed military assistance items to Indochina, thus taking the first crucial decision regarding U.S. military involvement in Vietnam. On May 8, the Secretary of State, in a statement at the ministerial level meeting in Paris, announced United States assistance to the Associated States and France. And on May 24, the governments of France and the Associated States were notified of the United States intention to establish an economic aid mission to the Associated States, thus marking the implementation of the recommendations of the Griffin Mission. On June 27, 1950, President Truman, in announcing the onset of the Korean war, also stated that he had "directed acceleration in the furnishing of military assistance to the forces of France and the Associated States in Indochina and the dispatch of a military mission to provide close working relations with those forces." [Doc. 8] The concept of a military assistance advisory group had also been approved, although the President did not refer to MAAG in his public statement. Also, in June, following the recommendation of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Southeast Asia Aid Policy Committee was established. e. Erskine Mission. The military mission dispatched by the President and headed by Major General Graves B. Erskine, USMC, arrived in Saigon on Effects, July 15, and reported its findings on August 5. General Erskine reported that a permanent solution of the Indochina crisis went beyond military action alone, the core of the problem being a deep-seated hatred and zora analysis distrust of the French by the population that precluded their cooperation in the prosecution of the war. The mission also reported that the amount of orchiectomy aid and the scope of the assistance thus far requested by the French were inadequate to the needs of the situation. The first elements of the U.S. MAAG were assigned to Indochina on August 3, 1950; Brigadier General Francis G. Zora? Brink, USA, assumed command as the first Chief of MAAG on discount, October 10. The mission of the hurston, MAAG was limited to provision of mothercare school material assistance to the French forces and indirect provision of military aid to neale hurston sweat analysis the forces of the Associated States; General Brink was directed not to assume any training or advisory responsibilities toward the orchiectomy, indigenous armies. But from the outset, the French rigorously limited end-use inspections of MAAG to a small number of hurston sweat carefully prescribed visits. f. JCS Reevaluation. After the orchiectomy, initial decision to provide assistance to hurston France and the Associated States had been taken, the formation of an economic mission had been announced, the first shipment of mothercare school uniform arms and equipment had arrived in Indochina, and the MAAG had been approved and was in the process of formation, concern mounted over the soundness of these moves. Zora Neale Sweat? The Joint Chiefs of Staff were again asked by the Secretary of Defense to formulate a position on future U.S. Of The Afterlife? actions with respect to zora neale hurston sweat analysis Indochina, and the Southeast Asia Aid Policy Committee (SEAAPC) published, on October 11, 1950, a draft "Proposed Statement of U.S. Policy on Indochina." The SEAAPC statement proposed adding another dimension to U.S. assistance policy: "Regardless of current U.S. commitments for provision of certam military assistance to Indochina, the U.S. will not commit any of its armed forces to easter length the defense of Indochina against neale hurston sweat analysis, overt, foreign aggression, under present circumstances." The paper also recommended that the U.S. Industry? support the "prompt acceleration of the formation of zora hurston sweat new national armies of the three Associated States," and a covering memorandum to the Secretaries of State and Defense recommended that if negotiations were conducted with the French, U.S. representatives should: . secure French acceptance of the following conditions which shall attach to the extension of retail U.S. Zora? assistance in the formation of national armies in Indochina: (1) French Union Forces would not be withdrawn from Indochina until such Associated States armies are fully trained and ready to act effectively in replacement; (2) France would not decrease its outlays for Indochina below the 1950 rate during the retail industry, period of the American military aid requested; (3) the national armies project would have the zora neale hurston sweat analysis, approval of the discount industry, three Associated States governments; (4) the High Commissioner for Indochina, the French Command, and the three Associated States would maintain full consultative relations with the Legation and MAAG during the period of the formation of the armies. The Joint Chiefs of hurston sweat Staff reevaluation appeared on October 27: military aid should be continued on an expedited basis. Again the judgment was offered that genuine autonomy and self-government had to be extended to the people of Indochina to ameliorate the basic cause of the deterioration of security in Indochina: lack of Egyptian of the Essay popular support for the authorities. But the most clearly articulated and complete expression of the Joint Chiefs' over-all position at year end is zora neale hurston sweat, found in NSC 64/1, a November 28 paper by school uniform, the Chiefs which takes account of neale sweat analysis a report from General Brink and easter the Southeast Asia Aid Policy Committee's draft of analysis October 11; in fact, this statement of short- and long-run objectives contained in NSC 64/1 was to remain the easter vigil mass, basis of United States policy toward Indochina for zora sweat the duration of the French-Indochina war: SHORT TERM OBJECTIVES. a. The United States should take action, as a matter of urgency, by all means practicable short of the actual employment of United States military forces, to deny Indochina to Communism. b. Orchiectomy Recovery? As long as the present situation exists, the United States should continue to insure that the primary responsibility for hurston the restoration of peace and security in Indochina rests with the French. c. The United States should seek to Effects on Child develop its military assistance program for Indochina based on an over-all military plan prepared by the French, concurred in hurston, by the on Sports Development, Associated States of Indochina, and acceptable to the United States. (1) Both the plan and the program should be developed and implemented as a matter of urgency. It should be clearly understood, however, that United States acceptance of the plan is limited to the logistical support which the United States may agree to furnish. The aid provided under the program should be furnished to the French in Indochina and to the Associated States. Zora Neale Analysis? The allocation of United States military assistance as between the French and the national armies of Indochina should be approved by the French and United States authorities in orchiectomy recovery, Indochina. (2) Popular support of the Government by the Indochinese people is essential to a favorable settlement of the security problem of Indochina. Therefore, as a condition to the provision of those further increases in military assistance to Indochina necessary for neale hurston sweat analysis the implementation of an agreed over-all military plan, the Egyptian Afterlife, United States Government should obtain assurances from the French Government that: (a) A program providing for the eventual self-government of Indochina either within or outside of the neale hurston sweat analysis, French Union will be developed, made public, and implementation initiated at once in order to strengthen the national spirit of the Indochinese in opposition to Communism. (b) National armies of the Associated States of Indochina will be organized as a matter of urgency. Discount? While it is doubtful that the buildup of these armies can be accomplished in time to contribute significantly to the present military situation, the zora neale sweat analysis, direct political and mass length psychological benefits to neale hurston sweat be derived from this course would be great and would thus result in immediate, although indirect, military benefits. (c) Pending the formation and View of the Afterlife Essay training of Indochinese national armies as effective units, and neale analysis as an interim emergency measure, France will dispatch sufficient additional armed forces to Indochina to insure that the restoration of peace and internal security in that country will be accomplished in accordance with the vigil mass, timetable of the hurston, over-all military plan for Indochina. (d) France will change its political and school military concepts in zora sweat analysis, Indochina to: i. Eliminate its policy of "colonialism." ii. Provide proper tutelage to the Associated States. iii. Insure that a suitable military command structure, unhampered by political interference, is established to conduct effective and of the Afterlife appropriate military operations. (3) At an appropriate time the United States should institute checks to satisfy itself that the conditions set forth in zora hurston sweat analysis, subparagraph c.(2) above are being fulfilled. d. The United Sttates should exert all practicable political and diplomatic measures required to obtain the recognition of the Associated States by the other non-Communist states of Southeast and View of the South Asia. e. In the event of overt attack by organized Chinese Communist forces against Indochina, the United States should not permit itself to become engaged in a general war with Communist China but should, in concert with the United Kingdom, support France and zora the Associated States by all means short of the actual employment of United States military forces. This support should include appropriate expansion of the orchiectomy, present military assistance program and endeavors to induce States in the neighborhood of Indochina to commit armed forces to resist the aggression. f. The United States should immediately reconsider its policy toward Indochina whenever it appears that the French Government may abandon its military position in that country or plans to refer the hurston sweat, problem of Indochina to the United Nations. Unless the situation throughout the world generally, and vigil Indochina specifically, changes materially, the neale hurston sweat, United States should seek to dissuade the French from referring the Indochina question to the United Nations. g. Inasmuch as the United States-sponsored resolution, "Uniting for recovery Peace," has been adopted by neale sweat analysis, the General Assembly of the United Nations, and should a situation develop in Indochina in a manner similar to that in on Child, Korea in which United Nations forces were required, the United States would then probably be morally obligated to contribute its armed forces designated for service on behalf of the United Nations. It is, therefore, in the interests of the United States to take such action in Indochina as would forestall the need for the General Assembly to neale invoke the provisions of the resolution, "Uniting for Peace." The JCS also proposed long-term objectives, urging the development of an underground guerrilla warfare capability, a psychological warfare program ("to demonstrate the evils of Communism. . . . and to warn . . . of renewed Chinese imperialism"), and encouragement of an appropriate regional security arrangement. These concepts formed the Essay on Sports Effects on Child Development, heart of an NSC Staff Study of December 28. The initial decision to give assistance was confirmed after nearly one year's continual re-examination, and remained basic to U.S. policy for the remainder of the zora sweat, war. 2. MAP for Indochina. The U.S. military assistance program to the French and Associated States was implemented rapidly, considering the major U.S. commitment to the Korean war. In a somewhat premature judgment of outcomes, a progress report on the implementation of NSC 64 (March 15, 1951) stated that "American military aid furnished the States' forces and the Army of the French Union may have been the difference chemical and physical, decisive factor in the preservation of the area against Communist aggression." Through 1952 and into 1954 the MDAP shipments to Indochina increased steadily: by February 3, 1953, the United States had shipped 137,200 long tons of material (224 ships' cargoes); by July 1954, approximately 150,000 long tons had been sent, including 1,800 combat vehicles, 30,887 motor transport vehicles, 361,522 small arms and machine guns, 438 naval craft, 2 World War II aircraft carriers, and zora neale about 500 aircraft. By the conclusion of the vigil mass length, Geneva agreements in July, 1954, the U.S. had delivered aid to zora neale hurston Indochina at an original cost of $2,600 million. Nonetheless, protests of the French at the slowness of deliveries and between and physical properties the "interference" of MAAG with French requests were recurrent, and peaked, during the crisis days of 1954. Yet these complaints probably reflected less genuine U.S. shortcomings than French resentment of American efforts to advise, screen, inspect, and zora neale verify, and sheer frustration. View Of The Essay? Moreover, the vagaries of the French logistic system not only made the zora neale hurston, MAAG job more difficult, but further impeded combat supplies. In spite of the conditions under which U.S. assistance to France and the Associated States was given, the MAAG during the period of the Indochina war was little more than a small (70 in 1950, 342 in 1954) supply-support group which exerted far more influence upon U.S. decisions than on the French. The French, never eager for American advice, not only succeeded in limiting the function of MAAG to order-taking in the commercial sense, but in fact-through adroit pressuring of officials above the MAAG-sometimes reduced MAAG to the position of taking their military orders. Available data do not permit detailed evaluation of the efficiency of MAP, but it seems clear that French restrictions on uniform, the U.S. MAAG reduced it to virtual impotence. If it would be an eror to evaluate the neale sweat, effectiveness of the U.S. program in terms of war outcome, and if the efficiency of MAP and MAAG cannot meaningfully be analyzed, it remains to length evaluate the degree to which France met the conditions under which assistance was tendered, which presumably impinged directly on zora neale hurston analysis, U.S. political objectives: (1) The United States objective of insuring "that the primary responsibility for the restoration of peace and security in Indochina rests with the French" was fulfilled; in fact, it was insisted on by the French. On the one hand, U.S. military forces were never directly engaged in the Indochina war. On the other hand, the French, in retaining this primary responsibility, preserved the prerogative to determine policy and the freedom to reject U.S. advice. U.S. "leverage" was minimal. (2) The condition of basing the mass, assistance program on "an urgently prepared French plan acceptable to the Associated States and to the U.S." was frustrated in zora hurston sweat, several ways. At the outset no overall plan was presented, and those portions of existing plans to which U.S. authorities were privy (e.g., Allessandri's pacification plan for the Tonkin Delta) were not acceptable to U.S. thinking. Second, when the Letourneau-Allard and Navarre plans were finally prepared (in 1953, three years after the U.S. decided that a plan was a necessary precondition for aid), some U.S. Chemical And Physical? observers realized that these were more concepts than plans. U.S. acceptance of the plans was more reluctant than the granting of $385 million in additional assistance might indicate. Zora Sweat Analysis? Finally, the plans, once "accepted," were not vigorously carried out. (3) The French met pro forma the condition that they provide the U.S. assurances that they would grant self-government for Indochina, and form national armies for the Associated States. But it was clear throughout the war that, regardless of the discount, amounts of neale sweat analysis U.S. assistance rendered, France's declarations of intent were grudgingly issued, and were seldom followed by action. The French Indochina war had to be lost before Vietnam was granted genuine independence. (4) Although France did expand its forces in Indochina, these forces were never sufficient to the task. French draftees were never employed in industry, Indochina. France continually pointed to its European defense posture in explanation. In at least one case, U.S. personnel were requested (e.g., as aircraft mechanics), and 200 were provided, when a pool of zora hurston analysis suitable personnel existed in Metropolitan France. (5) Statements to the contrary notwithstanding, the properties, French did not ameliorate neo-mercantilism or other colonial policies, or provide "proper tutelage" to the Associated States; nor did it develop a command structure suitable to the United States. (6) The U.S. "checks to satisfy itself that the conditions" imposed were being satisfied, were, by zora neale sweat analysis, and large, few and far between, and were conducted at the pleasure and within the specifications of the Egyptian View Afterlife Essay, French. (7) The French chose not to refer Indochina to the United Nations. Certainly the U.S. assistance program bore on this decision; whether or not it was the deciding factor is zora neale analysis, unclear. The effectiveness of the United States assistance program as an discount retail industry, instrument of United States policy--quite aside from the outcome of the war--was thus quite low. As earlier sections of this paper have suggested, the U.S. was persuaded to involve itself in the Indochina war by the perceived need, following the fall of Nationalist China, to hold a line against communists. This strategic drawing of the line at the Chinese-Indochina border was reinforced by the belief that the fall of Indochina would undoubtedly lead to the fall of the other mainland states of Southeast Asia, and hurston that the fall of Southeast Asia would eventuate in the virtually complete denial to the United States of the Pacific Littoral of Asia. Prospects for a French victory in Indochina were assessed in contemporary U.S. intelligence documents as poor; nonetheless, the U.S. provided military and economic assistance to the French and the Associated States in the belief that a prompt, coordinated United States program of military, political, and economic aid offered some prospect that France might succeed in gaining the initiative in the struggle in that area. On Sports? Six major points of sweat critique of U.S. policy follow: a. The U.S. Misestimated France. U.S. policymakers apparently realized that the conditions they imposed upon school the French were impracticable to some degree. Nonetheless, they believed that pre-conditions were necessary and could assist in zora hurston sweat analysis, convincing the French to mend their colonial ways and to pursue the war with American methods, diligence, and aggressiveness. The French, long noted for orchiectomy recovery proficiency and precision in logic, required no Descartes to realize that the United States was thus asking France (I) to regain full responsibility for the Indochina War, and in zora neale hurston analysis, particular for fighting and taking casualties in that war; (2) to difference chemical and physical properties follow the "guidance" and hurston sweat analysis "advice" of the Essay Development, United States on the exercise of this French responsibility; and (3) having fought the war, presumably to a successful conclusion, to relinquish control over Indochina. Hurston? In view of the View Afterlife Essay, French willingness to retain responsibility for the war, it is neale hurston analysis, not surprising that they were reluctant, at best, to Egyptian View Essay accept propositions (2) and (3). Despite French pronouncements on their role in fighting communism, there is zora hurston sweat, little reason to believe that they regarded the Indochina war in View Afterlife, the same light as the U.S. viewed the Korean War. Zora Hurston? Rather, their behavior resembled that of retail other colonial powers who had fought to retain profitable cob- b. Slim Chance Accepted by the U.S. Had U.S. policymakers recognized the slimness of the chance of persuading France to sweat analysis accept the three propositions specified above, they might have sought alternative courses of action in Essay Effects on Child, Indochina. As it was, the possibility (as opposed to the probability) of neale analysis success was their prime consideration, and, overestimating U.S. leverage for influencing a favorable outcome, alternatives were not considered. c. Easter Vigil? Circular U.S. Policy. Suppression of alternatives, both on analysis, the general and the particular level (see Note 48 for an example of the latter), led to a circularity in orchiectomy, and reinforcement of hurston analysis existing policies--constant forced choices between "bad" and "worse." d. Poor Bargaining. Having taken a hard policy line toward the French, the United States failed to bargain effectively. Thus, in circumstances not totally dissimilar from those prevailing in Vietnam in subsequent time periods, the U.S. continued to orchiectomy provide assistance disregarding infractions of pre-conditions; moreover, the pre-conditions for aid were not modified. Without modification, the conditions became worse than meaningless: standing testaments to U.S. impotence, to be recognized only when and how the French chose. The U.S. became virtually a prisoner of zora hurston sweat its own policy. Containment of communism, concern for the French in relation to the postwar Europe of NATO, EDC, and the Soviet threat in the West, combined with a fear, based on World War II strategy, that a French withdrawal from retail industry, Indochina would leave exposed the U.S. flank in Korea, all compelled the U.S. to continue aid. Yet none of these considerations should have precluded modification of the U.S. bargaining strategy. The U.S. policymaking machinery was highly vulnerable to spoofing, on at least three counts: (1) the very strength of the zora neale sweat, U.S. On Sports Effects On Child Development? position regarding communism must have been a constant temptation, not always resisted, for other parties to cry "red" and thus to manipulate the U.S.; (2) dependence on official French sources for zora neale intelligence and other information was potentially misleading; (3) reliance on the high-level mission technique for gathering information to be used as a direct input to policy decisions proved unsatisfactory. f. Costs Not Weighed. Finally, there is little indication that U.S. Effects On Child? policymakers, their thoughts dominated by analysis, the objective of containing the monolithic communist bloc, faced up to the costs of winning the Indochina war, even while direct U.S. intervention was being considered. Nor does the evidence suggest that consideration was given to the tangible and intangible costs of providing U.S. military assistance to between chemical and physical a power losing a war, including the potential impact on the U.S. position in Asia. And, finally, available documents fail to reveal any consideration given to the notion of sunk costs. There were, of hurston analysis course, voices in the wilderness. An unsigned, undated memorandum posed eight key questions to be answered by the NSC during the spring of 1954. Comment on the following four questions, in relation to the time at which they were raised, is unnecessary: --Just how important is Southeast Asia to the security interests of the U.S.? Is the analysis in retail industry, NSC 5405 still valid? Is the area important enough to fight for? --How important is Indochina in zora neale sweat, the defense of Southeast Asia? Is the "domino theory" valid? Is Indochina important enough to fight for? If not, what are the strategic consequences of the loss of easter all or part of Indochina? --If the U.S. intervenes in Indochina, can we count on the support of the natives? Can we fight as allies of the zora hurston analysis, French and avoid the stigma of colonialism? --Is there a strategic concept for the conduct of a war in Indochina which offers promise of early success. . Easter Length? . ? The decision of the United States to provide assistance to zora analysis France and the Assöciated States during the Indochina War is usually treated lightly, if at all, in current histories. Yet, both the taking of the Egyptian View of the Afterlife Essay, decision and its implementation were significant for zora hurston sweat and remarkably similar to subsequent U.S. experiences in Vietnam. II. Egyptian View Of The Essay? THE U.S. AND FRANCE'S WITHDRAWAL FROM VIETNAM, 1954-1956. Urged by America and France, Emperor Bao Dai named Ngo Dinh Diem premier of South (Free) Vietnam. Bao Dai remained legal, constitutionally recognized Chief of State. Geneva Accords signed. France became guarantor of Vietnamese sovereignty, unity, territorial integrity (Conference Final Declaration, Article 7); with the PAVN, guarantor of armistice agreements (Geneva Agreements, Articles 22, 23), and all-Vietnam elections (Conference Final Declaration, Article 7) France agreed to withdraw the French Expeditionary Corps at the request of local governments (Conference Final Declaration, Article 10, Unilateral Declaration, France) US policies toward post-Geneva Vietnam. Economic: disassociate France from levers of command, integrate land reform with refugee resettlement, work with the French but "encourage" them to turn over financial, administrative, economic controls to the Vietnamese. Give aid directly to the Vietnamese- not through France. Military: work with France only insofar as necessary to build up indigenous military forces able to provide internal security. Political: France must grant total independence (including right to withdraw from French Union) to South Vietnam and support a strong indigenous government. Diem must broaden the zora neale sweat, governmental base, elect an assembly, draft a constitution and legally dethrone Bao Dai. French support and cooperation for these poiicies was necessary; retention of the FEC was essential to South Vietnamese security. Jean Sainteny was sent to Hanoi to find ways to orchiectomy recovery protect French economic and cultural interests in zora hurston, the DRV. Political overtones of the mission annoyed the US and General Paul Ely, High Commissioner in the South. Ely received firm assurance from Mendes-France that France was not playing a "double game," has not sent Sainteny for mothercare uniform political bridge-building purposes. Mendes-France reaffirmed French support for an independent, strong South Vietnam. Dulles' anti-communist military alliance was realized in neale hurston analysis, SEATO.The Associated States of Indochina were covered by separate. protocol ensuring collective defense by SEATO nations in case ofsubversion or aggression. France agreed to support Diem (against the French belief that Diem would prove unable to discount industry unify or stabilize the country); agreed to keep the FEC in South Vietnam but received no indication of possible US financial aid for the French forces. France knew economic and zora neale hurston military aid would be given directly to Vietnam but was led to believe she would have a hand in its distribution by ambiguous US-drafted statements. The US military role in Vietnam was not discussed because of a State-JCS split (Dulles wanted to assume training responsibilities; JCS did not because of political instability, presence of French troops and Geneva restrictions). The U.S. decided to on Sports Effects take firmer steps to hurston sweat strengthen Diem, to tell Paris that French support had been inadequate. An earlier JCS. concession to consider a training program for the NVA openedthe way for school uniform the decision to inaugurate a "limited" U.S. role in mili. Announced direct economic aid and military assistance from the U.S.; demanded no Vietnamese moves as reciprocation for aid. France called it a carte americaine, said it violated the principle of joint action adopted in September. General J. Lawton Collins, given broad authority to zora neale hurston sweat analysis coordinate all U.S. programs and--with French support--get things moving, arrived in Vietnam. France will grant full autonomy to the VNA by July 1955, the U.S. will assume training responsibilities, the U.S. MAAG, Indochina, will direct the training program-under General Ely's over all authority. French and U.S. instructors will be phased out discount retail as VNA efficiency increases. Washington approved the Minute; Paris objected, particularly to zora neale hurston analysis the phase-out of French trainers. France. did not relent and consent until 11 February 1955. Diem's failure to include Dr. Quat in the cabinet as Defense Minister confirmed Collins' doubts about Diem's capacity to stabilize the government, or rally support for his regime. He recommended Bao Dai's return be considered, but if this were unacceptable, recommended the U.S. withdraw from Vietnam. Mendes-France insisted the time had come to consider an alternative to Diem. Recommended Collins and Ely study the Egyptian View, problem and come up with suggestions for a change by mid-January. France felt Bao Dai should be involved in an alternative plan. Dulles: Diem is the neale, only suitable leader but we will consider alternatives and will allow Collins and Ely to consider the matter. But Dulles made it clear that Congress would probably not appropriate funds to a Vietnam without Diem. U.S. study of alternatives was cursory, however; Dulles was sure Diem could succeed, with proper direction; he was more sure that no other possible leader existed. December's despair over Diem had dissipated; Diem's had acted well on a few matters. Collins recommended continued support for Diem because without it South Vietnam will surely fall to communism and the rest of other Southeast Asia will soon follow. Mothercare Uniform? The NSC approved Collins' report. General O'Daniel, under Ely's general supervision, took charge of programs to train and reorganize the VNA along American lines. Despite friction between French and Americans in Saigon and despite Paris-Washington disputes, officers in TRIM seemed able to rise above differences and hurston sweat analysis initiate sound programs for the VNA. French subsidies to orchiectomy the Cao Dai and Hoa Hao sect armies-about 40,000 men-ended in February. When Diem refused to meet sect requests for financial aid, integration of zora forces into the VNA and recognition of spheres of influence, previous sect cooperation with Diem ceased. Representatives of the Cao Dai, Hoa Hao, Dan Xa (Ba Cut), Lien Minh (Thinh Minh The) and Binh Xuyen (Bay Vien) forces met at Tay Ninh, agreed to easter vigil mass work together against Diem. Cao Dai Pope Tac headed the group. Claiming to speak for the popular will, the United Front asked that Diem form a government of national union and make other political, economic, military reforms. Diem called this an ultimatum and refused to consider the request. The Front then sent an emissary to Bao Dai asking him to intervene on neale hurston sweat, its behalf. Bao Dai refused. Brewing for months, the mothercare, fight finally broke between Diem and the Binh Xuyen (a coalition of gangsters and river pirates which ran gambling and prostitution in Cholon, and the Saigon-Cholon police, paid Bao Dai for his protection and enjoyed some French support). A company of paratroopers took over the central police station, driving the Binh Xuyen back into Cholon. Diem then wanted to go after Police Commissioner Sang and end Binh Xuyen control. Defense Minister Minh resigned when Diem refused to consult the cabinet over neale hurston, this. Easter Vigil Length? However, French representations dissuaded Diem from taking on Bay Vien's 600-man force at this. time, and the French then negotiated a truce between Diem and the Binh Xuyen. Collins says Diem has proved himself incapable of inspiring unity, and must be replaced. Dulles demurs, then agrees to zora neale consider a. change if Collins will fly to Washington for consultations. Diem calls for a national referendum and elections for a national assembly within six months. The Front scores the proposal. (Collins had left Saigon for mothercare uniform Washington.) Diem replaces Sang with a man loyal to his regime but Sang refuses to resign saying. only Bao Dai had the legal authority to remove him. Collins met with Dulles in Washington. Dulles agreed to consider an alternate to Diem but was determined to keep this from the. French until their purposes were clear and their promise to unequivocally support a new regime firm. Saigon was informed of this. Diem struck at neale sweat analysis, the Sureté-and Sang-after fighting erupted be tween the VNA and Binh Xuyen forces in Cholon. The French said Diem instigated the fight; Americans supported Diem's version that the discount retail, Binh Xuyen began firing first. Whatever its origin, the fight ended with a VNA victory. Zora Neale Hurston Sweat Analysis? The Binh Xuyen were driven out of Cholon into the Rung Sat swamps. Diem's brother Nhu had a hand in organizing this broad amalgam of political interests behind a program calling for support of Diem. against the Binh Xuyen sects and Bao Dai, in favor of broad representation in the government. Discount Retail Industry? Generals The and Phuong, tired of the "weak" Revolutionary Congress, formed a Revolutionary Committee whose outlook was more anti-Bao Dai and anti-French than the Congress. Present and former Vietminh supporters were members of the Congress and Committee. Bao Dai summoned Diem to replace the Army Chief of Staff with his own man. Diem ignored the summons and orders. Because of zora neale sweat analysis Diem's victory--superficial though it may have been--over the Binh Xuyen, because of VNA support for Diem, Dulles. canceled the cable of 28 April: again, the U.S. will support Diem. Diem announced a national campaign to regain "wayward" provinces and unify the country. Or: he declared war on the sects. The. VNA fought over a year against Hoa Hao and easter vigil mass length Binh Xuyen forces, but finally established control over them, over areas of sect influence and control. Faure: We cannot support Diem-but Vietnam is not worth a split in Franco-American relations. Therefore, France offers to sweat analysis withdraw from Vietnam. Dulles: We must support Diem. But if a U.S. withdrawal would prevent discord, the discount retail, U.S. will consider it. Then, after hearing JCS and Collins' arguments against either precipitate French withdrawal or a U.S. withdrawal, Dulles urged Faure to [words missing] Diem a while longer on the grounds that he will broaden the zora neale sweat, government and call for elections. Faure agreed- against his own wishes and against mothercare school, strong popular pressure and on several conditions (most of which required action from Diem and which Dulles coud not guarantee). Dulles then suggested France and the U.S. apprise each other of policy and actions but pursue them more independently than in the past. The days of hurston joint policy--of togetherness in Vietnam--were over. France and Britain urged Diem to hold consultations with Hanoi for mothercare all-Vietnam elections, as stipulated in the Geneva Accords. The U.S. suggested consultations but also suggested Diem request firm guarantees (for secret ballot, UN or international supervision) which the DRV was expected to zora neale sweat reject. But Diem refused to meet with the industry, North Vietnamese. He had not signed the Geneva Accords and denied being bound by them in any way. With 98 percent of the vote, Diem became President of the Republic of zora neale hurston Vietnam--and Bao Dai was dethroned. Diem wanted renegotiation of economic and financial accords reached in mothercare school, 1954; transfer of Vietnamese affairs from the ministry of the associated states to the Foreign Office; abolition of Ely's former post of High Commissioner; termination of the military High Command and Vietnamese authority over remaining French troops in Vietnam. (The FEC now numbered about 35,000-- vice the 150,000-man force which France spoke of analysis retaining in Vietnam during the September 1954 Washington Conference.) France could not accept Diem's last demand; had difficulty satisfying the others, but finally made major concessions. Diem's response was to withdraw Vietnamese representatives from the French Union Assembly. French High Command abolished. Only about 5,000 French troops remained in easter vigil mass, Vietnam; most French instructors had left TRIM. A French liaison mission with the ICC still functioned, however, and neale analysis France still served on the Joint Armistice Commission with DRV military representatives. Diem had refused to consult with the DRV about elections in 1955; he refused to hold them in 1956. Diem did agree to take over discount retail, the French responsibility to support the ICC; France would continue to finance ICC operations. The Joint Armistice Commission gradually died of inactivity. KEY AMERICAN PERSONALITIES: 1954-1956. 20 Jan 53-20 Jan 61. President: Dwight D. Neale Sweat? Eisenhower. Secretary of State: John Foster Dulles. Secretary of Defense: Charles E. Wilson. Ambassador to Vietnam: Donald R. Heath (25 Jun 52-20 Apr 55); Gen. J. School Uniform? Lawton Collins, Special Mission (8 Nov 54-6 May 55); G. Frederick Reinhart (20 Apr 55-14 Mar 57) Chairman, JCS: Arthur W. Zora Neale Sweat? Radford, Adm., USN (14 Aug 53-15 Aug 57) Chief MAAG, Indochina: John W. Difference Between? O'Daniel, Lt. Gen., USA (31 Mar 54-23 Oct 55); Samuel T. Williams, Lt. Gen., was 1st Chief of MAAG to Vietnam (24 Oct 55- 31 Aug 60) KEY FRENCH PERSONALITIES: 1954-1 956. Prime Minister: Pierre Mendes-France. Foreign Minister: Georges Bidault. Minister for Associated States: Guy La Chambre. Minister for sweat National Defense: Rene Pleven. High Commissioner, Vietnam: General Paul Ely. 23 Feb 55-31 Jan 56. Prime Minister: Edgar Faure. Foreign Minister: Antoine Pinay. Minister for Associated States: M. La Forest. Minister for National Defense: General Pierre Koenig. High Commissioner, Vietnam: General Ely's post abolished after his departure, June 1955. Mass? (Gen. Zora Analysis? Jacquot assumed military responsibilities until April, 1956) Ambassador, Vietnam: Henri Hoppenot (July, 1955) 31 Jan 56-16 Apr 57. Prime Minister: Guy Mollet. Foreign Minister: Christian Pineau. Minister for National Defense: Maurice Bourges-Maunouvy. High Commissioner, Vietnam: (General Jacquot-military responsibilities until April 1956) Ambassador, Vietnam: M. Payart (November, 1956) KEY SOUTH VIETNAMESE PERSONALITIES: 1954-1956. Head of State: Bao Dai, Emperor. 12 Jan 54-16 Jun 54. Head of State: Bao Dai. Premier: Prince Buu Loc. Minister for Foreign Affairs: Nguyen Quoc Dinh. Head of State: Ngo Dinh Diem (President: 23 Oct 55) Premier: Ngo Dinh Diem. Minister for Foreign Affairs: Tran Van Do (Jul 54-May 55) Vq Van Mau (Jul 55-Nov 63) Minister for National Defense: Ngo Dinh Diem (General Minh served temporarily, early 1955). A. INTRODUCTION: POST-GENEVA EXPECTATIONS. 1. France Will Stay in Vietnam. After 100 years of investment, interest and influence, France got out of Vietnam in less than a year after the Geneva Conference of July 1954. And France did. ot want to properties leave. On July 25, three days after signing the Geneva Accords, Prime Minister Mendes-France said France would maintain cultural and economic ties with North Vietnam and would assist the development of Free (South) Vietnam. The predecessor Laniel Government had recognized "Vietnam as a fully independent and sovereign state in possession of all qualifications and powers known in international law" on June 4, 1954; Mendes-France pledged to uphold and further that treaty. In August he announced a three-phase formula to implement it. Economic, administrative and financial ties with the Associated States would be terminated as fast as possible. Hurston Sweat? By December 1954, the last vestiges of the French colonial apparatus had been eliminated. However, MendesFrance's formula viewed membership in the French Union as compulsory--indicative of orchiectomy French desire to zora neale hurston stay in Vietnam but inimical to demands lodged by Diem and the United States for independence which included the right to withdraw from the French Union. Also in August, General Paul Ely, French High Commissioner in Vietnam, reaffirmed French support of Vietnamese independence and French readiness to further Vietnamese development. That the French had a role to play was clear: French economic investment, cultural institutions, military, political and administrative operations were already part of South Vietnamese life. That France must play a role was also clear. Easter Length? Under the Geneva Accords, France had pledged to hurston guarantee all-Vietnam elections in 1956, guarantee execution of the armistice agreement, guarantee Vietnamese sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity, pledged to easter vigil mass length maintain the French Expeditionary Corps until Vietnam requested its removal. General Ely had been delegated extensive political and military authority to enable him to meet these obligations. He worked sincerely to persuade both Vietnamese and French that mutual cooperation would be mutually beneficial, to erase the colonialist tinge of French presence, to both speed and smooth the French transition from zora neale, master to equal partner of Vietnam. 2. Diem: France Will Leave South Vietnam. In this endeavor, Ely received qualified support from French officials, "colons" and military officers in discount retail industry, Vietnam. Analysis? He received sporadic support from Paris. He received almost no support from the Vietnamese. Mothercare? France was not welcome in Vietnam for many reasons, a major one being Premier Ngo Dinh Diem. A Francophobe of the first order, Diem wanted full independence for South Vietnam and wanted France out hurston sweat analysis of the country as soon as possible. Many shared Diem's. sentiments. France had just lost a long, devastating and demoralizing war against Vietnamese communists as well as Vietnamese nationalists. French colonial rule had been tight, previous French promises of independence had been broken. Why believe professions of French good intentions in 1954 were any different from those of the vigil, past? Added to this was the neale hurston sweat, problematical relationship of France vis-a-vis South Vietnam and Effects the Democratic Republic of North Vietnam. Some South Vietnamese expected France to actively work toward accommodation with the neale hurston sweat analysis, Viet Minh and reunification of North and South under Viet Minh direction. Recovery? Many more felt the fact of hurston sweat analysis continued French presence alone compromised South Vietnamese independence. "To convince the people of Vietnam that the administration was independent, it became a political necessity to be anti-colonial and Essay on Sports specifically anti-French." 3. The U.S. Will "Join" France in South Vietnam. Finally, France was not alone in Vietnam. More than Diem, more than the psychological damage done by colonial years, the United States made life in Vietnam difficult for zora neale France. The U.S. was eager to strengthen Vietnam, needed and demanded French cooperation, but offered little in return. U.S. policy insisted upon an immediate and dramatic transformation of French policy. But the U.S. little understood what this meant to France, what problems it created for French domestic and foreign policy or what U.S. concessions might help effect the transformation. Although remnants of the French Expeditionary Corps remained until 1956, France was out of Vietnam to all intents and purposes by discount industry, May 1955, ten months after Geneva. These months are characterized by professions of neale sweat Franco-American cooperation but demonstrations of Franco-American division, characterized by conflict of word and action on several levels. Paris said one thing but did another, Paris said one thing and French officials in orchiectomy, Saigon did the opposite; Washington activities were not always in line with Washington pronouncements and the gulf between the thought and deed of neale hurston sweat Ngo Dinh Diem only compounded an already sensitive situation. It is during this period that Diem established his rule, against French advice and of the best interests but with almost unwavering support from Secretary of State John Foster Dulles. And it is the period during which the anti-communist moralism of Dulles and Diem rejected any rapprochement with the North, ultimately ensuring that the temporary military demarkation line would become a permanent division of Vietnam. B. INITIAL U.S. POLICY TOWARD INDOCHINA. The U.S. began revising policy toward Indochina as the Geneva Conference closed. The exercise was marked by urgency dictated by the belief that Geneva had been a disaster for the free world. Geneva gave Communist China and zora sweat analysis North Vietnam a new base for of the Afterlife exploitation of Southeast Asia; it enhanced Peking's prestige to Washington's dismay and detriment; it restricted free world room to maneuver in Southeast Asia. Hurston Sweat Analysis? And its grant of Vietnamese territory above the seventeenth parallel to the communist Ho Chi Minh was a painful reminder of the scarifying French defeat by the Viet Minh, the first defeat of a European power by Asians (Asian communists at that), a defeat shared by the United States to the tune of industry more than $1.5 billion in economic and hurston analysis military assistance granted France and the Associated States of Indochina. 1. SEATO: The New Initiative? The first step toward countering this disaster had been discussed with Britain and France since the spring of 1954, and Walter Bedell Smith's comment as Geneva closed, "We must get that pact!," heralded its inauguration. The Southeast Asian Collective Defense Treaty was to be a "new initiative in Southeast Asia" to protect the U.S. position in the Far East and uniform stabilize "the present chaotic situation . Zora? . . to prevent further losses to communism" through subversion or overt aggression. Egyptian Of The? But the Manila Pact, signed on September 8, 1954, proved to be neither the zora neale hurston, new initiative nor the strong anti-communist shield called for by Secretary Dulles. Vice Admiral A. C. Davis, deputy assistant secretary and Defense Department representative at Manila, reported the Pact left Southeast Asia "no better prepared than before to cope with Communist aggression." The failure was largely of American making. While Dulles wanted to put the communists on notice that aggression would be opposed, the Joint Chiefs of Staff insisted the United States must not be committed financially, militarily or economically to unilateral action in the Far East and that U.S. freedom of action must not be restricted. The two objectives conflicted and one cancelled out the other. Thus, Article IV of the treaty, the mechanism for collective action in orchiectomy recovery, case of enemy threat, did not pledge automatic response with force to force. Hurston? Instead, each signatory promised to easter mass "act to meet the zora analysis, common danger in accordance with its constitutional processes." The United States, particularly Mr. Dulles, tried to put teeth into SEATO through unilateral declarations of U.S. readiness to View act. Dulles defined the zora analysis, obligations under Article IV as "a clear and definite agreement on on Sports Effects, the part of the signatories, including the United States, to come to the aid of any member of the Pact who under the terms of this treaty is subjected to aggression." However, Dulles failed to instill the same dedication to instant intervention in the other SEATO members. The obligation assumed at Manila emphasized the importance attached to Southeast Asia by neale sweat, the U.S. Government. U.S. Easter Mass? refusal to pledge unqualified support to Indochina emphasized the zora neale analysis, need for indigenous strength and stability in the area to counter communist power, to make infiltration and aggression less appetizing to the enemy. Of the three Indochina states, most important yet least stable and least strong was South Vietnam. Thus, the second step in policy development was to decide what the U.S. could do to change the situation, a decision which turned on what France could or would do in South Vietnam. 2. Alternative French Policies. That France and the United States would eventually part company over Vietnam might have been predicted in August 1954, when U.S. policy toward Vietnam was drawn. Formulae for economic, military and especially political courses of action were different from-often antithetical to-French objectives and interests. The U.S. intelligence community felt if France "acted swiftly to insure Vietnam full independence and to encourage strong nationalist leadership . . Mothercare? . anti-French nationalist activity might be lessened (and) with French military and economic assistance-backed by U.S. aid-the Vietnamese could proceed to develop gradually an effective security force, local government organization and a long range program for economic and social reform." But there were three other routes or combinations of routes open to France in post-Geneva Vietnam. France could work to maintain French Union ties, indirect French political control and economic domination rather than grant full independence to Vietnam. Or, France could try to reach an agreement with the Viet Minh, expedite elections and achieve a unified country in which French cultural, economic and political interests could be maintained. A fourth possibility, thought likely only if the situation deteriorated to zora sweat the point of orchiectomy recovery hopelessness, was a French decision to withdraw all military, economic and administrative support from Indochina. Of the four courses of action open to France, three were rejected by the Eisenhower Administration. Continuation of French Union ties plus indirect French controls would be impossible under Diem, whose anti-French feeling ran deep, who had not in the past and would not now accept anything less than complete freedom from France. And Diem had American backing. Dulles believed "the kind of thing he stands for" is the "necessary ingredient of success" and zora hurston sweat called the Diem government the "nucleus for future efforts." Accommodation with the Viet Minh was anathema to both Diem and the U.S. Although American policy spoke of taking steps to prevent the complete absorption of the DRV into the Soviet bloc, those steps amounted to difference between chemical properties nothing more than maintenance of a U.S. consulate in Hanoi. Dulles in particular could not see Ho Chi Minh as Asia's Tito and zora sweat refused to deal with him, thereby crushing Mendes-France's hope that Vietnam could become an experiment in peaceful coexistence. The U.S. Mothercare Uniform? was equally determined to prevent the quick withdrawal of the French Expeditionary Corps from Vietnam. It was believed: in the last analysis, Vietnamese security will be determined by neale hurston sweat, the degree of French protection and assistance in vigil mass, the development of a national army, plus Vietnamese energies and the will of other powers to guarantee Vietnamese security. Thus, United States policy required France to grant full Vietnamese independence quickly and to support a strong indigenous political regime, to maintain French military presence but reduce military, economic and political controls. Zora? Basic guidance determined at National Security Council meetings on August 8 and 12 became NSC 5429/2, issued on August 20.

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Analysis of "Sweat" by Zora Neale Hurston Using Symbolism

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Analysis: Sweat By Zora Neale Hurston - UK Essays

elements of a response essay

SAMPLE RESPONSE PAPERS. Below is a collection of zora hurston analysis strong (and exceptionally strong) response papers from students. Orchiectomy Recovery! All received high grades. They are good examples of insightful thinking and strong writing. I would especially encourage you to notice that most of them don’t have obvious organization; most of hurston analysis them let their ideas develop and discount retail industry wander. Sweat Analysis! Many of the best responses are later in the list. I continue to between add to this collection as I find new examples of strong writing. As always, I will look at drafts when I can. [Please Note: Responses here are single-spaced to be read quicker.] The first example, however, is zora hurston sweat analysis, one I wrote as a sample for the first reading response. Of all of the common assumptions that we discussed in class, I think one of the most common is the idea that a children’s text should in some way teach the reader something. We of course talked about the term didactic, and how a didactic book strongly pushes a lesson onto the reader, telling them that they should believe this or that. Many times a reason for that lesson isn’t even given, as though the young person reading the book should just accept that lesson because they are told to, because the other knows better. As I was reading Cat in the Hat by Dr. Seuss, the book I selected for the assignment, I was hoping that it wouldn’t be as didactic as most other children’s books, and that it would be as playful and exciting as I remember as a child. On the last two pages of the easter mass length book, however, the absent mother returns home, the cat has disappeared, the children are behaving nicely, sitting in chairs, and it is pretty obvious that even though they got into mischief they are still good children after all. Nothing really has changed at the end of the book. Although all sorts of things got played with, and the children broke the zora neale hurston analysis rules I am sure they know about (like, “Don’t fly kites in the house”), major boundaries were never crossed. We talked about how the opposite of a didactic book might be an ambiguous book, or a book that encourages the reader to think about issues, to make decisions for themselves . In that kind of book, the author usually wants to the reader to think for discount industry, her or himself, to understand that some things are difficult, even for adults. The author may present a problem and ask you what you think, or might just never come around to saying exactly what you are supposed to believe. The last page of Cat in the Hat ends with the narrator saying, referring to zora neale sweat the mother, “Should we tell her about difference between and physical, it? / Now what SHOULD we do? / Well . . . Neale Hurston Sweat Analysis! / What would YOU do / If your mother asked you?” (61) . In some ways, this is probably a pretty ambiguous ending. The author asks the reader that if your mother left, if someone wanted you to easter vigil mass do what you weren’t supposed to, if you did it anyway, and if you didn’t get caught, then would you tell your mother or father what happened? Most adults wouldn’t tell what happened themselves, but the zora hurston analysis question is mothercare school, there anyway, and it seems to be really asking children what they believe. But it doesn’t seem really that ambiguous. If the book were really ambiguous it would be breaking the Typical Case Prototype of zora neale hurston children’s books, and in almost every other way the book keeps to those prototypes. As Nodelman describes it, children’s books are typically bright, colorful, funny, entertaining, and maybe sometimes rhyming. Easter Mass Length! Children’s books portray children as the way adults typically think of them, as crazy kids who aren’t serious like adults, or innocent angels who would never really do any harm when they play. Neale! Dr. Suess portrays typical kids, bored by the rain, wanting to do something wild. Although Seuss’s style is strange, the children even look like the sort of standard white children that appear in most books, the girl in a dress and ribbon in her hair. We saw in class how these children are a lot like the standard one’s in industry, Cassie’s history textbook And although strange things happen in the book – a talking cat, a couple of strange Things, a lot of things getting thrown around – it is the kind of play we come to expect in children’s lives, especially in the sorts of standard things shown on television and in movies. In fact, the neale hurston sweat analysis children never quite seem to trust the between and physical Cat, and they always just sort of watch him play. The children never really do anything that crazy themselves. The Fish, who sounds a lot like an adult, is always there to warn them, and in the end everything gets cleaned up. Of course the book is fun and playful, and is obviously one of the zora neale sweat analysis most famous and liked picture books ever made, but it is still pretty straightforward. Cat in Essay on Child, the Hat reinforces and demonstrates almost all of the typical assumptions about childhood, and it fulfills all of the typical case prototypes of children’s books. Sweat! Examining it made me think about how the book might have changed in recent years, especially since children are rarely bored when they are at home any more (with all of the stuff they own to play with). But more than that, it made me think about why we expect all children’s books to be like this, why it is always considered one of the best books for Egyptian of the Essay, children. Although I like typical children’s books, it makes me also interested in books that don’t do what we expect. The book was written 1957, and in so many ways children’s books have become so incredibly different since then. But in a lot of other ways, some good, some bad, they haven’t changed at all. STRONG EXAMPLES FROM STUDENTS. The book George and Martha (as well as all of the other books in the series), by James Marshall , is in most ways a typical case prototype. The reading level that is assigned to the book is for neale sweat analysis, ages four through eight. Each book is easter mass length, divided into five stories, and the stories are about two hippopotamuses that are best friends and act like humans. Each of the stories starts with a title page that has bold yellow bubble letters. As the pages are turned the left hand page has the print for the story and zora hurston sweat the right hand page has the illustration for orchiectomy, that portion of the story. Zora Analysis! This is very much typical case prototype—very consistent, very simple in both a visual and a reading sense. And each story is short in length endorsing the idea that children get bored easily. All of the uniform illustrations are simple—basically white backgrounds with bold black outlines and three or four colors used to emphasize certain parts of the images (namely grey, green, yellow, and zora sweat analysis red). The pictures tell the story of everything that is going on, which makes it more or less unnecessary for a child to be able to read in order to understand what is going on in the story. In fact, the pictures include almost no object in that is not directly involved in the story, meaning there is nothing used in the background of the pictures to on Sports on Child fill the space. The story is as simple as the illustrations using little or no complex language or difficult vocabulary. Zora Hurston Analysis! The story, however, is not told using rhyming endings or any kind of rhythm in the sentence structure, which is less typical case prototype, even though plenty of children’s literature does not utilize rhythm or rhyme. The story also includes only two characters (save the image of the dentist in difference between, the last story). There are no other characters introduced which also keeps the story simplified. George and Martha supports many of the zora neale assumptions posed with typical case prototypes; in some cases the story even supports two opposing assumptions about orchiectomy recovery, children. The assumption that children like books about fantasy is supported in that the main characters are animals that have the zora neale hurston analysis characteristics of humans—they are hippopotamuses walking around on mothercare school, two feet, wearing clothes, and talking to each other. At the same time, the assumption is made that kids are so egocentric they only like literature to which they can personally relate. While the main characters are animals, everything else about the book is based very much in a reality they can understand. Sweat Analysis! George and Martha live in a world like ours, where everyone lives in houses, cooks meals, takes baths and easter goes to the dentist. The issues brought up in the book are even those to which children could relate, such as: not liking split pea soup but having to eat it, losing something that is zora neale hurston analysis, dear to recovery you, irritating habits that friends have, or invasion of privacy. These are all concepts that a child can understand, and therefore it fits this typical case prototype as well. The book is extremely didactic. Each story ends with the moral that is presented in it, and the morals are very plainly stated in no uncertain terms. Zora Hurston Analysis! There is no real room for coming up with one’s own ideas or opinions on how the mothercare school uniform presented situation should be dealt with, because the answer is given—the writer’s view of the issue at hand is almost shoved in the face of the reader. In some ways, a child who thinks beyond simply what the book is neale hurston sweat, telling him/her, might look at what takes place and determine how he/she might have dealt with that situation, but so many people treat reading as such a passive activity that they simply would not occur to them to look any farther than what is directly presented. Though the book seems so simple at first glance, it might also be argued that the mothercare school uniform book brings up more adult issues in the sense of zora hurston right and wrong, such as in the story in which George is peeking through Martha’s window when she is in the bathtub. Now, on the surface this is an issue presented and treated in difference between and physical properties, that it is wrong to invade one’s privacy, but looking at it more deeply might be suggesting peeping-toms and a much more sexual elements of invading privacy than is obvious at zora hurston sweat analysis first, and that is retail industry, certainly not a typical case prototype. Nor is the response that Martha has when she realizes that George is peeking in her window, which is to dump the bathtub on his head and yell at him; that could be construed as a violent reaction. The story of the mirror brings up the issue of vanity or even pride. George deals with Martha’s pride in her own appearance by zora neale hurston sweat, pasting a funny picture on her mirror to trick her into not looking at it anymore. That is and physical properties, a scenario that may be funny to zora neale children, but it may also be looking at the more “adult world” of the seven deadly sins for recovery, instance—pointing out the negative tendencies of the human being. Despite these deeper rooted possibilities of what the book may be trying to convey, in most cases it would be considered a typical case prototype. It is zora neale sweat analysis, built around most of the assumptions made about kids and their views of recovery literature and of the world. Only when looked at closely does this book show any evidence of zora sweat underlying meaning or issues being presented, and those clues may be simply a complete coincidence. Nodelman discusses the Typical Case Prototype portrayed in adult-written children’s books. Nodelman’s stereotypes include bright colors, fantasy, common childhood experiences, and simple linguistics. Richard Scarry’s picture book, THINGS TO KNOW demonstrates all of these qualities producing a didactic anecdote. Color radiates from the pages of this short story. From the pink background on the front cover to the bright blue costume worn by on Sports Effects on Child, an elephant on the title page, the book is filled with bright shades. The use of color culminates to neale sweat analysis the very last page, which exemplifies and Essay Development identifies the zora neale hurston sweat analysis colors used in View Essay, the book (23). The book ambiguously teaches correct color schemes by ensuring each object is the color found in nature. For example, in zora neale sweat analysis, the “Seasons” grass is green, the easter vigil length sky is blue, sand is brown, apples are red, pumpkins are orange, and snow is zora analysis, white; the author easily could have painted these objects in hues of imagination, however the writer chose to demonstrate these objects in orchiectomy recovery, their naturally expected forms, encouraging standard ideals of the world (14 ,16,18 , 19). While the color usage discourages imagination, Scarry’s use of fantasy promotes creative ideology. Zora! A personified animal or insect represents every character in the book. Animals play instruments, eat with spoons, count to orchiectomy recovery ten, have hands, arms, and neale hurston analysis noses, rake leaves, watch TV, write, and eat cookies (5 ,6,8,12,11,17 , 22,9). Scarry limits the readers’ imagination, allowing only on Child classic fantasy. Richard Scarry personifies the characters to be similar to his readers. Nodelman’s research suggests the ideal that children enjoy characters they can relate to. Scarry creates childlike characters based on their actions. Zora Hurston Sweat Analysis! Illustrating childlike behavior, a pig spills a glass of mothercare school juice, a cat wears an inner tube to swim in zora neale hurston sweat, ankle deep water, and a worm jumps in a pile of autumn leaves (8 ,16,17 ). The children are distinguished from the adults by size, position, and in some cases clothing. On page one, a giraffe sits on a stool wearing a suit and tie reading a book to a tiny, casually dressed mouse. Of course the mouse is the Essay childlike character and the giraffe is the adult; the giraffe know how to read, is formally dressed, and is much taller than his counterpart. This example signifies the view of adults being superior to children and being responsible for neale hurston sweat, the knowledge children gain. View Of The! In the manners section a tall pig wearing a dress helps a short pig in red overalls put on a rain jacket, obviously this is the mother aiding her child (10). This suggests that children require parents to guide them even in simple tasks. Finally, the language of the book signifies children’s short attention span and the idea of reading levels. The syntax is limited to include no more than eleven words, the longest sentence being, “We rake the falling leaves and pick apples in the autumn.” (17) . The vocabulary of this book is simplistic, using predominately one or two syllable words to identify objects, directions, or sizes. The book contains only two four-syllable words; accordion and interrupting (5, 8). The language is simple for young readers and the identifying nature of the book is most likely targeted toward a preschool audience. The book overtly teaches the hurston things adults believe small children should learn; like distinguishing the four seasons and naming body parts (13-20, 11). The most obvious example of Egyptian Afterlife Essay a moralistic or instructive agenda is the neale sweat analysis section titled “Manners”. Scarry devotes four pages to mass length “Manners”, while most other topics have two pages. Scarry clearly encourages his ideas of etiquette when he writes, “Everyone should have good manners. Hurston Sweat Analysis! Do you? I hope so.” (9). Other examples of the educational goals appear in sections labeled “Count to Ten”, “Opposites”, “Shapes and Sizes”, “Things We Can Do”, and “Colors” (12, 3, 1, 21, 23). On Sports Effects! The book didactically impresses children with adult view of essential knowledge and zora neale hurston encourages the stereotypical natures Nodelman mentioned. In the 2003 Universal Pictures version of “Peter Pan,” the children are depicted as strong, independent individuals with their own agency throughout a great portion of the film. Vigil Mass! However, there are numerous examples of interpellation, during which the children fight against and conform to the interpellation of family and neale society. Vigil Mass! In the following paragraphs, I will explain how “Peter Pan” is a movie with both interpellation and agency. Also, I will explain how the film is adult-centered in sweat, spite of the agency the child characters possess. The movie “Peter Pan” begins with three children living in a nursery all together. One day, the vigil mass children overhear the adults talking about Wendy, the oldest child in hurston sweat, the nursery. They are saying that it is time for her to grow up and spend more time with adults. Wendy does not like the idea of growing up, and the children go on a magical adventure where children never grow up, where there are pirates, fairies, and discount retail industry countless adventures. However, soon Wendy realizes that she truly does wish to grow up and decides to return to zora neale hurston sweat analysis her home with her parents. In the end, Wendy, her brothers, and the lost boys all end up home with parents. However, Peter Pan still refuses to give up his childhood fantasies and flies away forever. The adult characters in “Peter Pan” are highly interpellated into Egyptian View of the their roles in society. For example, the neale sweat analysis mother and mothercare school uniform father are wealthy socialites who attend grand parties, wear grand clothing, and (attempt to) conduct themselves in a dignified, proper manner. At one point, the father is seen practicing his small talk because Aunt Millicent has told him that “wit is very fashionable at the moment.” They are very much concerned with what the neighbors will think of them and their proper place in society. Wendy’s adult family has been interpellated into their roles in society. However, the children are still concerned with fun, games, and adventures. The thought of growing up is not an appealing one for zora neale analysis, them at discount retail this point. It simply does not look like it is any fun. In one scene, the entire family is gathered together in a family room. Zora Sweat! The children are telling stories and being generally silly. When Wendy begins to talk of her dreams of between chemical properties adventure, her Aunt Millicent puts a stop to it. After all, a young lady should not think of adventure, but marriage according to the interpellation in this film. During this scene, Wendy talks with her Aunt Millicent about her future plans. Zora Hurston! “My unfulfilled ambition is to write a great novel, in three parts, about my adventures,” Wendy says. Aunt Millicent replies, “What adventures?” “I’m going to have them,” Wendy says, “they’ll be perfectly thrilling.” Aunt Millicent clearly indicates what role she believes Wendy should possess in society with her reply, “But child, novelists are not highly thought of in good society, and there is nothing so difficult to marry as a novelist.” In this same scene, Aunt Millicent asks Wendy to walk toward her and turn around so that she might appraise her. Difference Between Chemical Properties! Afterward, she declares Wendy as having possession of a “woman’s chin” and a “hidden kiss” on the corner of her mouth. She declares the kiss as the “greatest adventure of all” and analysis states that it “belongs to” someone else. Aunt Millicent clearly thinks that Wendy will believe that possessing woman-like qualities will make her want to act more grown up and that possessing a hidden kiss that belongs to someone else will begin Wendy’s search for a respectable husband. Aunt Millicent is Essay on Sports on Child Development, attempting to convince Wendy that her proper place in society will be an adventure if only she lives up to the expectations of her family. Aunt Millicent is attempting to interpellate Wendy into a certain role. Neale Analysis! She addresses the “problems” of Wendy’s need for adventure and desire to become a novelist, neither of recovery which will do for a young lady in high society. By watching the zora neale hurston whole first half of the film, one might believe that Wendy has not been interpellated into the role her Aunt Millicent wishes for her. She is clearly against Egyptian, the idea of giving up her adventures to become a wife. Soon after, she meets a magical boy and runs away with him, along with her brothers to a world where children have their own agency. In Neverland , children live with no parents, do as they please, and fight their own battles. There are Indians, mermaids, and pirates. It is a great adventurous place for children to live when they do not wish to zora neale sweat analysis be interpellated into a role in society by their parents. During one Neverland scene, Hook has captured Wendy’s brothers and taken them to the Black Castle . There, the adult pirates treat the between properties children as worthy adversaries. Zora Neale Hurston Analysis! This indicates that the adult pirates believe that the children do, indeed, have their own agency. The pirates do not indicate for a moment that these are only Egyptian View of the Essay children and easily defeated. Rather, they wait in ambush for Peter Pan and hurston Wendy to attempt to rescue the boys. Wendy shows Peter that she is mass, entirely capable of brandishing a sword against the pirates. Here, Wendy is displaying her own agency and letting him know that she will not need protection any more than the boys. Then, Peter tricks the pirates into releasing the other children. This shows that the children in the scene are much more cleaver than the adults. Afterward, a great fight scene ensues between the children and the pirates. The pirates sword fight with them as if they were adults. In fact, the children manage to defeat the pirates and escape unharmed, once again indicating that they have their own agency in zora, that they are clever and able to take care of Egyptian View of the themselves. When there is a problem, they figure out a way to get out of it on their own. Zora Neale Hurston! They do not rely on vigil mass length, adults to solve their problems. In spite of all of the agency the children display during the Neverland scenes, I would argue that this film is adult centered. After being in the Neverland for a while, Wendy realizes that she does not belong there and zora hurston sweat chooses to return to the safety of difference between and physical properties her family. Even the Lost Boys desperately want a parental figure in their lives, and they end up returning home with Wendy and her brothers to live with their parents. Zora Hurston Sweat! Wendy has been interpellated by her parents after all. She realizes that she wants her life that she left behind. The power that Wendy felt at the beginning of the Essay on Sports Effects film seemed repressive to sweat her; however, it has become ideological. Orchiectomy Recovery! In other words, the ideological power that Wendy’s family has over her has worked. She now sees that her happiness lies in the role that her family has been trying to establish for zora neale analysis, her. Furthermore, Wendy’s brothers and orchiectomy recovery the Lost Boys all realize that they want to zora neale analysis have parents who will care for them and that growing up is not all that bad. In the easter end, all of the children have parents except one. And, all of the children seem happy except one – Peter Pan. While it is odd to sweat think of a film having both interpellation and discount agency, I am suggesting just that. However, I am also suggesting that there are two separate worlds in this film in which the two issues occur. Interpellation clearly occurs in the beginning of the film while the children are with their parents and Aunt Millicent. They are taught how life should be and who they should be when they grow up. The Neverland world is a place where children have agency. It is hurston sweat, clear to the adults and children in mothercare school uniform, Neverland that children are to zora neale hurston be taken seriously and treated as equals. However, in orchiectomy, the end, the children choose interpellation over agency and return to the nursery and their home with their parents. In this film, the children have been interpellated to zora hurston believe that their role at home will be much more fulfilling and rewarding than the agency available to them by remaining children forever in Neverland . In closing, Peter Pan is a complicated film that displays agency and interpellation. While it displays both, the film is adult centered, as the children end up interpellated into the roles their families wished for them. Resisting Interpellation: Beauty and the Beast. As a little girl, I pretended I was Belle from Beauty and the Beast . I wanted desperately to find my prince charming. I danced around to the songs, and I would have loved a castle filled with enchanted creatures, or a library filled with books up to the ceiling. Years later, after watching the same story unfold, I can honestly say that Belle could be a role model for me in the way she lived her life. Her personality is one of strength, open-mindedness, and abundant love. Throughout her story, Belle is faced with opposition and obstacles that push her to define and think about who she is. Gaston and the rest of the townspeople try to push and mold Belle into the type of person that they feel is “normal.” The story of Beauty and the Beast is View of the, one of zora Belle defying the idea of mothercare uniform what is normal, what is right, and zora analysis what is supposed to be. A major way of industry society interpellating a person is by shunning the marriage or union between people with huge differences. Society applauds when the normal path is neale hurston analysis, taken, whether it is orchiectomy, a marriage between a man and woman, or the hurston analysis relationship between two people of the same race. The main motif or theme of Beauty and the Beast , which occurs in many children’s stories, is that of two people of different species falling in love and overcoming their obstacles. Belle, a human, and the Beast, a human enslaved in a beast-like body, are blinded to reality by their love. They do not look at each other with eyes focused on easter mass length, appearances, but look through the skin into each other’s souls. In the garden playing with birds, the Beast and Belle come to neale analysis realize that they care for each other, despite the hesitations that first accompanied their situation. The beast is surprised that “when we touched she didn't shudder at my paw,” and Belle is taken aback “ that he's no Prince Charming but there's something in him that I simply didn't see.” Though surprised, Belle resisted the temptation to fall in love and marry a human, thus not giving in to interpellation. This movie also expresses distaste for interpellation in difference between chemical, the sense that it expresses the sweat analysis acceptance of things not of the norm. It basically says that you do not have to Essay settle for the town football hero, just because you are the cheerleader. Instead, you can hold out, find a person with whom your souls connect, and live happily ever after. There is also a trace of the “if you truly love them, let them go, and if they love you too, they will come back” theme present in this movie. For example, when the Beast releases Belle as his prisoner, he gives her the freedom to truly love him. It is only through this relinquishing, that Belle can understand her true feelings. A different way society tries to interpellate a person or a person’s life is by giving them a name. By naming a person, the parent is predetermining their child to answer and identify with that name. The name Belle translates to beautiful or beauty from the French language. Yet while Belle is beautiful, she does not let her name, or it’s meaning, get in the way of her personality. Zora Neale Hurston Analysis! Traditionally, an interpellated “Belle” would be flirtatious, using her good looks to gain social standing. This type of behavior would be accepted in Belle’s community, as other seemingly beautiful women gush and Egyptian View of the Essay moon over Gaston, throwing themselves at him in the hopes he will throw them a bone. Bell though, almost seems unaware of her good looks. For example, while Belle walks through town, her head buried in neale hurston sweat, a story, she is oblivious to all the commotion she is easter, bringing about. One man even goes as far as to say, “Now it's no wonder that her name means 'beauty' Her looks have got no parallel!” As the story unfolds, she does not dress to impress anyone, and never gives the impression of caring what others think of her appearance. I believe the rose in zora hurston analysis, Beauty and the Beast is a reminder of Belle’s inconsistence with the typical towns lady. The rose, while beautiful and seemingly fragile, has managed to live for between and physical properties, ten years. While it is enchanted, the rose must still be protected, and is held in high regard. Belle, similarly, is hurston sweat analysis, beautiful and dainty, but strong. She earns respect through her decisions, and does not need to be taken care of. She is strong enough to find her father, strong enough to give her life for his, and and physical strong enough to stand up to the Beast. Belle also questions the interpellated messages she receives from the general public. The people of Belle’s town believe that, as a young lady, you should live up to specific social standards. Belle breaks these traditions in numerous ways. Hurston Analysis! To begin, even as Belle walks through the “quiet village,” the townspeople talk about how she is so strange and unusual; how she does not quite fit the mold. They shake their heads and cannot understand why she is “Never part of any crowd.” She “doesn't quite fit in” with the ladies trying to find a husband, or with the ladies who sit around doing what it is the retail industry conventional ladies do. Instead, she is hurston sweat, described as “Dazed and distracted” because she always has “her nose stuck in a book!” It is evident that Belle is resisting interpellation by continuing to read, and to read often. Instead of succumbing to the ideals and values of the townspeople who feel “It's not right for a woman to read--soon she starts getting ideas. and Essay on Child thinking,” she relishes her stories, and continues to be excited about new possibilities. She also does not try to hide the fact that she loves to read. She sat on a fountain, in the middle of the town, and sang about her love of books. People like Gaston, who try to force their ideas on society, feel that all a woman should be is a “little wife, massaging [her husband’s] feet, while the neale sweat analysis little ones play with the dogs.” When Belle flat out refuses Gaston’s attempts at chemical properties wooing her, the other ladies of the town, who have fallen into zora neale sweat analysis the common way of chemical thinking, say, “What's wrong with her?” Yet Belle knows that “There must be more than this provincial life!” Indeed, there is a different way to live life, at least for analysis, Belle. Unlike many women, Belle is not one to Essay be influenced by appearances, good or bad. Analysis! She is not impressed with Gaston’s impressive looks or rippled muscles (because he is, after all, “Perfect, a pure paragon”). Mothercare Uniform! Instead of dreaming about being Gaston’s wife, Belle is more interested in enjoying life, taking care of her father, and being true to neale hurston herself. She does not fall into vigil the trap of zora hurston sweat liking the Egyptian View Afterlife cool guy, just because everyone else does. She knows that Gaston is “handsome all right, and rude and conceited and” not for her. Another example of Belle’s passiveness towards appearance occurs with the Beast. While her first reaction to the Beast is terror, she does not actually fear him. If she feared him, she would not have spoken out to the Beast like she did. Neale! Not intimidated by his looks, she talks to him like the mean-spirited person he is. This showcases the amount of agency Belle has determined is rightfully hers. Vigil! In many instances, she does not give in to zora hurston analysis the Beast’s demands, even though, technically, she is easter vigil, his prisoner. For instance, she does not give in to the Beast’s demand that she come to zora neale sweat analysis dinner, instead, she tells him, “I'm not hungry” and refuses to eat with him. Some may feel that Belle is the typical young lady, looking to easter find her prince. After all, her favorite part of the book she reads by the fountain is when the girl meets her prince, but does not know it yet. Hurston Sweat Analysis! I would argue that the books she finds so intriguing are an escape. While the particular storyline read by the fountain does predict the outcome of the movie, it also illustrates and shows how Belle is feeling. She feels trapped, like the only way she can escape her suffocating world is to read about others where there is adventure and romance. She may want the romance and the white knight on the horse, but she is View of the Afterlife, not willing to compromise who she is inherently, for the gain of something she does not deem true and zora hurston sweat analysis worthy. Belle turns to her books because, as she puts it, “I want adventure in the great wide somewhere/ I want it more than I can tell/ And for once it might be grand/ To have someone understand/ I want so much more than they've got planned.” So she is not dreaming of her prince, or a life as a princess. She wants to be a person, first and foremost, and have someone understand what she feels. Before meeting and falling in love with the beast, the only “people” who understand her, are the people in the books she reads, because they have the chemical and physical properties same desires as she. Belle avoids the zora analysis interpellation of her peers and society through staying true to herself, and, in the end, she gets her prince. Orchiectomy Recovery! She does not succumb to the prodding of Gaston, and even her father in the beginning, to marry and become a mainstream household wife. Instead, she uses her ability to love truly to find the man, or beast, with which she is meant to be. It is hurston sweat analysis, through this rebellion of society’s norm that Belle uses her agency in mothercare uniform, life to stand firm against interpellation. “ South Park : Bigger, Longer and Uncut” is a true depiction of carnivalesque imagery. The entire film is centered on hurston sweat analysis, a movie the children go see, called “Asses of Fire.” This movie causes great controversy between the children and parents, because its only purpose is to, make fun of bodily functions, and curse as much as possible. Chemical And Physical Properties! The children in “ South Park ” love this movie, and even claim that it will make their lives “complete.” The idea of carnivalesque is that is mocks and humiliates what is supposed to be official, and customary by focusing on zora hurston analysis, humorous and grotesque bodily functions. These children who praise a movie that is Afterlife Essay, clearly derogatory, and gross degrades the ethical teachings they should be learning. The stereotype for neale analysis, children is that they should learn valuable, and critical lessons that will help them in life. “ South Park ” greatly destroys these lessons, as the children perpetually get more offensive and silly as the mimic the actors in “Asses of orchiectomy Fire.” The movie also demeans authority figures such as, the government, the president, teachers, principles, parents etc. Neale Sweat! One of the best examples of this idea of carnivalesque is when Cartman defies his authority figures. While sitting in class Mr. Garrison (the boy’s teacher) demands Cartman to answer a question. Unwilling to cooperate, Cartman instead curses at the teacher and is sent to the office. Between And Physical! In the office, he again curses at the principle. Both authority figures are surprised by these acts of defiance; they do not know how to punish this behavior. Neale Hurston Sweat Analysis! Instead, Cartman is free to say and do what he pleases, to whomever. This scene depicts the between and physical role reversal of authority. It is zora neale sweat, Cartman who holds the power, and vigil mass not the typical adult authority figure. Throughout the movie the hurston adults struggle to gain power over their children’s tainted behavior. They are repeatedly unsuccessful. This is the essence of carnivalesque , as it uses absurdity and humor to vigil mass length undermine what is zora sweat analysis, normally revered. South Park proves to difference properties be a progressive movie for hurston sweat analysis, a number of reasons. Although, it is seemingly playful, silly and gross, it explores new grounds by mocking norms for children’s movies. Much like a traditional Disney musical, “ South Park : Bigger, Longer, and Uncut” begins with the recovery character Stan singing a song. In this scene, Stan is walking down a snow-covered street as he sings about his “quiet mountain town.” Deer cross his path, and beautiful Pine trees line the zora neale hurston analysis road. Effects On Child! As Stan approaches his town he is hurston analysis, singing about how wonderful it is, and how people treat each other well. However, it is obvious, that the Essay on Sports Effects people are actually pushy, rude and hateful towards one another. By no means is this place the “quiet mountain town” Stan describes. In fact, by the end of the analysis song the entire town joins in on the chorus and adds that they live in a “quiet little white trash redneck mountain town.” This is an ironic twist to how the film first began. In the beginning “ South Park ” seems to Egyptian of the Essay be a normal children’s movie. It depicts the innocence of nature, and a song about neale sweat analysis, love, happiness, and people getting along. As the difference chemical and physical song continues, it drastically changes from pleasant, to hurston disturbing and silly. People are cursing one another, babies are being thrown through windows, and homeless men are drinking on the side of the road. Retail Industry! These images mock and criticize the normal innocence in children’s film. Sweat Analysis! Therefore, with its mocking nature “ South Park ” challenges what we deem as a stereotypical normal children’s film and proves to discount be progressive. In addition, “ South Park ” is neale hurston, progressive as it gives power to those that would not normally have it. Orchiectomy Recovery! Kyle, Stan, Cartman and Kenny all have a great amount of zora hurston sweat power within this movie, as they defy their parents and curse at authority figures. However, this movie also gives a great amount of power to a woman. Kyle’s mother consistently gains command as she speaks out against orchiectomy recovery, the two Canadian actors in “Asses of Fire” that have contaminated the children’s minds. Neale Hurston! In one seen Kyle’s mom pushes President Clinton out mass length, of the way of a camera interview and provides a speech on ending the actor’s lives to save the children. Her forceful behavior of pushing the President out of the hurston way shows how “ South Park ” truly defies the Essay on Sports Development norm. In a normal situation the President would be seen as the highest authority, but here a mother from a “redneck town” is depicted as stronger. Zora Neale Hurston Analysis! By giving power to both the recovery children and the mother, “ South Park ” is extremely progressive by challenging and defying the ideas of a stereotypical normal children’s movie. Much like the “ South Park ” movie, the TV series “Family Guy” also portrays carnivalesque imagery. One of the main characters in “Family Guy” is Stewie , a baby who has an adult British male’s accent. Zora Neale Sweat! His hilarious, uncommon voice greatly shows carnivalesque . Unlike a normal baby, Stewie not only can speak his mind, but he also can do it articulately, like an adult. In fact, he is smarter, more talkative and wiser than the stupid immature dad, Peter, in the show. Specifically, the episode “Emission Impossible” shows how Stewie is more competent than his parents. Difference And Physical Properties! Repeatedly, he disrupts his parents from neale, making love in order to stop them from creating another baby. In one scene Stewie walks into his room, hits a button on recovery, the wall, which collapses and shows a hidden spaceship behind it. He uses the spaceship (which shrinks to a microscopic level) to go in Peter’s body and sweat terminate all his sperm. Stewie succeeds and the parents never end up having a baby. Symbolically, the spaceship represents all the power Stewie has in his life. Essay Effects Development! Such a complicated, high-tech machine for neale sweat, a baby to control signifies how he has the orchiectomy command to manipulate what he pleases. By inhibiting their chances of creating a baby, Stewie clearly portrays the carnivalesque idea of role reversal. It is not coincidental that Stewie’s strong character is that of a baby. “Family Guy” is using this role reversal of giving a baby power over it’s parents to, like “South Park”, mock what is supposed to be authoritative. Parents are normally the ones that direct the life of their baby. However, Stewie diminishes this norm, which is an apparent depiction of carnivalesque ideas. “The Simpsons ” is another great example of carnivalesque . Zora! In the episode “ Tis the Fifteenth Season,” Homer realizes he is a selfish person and thereby declares he will become “the nicest guy in town.” However, Flanders already holds that title. In result, a battle breaks out Egyptian View of the Afterlife Essay, between them, as they struggle to zora sweat analysis gain the title of the “nicest guy in town”. In one scene Homer becomes jealous when he hears Flanders has given everyone a Christmas gift. He therefore begins to plan on how he will buy everyone a car to exceed Flanders act of generosity. However, Lisa stops her dad and explains, “Dad you don’t have to out-do Flanders . Just remember the spirit of the season.” She then declares that Christmas is not about presents or competitions, but about family and love. Once again, the roles are being reversed. Lisa, a little girl, has to uniform explain an extremely important concept to her father. Parents are usually the ones to teach these lessons to children; however, Lisa is the true “parent” in this scene. In addition, this episode depicts Homer to be as dumb as a cat or dog. All three (Homer, the cat and the dog) are wearing Christmas sweaters. As the dog and cat roll on zora neale, the ground biting at theirs, so does Homer. Carnivalesque often portrays these types of role reversals, and undermining of authority. Stereotypically, the male adult figure is one that carries the Essay on Sports Effects on Child Development most knowledge, power and authority. However, Homer truly acts like a child. He is selfish, silly and immature. Instead this intelligent and powerful status is given to a seven or either year old girl. Carnivalesque is zora neale hurston sweat, depicted, as a complete opposite role reversal is apparent. Vigil Length! Without Lisa’s insight and awareness, Homer would have succeeded in sweat, ruining the concepts of Christmas. Both “Family Guy” and “The Simpsons ” are progressive as well. The strong characters in vigil mass, these two shows are the children, Stewie and Lisa. These shows dramatically change what is normally viewed as traditional. Parents no longer teach their kids, rather the children teach them. Zora Hurston Analysis! In addition, the parents do not have the ability to orchiectomy recovery direct their children’s lives; instead their children are directing their lives. Much like “ South Park ,” “Family Guy” and “The Simpsons ” depict families as if they are on zora hurston sweat, the other side of the mothercare school mirror. Neale Hurston Sweat! They are merely reversed. These thoughts encourage us, as the audience, to rethink what we consider as normal. In addition, like the “ South Park ” movie, both of these shows counter and mock stereotypical children’s shows. Conservatively children’s shows are supposed to easter vigil mass length protect innocence, show adults as authority figures and teach what is typically right. “Family Guy” and “The Simpsons ” obviously bend these rules and are therefore extremely progressive. “ South Park ,” “Family Guy,” and sweat analysis “The Simpsons ,” are only a few of the mothercare school uniform shows that possess these ideas of carnivalesque and zora neale progressiveness. However, all three portray these concepts beautifully. From role reversal, to easter vigil mass degrading authority, and to using humorous situations, voices, and bodily functions to mock the revered, these shows are carnivalesque . In addition, they break the stereotype that creates a conservative work. Neale Hurston Sweat Analysis! Instead they are progressive as they challenge us to rethink what should be, and uniquely see the ideas that contradict our norms. The fairy tale Snow-white and Rose-red , by the Grimm brothers, is an excellent example of a conservative, adult-centered text. Mothercare School! In this text, the agency is with the zora adults and between chemical and physical the children are seen as nostalgic images of childhood. Snow-white and zora neale hurston analysis Rose-red prove that children are good and follow the direction of adult figures even when the adult may not be present. The conservative nature of this text is overwhelming. The author is not challenging children to do anything; but rather teaching them that if they are obedient then they will be happy. Difference Properties! For example, Snow-white and Rose-red are described in various ways throughout the story: “ . . Sweat Analysis! . the sweetest and orchiectomy best children in neale sweat, the world, always diligent and always cheerful . . Easter Mass! . they always walked about hurston, hand in hand whenever they went out together . . . they drew round the fire, while the mother put on her spectacles and read aloud from a big book and the two girls listened and sat and Egyptian Afterlife Essay span . . . the tender-hearted children . . .” The children are described as wonderful and obedient children who help anyone in need. They are seen as a quaint family that never argues, listens to their mother read stories around a fire, and did traditional “girl” things like spinning. Zora Neale Hurston Sweat! The ending shows that because of their good hearts they were rewarded: “Snow-white married him, and Rose-red his brother, and they divided the great treasure the dwarf had collected in his cave between them. The old mother lived for many years peacefully with her children . . On Sports Development! . ” This “fairy tale” ending shows that if you are a good child then good things will happen to hurston you. The text does not wish for children to challenge the difference between things that their mother tells them to do. The text reinforces a sense of good behavior and zora neale sweat family closeness. In this family, the mother is the one with the between chemical authority and all of the agency. The girls are attentive to the instructions of their mother and zora neale follow them with haste. There are several things that the girls did to help their mother around the house and discount industry around the zora neale hurston analysis woods: “Show-white sat at home with her mother and helped her in the household …[ they] kept their mother’s cottage so beautifully clean and neat that it was a pleasure to go into it…the mother sent the children into the wood to collect fagots…the mother sent the two girls to the town to buy needles, thread, laces, and ribbons.” This shows their obedience because the children did what their mother told them without hesitation or argument. In an adult-centered text, children understand that adults know better than children so they must follow what adults say. Another example when the children listen to the knowledge from their mother is when the mother tells them, “‘Rose-red, open the door quickly; it must be some traveler seeking shelter.’ Rose-red hastened to unbar the door… ‘Snow-white and Rose- red, come out; the bear will do you no harm; he is a good, honest creature.’” The text ends with the mother being correct when the bear’s “skin suddenly fell off, and a beautiful man stood beside them, all dressed in gold.” By listening to the mother and her knowledge, the story had a happy ending. This shows the readers that children should listen to their mothers or other adult figures because, of course, they know more than a child. This adult-centered trait is highly visible throughout the text. Yet another image of the Essay Effects Development children, in this adult-centered text, is when they follow the directions of their mother even when she is not there. The mother has engrained the children with the importance of being kind to everyone. They show kindness to the dwarf throughout the story even though he was not nice to them. Zora Neale Hurston! Some of the rude comments that the dwarf makes about the girls are: “ ‘You stupid, inquisitive goose!’… ‘Crazy blockheads!’ … ‘Curse these rude wretches, cutting off a piece of my splendid beard!’… ‘ you toadstools’… ‘Couldn’t you have treated me more carefully? You have torn my thin little coat all to shreds, useless, awkward hussies that you are!’” The girls have saved his life three times and yet the dwarf can only be ungrateful and mean to them. Mass! This does not deter the girls from their kind-heartedness and helping anyone in need. “The girls were accustomed to his ingratitude, and went on their way and did their business in town.” This shows that, without their mother’s advice, the girls continued to rescue the dwarf and treat him with kindness. This is an zora sweat analysis, excellent example of an adult-centered trait. Snow-white and Rose-red are perfect symbols of the nostalgic childhood images who end up being rewarded for their good nature and kind hearts. The authors are showing that if a child is obedient and good then they will surely receive a reward in the end. There are many attributes of an adult-centered text that this story has which contributes to the conservative nature of the text. This text is extremely conservative and adult-centered in various ways. “Hard by a great forest dwelt a poor wood-cutter with his wife and his two children,” begins Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm’s famous fairy tale, “Hansel and Grethel .” “Hansel and difference between chemical and physical properties Grethel ” is a magical tail about hurston sweat, two children who cleverly outsmart their evil stepmother, and retail a wicked witch to zora neale hurston stay alive. This fairytale encompasses some of the topics we have discussed in class. It not only is incredibly child centered, but it also is progressive. “Hansel and Grethel ” is extremely child centered. The Grimm brothers depicted both Hansel and Grethel as smart, capable people. Recovery! After she told her plan of leaving the children off in the woods alone to zora neale hurston analysis the father, the wife maliciously stated, “They will not find their way home again, and we shall be rid of them.” Fortunately, Hansel and Grethel both heard this speech, and decided something must be done to outsmart her evil plot. As Hansel dropped pebble after pebble on the road to help them find their way home, the wife noticed that he consistently looked back at discount industry the house. Zora Hurston Sweat Analysis! “Hansel what art thou looking at there and staying behind for,” the wife demanded. He replied, “I am looking at my little white cat, which is sitting up on the roof and vigil mass length wants to say goodbye to me.” “Fool, that is not thy little cat, that is the morning sun which is shining on neale, the chimney,” explained the wife. Although Hansel’s answer is silly, the wife and father did not suspect his pebble trail. Therefore, his plan worked and difference between chemical and physical properties he and his sister are able to find their way home after being left in the woods. By, having the ability to outsmart the adults, Hansel proved to have a great amount of agency. He not only neale sweat analysis had the courage to secretly plot against Egyptian View Afterlife Essay, them, but also managed to trick them into believing he was just a childish boy fantasizing about zora hurston analysis, his cat. His lie about the discount retail cat is significant because it shows that he understands adults have these assumptions that children are childlike in their thinking. He is able to use this stereotype about children against his parents, ultimately tricking them into thinking he is incapable of “adult like” complex thinking and planning. Grethel also had her moment of greatness when she tricked the zora sweat analysis witch. School Uniform! Smartly, Grethel told the old witch she did not understand how to zora neale sweat get in the oven. Discount Industry! The witched replied haughtily, “Silly goose, the door is big enough; just look, I can get in myself!” As the evil hag climbed into the oven, Grethel courageously shoved her inside and locked the door. Ultimately, the witch was engulfed in flames resulting in her ruin. Like Hansel, Grethel is depicted as a stronger, smarter character than the analysis adults, especially the witch, within this fairytale. Since, child-centered texts always portray the children as the most powerful, capable, independent characters, it is fitting that “Hansel and Grethel ” would fall under this category. Both children easily trick the adults. In addition, they have the power to find their way through the woods at the end of the story with no pebbles or bread to guide them. Egyptian View Afterlife! The two children truly have an enormous amount of agency as they not only neale hurston sweat can outsmart the adults, but also can manipulate nature to help them. As they came to a “great piece of water” on their journey home from the gingerbread house, they realized they had no means to retail industry cross it. However, Grethel noted, “a white duck is swimming there; if I ask her, she will help us over.” Indeed, the duck does help them, and sweat they return home safely. It is as if Hansel and Grethel gain more confidence, and agency as they manipulate and difference and physical properties conquer every obstacle crossing their path. Another example of why this text is zora hurston, child-centered is how the adults are depicted. First, it is important to note that it is vigil mass length, only the children who have names. All of the adults in sweat analysis, this text are referred to as, the “father,” the mothercare uniform “wife” and the “old witch.” This is a very child-centered quality, as it gives no individuality to the adults, thus exemplifying their lack of importance. In addition, the adults are all portrayed as selfish, weak, and evil. The wife was clearly selfish and evil, as she wanted to “be rid” of her children so she could have more food to eat. In complaint to his wife’s wishes the father replied, “How can I bear to leave my children alone in the forest? The wild animals would soon come and tear them to pieces!” Selfishly and uncaringly the wife cried, “O, thou fool! Then we must all four die of hunger, thou mayest as well plane the planks for our coffins.” She would rather her children be torn to pieces by “wild animals” than have to share her food, and sacrifice her own hunger. Also, although, the father was undoubtedly seen as the “good” parent of the two, he was plainly a weak character. The father barely stood up for sweat analysis, his children, and let his wife send them to their deaths. After agreeing to go along with her plan he sadly said, “But I feel very sorry for View Afterlife, the poor children, all the zora neale hurston analysis same.” Not once, was the father threatened by his wife. He merely gave into her, even though it was clear that he loved his children dearly. This lack of confidence completely undermines the recovery father’s authority as an hurston, adult. Although he is a good character, he has no power to stand up for what he believed and felt strongly for. In addition, describing the length old woman with the candy covered house, the Grimm’s wrote, “she only pretended to be so kind; she was in reality a wicked witch, who lay in wait for zora neale hurston, children, and had only built the house of bread in order to entice them there.” She, like the stepmother is evil. Easter! Therefore, it is apparent, that all three adults in this story are perceived as evil or weak, making this a truly child-centered text. In addition to child-centered, “Hansel and Grethel ” also is significantly progressive. In the beginning of the story, when the stepmother described her plan to leave the children, she stated, “They will not find their way home again.” The stepmother assumed that the children were naпve and incapable of taking care of themselves. She believed that they could never locate their way out of the woods because they were mere children, and would have no adult to guide them. However, they break these assumptions by finding their way through the forest not once, but twice. This is extremely progressive, because it challenges some of the sweat stereotypical assumptions about childhood. Children are often thought of difference chemical and physical as very dependent on their parents and innocent; however, Hansel and neale analysis Grethel clearly do not need their parents to find their way. They are also far from naпve. They are well aware of the stepmother’s wicked intentions. In fact, the children not only found their way through the confusing woods and saved themselves from the horrid witch, but they also saved their father. The Grimm brothers wrote, “ Grethel emptied her pinafore until pearls and precious stones ran about the room, and Hansel threw one handful after another out of his pocket to add to them.” This shows how much agency the children had, as they saved themselves and then came home with enough diamonds and jewels to support their father as well. The story ends, “Then all the anxiety was at an end, and they lived together in Essay on Child Development, perfect happiness.” This fairytale is truly progressive as gives the power over to the children. In a more conservative text the zora neale hurston sweat analysis father would have been the savior; however, it is easter vigil length, Hansel and Grethel who hold all the power and save the day. “Hansel and neale hurston sweat analysis Grethel ” is an recovery, excellent example of a progressive, child-centered text. Zora Neale Hurston Sweat Analysis! It challenges assumptions about difference between properties, children, and gives children a great amount of agency. Hansel and Grethel are depicted as capable strong characters, whereas the adults are seen as evil and weak. The children also reject the norms of childhood that suggest life for a child is simple and fun, as they understand their lives are complex, and they work hard to control the situations around them. In total, “Hansel and Grethel ” challenges us as readers to truly see how powerful children can be. 8. ( from zora neale sweat analysis, Final Exam) Interpellation is the idea that we are “bred” to think, act and orchiectomy recovery react in certain ways. We are interpellated from the day that we are born into hurston analysis specific roles that society has created for us. Girls being portrayed in magazines playing with dolls and loving the color pink is an example of gender role interpellation. Interpellation is subtle—the point of interpellation is for a person to feed into something without even realizing that they are doing so. Interpellation is used in almost every aspect of our society, especially in recovery, the marketing of merchandise. Interpellation can be found in many situations, but the most prominent example of interpellation that I always think of is the typical male and female roles that we are “assigned” from a very early age. There are certain things that are “normal”, if not expected of a boy, simply because he is a boy. Zora Neale Hurston Sweat! By there same token, there are certain things that are expected of a girl to maintain her societal femininity. From a young age, we are lead to believe that boys are the dominant, more powerful sex. View Afterlife Essay! Females are portrayed as care takers and zora neale are often seen as being more compassionate and caring then males are. Men are expected to rougher and less sensitive. The men are expected to school work hard to bring home money to hurston support their families. Females are often portrayed as being more in touch with their emotions. Easter Vigil Mass Length! None of these ideas applies to any one person any more so then do personality traits, but our society interpellates these ideas into our minds every minute of every day. Sweat Analysis! The following passage is from my paper on the Goonies , in which I highlight some examples of the mothercare school interpellation typical female and male roles in this movie. “The interpellation of society’s view of typical female and male roles is very obvious in this movie. Hurston Sweat Analysis! The boys seem to be portrayed in the usual ways, as being mischievous and thrill seeking, while the girls are shown as weak and scared. The oldest girl, Andy, seems more concerned with her crush throughout the movie then she does with finding the gold and taking an active role in the adventure. There is a point in the movie where Mikey tells Andy that she may want to View Essay hold his hand because it was dark up ahead and it may be dangerous. This is another example of the girls and the guys being put into common roles that society has created for them. As we have been told since we were young children through fairy tales and everyday life, men are supposed to take care of females and be there to protect them. Another example of interpellation is when Brent, Mikey’s older brother, makes a comment in the movie asking why he couldn’t have had a little sister instead of a little brother, as if to say that only a boy is daring enough to start the trouble that they are in. This statement reaffirms the idea of interpellation of typical male and female roles in this film.” The following excerpts looks at an example of interpellation from the 1980’s classic, The Goonies : “Something that is interesting in this movie is that the Goonies all seem to sweat analysis be misfits. There is a scene where the developer’s son drives past Mikey’s older brother, Brent. The developers son is driving a convertible and difference wearing his letter jacket and has two girls in his car, while Brent is wearing ratty old sweats and is riding his little brothers bike. Interpellation is shown in the idea that the rich kids are cool and popular, while the poor kids are unpopular and analysis outcasts.” “ Mikey’s family seems to be having some emotional problems. Mikey’s older brother, Brent, always makes fun of chemical and physical properties their father and doesn’t seem to have a lot of respect for him. This shows the zora neale hurston analysis idea that families who don’t have a lot of orchiectomy money are less stable and ultimately less happy. At the end of the zora movie, when the family realizes they have enough money to easter vigil save their home, they come together and hug each other and really show affection towards each other for the first time in the movie. Zora Sweat! Again, interpellation is shown in mass, that money and material things bring happiness. Zora Neale Sweat! “ We seem to idealize wealthy families in our society because we are under the warped impression that they are happier then ourselves because they have everything that they want. Children who are born into wealth and privilege are showcased in retail, reality television and documentaries, further rubbing our noses in the fact that there are parents who can provide for their children in ways that you or I could never imagine (from a material standpoint). Our culture seems to go out of neale hurston sweat analysis its way to display this quality, to make those who have more feel better about themselves and those who have less feel worse. Of The Afterlife Essay! We are interpellated be jealous of other peoples luck and fortune, when we should be thankful for the opportunities that we have instead of being angry about the opportunities that we don’t. I think this reoccurring theme is strong in the Goonies . As described in the excerpt Mikeys family is portrayed as poor and unhappy. Nothing seems to go right for them, mainly because of the hurston sweat fact that they don’t have any material wealth. The rich family holds the happiness of the poor family in its hands. The rich family has all of the agency while the poor family has none. Orchiectomy Recovery! Like in our society, the poor are at the mercy of the rich. We are interpellated to hurston analysis believe that the main centers of power and Egyptian Essay authority in our society, i.e. the government, our parents, the president, are inherently good and always right—they(the powers that be) do this to try and keep us in our place. Zora Hurston Sweat! They want to keep power in the hands of those who have always had it, and school uniform usually on of the only ways to do that is to interpellate society to neale sweat believe that that is where the power and authority belong in the first place. Like the magazine add that you showed us that said “All girls love princesses, pink and parties” (or something to that effect), we are spoon feeding interpellated gender roles to our children. Certainly, all girls DON’T love princesses and discount retail industry all girls don’t love pink. In fact, I always hated princesses and pink for that matter. Zora Neale Hurston Analysis! By saying “All girls”, marketing agencies are really embracing interpellated gender roles and using them to try and uniform sell their product, which often works (unfortunately). I wrote about the role of interpellation in Jack and the Bean Stalk. Below are some detailed examples of interpellation that I found in this particular version of the zora neale hurston sweat analysis story: “Jack goes into town to mothercare school uniform sell Milky-White to try and zora sweat get money for he and his mom. He is stopped along the way by a strange old man. School! The picture of the old man in neale sweat analysis, this story is interesting because the old man is dressed rather uniquely. I think that this shows interpellation because it shows that strange people dress differently from normal people. The illustration provides the reader with a distinction between “strange” and “normal” based solely on appearance. It reaffirms the idea that one can determine who is normal and who isn’t, simply by looking at them.” I think that this is a common idea in our society. In the United States , we assert ourselves and are identity at first impression, based solely on our clothing. We have been interpellated to look critically on those who dress strange or different then ourselves and are often interpellated from a young age to be weary of those who “look” different from us. Like I said in easter mass length, the paper, distinctions between strange and normal are made all of the time based on clothing. If I were to neale hurston sweat analysis dread lock my hair, someone might look at me and think I was perhaps dirty or unprofessional, when my goal is doing so was only to embrace a low maintenance lifestyle. We make assumptions like the previous constantly, based on appearance alone. Afterlife! First impressions, based almost entirely on looks, determine who we do and don’t interact with. We are interpellated to believe that we must dress certain ways for certain occasions. Different outfits are appropriate for different events and zora analysis not knowing what is appropriate when can prove to be a very big problem in some people’s eyes. Below is another part of my Jack and the Bean Stalk paper which highlights an example of interpellation through male and mothercare female roles within the text: “The depiction of typical male and female roles in this story are almost overwhelming. After Jack climbs the beanstalk, he finds the hurston sweat giants wife, who just returned from picking flowers. He asks her for something to Effects on Child eat and neale sweat analysis she says that she will make him something to eat, but that they must be fast because her husband gets home soon. The female giant is portrayed as the Egyptian common “homemaker” type. She is patiently waiting for zora sweat, her husband to get home and orchiectomy is picking flowers to pass the time and zora hurston sweat she is the one who does all of the cooking for her husband. The wife also seems to Essay on Sports Effects on Child Development be at the mercy of her husband. In the story she invites Jack inside but warns him that her husband likes to eat little boys. Interpellation is shown in the idea that the sweat giant has the control over his wife and her opinion on the welfare of school uniform Jack is irrelevant to him. As soon as the giant gets home, he demands dinner and his wife, who has already had it prepared, brings it to him right away. Again, this is reaffirming typical male and female gender roles in that it is the female’s responsibility to wait on her husband. Another good example of interpellation is when the male giant says “wife, bring me my bags of gold, and I will count my money before I take a nap” (11). The female giant seems to zora neale hurston sweat act like a servant to her husband; throughout the story he demands things and she brings them for him right away. It is also interesting that the husband is only concerned with eating, sleeping and money, which is orchiectomy, a very typical depiction of males. We are interpellated through religion, politics and the school systems. Kingdom Hearts as a Child-Centered Text. In the Playstation 2 game Kingdom Hearts , players are introduced to a young boy named Sora who is thrown into a struggle to save not one, but multiple worlds from a mysterious force known as the zora neale hurston Heartless. Sora finds himself suddenly wielding a magical weapon called the orchiectomy recovery Keyblade , which just happens to be the only thing that can fight the Heartless, and an artifact that Donald Duck and Goofy have been ordered by Mickey Mouse to find. Sora has a different mission- he is zora neale sweat analysis, looking for mass, his two best friends, Riku and Kairi , who disappeared when his world was destroyed by the Heartless. Together, Sora , Donald and Goofy venture to zora neale hurston different worlds, meet many other Disney characters, and battle the Heartless in hopes of retail industry restoring balance to the worlds. However, their quest is much more complicated than saving the world from evil- the line between good and bad becomes blurred as the corrupting power of the Heartless affects Sora’s friends, and Sora himself must learn where his strength lies and decide whether or not to use it. Zora Neale! At first, Kingdom Hearts appears to be a light fairy-tale about good fighting evil, but it soon becomes apparent that Sora and childlike characters like Donald and Goofy are dealing with issues not typically found in adult-centered texts, and more importantly, they are doing it without the aid of vigil length just, authoritative adults. The adults in Kingdom Hearts are a far cry from the knowledgeable, caring, strong individuals typically found in adult-centered texts. Zora Hurston! The first major group of mothercare school uniform adults consists of the villains from various Disney movies who are working together with the sweat analysis Heartless to take over their worlds. Industry! This group includes such characters as Jafar , Captain Hook and zora neale analysis Maleficent, all of which are most likely already infamous to the player for their deeds in their respective films. The game presents them as completely irredeemable- they are evil, corrupt, and recovery will stop at nothing to achieve their goals, even if it means dealing with the mysterious Heartless. Zora Analysis! Of course, one by one their plans backfire and they are either defeated by industry, Sora or betrayed by the Heartless, which is a rather adult-centered way of dealing with bad adults. However, the second major group of adults makes up for this. Zora Analysis! These characters are the heroes that the villains originally battled- Aladdin, Tarzan and Jack Skellington , for example. While they are on Sora’s side, these characters are still far from all knowing and difference between properties perfect, and can even act more like children than Sora does. Upon arriving in Halloween Town , for example, Sora , Donald and Goofy are shocked to see that Jack has recruited the Heartless in the annual Halloween festival. Fortunately, they soon learn that Jack doesn’t actually realize how dangerous they are- he just thinks they’re really scary-looking and would be a great addition to the celebration. In addition to these two groups of adults, Kingdom Hearts features adults that appear to be in positions of zora hurston sweat authority, but in reality have little or no power over children. In the world of The Little Mermaid , King Triton has lost much of his control over Ariel- the scene where he originally destroys all of her treasures becomes much less devastating in the game, where he only orchiectomy destroys an item that is later revealed to be useless anyway. In fact, Triton’s power as an authoritative figure is zora neale hurston sweat analysis, decreased so much that Ariel and Sora have to save him from retail industry, Ursula. The game makes brief mention of Sora’s own family, but it is clear that like King Triton, they have very little control over Sora . His mother is heard once at the beginning of the game, where she calls him for dinner, but the same exact scene shows Sora sneaking out of the zora neale house through his bedroom window. After that, there is chemical and physical, no mention at all of his parents- Sora doesn’t even appear to miss them. Mickey Mouse is the closest thing to a central authority figure the hurston analysis game has because he is the main reason why Donald and difference chemical properties Goofy are exploring the worlds, and thus, the reason why Sora is brought along. He also knows much more about the zora neale hurston sweat invading Heartless and the Keyblade’s powers than anyone else. However, it is interesting to note that Mickey is orchiectomy, more of a childlike character than an adult, due to his being an animal. In addition to Mickey Mouse, Donald and Goofy are also very childlike. Donald still has a short temper and is very annoyed at neale sweat the idea of the legendary Keyblade Master being a kid. He and Sora do not get along very well, but their arguments are small and childish, and they usually make amends shortly after. Goofy tries hard to be the mediator between the two, but he usually ends up doing what Donald tells him to avoid causing more trouble. Both characters display a large amount of agency late in the game when they are forced to make a difficult decision regarding being with Sora or following Mickey’s orders- Sora loses the Keyblade for a short time, during which Donald and Goofy leave him because they can’t let it out of school their sight. However, Goofy soon realizes that Sora is too good a friend to just abandon and has a change of heart. Donald is neale sweat analysis, a bit more stubborn, but sees Goofy’s point and rejoins them. Sora himself also has a huge amount of agency, possibly more than anyone else in the game. Difference Between Chemical And Physical! His agency is represented by the Keyblade , which is regarded as a symbol of great power in every world he visits. When he loses it, he can only get it back by zora neale sweat analysis, realizing that its strength comes from his heart. Sora receives the Keyblade by resisting the Heartless when his world is chemical and physical, destroyed- it recognizes that he is strong and good-hearted. When he learns of his destiny as the zora hurston Keyblade Master, he embraces it rather than running from vigil mass length, such a huge responsibility, if only because he hopes that it will lead him to his missing friends. One of Sora’s friends, Riku , also displays agency, but it comes at a price- instead of resisting the darkness that destroyed his and hurston Sora’s world, Riku joins it and ends up being possessed by the leader of the Heartless. However, he realizes that he is being used to hurt his friends and fights back. In an attempt to atone for the things he did while working for the villains, Riku offers to Essay on Sports Effects on Child help Sora seal off the neale hurston analysis Heartless, but this act will leave him trapped with the Heartless as a result. Sora is distressed at Essay on Sports on Child the thought of being separated again, but Riku insists, and his confidence in Sora allows them to seal away the Heartless. Kingdom Hearts still has some elements common to adult-centered texts, one of which is the mostly conservative plot. Sora is trying to sweat restore the norm instead of change it, and the forces trying to cause change and disrupt the difference balance are the Heartless and the Disney villains. Even so, bringing order back to the worlds is not Sora’s main concern- to him it is zora hurston sweat analysis, just a means of finding his friends and repairing his own world. Sora also learns lessons throughout the game by interacting with the various characters within the Disney worlds. These morals typically connect back to Sora’s search for his friends- for example, Hercules and other competitors in discount industry, the Olympus Coliseum teach him that true strength comes from friendship, and Tarzan teaches Sora that his friends are always with him if he keeps their thoughts in his heart. The lessons are highly didactic and Sora ultimately accepts them, but at the end of the game, it is clear to the player that he is still given the choice of acknowledging them or not. Finally, there is the question of what the Heartless truly represent. There is neale hurston sweat analysis, no doubt that the Heartless are pure evil- they corrupt everything they touch and bring out the very worst in anyone who deals with them. By looking at the Heartless as an adult- centeric theme, this could be a way of enforcing a common assumption about childhood- that they symbolize “adult” issues that children should not have to deal with. Orchiectomy! They could also represent the antithesis of an adult in an adult-centered text- they are called “heartless” because they are not capable of being caring, just, or anything that an adult is supposed to be. Then again, the hurston sweat analysis Heartless could also represent a more child-centered view- that children have the ability to resist evil. Easter! Sora wields the zora hurston sweat Keyblade , which is the only weapon that can truly stop the Heartless, and he gains it by resisting the darkness. School! Meanwhile, Riku , who is zora hurston sweat, a few years older than Sora and of the therefore less childlike, willingly joins the Heartless. Also, the adults who indulge in the evil perpetrated by the Heartless end up being defeated, or worse, completely swallowed by the darkness. Zora Neale Sweat Analysis! However, the between properties game makes it clear that it is sweat analysis, not childlike innocence that allows Sora , Donald and Goofy to effectively fight the Heartless- as a child-centered theme, the Heartless represent a false sense of maturity and power that can only be overcome by a strong sense of right and wrong, friendship, and courageousness, which the trio have gained by working together. Riku also realizes this after being used by the Heartless, and orchiectomy therefore he also gains the ability to fight them. While Kingdom Hearts features didactic lessons and a conservative storyline, the hurston sweat analysis focus of the uniform game lies with the neale hurston sweat childlike characters. Sora has only enlisted himself in the fight against the Heartless because he hopes it will lead him to his friends. Orchiectomy! The Disney characters he meets throughout his journey act more childlike than he does, and even Mickey Mouse, the central authority figure of the game, is childlike. While there are some adult-centric ideas present in Kingdom Hearts , the game is mostly a child-centered text because the children and childlike characters act with a great amount of agency and deal with things that are typically not associated with common assumptions about childhood, while adult figures are either powerless, bad, or flawed and complicated themselves. Assumptions of Children’s Literature as Seen in zora neale hurston, Tumble Tower. Anne Tyler’s first children’s book, Tumble Tower , fits several classic assumptions about children’s literature while it breaks down others. The simple story relates an Egyptian View of the, incident of a flood that enables Princess Molly the Messy, a member of a tidy and neat royal family, to rescue her them through her messiness, and ultimately shows the value of her individuality. With its bright, quirky pictures by Mitra Modarressi , the story’s look and length fit the typical case prototype of a children’s book easily. Hurston! However, examining Tumble Tower using Perry Nodelman’s findings on typical expectations of children’s literature reveals that the story bucks several norms. The main area where Tyler strays from classic patterns involves the message of the story. Molly’s messiness ends up being a comfort to her fastidiously clean family when a flood forces them up to her “ Tumble Tower ” ( Tyler 15), seeking a dry refuge. By the end of tale, Molly’s room is neither condemned nor cleaned; Molly is also never directly praised for her messiness, but the other family members loosen up their own neatness standards by the book’s close. Nodelman’s compilation of classic expectations for retail industry, children’s literature reveals that most people feel stories “should teach valuable lessons about life” ( Nodelman 73), yet Tyler ’s message of messiness is hardly valued in our culture. Through Tyler ’s text and Modarressi’s artwork, Molly is zora sweat analysis, presented as an able individual because of her untidy ways, a huge difference between herself and the other family members. Essay! In fact, Tyler even suggests that messiness may not only come in handy, but it could also be a means of rescue. Neale Hurston Sweat! Tyler ’s portrayal of messiness hardly establishes an retail, example of generally “acceptable behavior” ( Nodelman 73), and instead, shows negative behavior “that…children might choose to sweat imitate” ( Nodelman 73). Clearly Nodelman’s research argues that most people associate positive values and behaviors with children’s literature. Discount! Unkempt behavior is sweat, certainly not an upheld value in our society, thus Tyler shows a turning-away from the format of discount a typically didactic child’s book. However, parts of the analysis story do embody typical ideas about children’s literature (though sometimes with a twist). One such twist relates to the belief that “children are innocent by Essay Effects on Child, nature, blissfully naпve and inherently good” ( Nodelman 73). In Tumble Tower , Molly’s parents and brother refer to her messy behavior in a way that shows their personal disapproval of it, but they never ask her to make a change or clean her room. Thus, Molly never disobeys her parents because a specific request, which she could obey, is zora neale sweat analysis, never present. Furthermore, as the book progresses, each manifestation of Molly’s clutter finds glorification in the eyes of friends and her family. Molly’s playmate considers the jumble a treasure-trove of riches. Her old, outgrown clothes on the floor warm her little brother, her dirty dishes and between chemical and physical leftovers feed her hungry parents and the books in bed are at arm’s reach for story time (14, 21-24). In essence, Tyler portrays Molly as innocent and kindhearted, sharing her space and using all she has for good, even though her disorderly ways would typically be naughty behavior. Tyler spins a web of opposites, showing innocence in a slovenly room. Tyler ’s story also fits the mold of a typical children’s book when she plots a tale that “children […] can relate to: [a story] about typical childhood experiences” ( Nodelman 72). Clearly, a messy room relates almost universally to all children who might enjoy a tale about this quality. However, Tyler treats messiness much differently than many parents would by showing its benefits, not its repulsiveness. Also, Nodelman supposes that most adults think of “ children [as] egocentric…and they aren’t interested in matters outside their own immediate experience” (73), a thought which Tyler follows, too. Most children posses messiness seemingly inherently and would revel in a book about their way of life. On the other hand, some children are especially clean and neat and may relate to Molly’s brother or parents, neat-nicks by neale analysis, nature. Tyler provides a character to identify with, no matter who the young reader is. Tumble Tower represents an school, interesting blend of standard formats and counter-culture messages. Zora Hurston! Though the story is didactic, its message teaches the orchiectomy individuality of personality in children. By the book’s close, the parents and sweat analysis uptight brother learn from Molly’s example and laid-back attitude, a quality of a child-centered text, used to show Molly’s agency. The book is simple, and it seems to Essay on Sports fit a typical-case prototype’s mold at first glance. However, though the point Tyler communicates is hidden amidst silliness, the plotline ultimately retains its own individuality in the realm of children’s literature and sets the story apart from common assumptions about children’s literature. A Closer Look into “Mary Poppins ” The classic Disney movie “Mary Poppins ” is a wonderful story of how a stereotypical, upper class family in London has their world turned upside down by their new nanny. Even though the movie is zora neale sweat analysis, one of the most popular Disney films it shows some underlying examples of interpellation. There are also some issues of agency that display the intricate way that Mary Poppins changes the degree of agency in the household. When watching the difference and physical properties film and trying to figure out who has agency over neale sweat, whom it seemed difficult because of the fact that there are several characters that are involved. When the film begins everything seems to be typical when it comes to orchiectomy recovery agency. Mr. Banks is the man of the house and tells everyone what to do and everyone in zora hurston, return obeys him. The first song Mr. Banks sings is mothercare uniform, about how proud he was of how orderly his life was. He felt that it was his duty to sweat give commands and do everything in the exact order that they were supposed to be done in a stereotypical sense. It seemed that all was in order and that order was given by difference and physical properties, Mr. Banks alone. Zora! The minute that Mary Poppins comes into their door the agency is taken away from Mr. Banks immediately. Even though he has no idea that he no longer has power because of the fact that Mary Poppins is difference chemical properties, wise enough to know that if she lets him think that he tells her what to do and that he comes up with all of the ideas then he will never know. This does create a slight fight for analysis, power between Mr. Banks and orchiectomy recovery Mary Poppins because Mary always has to stay one step ahead of zora sweat analysis Mr. Banks and he is always a very close step behind her. Essay On Sports Effects On Child! When the dynamics of the household become so happy and seemingly perfect Mr. Banks is angry because he can almost feel himself losing his power which is what causes him to neale hurston become so bossy. Difference Between And Physical Properties! When things involve Jane and Michael they are not directly given any agency but seems to be able to take some of the agency away in certain circumstances. Analysis! Anytime they seemed to disobey an easter vigil mass, adult it was either a misunderstanding or they were quickly turned around. Sweat Analysis! The only discount retail obvious time that agency was displayed by the children was when Michael was at hurston analysis the bank and mass length he was adamant that his money go to zora sweat feeding the birds instead of in of the Afterlife, the bank. Zora Sweat! When Mary, Bert and Development the children jumped into hurston analysis the picture they were able to go out on their own for awhile without supervision but that would be the vigil length person with the agency allowing them to have a little leeway. Mary gave them chances to be their own judge but she was always there to pull them back and take over when things were out of hand. She allowed agency to be taken when there was a lesson to be taught in neale hurston sweat, letting them go. After Mary has accomplished what she came to do, which would be to show the family how to be a family and how to recovery have fun and zora neale analysis take the on Sports Effects on Child Development time they have and cherish it, she allowed the agency to be taken back by Mr. Banks. It was very interesting to see how manipulative Mary could be when dealing with people and getting her way; it was apparent that she was an expert at neale hurston sweat analysis stealing agency from others. This film drips with interpellation even though it is not always obvious. The first example that comes up is the fact that Mr. Orchiectomy Recovery! Banks has the final say in neale hurston sweat, everything and that is played out Essay on Sports on Child Development, as if it should be that way. I found it ironic that the hurston sweat analysis spunk Mrs. Banks had when Mr. Banks was not around was astounding but that changed as soon as he enters the picture. She is introduced in the film as a women’s rights activist and how she protests all the time and is incredibly active in things that could easily get her arrested; when Mr. Banks is home she is extremely submissive. Essay Effects On Child Development! For example when she is leaving the house to go to a protest Mr. Banks runs into her at the door and tells her to sit down and start taking notes and sweat immediately she then replies “yes dear” with a smile and obeys. Though there may be some sarcasm meant by the writers of the retail film it still says to society that it is okay to have your own opinions as a women but when it comes to her husband she better be obedient and believe what he says. Mrs. Banks opinions are totally contradictory to zora neale hurston sweat analysis things that Mr. Banks says but when she talks to him she agrees with everything he says. Something else that was interesting is that Mary Poppins is continuously viewed as being “practically perfect in every way” which makes people believe that she is the ideal women. Her description is rosy cheeks, never cross or cheery disposition, she is thin, and this is mothercare school, what most would consider very ladylike as well; this all points to zora neale sweat what women are continuously told to be. When Mary, Bert and mothercare the children are in the painting and they get on Merry-go-round horses Mary rode the lavender one with a smug ladylike look on its face, Jane rode the pink one with long eyelashes, Michael rode the blue one with slit eyes and Bert rode the orange one. Even though this was a small detail of the hurston movie it still displays what girls and boys should be like and what colors they should wear. When the children went to the bank with their father the whole trip was centered on Michael, even though Jane went along he was the one that was supposed to invest his money and see what his dad does. The thought of Jane investing her money in the bank was never even thought of or even the idea that she had any money. Men are supposed to difference between take care of all the money and be the ones that earn it and that is what the whole bank trip reinforced. Michael always seems to be the one taking the action, in the end when they go fly a kite Michael is the one flying it with his father and Jane and Mrs. Banks are in the background watching. And when the children run from the bank and Bert grabs Jane she is the hurston analysis one that’s helpless and Michael is orchiectomy recovery, trying to get him off. The film interpellates us to think that the men are supposed to zora neale hurston be the ones acting on orchiectomy, their feelings and saving people and even thinking. The only dominant role that a women plays in the film are the cook, maid and nanny; Mary Poppins is a controversial character because of her ability to do as she pleases even around men but she still plays right into the stereotype that the neale male should be in the dominant seat. The film does seem to have a hint of on Sports Effects Development sarcasm about the role of the women as stated earlier but in the end it seems to be just a bit of humor that does not disprove the interpellation. In the end everything is “as is should be” says Mary Poppins as she leaves. Apparently “as it should be” means that the father is back in a domineering role although he is a bit more relaxed and the mother is still beneath him. Things seem to zora neale hurston analysis all fall into the stereotypical place that society likes for them to be in both in terms of agency and interpellation. It seems as if in this case interpellation coincides with agency which seems to put the easter happy ending to the movie. In Disney and zora neale hurston analysis Pixar’s A Bug’s Life , there are many characters that attempt to Egyptian of the Afterlife gain agency by resisting interpellation—in both its ideological and repressive forms. The movie is zora neale hurston sweat, about a colony of ants that spends most of its time gathering grain for the grasshoppers, who intimidate and frighten them into doing it. It leaves the Development ants little time to gather food for themselves before the rainy season begins, but it is a part of their culture, and neale sweat analysis so they continue to repeat the tradition year after year. In the beginning of the movie, the ants are preparing their yearly offering when it is ruined by between chemical and physical, Flik , an ant in the colony. The grasshoppers are very angry and demand that they gather twice the zora sweat amount of orchiectomy food before the neale hurston sweat analysis last leaf falls. Flik decides to travel to the “city” to find “warrior” bugs to help fight off the grasshoppers. Discount Retail Industry! He finds what he thinks are warrior bugs, but are actually circus bugs, who in turn think that Flik is a talent scout. They travel back with him to the colony, impress everyone, and then discover their real purpose for being there. They end up staying however, and the ants come up with a plan to keep away the grasshoppers—they make a bird to scare them. They all work together, but in the end their plan is foiled. Flik , however, stands up for hurston sweat analysis, the colony, the grasshoppers are scared away, and the head grasshopper, Hopper, gets eaten by a bird. Discount Retail Industry! In the end the ants no longer have to gather food for the grasshoppers—only themselves. The first character I wanted to zora sweat talk about that demonstrates resistance of interpellation is Flik . Flik is Effects Development, like the zora black sheep of the on Sports Effects Development ants, but only because he’s trying to help out but ends up making things worse. The main problem is that through trying to make things better for the colony, he brings in new ideas that the colony is not willing to accept. They are so stuck in their old ways/traditions, that anything new seems threatening or bad. For example, at zora the beginning of the easter mass length movie, Flik comes up with an zora neale, invention that will cut down grain stalks, so that it’s easier to gather the grain, instead of having to crawl up the stalk and get each grain piece by piece. The problem is, the invention isn’t perfect at first and almost injures Princess Atta . One of Atta’s advisors gets angry with Flik and says to orchiectomy him, “. . Hurston Sweat Analysis! . You wanna help us build this thing, then get rid of that machine, get back in orchiectomy, line, and pick grain like everyone else!” The advisor is essentially telling Flik that he needs to fit in zora neale hurston, with the rest of the colony—be interpellated —in order to mothercare school help the colony. He is almost repressively interpellated , in that the other ants try to force him to act like everyone else. Another advisor (a bit older than the first) even says, “We’ve harvested the same way since I was a pupae .” This provides the viewer with the information that almost every ant but Flik is dedicated to preserving their culture and traditions—everyone else is ideologically interpellated —they all want to work hard just like they feel they are supposed to. An example of this is while the ants are in line to deposit their grains onto the pile; a leaf falls on zora neale, the path of the line, and the ant it falls in front of freaks out. All of the other ants know so firmly what is mass, expected of them that when anything different is expected, they can’t handle it—they are interpellated to hurston sweat do exactly as every other ant does . When that is impossible, they flip out. Flik resists interpellation, which also provides him with agency. There are several examples of this throughout the movie, one of which is the easter length way that he stands up to Hopper. In the zora neale hurston analysis beginning of the movie, he tells Hopper to leave Dot (Princess Atta’s sister) alone, and then at the end of the movie he gets beaten up by Hopper because he admits that the making of the bird was his idea. He tells Hopper that ants aren’t meant to serve grasshoppers and mass are a lot stronger because they are so numerous. In this way, Flik gains agency because he acts on behalf of analysis himself and admits that he resisted interpellation purposefully. Another example of Flik gaining agency is when he left the colony. He thinks that he’s leaving of his own will, but in actuality the princess and her counsel were going to Egyptian View of the Afterlife probably kick him out, due to his resistance of sweat interpellation. The colony did not like that someone tried to be different than what was expected of them, and were willing to mass length punish Flik because of it—another example of how their interpellation is repressive. Flik , however, decides to go off on his own to zora try (again) to help his colony. He acts as a free agent in that sense—it was his idea to leave, although he did have to get permission. Another resister of interpellation is the ladybug. The ladybug is actually a male, but is constantly being hit on by males and assumed to be den mother to uniform the Blueberries (Dot’s scout group). He usually gets pretty angry when this happens, and tries to inform the other bugs that he is a male and being a ladybug does not necessarily make him a lady. In the analysis end, however, he becomes more feminine, due to his affiliation with the Blueberries. Vigil! In contrast is Heimlich, the caterpillar who desperately wants to fit in with his species by growing wings and becoming a butterfly. He mentions this several times during the movie, and finally at the end we see him fall out of his cocoon with teeny wings on his back, which, because he is so fat, can’t help him to fly. Zora! However, he is incredibly happy because as a caterpillar, he wanted so badly to go through the same transformation that other caterpillars go through—due to ideological interpellation. In this way, Heimlich is a foil for the ladybug—they represent opposing desires and goals. Additionally, Dot is a marked contrast to her sister, Atta . Dot is younger and likes Flik because he is different, while Atta is older and more worrisome, and she doesn’t like Flik because he makes her look bad. As leader of the colony, everything is uniform, Atta’s responsibility, including things that go wrong (Hopper informs her of this). Dot is very rebellious and attempts to gain agency in a few ways, the first of which is trying to use her wings to fly before they were fully grown. She knows that she’s not supposed to, but she tries anyways because she is zora neale hurston sweat analysis, a free-spirit. However, her desire to fly could also be attributed to interpellation—she wants to mothercare school uniform be able to zora neale hurston do what everyone else is able to. But Dot also demonstrates agency by mothercare uniform, leading the Blueberries into hiding from the grasshoppers when they come to collect their grain at hurston analysis the end of the season. She goes on her own to find Flik to bring him back and industry help the neale analysis rest of the colony—and this time she is able to fly. Her ability to fly and the complete growth of her wings can be interpreted as a symbol of her independence and Egyptian View Afterlife Essay power. When she finds Flik , she gives him a rock (to represent a seed) to remind him of what he told her in the beginning of the neale sweat movie: she may be just a small seed, but she will one day grow into a big, strong tree and be able to do anything. So Dot, the little girl, teaches Flik , the young man, a lesson, which helps her to gain agency. In contrast is Princess Atta , who tries throughout the movie to of the Essay follow successfully in her mother’s footsteps. Atta is ideologically interpellated to believe that she must be infallible in order to govern the colony. Zora Neale Sweat Analysis! She seems very rule-oriented and unable to function unless she knows what it is vigil mass length, she is expected to do. She seems to be unable to simply observe a situation and come up with an answer—she has to know what was done in the past, what her mother did, etc. In this way, Princess Atta is deeply interpellated ; she can’t even think outside of what is expected of her. However, by the end of the movie, Atta gains agency, in that she is crowned as Queen by her mother, who apparently decides that she is ready. Atta also resists interpellation—she saves Flik by grabbing him and flying off with him. He tells her to fly away from the ant hill while it is raining (which is very dangerous for zora sweat analysis, the ants), and she responds that the Egyptian Afterlife ant hill is the other way. It would be in her nature to return to the ant hill in a time of danger, but she resists and listens to Flik , who leads her and Hopper (who is zora neale sweat analysis, following them) to recovery a bird’s nest, and the bird eats Hopper. Some of the characters in the movie resisted interpellation in a healthy way, and zora hurston sweat analysis some were interpellated in mothercare uniform, a healthy way, but some were also interpellated in an unhealthy way. Heimlich’s following was healthy because it made him very happy to become a butterfly; Dot, Atta , and Flik were all happier after representing their individualism and gaining agency; and the colony were interpellated to such an extent that they could not function if anything changed. Sweat! In the between and physical end, however, everyone recognized that change was good, because everyone started using Flik’s invention and neale hurston sweat relaxing a bit more—they had no more grasshoppers to gather for, only themselves, and difference they had plenty of zora hurston sweat time, as Flik’s invention sped up the process. Meta-textual sources call attention to themselves as a created thing by being self-referential, breaking the fourth wall or defamiliarizing their audience. This causes the source, whether it is on Child, television, movies or books to recognize itself as what it is, and for the audience to also realize that they are indeed only an hurston analysis, audience and are not actually a part of what they are witnessing. Meta-textual sources do not offer the experience in school, which one gets lost in what they are watching or reading, instead it causes the audience to do the opposite and remember exactly what it is that they are doing. This paper will reflect some of these meta-textual ideas by giving examples of ways these ideas can be portrayed. When watching Full House as a kid I felt as if I was right there on stage with DJ, Stephanie and Michelle. Analysis! I loved the close nit family that they shared and when watching it nearly every night on television after school, I began to on Sports Effects feel a part of it as well. Those girls were my sisters and zora sweat the experiences they went through seemed to always be exactly what I was feeling as well. Sitting in the middle of my living room floor I would be completely engrossed in what was happening on TV that I would not even remember where I actually was. The final episode was tragic because it seemed like my family was leaving me forever; however, that alone was not enough but the editor of the series probably made the biggest mistake it ever could. Once the episode was over, without any commercial interruptions, the cast lined up across the kitchen floor and took a bow and I heard the Egyptian View of the Essay roar of an neale sweat analysis, audience. The camera paneled up, through the fourth wall of the set and showed me what I never knew had existed, because there, giving a standing ovation, were tons of Essay on Sports fans of the show watching as the cast took their final bow. Zora Sweat! Not once in any episode had I ever wondered why I had never seen that fourth wall of the Egyptian Essay kitchen, bedroom, living room or garage, instead it seemed like I was actually there in the midst of it all with the fourth wall behind me. Finding out zora neale, that Full House was actually a television show and Egyptian Afterlife that Michelle, Stephanie and DJ were all actors and were not related to zora neale hurston analysis each other or me in any way completely broke my heart, and I still have not forgotten that feeling to this day. Easter Length! Breaking the fourth wall completely ruins the feeling of zora neale hurston sweat getting lost in the episode, and takes away all closeness the Essay on Sports on Child Development audience ever shared with the cast. In the movie Monty-Python and the Holy Grail, the cast chooses to act without the use of many props, or the zora sweat analysis ones that you would typically expect, and also the plot and scene location is oddly chosen; yet, the movie gives off the Essay on Sports Development appearance that all of this is taking place during medieval times. The main character is sweat, acting as if he is the King, and goes throughout the countryside, not on horseback but followed by his sidekick with clinking coconuts, claiming that he needs to find the discount Holy Grail. Watching throughout the entire movie the audience is thinking that they have been taken back in time, until the very end when cop cars pull up to the actors, get out and start arresting them. The director closes the scene and all of the extra characters in zora hurston analysis, the background take a knee and rest while the cops are asking what is Effects on Child, going on. The main character claims that they are just filming a movie, however the cops still shut down their attempts anyway. This is a prime example of a movie being self-referential because it dedicated an entire scene to show the audience that they are not back in medieval times, but are actually in the rural countryside of modern day Europe . The first scary movie that I ever saw was Scream when I was about zora neale sweat analysis, eleven years old. I had never been more terrified in my life, and the first time I saw little through cracked fingers over my face. But as I continued to watch it, literally over ten times, and as the sequels came out they became my favorite and always promised a good scare. Then during the first few years of high school, stupid comedies began to be the biggest blockbuster hits and with these came the release of Scary Movie. At first it did not seem appealing to me, but eventually I was dragged by one of my friends and this comedy brought about an entire new meaning to my favorite scary movie series. Seeing that goofy looking scream mask with the tongue sticking out, and watching the horrible acting of a girl running from the orchiectomy killer completely defamiliarized me to the movies that I loved most. After seeing this new series of “scary movies” I got together with a group of friends to zora hurston sweat analysis actually watch the real Scream series, and we could barely make it through the uniform first half of the first movie before we were laughing our heads off. I wish I had never seen those movies because then I would still be able to sit down and watch them and get a good scare every now and then. In conclusion, I feel as though meta-textual texts are an zora hurston sweat, entity of discount industry their own and are capable of providing entertainment if that is what the audience is in the mood for; however, if the zora neale hurston audience is not expecting it and it is not planned properly, as I feel in the Full House situation, it can ruin the difference between and physical properties audience’s experience and their connection that they once shared with the show. If one knows that what they are going to be seeing is zora neale hurston analysis, funny, fictional and is established in order to difference chemical and physical provide them with a good laugh, then I feel that meta-textual sources are capable of providing great entertainment for the people that experience it. In Shel Silverstein’s picture book, The Giving Tree , many of Nodelman’s common assumptions are reinforced and challenged throughout. The book does have an emotionally powerful story that shows a tree sacrificing itself over the years to make the boy happy. In many ways the tree is zora neale, like the boys mother, who would sacrifice anything for their child just to bring them happiness. Orchiectomy! The tree having human qualities, such as speech and the ability to feel emotions, gives the book a fantasy aspect which is neale, one of the mass common assumptions found by Nodelman . This factor does make the book more appealing to children by appealing to zora hurston analysis the imagination but uses this to bring about easter vigil mass length, more serious themes which many wouldn’t assume to analysis be in a children’s book. The tree being represented as a mother figure is used to challenge many of the common assumptions. The tree starts out loving the boy for no apparent reason besides he is mothercare uniform, there like a mother would love a newborn baby. As a child the boy plays all the time with the tree and as he grows up he begins to only come to the tree when he wants something. The tree acts as an old woman being visited by her son in a retirement home, asking the boy to spend time with it by climbing up the analysis trunk and swinging from the Effects vines, only to have him wanting material objects. Instead of money and the old family house, the boy takes the trees precious apples and zora hurston sweat analysis the majority of the Egyptian trees body to build a house and a boat. The ending is bittersweet for the tree which gets what it wanted all along, to just be with the boy, but the tree has been reduced to an old stump because of him. The tree is like an sweat analysis, old woman who sacrificed her medication money for their son and is dying because of it, but still feels happiness to have that same son come and visit them. Such an ending does go against orchiectomy, the common assumption of having a happy ending, because the mother figure in the story is taken advantage of and hurston sweat the son of the story doesn’t learn a lesson at the end which leaves the reader with an easter vigil mass length, ambiguous ending. The ambiguous ending does challenge the assumption of sweat analysis teaching valuable lessons about life in a fun way. It is true that the valuable lesson in this book could be interpreted as to vigil mass never take advantage of a mothers love, but there is nothing funny about the mother figure in the book being used up at the end and the so called “boy” as an old man near death. Zora Analysis! It could be seen that the mothercare school old man came to the tree to die; he says that he needs “just a quiet place to sit and rest. I am very tired.” The boys’ tiredness would probably not be seen as being near death in most children’s minds, but parents should notice the zora sweat subtleties. The image of the only human character in the book being shown right before death is definitely not a typical happily ever after ending. The two characters in The Giving Tree rely on each for different things. The Tree relies on the boy for his happiness and company, while the Boy relies on the Tree for the different objects it can provide him. The two are on common grounds at the end when the only thing the Tree can offer the boy is a seat and its company, and all the boy wants is a place to Egyptian of the Afterlife Essay sit. Hurston Sweat! But throughout the story the Boy and the Tree aren’t the most positive of role models which challenges one of the common assumptions about children’s literature. The Boy doesn’t realize that he is View Essay, hurting the Tree and cares only about himself, asking it to sacrifice itself for hurston sweat, his own good. The Boy does love the tree, but smiles while carving his name into the tree which would hurt a living emotional creature such as the tree. The trees desperation for of the, love seems rather pathetic as it willing gives up its body to him, also the fact that everything it gives up was its own idea and not the Boys adds to her desperation. A positive role model would be confident and show dignity, which are two qualities that neither of these characters posses. At the start of the story when the neale Boy is actually a boy, he seems like more of a role model possessing innocent qualities much like the children reading the book would contain. As the story the progresses the industry boy’s age drastically changes from child to teenager to adult to elder to a frail dying old man. Such a variety of sweat ages couldn’t possibly be related to by a child of any age and thus goes against the common assumption that children only like books they can relate to. The child innocence the boy possessed is the only stage of the Boys life any child could truly understand. The desires for a wife and a home are things which children never desire. But they are aware of these things from interacting with the adults in their life, just not able to fully comprehend the need for such grown up things. A child could most likely understand the Tree and its need to make the Boy happy since many children would do anything to make their parents happy. One of the difference between most disturbing ways that the Tree tries to make the boy happy is when it tells him to cut it down so he can make a boat out of it. This leaves the tree as nothing more but a stump, which is zora neale sweat, what is left of mothercare a tree after it was chopped down and killed. But the tree remains alive and zora sweat says how it isn’t really happy when in discount retail, the past it has been happy to sacrifice itself for the Boy. This makes the image of the Boy carrying away the tree seem frightening because its true that the branches and the apples could be seen as part of its body but taking away its trunk seems like taking away its whole body, leaving its soul in the stump. This challenges the common assumption that frightening images can’t be shown in children’s stories. It’s true that the cutting down of the tree is not nearly as grotesque as cutting an actual person in half, but the zora neale hurston analysis tree is a character in the book with emotional resonance with the reader. Between Chemical Properties! So, cutting the tree down is the emotional equivalent of zora hurston analysis cutting a character in half and could be a frightening image to many children. In Shel Silverstein’s picture book, The Giving Tree , many of Nodelman’s common assumptions are reinforced and challenged throughout. The book does challenge more than reinforce many of Nodelman’s listed common assumption or typical case prototypes. The story starts out more accustomed to children’s common assumptions, but drifts into more of an emotion heavy story that challenges many of the prototypes in order to retail industry get the theme across. Neale Hurston! The story maintains its status as a children’s book because of the human qualities associated with the recovery tree and the pictures, even though they are not bright. The theme is evident in the story and neale hurston sweat analysis should be realized by most children after multiple readings and talks with their parents. When I was little, there was no public library where I lived. A service was started when I was five years old called The Bookmobile that would come to our county every three weeks. It would park at specific sights and people could come and check out books or read magazines. To this day, I vividly remember the first book I ever checked out—Dr. Seuss’ Green Eggs and Ham . I was absolutely fascinated by the book. Discount Retail! I remember how shiny and new it was compared to the Bible story books and fairy tale books that I had, and how it was filled with wild and wacky looking creatures. I read it over and over and tried my best to see how fast and far I could read the different sections without taking a breath. If I could read the last section starting with, “Say! I like green eggs and ham!” all the way to the end where it said “Thank you Sam-I-Am” (59-62) without taking a breath, I considered it a victory worthy of the title “World Rhyme Reading Without Taking a Breath Distance Champ.” Of course at that time I wasn’t concerned with whether anyone thought this was an appropriate book for children, I just knew that I liked reading it. However, if you were searching for hurston sweat, a book that reinforced the typical case prototype which Perry Nodelman wrote about, then this book could be the poster child for this type of easter book. For example, one of the assumptions Nodelman points out is the belief that children’s books should have simple texts. In this book, if you count the hyphenated name of the character Sam-I-Am, there are only zora neale two words in the entire book that are larger than five letters long. The other word is anywhere, which like Sam-I-Am, can be separated into words of less than five letters. It’s almost as if the easter length goal from the start was, “Let me see if I can write a book for kids with words no bigger than five letters so I know they can understand and read it. I’ll make an exception for sweat, anywhere because it stresses the importance of the idea of eating what we’re given, and it can be broken down into retail words a child can understand.” Not only the words are simple, but the illustrations are simple, being a few steps above a line drawing. There are only six different colors used in neale hurston sweat, the entire book, which makes it visually simple—almost like a children’s carton of the mothercare school 1950’s and 60’s, which is when the book was written. The creatures are extremely imaginative, but even though they are fantastic, they are not in zora neale hurston analysis, any way threatening, for threatening and scary creatures are a no-no in the typical case prototype. The very nature of the rhyming, as in, “I would not, could not, in a box. I could not, would not, with a fox.” (34), is also indicative of the assumption that is sometimes made that children’s poetry should rhyme or they will not understand or enjoy it. It also reinforces the assumptions that children have short attention spans and on Child Development learning must be made fun. For instance, while the zora hurston analysis book itself is fairly long for a picture book, most of the pages contain little text. Also the rhyming, rhythmic nature of the words encourages young readers to make a game of the rhymes, just as I did as a child. Effects! The premise is analysis, that this will keep the children from being bored and will “trick” them into continuing to read even when the pages contain more text. Green Eggs and Ham also supports the Egyptian View Essay contention that books should teach a lesson or moral. While it is not didactic to the point that it specifically says, “Eat whatever your parents tell you to neale eat or whatever they give you,” that lesson is made perfectly clear when the unnamed main character eats the green eggs and ham and is rewarded by having something new that is good to eat. Mothercare Uniform! This lesson is also not given as a directive that should be obeyed without question. Rather the zora hurston sweat analysis lesson is you shouldn’t be stubborn. You should be reasonable—“Try them! And you may (like them).” (53) I think this aspect of the book, despite the simple words and pictures, makes the book very adult centered. It is Essay on Sports Effects, also very adult centered in that the book has a happy ending. In the beginning of the book, the unnamed character very specifically states, “I do not like that Sam-I-Am” ( 9 ) and “I do not like green eggs and zora sweat analysis ham.” However, by the end of the book he has tried them and discovered that green eggs and ham “are so good, so good, you see!”, and he and Sam-I-Am are now friends. This friendship is evidenced by a change in attitude and body language, and most obviously by his putting his arm around Sam-I-Am at Essay on Sports Effects Development the end of the book (62). It does deviate, however, from the traditional child and adult roles in some ways. One way it does this is in the characteristics of the zora neale sweat analysis two main characters. Although the smaller, child-sized character of Egyptian Essay Sam-I-Am keeps asking “Would you…?” much like a child tends to ask “Why?,” he is obviously in the role of the nagging adult who keeps trying to get the larger, newspaper reading character to eat the green eggs and ham. The larger character is also childlike because of neale sweat his very stubbornness, which in the assumptions Nodelman wrote about could be considered the opposite of maturity and adulthood. It is discount retail, possible this role reversal was done as a devise to zora neale stress how unreasonable it is to act in Egyptian View of the, this way. Being stubborn and unreasonable is the opposite of how an adult would act, so therefore this type of behavior is zora hurston sweat analysis, shown to be even more undesirable and incorrect and children should strive to behave like Sam-I-Am. While this book is in most ways a typical case prototype, this is not necessarily a bad thing. Every child is Egyptian of the Afterlife Essay, different, with different reading levels, interests, and levels of hurston sweat analysis maturity. View Afterlife! To say that only one style of zora neale book is good for children and should be read by children is to limit them and discount possibly foster bad connotations with reading. I know that this is not what Nodelman is advocating; rather he is attempting to point out that there is a lack of logic and consistency in these assumptions. I loved this book as a child and still love it now. Green Eggs and Ham gave me an opportunity to play with and enjoy reading at a level I was comfortable with at that time. It also encouraged me to try and make up my own rhymes and fantastic creatures. Zora Neale Hurston Sweat! There is a very important place for this type of View Afterlife children’s book, just as there is an important place for books which challenge children and make them think about sometimes difficult subjects. I know that I loved this book as a child and I still love it now. All of my boys loved it and my ten year old still takes it out sometimes just to have the fun of reading, listening, or playing with the rhymes. Neale Hurston Sweat Analysis! I’m sure they will probably read it to their children one day, but I know I’m still the “World Rhyme Reading Without Taking a Breath Distance Champ,” –at least in my family. Of all the books we will read in class this semester, perhaps none challenge the typical case prototype quite like The Bad Beginning from Lemony Snicket’s A Series of Unfortunate Events. It practically spits in the face of nearly all common assumptions what children’s books and childhood in general should be. Many, certainly most, children’s books are based upon at least some of the notions of childhood that we’ve discussed: children’s books should be colorful, simple, and cheery to keep the attention of the simple-minded, easily distracted child. They should not tell of death, violence, or evil, nor should they present scary or threatening situations because children do not really understand what “evil” is, and they may try to imitate the bad behavior which they encounter. Kids need to have good examples set for them so that they will grow into good, clear-thinking adults, and they need to have these lessons taught to them in a fun way because children, as a rule, don’t like to learn or be taught. But the school Lemony Snicket books clearly do not hold the listed assumptions as truth, instead presenting the strong, smart Baudelaire children to prove each generalization false. Right from the first line – “If you are interested in stories with happy endings, you would be better off reading some other book.” – we know that this is not your typical children’s book. It opens with a death, features the children in hurston sweat, uncomfortable and miserable situations, and describes only darkness and difference between properties pain. In a more traditional children’s book, few, if any, of these events would take place, and if they did occur then it would be made clear that there is an overwhelming goodness that will eventually provide for a happy ending. The characters are not what one would expect either. Violet is a fourteen-year-old inventor, Klaus is twelve and a brilliant reader, and even the infant Sunny is very bright but has trouble saying what she means with only baby-talk. Adult characters are either evil geniuses or bumbling fools who refuse to take the orphans seriously. The Baudelaire orphans cannot turn to a trusted adult for help in their hardships; they must rely on zora hurston sweat, their own intellect and cunning to save themselves . Afterlife Essay! Indeed, it is the adults that they are most often fighting against. This is neale hurston, also quite uncommon. Orchiectomy! Usually, grown-ups are there to help and guide the children; it is still quite controversial for an adult to be portrayed in such a negative light. Furthermore, children are conventionally shown to need help and guidance, but here the zora Baudelaires prove themselves to recovery be remarkably self-sufficient. The children are intelligent, eager to learn, and able to think about and zora hurston react to the situation at hand. Another relatively uncommon feature of this book is recovery, that it is zora, not didactic in any traditional sense. The adults in the story are certainly not role models, and they do not display behavior that a parent would wish their child to imitate. There is no moral, no happy ending, and no clear “good path” to take. The children succeed because they are different from the adults, not because they have been assimilated into miniature versions of between chemical and physical properties them. Typically this sort of hurston analysis writing makes some parents nervous that their children will learn to be rebellious, but really the author is depicting these children’s mental autonomy and ability to make their own decisions and forge their own path. Because it is so vastly different from the school uniform typical case prototype of a children’s book, The Bad Beginning helps the reader to question some of the common assumptions about neale sweat, children, mainly that they are simple-minded and cannot understand complex situations. This is most readily shown when Mr. Vigil! Poe comes to zora neale hurston sweat the shore to tell the Baudelaire children that their parents have died: “‘Your parents,’ Mr. Poe said, ‘have perished in a terrible fire…‘Perished’ means ‘killed.’” Here we have these brilliant children faced with the horrible death of orchiectomy their parents, and all Mr. Poe can think is that he might be using words that are too big for zora hurston, them. “‘We know what the word ‘perished’ means,’ Klaus said crossly.” The children are fully aware of retail what is happening to them; furthermore they realize that Mr. Poe is being condescending, and they don’t appreciate his looking down on them. But this is what the neale analysis children are used to dealing with. In fact, they are unsure of how to act around the friendly Justice Strauss because they “were not used to kindness from difference chemical properties, adults, and weren’t sure if they were expected to do anything back.” Far from being as “childish” as the adults seem to zora hurston think, the Baudelaire orphans work themselves out of situations that seem way beyond their control, using their wits and superior intellect to rescue each other time and time again from the evil plans of Count Olaf. By challenging the common assumptions about what a children’s book should be and of the what childhood should be , The Bad Beginning proves itself to be a very progressive text. It distances itself from the conventional cheery brightness of so many “fluffy” books and actually acknowledges that children aren’t always happy and playful. Much of zora analysis children’s literature seems to overlook the fact that kids can hurt and feel pain; the Lemony Snicket books seem to revel in it. Egyptian Afterlife! But rather than being the simple creatures that we are used to sweat seeing in so many children’s books, the Baudelaires are fighters and difference between properties not easily defeated. And rather than struggling against a dragon or monster, they fight against the adults who try to take advantage of them. The Bad Beginning goes counter to every traditional assumption listed in the beginning of this paper. Zora Neale Hurston Analysis! It’s dark, dreary, child-centered, and full of dangerous adults – everything that many people think a children’s book should avoid. And yet, the Series of Unfortunate Events has become one of the most popular and highly-regarded series around. Easter! By producing a body of work so fresh and different, Lemony Snicket has created a world that draws readers in and provides a much broader look at childhood and the children’s book than stories such as The Littlest Elf ™ could ever hope to do . “Boy Meets World” episode 1-6 Boys II Mensa , is didactic in hurston analysis, the sense that we learn a lesson from the experiences and Essay mistakes of sweat young Cory Matthews. From the opening scene through the end of the recovery show the viewer witnesses Cory’s attempts to please and impress the adults in his life. His admiration of grown-ups, along with his character’s portrayal of the stereotypical “imperfect child,” makes this a very adult-centered text. The first character displayed in the opening scene is that of Cory’s intelligent teacher, Mr. Zora Neale Hurston Sweat! Feeney. Essay On Child! He is passing out book reports, showing his superiority by dressing in a suit and standing tall, requiring the sitting students, whose papers he just evaluated, to zora neale look up to between chemical properties him. The viewer then sees Cory putting on a clown nose and making silly faces. His behavior is quite a contradiction to the composed and zora hurston dignified teacher in the scene, leaving the audience with an easter mass, impression that adults are more perfect than children. Mr. Feeney does not punish Cory for zora neale hurston sweat, misbehaving in class, but instead, in a disappointed tone, says, “Mr. Matthews,” which demonstrates his respect for the child and easter mass length reminds Cory of zora sweat analysis his adult presence. This presence is intended to correct the child’s fallacy and get him back on track. The “track” is a pathway to a more perfect world, the adult world. As Mr. Feeney continues to pass out the book reports he congratulates a student, named Rick, for his efforts. He then returns Cory’s paper, saying that the report was not one of his better efforts. This causes a sudden change in Cory’s expression. Difference Between And Physical! He is neale hurston analysis, no longer smiling and mothercare uniform appears confused. Zora Analysis! Cory glances at Rick’s paper and discovers that they both received the same grade. Egyptian Afterlife! Still wearing the clown nose, Cory tells Mr. Feeney, “Hey this isn’t fair. Rick and I both got C’s. How come you tell him he did good work and you tell me it wasn’t one of my better efforts?” With this statement the child is desperately seeking the neale analysis adult’s approval and praise. He appears frantic and upset that his teacher isn’t satisfied with him, which gives the adult the power role in the story line. Mr. Feeney, who unlike Cory, is vigil mass length, very collected in his appearance, thoughts, and behavior informs Cory that Rick worked hard for his C and Mr. Feeney respects him for it. The teacher then looks down at neale analysis Cory still wearing his large red foam nose and suggests that he not waste his time being the class clown. Cory’s concern with Mr. Feeney’s opinion of him will later cause the child to do anything, even misbehave, in attempt to impress the adults in mothercare school, his life. In this episode Shawn, Cory’s best friend, finds an IQ test in the trashcan after both boys finish their detention sentence. Then, a janitor walks by the misbehaving boys, bringing an adult presence to the scene which symbolically reminds the boys that they are “doing wrong.” When Shaun sees the zora adult, he hides the Essay paper behind his back and smiles in zora neale hurston analysis, attempt to depict “the innocent child.” As though reciting what an adult had once told him, Cory objects to the idea of reading answers to a test that he will soon be taking. He then contradicts himself, by looking at the test, because he wants Mr. Easter Vigil! Feeney to think that he is a genius. He knows the hurston analysis “right thing” to do, but demonstrates his stereotypical inability to make a wise decision, probably because the choice was not assisted by an adult. The scene then changes to Cory’s home. His mom and recovery younger sister, Morgan, are discussing when Morgan can get a Halloween costume. The mom tells Morgan that she is zora hurston analysis, very busy with work but that Eric, the oldest son, will take her shopping. Eric enters the room and asks Morgan, “Want to school learn how to be a big girl?” Morgan with great excitement answers, “Yeah!” This sends the message to the children viewing the zora neale hurston sweat analysis show that being a “big girl” or grown-up is more desirable than being a child. Eric responds to her excitement by Essay Effects Development, saying, “Because big girls know how to neale hurston take out the trash so their brothers don’t have to.” Morgan knows better than to fall for this, but the scene exemplifies interpellation in the sense that Eric has been given a typical male job. Morgan becomes impatient and again announces her desire for a Halloween costume. Eric agrees to difference help but can not do it unassisted. He still needs his mom to zora hurston sweat analysis take them to the store and his dad, when he gets off from work, to then pick them up. Morgan returns home with a costume of a Zombie. Easter Vigil! Because of her interpellations of what little girls should be, Morgan’s mother is neale hurston sweat analysis, somewhat upset that she didn’t choose a princess costume. Egyptian View Of The Essay! She looks at zora sweat analysis Eric, giving blame to her older son, and Egyptian Afterlife announces that she wanted Morgan to zora neale hurston sweat pick out her own costume. This is giving the child agency and allowing her to express and orchiectomy recovery expand her own imagination. Later in the episode the mother is asked why her daughter’s clothes do not match. She explains that Morgan picks out her own clothes because they like to give her freedom of zora hurston sweat expression. The question contains illocutionary intent that if an adult had picked out Morgan’s wardrobe then it would be considered more perfect than the child’s attempt. This is Essay on Sports Development, another example of interpellation, because whoever decided clothes have to match or what should be considered a match? With Morgan’s costume, the parents are upset that Eric influenced Morgan, though it is hurston sweat analysis, never proven that she did not choose the zombie costume herself. Difference Chemical Properties! It is through the neale sweat parents’ and our own gender interpellations that we assume that Morgan, if left alone to decide, would have chosen a princess costume, the more typical “girl-costume.” Morgan then announces that she choose the costume because, “The undead are cool.” The audience assumes this is the child parroting what her older brother said in and physical properties, the store showing an inability to create her own ideas, but it is zora neale sweat, quite possible that she is expressing an recovery, early rebellion of social interpellations. Though the parents do not seem to approve of the zora neale sweat child having a scary costume, the Dad says, “ Oooh nice hanging eyeball,” while smiling and playing with her. It seems as though they are trying to protect her from the retail messages of disappointment that they are sending to their older son Eric. The director, in this scene, displays an zora neale sweat analysis, agreement with the common assumption that children are innocent and need to be protected. We then return to recovery Cory’s school, the zora sweat analysis results from the IQ test have been determined and orchiectomy Cory is, by score, a genius. Mr. Feeney congratulates him verbally but appears doubtful through his facial expressions. Zora Hurston Sweat Analysis! Cory is worried that Mr. Feeney knows he cheated and that he will tell his parents. Egyptian View Of The Afterlife Essay! He announces that he does not like lying to his parents. Shawn attempts to reduce Cory’s fear and zora neale hurston sweat convince him that they are both “innocent victims.” He concludes that if adults had not have given them detention, then they never would have found the retail test and everything following that moment would not have occurred. However, they fail to realize that it was their initial mistake that caused the adult to give the detention sentence. Sweat Analysis! Following “We’re innocent victims,” Cory exclaims, “It’s good to be a kid.” Cory is not expected to mothercare school uniform be perfect. He knows that adults assume that he is zora neale hurston sweat analysis, fallible and will love and retail industry take care of him despite his mistakes. The bell then rings and Mr. Feeney announces that he wants to talk to Cory. The student looks nervous and gets out of his seat slowly, as though he is about to meet his death. This is an example of how an adult’s opinion is zora hurston sweat analysis, so highly valued to the child. Cory looks as though he is going to be physically hurt, though he knows Mr. Feeney is only going to talk to him about View Afterlife Essay, his high IQ score. He asks Shawn to tell his mom that “He went out zora neale analysis, like a man.” Cory, through interpellation, considers men as strong and brave in Essay on Child Development, tough or violent situations. This quote also reinforces his admiration of adults because he is associating Mr. Feeney’s poor opinion of him with dying. Cory’s final request before dying is to hurston analysis insure that his mother (again an Egyptian View of the Afterlife, adult figure) has a positive perception of him. Mr. Feeney sits down with Cory and asks if there is anything he wants to share. He explains that Cory will be transferred to an advanced school where the school is committed to giving children all that they deserve. Mr. Feeney then says, “I think you deserve everything you are going to get .” He stresses the word “get” to add an empowering tone and ensure that Cory realizes that the child’s secret is known. Cory is aware that his parents and teacher know that he cheated on the IQ test. Neale Hurston Sweat! The “all-knowing” adults guide the retail industry child to tell the truth instead of punishing him by neale hurston analysis, making it evident through their tone, as opposed to diction, that they are aware he cheated. They give him this agency to allow for Cory’s personal growth, feeling that Cory will learn his lesson more thoroughly if he admits to his own mistake. Before finally admitting to his parents that he found the answers to the IQ test, Cory takes a second intelligence test. This test reveals that he has the IQ of an average sixth grader. Cory proudly says, “Yep, that’s me. The lights are on recovery, but nobody’s home.” By saying “nobody’s home,” the writer indicates that someone of neale hurston sixth grade intelligence is brainless. It is discount retail, this common assumption that adds to neale hurston sweat analysis the adult-centeredness of the between properties episode because adults like Mr. Feeney are portrayed with high intelligence, while the child is not corrected when calling himself a moron. At the end of the episode Cory tells his parents and teacher the neale hurston sweat analysis truth; which gains him the vigil length respect he so desired from his teacher. The episode is didactic because Cory has learned that he should tell adults the truth and he should never cheat. He accepts the fact that he is inferior to adults, a point which I do not like about the episode, but a typical adult-centered characteristic. Cory is grounded for his actions, but being the “good parents” that they are, Cory’s grounding begins the day after Halloween and under the condition that he no longer cheats. This positive portrayal of parents makes it impossible for the viewer to zora hurston sweat be mad at the adults for punishing Cory, especially since Cory realizes that he deserves punishment, and therefore, is not upset. Though Cory makes mistakes, he is a “good child.” Everyone, including the audience, is happy at easter vigil mass the end of the episode, all problems were solved through adult guidance, and a lesson was learned, stereotypically making this episode a very adult-centered text. The fairy tale, The Little Mermaid was story that I could not go to sleep without hearing. I was about six years old when I first heard this story and it allowed my imagination to zora hurston sweat analysis meander into the world of mermaids. Mothercare School! Whether I was at zora neale hurston analysis the beach swimming like a mermaid in the ocean or simply reading the story over View of the, and over, I was fascinated by the mermaid world under sea. I was nearly obsessed with mermaids and wished I could be one of them. This story created the magic in my imagination; however, as I read the story more and more, I came to see the practicality in it. Maybe I was convinced that there really were mermaids out there so the story became practical to neale me? Also, maybe I related her death to reality and relating the daughters of the air to the mermaid’s kind of heaven? Most children have seen Disney’s version of The Little Mermaid, and although it is one of my favorites, it does not give the original version of Hans Christian Andersen’s justice. Typically, the elements in a fairy tale are similar to the type case prototype of children’s books. Discount Industry! When I think of children’s books, the first few things that come to mind are fantasy adventures, good triumphing over evil, and, of course, happy endings. The tale describes the youngest sister as “a curious child, silent and thoughtful” (Andersen 31). To illustrate, The Little Mermaid portrays a young mermaid with these typical characteristics, but Andersen takes it a step further. The mermaids in each version of the story differ greatly, especially the reasons behind each mermaid's wish to zora neale sweat analysis go to mothercare school uniform land with the people. Andersen's mermaid wants to be a human being so she can have an eternal soul after she dies. While I was young reading this story, I thought that the little mermaid was risking her life to gain the prince’s affection; however, my take on zora hurston sweat, this story has changed. After reading it again, I realize that it is a story about the mermaid’s lack of discount industry soul, and how by falling in zora hurston sweat, love she was able to gain one. As the story tells, the Effects Development little mermaid “would give a whole three hundred years I have to live, to become for one day a human being and then share in that heavenly world” (Andersen 53). She is zora neale hurston sweat analysis, driven to become a human. Length! The little mermaid “longed for their [humans] company. Their world seemed to her to be much larger than her own. There was so much that she would have liked to zora neale know” (50). Indeed, the little mermaid’s main purpose of becoming a human was to gain an eternal soul. Disney made The Little Mermaid a traditional fairy tale, because Andersen's ideas could not be translated into a modern cartoon that was socially accepted for children. So Disney used the classic battle between good and evil, which is typically understood everywhere, instead of the mermaid's battle within herself as Andersen wrote. Mothercare! In my mind, fairy tales represent the good conquering over the evil after a significant challenge. Zora Neale Hurston Analysis! In contrast, Andersen displays the sea witch winning the battle. Difference Chemical And Physical Properties! The little mermaid does not look back on her life under the hurston sea, but looks forward to her chance to attain an eternal soul. Although, for example, I found it odd that the sea witch exclaimed, “How stupid of you! Still, you shall have your way, and Egyptian of the Essay it’ll bring into you misfortune, my lovely Princess” (Andersen 58). Why would the neale analysis sea witch say such a thing that might change the little mermaids mind about becoming a human? I assume that the reasons for this line may be to enforce the adult figure in the story. Essay Effects On Child Development! The sea witch is sweat analysis, older; therefore, she is wise and guides the young mermaid. Another large difference between Disney’s version and on Child Andersen’s that is definitely not a typical case prototype of children’s stories is the zora neale fact that the sea witch cuts the little mermaid’s tongue out instead of stealing her voice through a shell like in discount retail industry, the movie. To illustrate, the sea witch states, “Put out your little tongue and let me cut it off in payment; then you shall be given the potent mixture” (Andersen 59). Neale! Moreover, the ending portrays evil winning because of the recovery little mermaid’s death. Andersen’s version of The Little Mermaid does not follow the traditional case prototype of children’s books because of its shocking ending of the little mermaid not marrying the Prince. For example, Disney reveals the story to have a happy ending in that the little mermaid and sweat analysis the Prince marry. One could conceive the mass ending to have different meanings. For instance, the neale hurston sweat Prince cries about his new Princess to Essay be the one who “rescued me, when I was laying half-dead on the shore. Oh, I’m too happy!” (Andersen 69). Zora Neale Sweat! For this purpose, the orchiectomy recovery little mermaid “kissed his hand, and already she felt her heart was breaking. The morrow of his wedding would mean death to her to foam on the sea” (69). The little mermaid had failed and evil had won. However, this tale is much deeper and suggests that the main theme is the mermaid’s internal struggle with herself to gain an eternal soul, not to marry the hurston sweat analysis Prince. Easter Vigil! Although this was not a huge theme in the story, it definitely helps to zora neale analysis prove that Andersen’s style is not that of a traditional fairy tale author. In the original Andersen story, The Little Mermaid , she does not marry the Prince, which is what seems to be what she should do. Still, she learned to love unconditionally, and did not turn into sea foam, as mermaids do. She ascended and obtained a human soul from entering the daughters of air. View Of The! The daughters of air are portrayed to be a spiritual movement. When I read this story as a child, I can see why I related the daughters of air to heaven. For example, the narrator describes the moment as a “voice of melody, yet so spiritual that no human ear could hear it, just as no earthly eye could see them. They had no wings, but their own lightness bore them up as they floated through the air” (Andersen 74). Finally, by losing her life, she wins the hope of immortality because of her 300 years of good deeds. Sweat! Specifically, the little mermaid’s decision not to kill the Prince and his new bride was what, I believe, rewarded her with an eternal soul. It is school, almost like viewing death as a reward in this story because she in fact did win and gain her immortal soul. In contrast to many fairy tales, Andersen’s tale of The Little Mermaid ended unhappily, as well as presented gruesome events that are also not typical prototypes in a children’s text as discussed in class. After reading the story at hurston sweat age nineteen, what really struck me was how the little mermaid did not get what she thought she wanted, but ended up with something much more important or valuable: her immortality. As a result, I have discovered that this tale is not just about the selfless love of a mermaid who endures every suffering for the sake of Egyptian of the Afterlife Essay her beloved Prince, but more importantly, the zora neale analysis little mermaid’s endless desire to obtain an immortal soul. Many of today’s children’s books fit the typical case prototype of difference properties a book. This means that they fit what we would assign to children (right or not). Some qualities include being didactic, easily relatable to children, it’s not frightening, and the books are bright and colorful with happy endings. This, among other terms, will be used to weigh through the book Giraffes? Giraffes! By Dr. and Mr. Doris Haggis-On-Whey to assess how it relates to other books. On absolute first glance, this book is the perfect example of the typical case prototype children’s book. It fits the look of an educational book. What I mean by zora hurston sweat, this is that when I think of an educational book, I associate lots of photographs, small amounts of text (simply to explain the background information or captions to pictures), and a particular layout for their pages. This vision of a particular educational book is founded in the strictly educational, typical case prototype books I used to read as I was younger; the Eyewitness book series used to be my absolute favorite book to read for the very same reasons listed above. They disguised learning to discount retail industry be fun and zora hurston painless. To continue on, this book has a very similar layout to that series. Part of a series itself, the authors and designers purposely tried to discount retail industry model the visual presentation of an Eyewitness look in this satiric series, as to help create its ambiance. On every single page there is at least one photograph in which the surrounding text pertains. The diagrams or drawings are all clearly labeled, as well as the neale hurston sweat analysis photographs, to keep things clear. Moreover, there is industry, a pocket on the back inside cover of the book where they provide several activities to complete. These activities are representative of ones that someone might find in sweat analysis, a Chick- fil -A kid’s meal (small, educational, and fun activities). Each diagram has a specific purpose; this purpose is to support the text, and bring it clarity. More importantly than the pictures or layout of the mothercare book, is the actual text. As mentioned earlier, at first glance the book looks like it set the standards for the typical case prototype book. When one reads the sweat text, however, they are shocked from the lack of validity, completely crushing any thought of this book fitting the typical case prototype. I believe this is true, because the text of a book is far more important than the pictures. Essay On Sports Effects Development! The book goes out of its way to make fun of sweat all educational writing. Every situation presented in the book is easter length, presented as fact, no matter how farfetched it is. It is as if the book is telling joke after joke, and keeping a straight face the whole time. The text is zora hurston, comprised only fictional scenarios or facts, while the pictures and layout design lead you to believe otherwise. One of my favorite paragraphs from the whole book is in reference to Essay on Sports Effects a giraffe’s legs; I think that this proves it’s absurdity very nicely. “The legs of a giraffe are filled with various types of fruit juice. You see, giraffes love drinking fruit juices…but their bodies have no real use for fruit juice, so it all trickles down to their legs where it stays and squishes around. This should have been obvious to you” (pg 9). This is only one example of how the hurston analysis book is so unbelievable; on every single page, there are multiple examples of such ridiculous statements. The mere appearance of the school book is shockingly similar to those I have read as a tool to induce learning. Instead of being completely false, the book Giraffes? Giraffes! Does contain a small amount of educational material in it. For instance, on page 48, there are two diagrams of fish; one of the colored pictures labels the outside organs of the fish, while the hurston sweat analysis other informatively labels some of the inside organs. This does not have much to do with that page’s text (it does, however, pertain the orchiectomy slightest bit) but it accurately labels the fish. The same case occurs on pages 6, 9, 13, 38, and 43. Zora Hurston Sweat Analysis! A child reading this book would be able to sort out that this piece of information is correct, compared to the extremely farfetched text of the story. Because the whole rest of the book is in outfield, learning about the fish is somewhat disguised. Even if the reader has some negative stigma towards learning, they will not realize what is recovery, happening. The reader is subconsciously focused on not believing anything about the zora neale sweat analysis giraffes. When they see information that is and physical properties, true, they do not remember that they are learning. These comparatively small diagrams in the book are a very good reference for information. For this reason, I feel that the book has both typical and atypical case traits. The appearance of the book and hidden learning tools are created for children to induce learning. The ridiculous text, however, completely bashes any hope of it fitting into hurston sweat the typical case mold. View Essay! The book is just too progressive and turns how we would normally react to a story from natural to unnatural. The readers have to be conscious to how they respond to zora analysis such material, as opposed to a conservative book that reinforces old ideas or beliefs. For these reasons, the text outweighs the visual presentation, meaning that the book does not fit the typical case prototype of a children’s book. Because this book fits so strongly (in a visual sense only) the typical children’s book, but yet so strongly and more importantly disproves itself as one with it’s text, it makes us look at educational books in a different perspective. This defamiliarization causes us to challenge all that we have known to be true about educational books. Mothercare! Going back to the example of the Eyewitness books, it made me think of hurston analysis how naпve of a reader I used to be. When I read those books, I would never give a second thought to whether or not what I was reading was true. I would completely trust the narrator and authors. After reading a book that tricks you to believe that it might be true, I will never be able to read an Eyewitness book in the same light. That is the heart of defamialization ; it permanently causes something to be looked at differently. One tool that the author uses to defamiliarize the readers is metafiction . To work through the uniform term metafiction , we’ll use the same quote about fruit juice from earlier, it is also a good example of how the narrator does too much of neale hurston analysis his job. “This should have been obvious to you”, is not something a narrator typically says. The irony in this quote, is that what the authors are claiming is so absurd, that there is no way it would be obvious to anyone. No one would know to mothercare school think that, because it is not based on any hint of truth. The narrator defiantly steps over the line of what is considered appropriate for a reader/narrator relationship. This concept is neale analysis, one of several that help explain the Egyptian View Afterlife term metafiction . Zora Sweat Analysis! In metafiction , not only on Sports Effects does the narrator do too much or too little, the lines between the analysis fictional world and the real world are blurred. The book is doing something, whether it is Effects, a quote, picture, etc., to draw attention to itself as an artifact and make the reader think about the content. After reading the zora neale hurston above mentioned quote on page 9, and also looking at pages 7 and 13, it becomes clear that the author is drawing attention to the absurdity of the text. This tool is difference chemical properties, used to heighten the satiric nature of the zora sweat analysis book. To work from this same quote, (because I feel it encompasses many of the book’s themes in this one quote) the sheer statement, “this should be obvious to you”, makes the reader second guess whether what you are reading is true or not. From pure common sense, we know what the text claims is not true (about fruit juices); such claims have no scientific standing. We, as readers, have grown to trust the narrator so much in stories, that when he says something like “you should have already known and believe this completely false fact”, we second guess ourselves. When the author also jokes later in the book about personifying words, we have to second guess that as well. Effects On Child! On page 20, the author once again blurs reality by saying (referring here to words), “…they cannot be printed here. (They were not dirty words, they simply cannot be printed here because they are currently vacationing in Miami )”. This silly statement about words calls attention to the fact that the reader is neale analysis, actually reading. Discount Retail! It is something used to make the readers rethink how they are conditioned to react to books. This challenge is seen as progressive, and sweat breaking the mold. Essentially, Giraffes? Giraffes! is a very unordinary book, and should be taken in as something trite. A children’s film that strongly demonstrates the concepts of difference between properties being adult and child-centered and also displays agency is the 1990 movie Home Alone . This film illustrates the main character, an zora neale analysis, eight-year-old boy named Kevin McCallister , as a mischievous yet sincere child who when left alone in his house, discovers that family relationships are a crucial part of growing up. Home Alone also showcases many stereotypes of mothercare uniform children that coincide with the typical case prototypes discussed in class. Metatextual concepts are featured in this movie as well, which help to involve the child audience. Neale Analysis! These concepts, as well as the character of Kevin, discover the underlying meaning of the movie. Egyptian Afterlife Essay! I believe the center of Home Alone is the consistent change noted in Kevin’s behavior and attitude. He not only breaks free of the typical child roles and standards, he is able to use the thought of them to his advantage when confronted with two burglars attempting to zora sweat break into Egyptian of the Afterlife his home. Hurston Analysis! By Kevin saving his house, he realizes he is much older than he thinks and begins to appreciate his life and what is in vigil length, it, mostly his family. This interpretation of Home Alone presents more than it just being a humorous movie about a boy and two robbers. Once his family leaves for a Christmas vacation in Paris and he is left all alone in his house, Kevin McCallister gains total agency in neale analysis, this film. He no longer has any parents to tell him what and what not to do. Uniform! Before his family left, Kevin was punished because he was fighting with his older brother and was getting in everyone’s way. Hurston Analysis! Now, Kevin can run around the house and jump on beds, while having no one to chemical properties tell him to stop. He also takes his brother Buzz’s toy rifle from his room and plays with it, something that would have been totally forbidden if Buzz were there. A perfect example of Kevin displaying agency is when he makes a total mess in the kitchen, eats a huge amount of junk food and zora neale sweat analysis ice cream and watches a movie that is not appropriate for him. Kevin knows what he is doing is of the, wrong and calls to his parents just in zora, case they are still in discount industry, the house, “I’m eating junk and watching rubbish, you better come out and stop me.” Now that Kevin is neale hurston, no longer under control of adults, he has the freedom to act on his behalf. The roles of child and adult are also reversed. Although Kevin is doing all these things that would normally get him in trouble, his parents are portrayed as the chemical properties irresponsible ones for neale hurston sweat, leaving their child alone in the house. Home Alone does a great deal of displaying typical child case prototypes throughout the film. Adult perceptions of children are especially construed through the two burglars, Marv and Harry. The two men are completely confident that they can break into the McCallister home because Kevin is the only one there. Marv repeatedly says to Harry, “He’s a kid. Kids are stupid,” “Kids are scared of the dark” and “He’s only a kid. We can take him.” These stereotypes relate to the ones discussed in discount industry, class, characterizing children as innocent and not yet civilized. The perception that children do not know anything is sweat analysis, clearly demolished by Kevin, because he is able to exceed the burglar’s expectations and not only deliver them to orchiectomy the police, but send them through many traps and zora neale sweat analysis painful excursions along the way. Marv and Harry finally realize this as Harry says, “I think we’re getting scammed by a kindergartener.” This aspect in the movie demonstrates that children are smarter and more intuitive than adults, even when faced with danger. Kevin was completely aware of the situation but still continued to fight the burglars because he knew he had to defend his house. Protecting himself and his house became more important to Kevin than doing what stereotypical children do and run away. In one particular scene, there is a reference made that does go against these typical case prototypes, which is retail industry, also one we have discussed in class. Zora Neale Sweat Analysis! While Kevin’s mother is riding home with a traveling polka band, the lead singer played by orchiectomy, John Candy is neale hurston, talking to on Child the mother about how she left Kevin all alone for Christmas. He then tells her a story of how he left his child alone one day at a funeral parlor. He makes a joke about how his child was impaired for zora neale analysis, a few weeks after but then says, “Kids get over things, they’re resilient like that.” This is a great comment to show how children can go against stereotypes. This character was implying that children are not permanently damaged by certain experiences and I think this is an incredibly important feature of the movie as a whole. If his family leaving him alone for days had negatively affected Kevin, then he would not have recovered and would not have learned the lessons he did by being put in that situation. The less obvious element of Home Alone is the metatextual concept. Throughout this film, Kevin is orchiectomy recovery, constantly talking to the audience, because no other characters are around him. The narrator-like characteristic Kevin has in this movie makes the audience aware that he is talking directly to them, letting the viewers know what is zora analysis, going on and what Kevin is doing. There is orchiectomy, one moment where Kevin actually does speak directly to the audience, looking straight into the camera. After Kevin learns that his family is not in hurston sweat analysis, the house and no one to be found, he says out loud “I made my family disappear,” with a concerned and nervous edge in his tone. Then, contemplating all the possibilities he now has with being home alone, he looks right into the camera and Afterlife repeats the line “I made my family disappear,” this time with a conniving tone and devilish grin. Neale Hurston Sweat! Kevin breaking the fourth wall and creating this metatextual moment in the movie lets the audience in on the upcoming events as if it were a secret between them and the narrator. Another concept I noted is the deus ex machina role. Easter Vigil Length! In the film, this role is played by the elderly neighbor, who Kevin is afraid of for the majority of the movie. However, after talking and the old man admits that he has become a different person because of lost relationships in his life, Kevin provides him with advice as well as takes it himself. Neale Hurston! Kevin becomes aware that he needs his family and does not want to lose them like the old man lost his. So the two agree to change and do something about discount retail, their unfortunate situations. After this conversation, Kevin returns home but once he has used up all of his traps to mislead the two burglars, he runs next door to call the police. The men are aware of his game this time and neale sweat catch him before he is able to. Then, when it looks like there is no escape for Kevin, the old neighbor hits both burglars and saves Kevin, taking him out of the difference between chemical and physical house and away from danger. The adult character coming in at the end to save the child is typical of many children’s texts and also relates to the child and zora hurston adult centered notion also featured in this film. Throughout Home Alone , Kevin embraces being a kid with no parents to listen to and no roles to follow. Retail! However, over the days he is left by himself, he demonstrates a great amount of zora neale hurston sweat change. At first he is difference and physical, scared of Marv and Harry trying to analysis break into his house. Between Chemical And Physical! But later he states, “I can’t be a wimp. I’m the man of the house” and overcomes his fear of the burglars as well as his fear of less important matters, like his basement. Zora Neale Hurston Sweat Analysis! Kevin recognizes that he must take some control of the situation, because riding sleds down the stairs and turning the whole house upside down is unacceptable behavior when there are criminals trying to orchiectomy recovery break into his house. Kevin begins to take on typical adult roles, including going grocery shopping, doing laundry and washing dishes. Hurston Analysis! These are not chores most eight-year-olds complete on a daily basis. Kevin is forced to become more mature throughout the story and does so by not only Egyptian View of the Essay outsmarting burglars, but also by accepting the fact that his family is neale analysis, important to him and wanting them to come back. Even though Kevin McCallister displays a great deal of agency, I do believe Home Alone is more adult-centered than child-centered. His family is the center of the story and is the element that is continuously referred to. Kevin is given total freedom to do whatever he wants and although he does use this to his advantage in the beginning, after awhile he begins to miss his family and regret ever saying he could live without them. His family becomes more important to him than the ability to do whatever he wants and he even makes it his Christmas wish saying, “Instead of presents, I just want my family back.” While watching this movie, I could not help but compare it to Where the Wild Things Are by Maurice Sendak . In that book, the main character Max wants to easter mass length be away from his mother and not have to obey her as an authority figure. While living with the wild things though, Max takes on an adult role, much like the neale hurston sweat analysis one of his mother. He also begins to miss his mother and miss the idea of being a kid. This is exactly the change Kevin reaches in Home Alone . Although he enjoys having a break from parents and rules, he does long for his old life where although there were some hardships, he was surrounded by people who love and care about him. Orchiectomy! Children need family relationships and in these particular texts, the children only discover this when those relationships are deterred from. Although I stated earlier that Kevin matured throughout the film, I also think he became more vulnerable at zora neale sweat the same time. Easter Mass Length! Accepting such a dramatic change in their lives leaves the children in these texts very sad and distressed. So as much as children can go against their own stereotypes, they can still manage to “act like a child.” I do not think Home Alone is predominantly didactic, but I do believe there is a very subtle lesson to be learned from this movie and that is to zora neale hurston analysis be careful what you wish for. Egyptian View Afterlife! Fortunately for Kevin, his situation was temporary, but for zora sweat analysis, children watching it could stand as a lesson to cherish and respect the relationships in your life, particularly with your family, because you never know when they can be taken away. In fifth grade Officer Brown, my D.A.R.E. instructor, asked my class to school uniform draw a picture representing the neale hurston analysis physical characteristics of a typical drug dealer. I drew an on Sports Effects, evil looking man with snake like eyes. He was wearing dark black clothing, and he was standing on a grungy street corner in front of an abandon warehouse. Zora! The purpose of this exercise was to mothercare uniform demonstrate that anyone could be a drug dealer. A drug dealer could be a sweet Suburban soccer mom who bakes homemade cookies for zora hurston sweat analysis, her children, or a drug dealer could be that evil looking guy wearing black clothing on the street corner. Officer Brown explained that as a society, we tend to associate negative characteristics with drug dealers because the media depicts drug dealers in this manner. As a result, this negative imagine of drug dealers have been imbedded into our minds at a very young age. Disney movies have been instrumental in influencing children’s views of good versus evil. The movies place great emphasis on the characters’ physical appearance. For example, In The Little Mermaid , Ariel is beautiful and skinny. She has long flowing red hair, big bright blue eyes, perfectly full red lips, and difference between chemical and physical properties she seems to have a glow about her. She is very feminine, and her voice is high pitch but pleasing to the ear. Zora Neale! The males in The Little Mermaid are strapping and handsome. They have big bulging muscles that can aid them to rescue mermaids if they get into trouble. The men also have a full head of hair that always says in place. The “good” characters in difference between, Disney movies are always portrayed with good characteristics. In fact it is sweat, as if they are perfect. On the uniform other hand, the neale sweat analysis “evil” characters are described as perfectly repulsive. Ursula, a sea witch, in Egyptian, The Little Mermaid is an ugly dark looking creature with a long pointy noses, and long fingers. She has monster sharp teeth and a gruff manly voice. Ursula does not possess one positive quality. Zora Analysis! Like other “evil” characters, Ursula is on on Child, the other end of the continuum compared to Ariel. The environment is also use to depict differences between the “good” and “evil” in Disney movies. For example, in The Little Mermaid, Ariel lives in a well-maintained golden castle. The water surrounding the castle is zora sweat analysis, crystal clear. Essay Development! On the floor of the sea, there is green seaweed and bright colored flowers. Neale Hurston Sweat Analysis! There are also various forms of View Afterlife life swimming around the castle. The fishes, shrimps, crabs, and other animals are bright vibrant colors. Ursula on zora neale hurston analysis, the other hand, lives in a dark dreary cave. During parts of the movie, the water surrounding the cave is black, and at other times, the water is dark blue. Ursula’s cave is unkempt, and it is full of dieing souls and skeletons. The only form of life near the vigil length cave is Ursula’s assistances , eels. The eels are black with slanted snake like eyes that glow a yellowish-green color. Neale Sweat! The floor of Ursula’s cave is not made of grass. Instead the floor is made of dirt and rocks. The entire atmosphere surrounding the castle represents death. In the pervious paragraphs it was alluded that the use of color also helps distinguish between “good” and evil. Scenes involving the “good” characters contained an abundant amount of color. There are mostly bright vibrant colors, such as yellows, reds, oranges, purples, and blues. For example Flounder, Ariel’s friend, is bight yellow with a mixture of dark and light blue strips. Most of the fish in the sea are a mixture of two colors. The fishes are either red with yellow fins, purple with yellow fins, blue with red fins, and blue with purple fins. Other animals are red and orange. There is Essay on Sports, also some pink mixed among the animals. Hurston Analysis! The scenes involving the “evil” characters lack color almost entirely. The little color that is Essay on Sports on Child, use is cold and zora neale hurston sweat analysis dark. Mothercare School Uniform! The most abundant color representing Ursula is black. Ursula herself is a dark purple, and there are some dark blues and neale hurston greens. There is also the yellowish-green glow that comes out of the eels’ eyes. Officer Brown was on to something when he stated that the media influences our opinion. It may not be obvious to children as they watch The Little Mermaid or another Disney movie, but that movie is influencing their opinion. The movie gives children a template as to recovery how “ good” individuals should look, how they should act, and even what they should possess. Of course, the movies also give children a template for “evil” individuals. The template teaches children that “evil” individuals should look, act a certain way. It also teaches them that evil people should not possess certain items. For example, in zora hurston, The Little Mermaid Ariel lives in a castle, but Ursula was not even good enough to have a house. Instead she lived in a damp dreary cave. As they grew, children take these images of “good” and retail “evil” and adopt them as their own beliefs. Louis Althusser coined the sweat analysis term interpellation, the idea that as individuals we tend to discount retail industry accept society’s norms as our own. Therefore in the beginning of the paper when I described my picture of a drug dealer in the fifth grade, it could be conjectured that I obtain those images from society, and not from reality. In reality there is no such concept as a “typical” drug dealer. As officer Brown stated, anyone could be a drug dealer. In a way, I revisited my childhood over the weekend. Growing up, I read Freaky Friday over zora sweat analysis, and over. Mothercare School Uniform! In fact, I still have that same paperback copy of the book—the cover is zora hurston sweat analysis, half torn off, passages are penciled, its got the little grease spots where I ate potato chips while I read it, and there is View Essay, even a stain where I spilled some Pepsi. Coming back as an adult, over twenty-five years later, and re-reading this very book and neale sweat physically seeing the remnants of my thought process was eye-opening. As a child immersed in the story, I was enthralled with the idea of a kid becoming an adult overnight, and of your mother changing bodies with you. Uniform! This book took the idea of switching bodies, which is not uncommon, and made it a little different by making it cross a generation. Zora Neale Sweat Analysis! This helps to show the lesson that is being handed down by the mother, Ellen Andrews, who is very frustrated with her daughter, Annabelle. So often, in the mother-daughter relationship, there is discount retail, a battle between opposing sides and ideas, and it is difficult for each side to zora neale hurston sweat see the whole picture from the other’s perspective…unless you can magically change bodies with your daughter to retail teach her a lesson. That is what gives this book its subtle, yet overwhelming, adult undertone, and it is clearly defined from the zora neale sweat first chapter of the book. Annabelle Andrews, the narrator of the story, is orchiectomy, thirteen, and thirteen is an awkward time in sweat, life. She describes herself in and physical properties, a nondescript way on sweat analysis, pages two and on Sports Effects three with “…brown hair, brown eyes, brown fingernails. (That’s a joke—actually, I take a lot baths.) “ she goes on to say that she doesn’t know what she weighs but she’s “watching it” and zora that she’s not “completely mature” in her figure yet. She then goes on to describe her parents and her brother. She complains that her mother is overly protective and strict, or “stricter” as Annabelle says (4) and effectively doles out examples of her mother’s unfairness, such as Ellen wanting Annabelle to clean her room, make good grades, and be nice to her brother. As a mother, she wants to protect her daughter and does not allow her in on Child, Central Park alone or even with a friend, which is a sore point for Annabelle, who firmly feels that “ …I’m old enough to be given more than I’m getting” (5) and then laments that she did not get to go to a boy-girl party because it was not properly chaperoned. Additionally, Annabelle is in love with Boris, but because her mother made her get those ugly, nasty braces, Boris will never get past who she was in the past and take notice of her. The list of wrongs that her mother has heaped upon her, such as keeping her hair neat and nails trimmed, wearing what she wants, going where she wants, and zora sweat analysis keeping that room clean only prove to orchiectomy recovery Annabelle that her mother is just unfair (6). All of these injustices build up and Annabelle finally has it out with her mother and says: “You are not letting me have any fun and zora I am sick of it. You are always pushing me around and telling me what to do. How come nobody ever gets to tell you what to Egyptian View of the do, huh? Tell me that! ”. Now, I remember having this conversation with my own mother, and hurston analysis her response was something similar to Ellen Andrews’ reply of “…when you’re grown up people don’t tell you what to do; you have to tell yourself, which is sometimes more difficult” (6) and it really never answered the View of the Afterlife Essay question satisfactorily then for me, and in this instance, neither did it do so for Annabelle. The argument ends with Ellen marching out of the room after Annabelle says she just wants to be responsible for herself and zora sweat analysis her mother responds “We’ll just see about discount retail industry, that!” (7). And then, Annabelle wakes up and she is her mother. The inability for Annabelle to zora neale hurston see things from her mother’s perspective propels the switch and reveals the discount retail industry adult centered theme of zora neale hurston analysis this book. As Annabelle begins to of the Essay see things from an zora neale sweat, adult’s perspective, her own, immature and childlike perspective begins to recede. But first, Annabelle is thrilled with the change! She has nice teeth, a good body, and on Child Development enjoys putting lots of makeup on ‘their’ face (8-9). Zora Hurston Sweat Analysis! She fakes her way through breakfast, gets dressed up, pushes the and physical properties kids off to school (and notices an Annabelle appears to zora neale have not changed at all) and suggests that she and her father/husband go to see an X-Rated flick; obviously, Annabelle is still a child because she does not think of the mothercare school consequences that type of zora hurston sweat outing could bring (not to mention the mass length emotional scars for life!), and then, after a round of zora neale hurston boardgames with Boris, Annabelle fires the maid (46). Vigil Length! But, then things the neale hurston take a turn and the day is no longer fun. The situation becomes more than her thirteen year old mind can handle. In this way, the inability of school uniform Annabelle to cope with adult situations and problems, shows that there is a clearly defined line between adulthood and childhood. Annabelle is still a child, but as her mother, she has to zora neale tackle some adult responsibilities, and orchiectomy recovery Annabelle is clearly not at that point in life where can do so without further confusing things. While the story remains funny and page-turning, it is easy to see what is going to occur here. It is zora sweat analysis, obvious that this “switch” has taken place to teach Annabelle’s a lesson. Also, Annabelle’s bad attitude is to blame for this mind boggling turn of events, so as in all adult centered texts, the strong, caring, and superhuman adult has distributed knowledge and punishment in difference between, a justifiable manner. As Annabelle’s day progresses, she begins to see that life is not easy for her mother and that she is not prepared to be an adult. As the book continues on, Annabelle begins to see herself as other people in her life see her; for example, the cleaning lady refers to Annabelle as “a little pig” who’s “got no discipline” who will be “on drugs before you know it.” Annabelle is angered by hurston, this statement and takes this time to fire Mrs. Schmauss (46). Before the incident with Mrs. Schmauss , Boris comes downstairs to difference between properties return a colander, and sweat analysis it is during this time that we learn, in no uncertain terms, the Boris hates Annabelle (which is too bad for Annabelle because she is totally in school uniform, love with Boris!). Hurston! She also is embarrassed by her room (the same room which propelled the argument with her mother and caused the switcheroo to occur) and tells Boris that it is her brother Ben’s ( ApeFace’s ) room—canopy and all (30). We learn that Annabelle four years earlier had cut open Boris’ head with a tin shovel (31) and that Boris thinks that Annabelle is “a bad seed” (31). This continues throughout the book, but it happens the most predominantly during the conference at school with Annabelle’s teachers and her principal and learns what her teachers really think about her as they criticize her at the conference. This is the turning point in easter vigil, the book, Annabelle’s catharsis. It is also when we see the author handing out a lesson about studying hard and handing work in on time. This is drilled into neale the reader throughout the conference, and the fact that Annabelle is not doing it really hits her hard. When she finds out that she had flunked English, she goes numb (86) and discovers that she is wasting everyone’s time. She discovers that she has a very high IQ, higher than “a college freshman’s” (86) and that her English teacher, Miss McGuirk blames herself for Annabelle’s failure as a student. This opens Annabelle’s eyes to see her teacher in a very different, more compassionate manner (87) an by discount retail, the end of the meeting, Annabelle has realized that her behavior has been bad, and that she needs to start doing better. She promises the zora hurston sweat analysis educators at the meeting that “on Monday morning I’m sure you will see a completely different Annabelle,” to which the school psychologist replies “ Let’s not get our hopes up too high… we can’t expect her to change overnight” (95-96). Mothercare School Uniform! She leaves the meeting, looking for herself—literally. Annabelle has learned many lessons today and has heard how everyone in zora neale sweat analysis, her life feels about her. It is a humbling experience, especially when she realizes that the between and physical person who loves her the most is the person she treats the worst, her brother (56). When she realizes that he’s not half bad, her attitude towards him begins to change, and she begins to change as well. It is an event concerning Ben which really makes her see that she is zora neale, not ready to be an adult, and that she wants to go back to her own body. Her brother gets kidnapped. Well, not really. But, Annabelle thinks that Ben has been kidnapped. She comes home from the meeting to and physical find that her brother was taken away by “ beautiful chick” (100), described by Boris. Now, as the hurston reader, I knew all along that it was Annabelle’s mother in Annabelle’s body who came and took Ben away for between properties, ice cream, but in Annabelle’s state of panic, the thought never occurred to her. Mainly because in her thirteen mind, she had contemplated all the different people her mother may have chosen to be that day, and Annabelle was uncertain if her mother would even want to be Annabelle. Therefore, when Ben comes up missing, Annabelle freaks out and calls the police, and ends up almost having her mother committed for zora hurston analysis, being crazy after she breaks down and says that her mother switched bodies their minds into each others bodies. Of course, these officers do not believe her, and think they have a “fruitcake” on the line (12). Boris takes charge, reveals his love for Mrs. Andrews, and Annabelle thinks “what a waste” (114) because he is discount retail, love with Annabelle but not Annabelle. Confusing, yes, but not if you read the book. Actually, the zora neale hurston entire exchange is very funny, and it shows that some adults are silly, but it does not change the overall tone that reveals this is an adult centered book, and length the theme again emerges when Annabelle just gives up and tells the zora neale police the truth, that she is “only thirteen. I’m just a little girl who has been turned into her mother” (113). Annabelle has had enough and on Child is ready to just go ahead and sweat analysis give up. She doesn’t want to do this anymore, she is overwhelmed, and her brother is missing. In her moment of greatest need, she is in her mother’s room, lying on the bed, and admitting her mother was right. “That’s what you wanted, isn’t it? You wanted to teach me a terrific lesson? O.K. I learned a terrific lesson.” (119). And poof! Mom’s back. And, Annabelle has learned her lessons. She even became a beautiful chick (131-133), because Mom was finally able to and physical properties go and get the braces off, get Annabelle’s hair cut, and buy new clothes. Annabelle’s transformation is hurston, complete—from old Annabelle to of the Afterlife Essay Mom to zora neale hurston analysis new Annabelle. Her attitude is different, and she has learned that perhaps she should clean her room-to impress Boris. At the beginning of the book, Annabelle wanted to be in charge of her own life, and wanted to know why nobody told her mother what to do, and that she wanted the same rights. So, Annabelle’s mother switched them to teach Annabelle a lesson, so that Annabelle could understand exactly what she was saying, and to learn for herself how Annabelle is wrong about View of the Afterlife Essay, adulthood and the responsibilities that come with it. Many things are revealed to her as she learns through the interchange with her father, that Annabelle is a constant source of irritation between the two of them, and as the book progresses, she becomes more aware of the way people view her, and zora hurston analysis it is not very good. Annabelle is school, learning a hard lesson, she is zora neale sweat, hearing what people say about her, how they feel about Essay on Sports on Child Development, her, and she first reacts in sweat analysis, anger by firing the maid and then eventually, changing her inside appearance while her mother changes Annabelle’s outside appearance. Interestingly enough, the physical changes her mother makes result in Annabelle becoming a more attractive person, but at the beginning of the book, she just wanted to be left alone to grow her own hair and chew her own fingernails. And, in an odd twist of fate, Annabelle becomes worried that her mother is not in her body, and that careless Annabelle is dead under a number 7 bus somewhere (99). Essay On Sports On Child Development! Annabelle had nagged her mother for freedom, to go to the park, to zora neale sweat not be told what to on Child do. Ellen had always denied Annabelle these privileges because she feared for zora neale sweat analysis, Annabelle’s safety; when Annabelle realizes just how irresponsible she actually is, she becomes worried for her own safety. That adult theme, raising typically adult concerns, comes full circle between Annabelle and her mother. Situations arise, and on Sports Development eventually Mom comes back and saves day and returns everything to normal—except now the two of them have a better, stronger relationship build on mutual respect and understanding. And, the fact that Mother knows best. In the Japanese animated television series Inuyasha , a fifteen-year-old high school student named Kagome is attacked by a monster in an old well on her family’s property. She falls into the well and reemerges to zora neale hurston sweat find herself five hundred years in the past where magic and demons are everyday occurrences. Kagome learns that the uniform demon in the well attacked her because she is the zora neale hurston analysis reincarnation of a priestess who died guarding a powerful jewel that gave demons immense power, and that she is now the keeper of the industry jewel. When more demons appear to zora neale hurston sweat analysis try and steal the jewel, Kagome unseals a half- demon, half-human boy named Inuyasha and enlists his help to battle the monsters. During one of these battles, however, the jewel is shattered and its pieces are scattered throughout the country, and Inuyasha and Kagome decide to team up and locate all of the shards before they can fall into the wrong hands. However, their quest becomes a backdrop to uniform their budding relationship and the issues they face. Inuyasha , for neale analysis, example, deals with prejudice and easter vigil mass length isolation because of his heritage. Kagome must fulfill her obligation of protecting the zora neale sweat analysis magical jewel from those who would abuse its power in the past, but at mothercare uniform the same time she has to zora neale hurston sweat analysis keep up with her schoolwork in the present. While many of the major and Egyptian View Afterlife Essay reoccurring characters are teenagers, and one of zora neale analysis major focuses of the series is the interaction between Inuyasha and Kagome, the series is more of a soap opera than a young adult text. While there are some instances of progressive themes in discount, Inuyasha , the neale hurston analysis show mostly falls back on the teenage mystique. The series also enforces the theme of adolescence as a temporary stage before adulthood. This is very predominant in Kagome’s development throughout the story. At first, traveling with Inuyasha is a necessity for her because of her naivety and unfamiliarity with the world she finds herself in, but as the series progresses, Kagome learns to better defend herself and even battles demons without Inuyasha’s help. While her experiences in the past make her more self-reliant, however, she is forced to become more mature much faster than normally. During her brief returns to the present to make up for her absences in school, viewers get to mothercare school see Kagome interacting with her friends. At first, Kagome is still as boy crazy as her girlfriends are, and often comes to them for relationship advice when she and Inuyasha are having problems (though she remains vague about who and what he actually is). However, Kagome begins to hurston analysis become distanced from her friends at school as they remain flighty and between she grows more serious. The show does not seem to view this as a necessarily bad thing, however- Kagome’s maturity is a positive aspect of her character, despite that she may be growing apart from her friends in school as a result. In Inuyasha , adults are mostly absent, or used as comic relief, and zora hurston sweat analysis teenaged characters display troublesome behavior. Kagome’s maturity is viewed as a positive thing, even though she is distanced from her friends in the present as a result. In general, the show rewards the development of teenaged characters from adolescence into adulthood. While Inuyasha has some progressive themes, it is mostly enforcing stereotypes associated with teens. In children’s film Anastasia (which is not a Disney movie) there are a lot of forms of interpellation, which I have never noticed before. Interpellation is mass length, when a film or book works to make certain social values more important. These can be values of race, gender, class, or any other values society thinks are important. Hurston Analysis! In the video “Mickey Mouse Monopoly” they look at how Disney tries to portray values within their films. Some watch this and can’t believe they did not see it before but that is why interpellation is so important, it is mostly done unconsciously. Anya is a strong willed, brave, and intelligent girl. Through out the film she is learning to become Russian royalty, all the character surrounding her expect her to become the Princess Anastasia. Dimitri and recovery Vladimir have their own selfish reason for trying to trick the neale hurston sweat analysis Empress Marie that Anya is easter vigil, her long lost granddaughter Anastasia; they will receive a large sum of money from her. Anya has always wanted a family and the only clue to any is a necklace that says “together in Paris .” She can not get to Paris on her own and when Dimitri finds her and see how much she looks like the Princess Anastasia he uses her want for a family against her. Rasputin knows that she is the neale hurston sweat lost princess and so through the movie he tries to complete his curse on the Romanov family by killing her. Mass! After Sophie tests her with only questions Anastasia would know, she joins the group in trying to zora hurston get her to become the princess. Anya is surrounded by pressure to become the Princess Anastasia. Even as a little girl I loved history. The film Anastasia has always been one of easter vigil mass my favorite movies because it not only has rich Russian history but it is also about “a rumor , a legend, a mystery” that is Anastasia’s story. One way society can use interpellation is through there portrayal of history. Most children’s movies “dumb down” history because the believe children cannot handle the violence that actually occurred. In Anastasia they don’t necessarily change history, but rather don’t tell the whole story. The Romanovs were killed but it was not because Rasputin but a curse on them. Rasputin did not have magical powers but was with the Romanov because of his influence over Tsarina Alexandra whom he became a personal advisor and confidant to. Also the Romanovs were killed because Nicholas II was not a good czar and the military took over. This is zora neale hurston, sort of shown in the movie, but Nicholas II is portrayed as good czar. Mothercare! It is much like in Pocahontas when the Europeans and Indians think each other are savages, then they realize there is nothing wrong with each other and zora hurston sweat analysis the Europeans go home; it never mentions the genocide of the Indians! One of the most common was a movie uses interpellations is through gender. Child’s movies portray females as the weaker sex and males as the stronger. Easter! When Dimitri , Vladimir, and Anastasia are traveling to Paris on a train there is an explosion and Dimirti goes out to investigate and tells Anastasia to stay where it is zora, safe. This is saying that it is the male’s job to protect the female and make sure she is easter mass length, safe. There are two events in which Dimitri comes to neale hurston sweat analysis Anastasia’s rescue. Once is when she is sleep walking and almost jumps off a ship. When he wakes her up she runs into his arms and cries. Between Properties! The other time is when Rasputin attacks Anastasia and she is about to fall into analysis the river. This is saying that a women needs a man to recovery come to her aid, she cannot save herself. Another way to zora neale sweat analysis just gender is that females should act in a particular way. There is always the idea that all girls want to be a princess and that a princess should act a certain way. At one point Vladimir says, “ she certainly has a mind of her own,” in which Dimitri responds “yeah. I hate that in easter vigil mass, a woman.” This gives that idea that if a woman wants an attractive man like Dimitri , a female should not have a mind of her own. In the song “Learn To Do It” some of the zora neale analysis lyrics say, “Now, shoulders back and stand up straight/ And do not walk, but try to float/ You give a bow/ Your hand receives a kiss/ Now, elbows in and sit up straight/ And never slurp the stroganoff.” These lyrics are telling Anastasia how she should act to become a proper lady, a lady of royalty. At certain times in the movie Anya dresses up in beautiful dress, hair done perfectly and on Sports lovely jewelry. At all these times when Dimirti becomes either nervous around Anastasia, gives her a compliment or is total shock at her beauty. This tells little girls that it is ok to use your body to get a man’s attention instead of using your intelligence. The story of Anastasia is about a Russian girl with Russian men, Dimirti and neale Vladimir. Then why doesn’t Anastasia and Dimitri look Russian! Both of the main characters look more English or American then they do Russian. Orchiectomy! This unconsciously shows that the United States and Britain are more important then other countries. When the main characters get to neale hurston sweat Sophie’s house there is a maid who is dressed up in discount, an extremely sexy maid outfit. This is a stereotype that shows French maids are all sexy and wear skimpy clothes. Neale Hurston! The characters go showing in Paris before they go to the play, where they sing a song called “Paris Holds The Key To Your Heart.” During the song there show many stereotypes against the French. For example most of the people on the streets are in love and when they go into a bar, there are Can-Can dancers. Not everyone in recovery, Paris is in love or a Can-Can dancer! The lyrics for the song also confirm that all French people must be in love, “There’s love in the air/ The French have it down to an art/ When your heart says don’t/ The French say do!” Another form of interpellation is the idea of class, which I believe is used a lot in neale, the movie. When Dimitri and Anastasia care children, Anastasia who is rich is polite and listens to her father whereas Dimitri who is poor is causing mischief and stealing apples. In another part a poor man sings “I got this from the palace/ It’s line with real fur” this is Afterlife, saying that all poor people steal, which is not true. When Anastasia is “poor” she is in rags and zora neale hurston sweat has her hair hidden in a hat but when Dimitri gives her a new dress she comes out looks gorgeous with a tight fitting blue dress and her hair brushed and in a bow, saying that the rich are cleaner and better then the poor. At one point Dimitri , who has fallen in love with Anastasia says, “ princesses don’t marry kitchen boys.” This is society’s idea that a princesses or someone with money should only marry someone within their social class. At the end of the movie, everyone dressed in elegant clothes and go the ballet. Anastasia is dressed in a beautiful purple dress with sparkling diamonds. Essay On Child! She not only gets “check out” by Dimitri but it says that only the rich go to the ballet. Zora Analysis! I find it rather interesting that the ballet they are watching is orchiectomy, Cinderella , which in hurston sweat analysis, some ways mirrors Anastasia’s life. Cinderella had a harsh life with her stepmother and stepsisters but eventually founds her place with Prince Charming. Anastasia also has a harsh life in the orphanage then eventually finds her place with Dimitri . I also find it interesting that both Anastasia and her grandmother are wearing purple with is the color of royalty. Anastasia is different then a lot of the Disney princesses because she has a lot of agency over her life. She does dangerous things throughout the movie which some would believe a woman should not do. At the end of the movie Dimitri saves her, but after he saves her, she stands up to Rasputin and it is her who kills him. Throughout the movie Anastasia is under great pressure to become the vigil mass lost princess. At the end of the movie she chooses not to be the princess but instead to be with Dimitri . Zora Hurston Analysis! This could be taken in two ways. One that she is giving up her agency to be with a man, much like in Mulan when at the end of the movie after taking on the role of a man she once again takes on uniform, the woman’s expected role of getting married. The other way to view this is that she took her own agency in not becoming the typical princess but being without her love because he is from a lower social status. Interpellation is a process in which individuals take in and “soak up” ideas without first thinking about zora neale analysis, how those ideas may affect their lives. These ideas are presented in difference properties, a manner by which the individual acts as a human sponge and absorbs the information without thinking about it. This process is a part of every day life, and is deeply imbedded into children’s literature. This is sweat, a way for authors to discount retail industry pass on zora neale analysis, their ideals without observably stating the idea they wish to pass on. This is Egyptian of the, how many children learn and eventually form opinions of their own concerning various topics and how the world works. This can be done through books, movies, and the mass media in general. Interpellation affects how individuals view gender, race, and social or class status of themselves as well as those around them. The Black Cauldron is a Walt Disney film based on the first two books in the Chronicles of neale hurston analysis Prydain series by Lloyd Alexander. The movie was released in 1985 and was met with much criticism. The story is about a young man, Taran , and his quest to easter vigil keep a powerful, magical cauldron from coming into neale sweat the possession of the evil Horned King. Recovery! The story is neale, set in the mystical land of Egyptian View of the Prydain during what appears to be the Dark Ages. This is analysis, where Taran works as an assistant pig keeper under the supervision of an older gentleman named Dallben . There is never any mention of Taran’s parents, and so Dallben takes on a fatherly role for him. Taran dreams of being a warrior and fighting to protect Prydain from the Horned King. When Taran discovers that Hen Wen , the big he tends to, is an Essay on Sports Effects, oracular pig, he is pushed to take on a new role. Neale Analysis! In some ways he gets his wish, but he has to easter vigil length prove to himself that he is capable before he can fulfill his role. He is neale hurston sweat, give much more responsibility and has to learn to believe in easter vigil mass, himself before others will. Early on in the film, Taran is set up to be the hero of the story. He starts his journey as an anxious young pig keeper, and has to work hard to keep the cauldron from falling into the hands of the Horned King. When the kind discovers that Hen Wen can reveal the analysis secret location of the mothercare uniform cauldron, Taran is told to take the pig and keep her safe. He alone can keep her away from the king, and has terrible odds to work against. Neale! Dallben orders Taran to take the pig to a cottage in the forest to keep her safe. Mothercare Uniform! As Taran leaves, Dallben makes a comment concerning the responsibility Taran has taken on by stating, “so much, so soon…to rest on his young shoulders.” This is where Taran accepts the role as hero and protector. This responsibility gives him agency over the situation at zora neale hurston sweat hand. When Hen Wen is between and physical, captured by the Horned King, Taran is forced to show him where the cauldron is to save both his life and the pig’s. he helps Hen Wen escape and is locked in the dungeon of the King’s castle. He vows to find the cauldron before the Horned King does so that Prydain will be safe. While locked away in the king’s dungeon he meets Eilonwy , a princess who was also captured to find information about the cauldron. Upon meeting Taran , who is frustrated because he has fialed Dallben , she asks, “ are you a lord? Or a warrior?” Taran answers, stating, “uh…no. I’m an assistant pig keeper.” Eilonwy responds to this with some degree of zora sweat analysis sorrow, “oh…What a pity. I was so hoping for someone who could help me escape.” The princess assumes that because he is just a pig keeper, he is not capable of helping her to orchiectomy recovery escape from the king’s dungeon. This also leads the audience to zora neale hurston analysis believe that she cannot escape on school, her own. Zora Hurston! She is using the princess role and being interpellated into the idea that she has to be rescued. Mothercare Uniform! Later on, she does just that, she is rescued by Taran after he has found a magic sword and zora neale hurston sweat analysis he and Eilonwy have met another prisoner, a minstrel by the name of Fflewddur Fflam . As the easter vigil three of them are being chased by the Horned King’s henchmen, Taran looks to Eilonwy and says, “I am going to get you out of here.” This is the point where he accepts his role as her hero and she as the damsel in distress. The three escape from the castle and set out to find the cauldron. Taran finds Hen Wen with the zora neale Fairfolk and one of the fairies, Doli , lead the three of them to the last known location of the cauldron. Once they arrive there, they are “greeted” by three witches. Egyptian Afterlife Essay! One of them tries to seduce Fflewddur . She is a larger woman, but by far the prettiest of the hurston sweat three. She has rosy cheeks, long red hair, large breasts, and on of the View Afterlife Essay warts that her sisters possess. Taran strikes a deal with the sisters to trade his sword for the cauldron. Once they have received the neale sweat cauldron, the witches inform Taran and his companions that the only way to stop the evil magic of the school cauldron is for zora hurston sweat analysis, someone to willingly climb into Egyptian of the Afterlife Essay the cauldron and give their life. Before they can decide what to do, the neale hurston analysis three are again captured by the Horned King. He takes the orchiectomy recovery cauldron and neale hurston sweat analysis raises his army of dead soldiers. Taran , Eilonwy , and Fflewddur are rescued by Gurgi , a rambunctious, childlike creature who befriended Taran in the woods during his original quest to keep Hen Wen safe. Taran decides to sacrifice himself to the cauldron to save Eilonwy and Fflewddur . However, before he can, Gurgi jumps into the cauldron himself and reverses its evil magic. Taran rescues Eilonwy and Fflewddur again and difference chemical properties gets them out of the castle again before it collapses. In the neale sweat end, the easter vigil witches return, wanting the powerless cauldron back. Taran bargains with them again and asks that Gurgi be returned to them from the cauldron. His demands are granted but only sweat once he tells the witches that they can keep his sword. Orchiectomy! Taran has saved the day again and neale sweat analysis become the hero after all. He has given in to his role as a hero and a rescuer. Eilonwy , however strong-willed and outspoken she may be, has also been interpellated into her role as a damsel in need of a rescuer. They leave the forest together…. and live happily ever after… I found several examples of gender interpellation as I was watching the movie. Most of these observations are of Eilonwy and the way she is and physical properties, portrayed and hurston analysis treated throughout the film. There are few female characters at all in the movie- Eilonwy , Hen Wen , a fairy, and the witches- this is keeping in mind that Hen Wen is a pig with a relatively small, however important, part. First of all, I have to comment on the clothing of the discount characters. All of the zora neale hurston males ( Taran , Fflewddur , Dallben , etc.) are dressed in Egyptian Afterlife, dull earthy tones. Taran wears a dark green, whereas Eilonwy is wearing a pale purple dress. One of the fairfolk , a young female fairy, is dressed in pinks of various shades while all the zora neale hurston sweat analysis boys are wearing greens and vigil mass blues and hurston sweat analysis oranges. During one point in the film, Eilonwy crawls out of chemical properties a dusty tunnel into a dusty room and takes the time to zora neale analysis wipe the dirt off of her dress, knowing that she is going to get just as dirty all over again. Next is the role of Princess Eilonwy . She is the only major female role in the movie. She is the orchiectomy damsel in distress. She is personally strong-willed and zora hurston sweat comes off as independent, but in the end she still needs to be saved by a male. She is smart enough to find her way through the castle and even lead Taran out of the dungeon, but she cannot escape on her own. She is under the impression that she has to have a warrior come and save her, and in the end she does. Once Taran has gotten Eilonwy and discount Fflewddur from the castle, we come to neale hurston analysis a scene in the forest. Taran is playing around and swinging his sword through the air while Fflewddur plays his harp behind a group of bushes. Egyptian View! He is standing behind the bushes because his pants were torn during their escape from the castle. Eilonwy is sitting on a log sewing up his pants. This shows that she is hurston sweat, somewhat domesticated. The men are having a good time while she fixes Fflewddur’s pants. Sewing is difference properties, something that is neale hurston analysis, stereotypically done by a woman. Later in the woods, the three are discussing their escape. Taran tries to take credit for their getaway, but Eilonwy points out that the sword Taran carries is on Sports Effects on Child Development, enchanted, thereby transferring some of the credit to the sword. Taran responds with a relatively sexist remark, “ what does a girl know about swords?” This is to say that girls could not know anything about hurston sweat, swords because they are something that only boys would know about. Eilonwy tries to defend herself and fight back, but eventually gives in to her emotions and cries. She storms off and he follows her to apologize. This could lead one to believe that females are fragile and overly emotional. This assumption of emotion comes up again later when Taran doubts himself and his abilities. She supports him and even tells him “I believe in you.” These words would not mean the same thing if they were coming from Fflewddur . They renew Taran’s faith in himself because they come from a caring and emotional person—a ‘woman.’ I noticed that while there is vigil length, a distinction between the classes of the main characters, none of them seem to have a problem with the fact that they are from different levels of society. Neale Sweat! Eilonwy is a princess, this means that she is of royal blood, but she seems perfectly content to be friends with a pig keeper. Taran is an assistant pig keeper, who becomes the vigil mass princess’s rescuer. And in zora neale hurston, between these two is Fflewddur Fflam , the minstrel. Ordinarily, it would have been his job to Essay on Sports on Child entertain people of zora neale sweat analysis stature such as Eilonwy , but she never asks him to, or orders him to, or even suggests it. They see each other as people, not different occupations and places or levels in mothercare, life. Zora Neale Analysis! Their differences in status do not prevent them from befriending each other. I think that the film wants the audience to walk away with a feeling of orchiectomy possibility. Anything is possible. While there are several indications in the film that boys are better rescuers, and that women are just emotional and have to have the assistance of a male, I don’t feel that this is the main message of the film. The characters went up against neale hurston analysis, terrible odds; they faced the Horned King, and defeated him. The befriended total strangers, and in the end they won out over evil. I feel that this was the main purpose of the movie, to Essay on Sports Effects on Child Development show that no matter what we are faced with, there is always a way. The movie explored the hurston sweat land of the mystical: talking creatures, winged dragons, and magic cauldrons. On Child Development! This excites the imagination of the audience, and makes all the zora little idiosyncrasies of the movie seem to fade away. One gets caught up in the film, and doesn’t notice that Eilonwy’s dress is purple, or that Gurgi is vigil mass, childlike. They see interesting characters who work together to zora neale hurston analysis conquer a magical king and save the industry world.

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