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Get This Book/Digital Text. Volume 15 No. 1 (Spring 2012) ABSTRACT: This article offers an biography analysis of the causes of the subprime crisis, explaining that it is not an isolated incident and that we should concentrate our attention on the Fed’s monetary policy and pressures on the banking system received from the U.S. government for flexible lending. Which Is An Example? It also critically examines the euclid biography Fed’s exit strategy and fiscal policies that the centered therapy techniques government is taking to create jobs and stimulate the economy. We conclude that it should be no surprise if the euclid U.S. economy should fall into a new cycle in the coming years, even though economics does not provides the tools to which of these is an of scale predict the precise timing of it.1. KEYWORDS: housing bubble, Federal Reserve, savings, deregulation, Austrian, business cycle, Keynes, Leijonhufvud. JEL CLASSIFICATION: B25, E32, E58, N12. Axel Leijonhufvud, an economist known internationally for his work on the literature of John Maynard Keynes and Keynesianism (Leijonhufvud, 1968), has suggested that the biography subprime crisis of 2008 more closely fits the Austrian business cycle theory of Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich Hayek, than the Keynesian framework.2. In this paper, we provide evidence for that claim. More specifically, we assert the 18th amendment following: 1) that the subprime crisis, or the “housing-bubble” is not an euclid isolated incident. Rather, it is one of a number of related events whose origins can be found in the monetary policy that the is an of economies of scale Fed has adopted at least since 1980; 2) that when we concentrate on biography the most recent cycle, (Krugman, 2002), we find that the Fed intentionally replaced the dot-com bubble with a housing bubble, expanding the money supply at a rate of 10 percent (measured by M2), and reducing real interest rates too low for too long; 3) that Greenspan-Bernanke, on behalf of the Fed, asserted, without foundation and contrary to the evidence, that the crisis was not rooted in the politics of the institution they lead, but was rather a global phenomenon, a “savings glut,” which reduced the long-term interest rate naturally; 4) that the popular explanation that blames the whitney inventor deregulation of markets as a cause of the crisis, is also unfounded. In fact, the banking system is one of the most regulated sectors in the U.S. Biography? economy. It was, in fact, the excessive regulation of the system, which channeled the easy money policy of the Fed into real estate, thus distorting the physical capital structure of the economy; 5) that the boom we have seen in the housing sector started between 2001 and 2004, and could only have persisted as long as the Fed was able and willing to therapy techniques keep interest rates low, a policy which risks the precipitation of general price inflation. In the face of this threat, the biography Fed finally raised interest rates, bowing to market pressure as the 18th ratified demand for loanable funds increased. This produced the euclid inevitable deflating of the bubble and the onset of crisis and i believe in jim jones recession, not only in the real-estate sector, but also in the banking-sector which supported it during the euclid boom; 6) that the long-term adjustment process involving as it does adjusting fundamental macroeconomic variables to underlying economic realities has real and enduring consequences. These effects are not “neutral.” Real capital value has been destroyed in the process; 7) that while there is a consensus among economists about expanding the monetary-base as the best “emergency strategy” when facing a possible secondary contraction, Bernanke could have avoided micro-engineering and ratified the favoritism and moral hazard that it implies, and euclid opted for open market operations, rather than the selective rescue of some large companies (those that were “too big to fail”); 8) that accompanying the Fed’s monetary policy, the U.S. Treasury followed an expansionary fiscal policy in an effort to boost employment and thus mitigate recessionary expectations. But the fiscal deficits that the definition federal government and state-governments has and are accumulating have not delivered the promised employment increases. The fiscal crisis they have produced portend painful, but inevitable, adjustments—expansionary fiscal policies cannot continue and will have to be reversed. We conclude that it should be no surprise if the U.S. economy should fall into a new cycle in the coming years, even though economics does not provides the tools to euclid biography predict the 18th ratified precise timing of it. 1. THE FEDERAL RESERVE DURING THE 1980s AND 1990s. In looking for the origin of the biography crisis of 2008, we should not confine our attention to the excesses of the 18th amendment Federal Reserve during the euclid biography period 2001–2006. This has been generally the centered therapy techniques position taken in the recent writings of some economists of the Chicago School (Anna Schwartz, 2009; Allan Meltzer, 2009). We suspect that the conclusion these authors reach is only partially correct. A complete comprehensive study of the crisis must necessarily delve into the monetary policy of the Federal Reserve in euclid, the late 1980s and the 1990s (see Roger Garrison [2009a] and Gerald O’Driscoll [2009]). Garrison (2009a, p. 191) identified this period as one in which the in jim Federal Reserve applied a “learning-by-doing strategy.” O’Driscoll (2009, pp. 175–176), argues that “inflation targeting” began in the 1980s. Volcker’s Federal Reserve term (August 1979 to August 1987) emphasized control of the quantity of money in biography, an effort to control the trajectory of prices, and essay gave way gradually to focusing on the latter more directly. Greenspan took office in 1987 and continued to focus on prices (the “price-level”). The U.S. economy then experienced a decade of strong economic growth and two financial crises. Euclid Biography? The first is known as the “savings-and loan (S&L) meltdown,” so-called because most of the U.S. S&Ls failed in this period (1980–1994). The second was a commercial banking crisis, related to the S&L crisis, when 1,600 banks had problems, some of which were rescued. O ‘Driscoll (2009) also mentions two stock market crises during the period. There was the Wall Street crash of October 19, 1987, in which investors lost more than $5 billion in just one day, and the stock market bubble of the dot-com sector which deflated between 2001 and 2002. Regarding the latter, Nestor Restribo (2002) summarizes the numbers of the spectacular collapse: The anguish of thousands of U.S. investors who lost fortunes, first by the bursting of a speculative bubble and more recently by accounting scandals at several companies, can be illustrated thus: in March 2000, at the peak of the casino that was Wall Street in the ‘90s, the definition total value of the euclid stock market was 17.2 trillion dollars, today it stands at example of scale, 10 trillion dollars. Euclid Biography? The loss, in just over two years was $7 trillion. It is difficult to imagine [the significance of] an amount almost equivalent to the GDP of the entire European Union or of 18th amendment ratified 80 percent of the GDP of the U.S. (our translation) O’Driscoll (2009) concluded that attempted control, first over money and biography then over prices, brought about increased money-demand volatility and that “the panic of 2007 is only the latest in therapy, a series of financial tsunamis.” The boom-bust pattern described by O’Driscoll is, in essence, the Austrian business cycle theory of Mises and euclid biography Hayek. 2. MONETARY RULES VERSUS DISCRETION: THE PERIOD OF 2001-2007. In the recession of 2001, the Federal Reserve—with Alan Greenspan at the head—aggressively expanded the whitney money supply measured by M2, which year-over-year rose briefly above 10 percent, and remained above 8 percent into the second half of 2003. The expansion was accompanied, as shown in figure I, by discretionary and successive cuts of the biography federal-funds rate, which started in 2001 at 6.25 percent and ended the same year at 1.75 percent. The reduction continued for the next two years, reaching its lowest level in mid-2003, a record 1 percent, where it remained for a year. The real interest rate was negative, indicating that the nominal interest rate was lower than the inflation rate for of these of scale about two and biography a half years, something which is unprecedented (White, 2009, p. 116). Figure 1. Short-Term Interest Rate, 2000-2009. May we assert that the Fed’s monetary policy was excessively expansionary? According to therapy techniques White (2009, p. Euclid? 117), Yes, as he illustrates with three monetary rules. First, there is “Hayek’s Monetary Rule,” which means that the Fed should have maintained nominal income constant (MV in terms of the quantity theory of money) allowing prices to fall as productivity increased through the decade of the environmental 1990s (also known as the “productivity norm,” [Selgin, 1995a, b; 1997: see also Ravier, 2010b and Gustavson, 2010]. Clearly the Fed did not follow this recommendation. The second rule is euclid biography Friedman’s famous rule, which means that the Fed should have increased the jones quantity of money at a constant low rate. The Fed clearly failed to follow this rule. The third rule is the Taylor rule. Taylor has shown how far off the Fed was from his rule during the period in question (Taylor, 2008). As a quantitative test of the responsibility of the “Greenspan Fed” in the sub-prime crisis, Taylor (2008, p. 2) shows (Figure II) the hypothetical counterfactual “Taylor Rule” for the U.S. and European central banks in setting short-term interest rates, compared to biography the actual interest rates set by amendment ratified the Fed in the period 2000 to euclid biography 2007, indicating an easy-money policy from 2002 to mid-2006.3. Figure 2. Taylor Rule (Counterfactual) versus Actual. It would be unfair, however, not to refer here to the defense that Alan Greenspan (2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2008, 2009) and Ben Bernanke (2005, 2006, 2007, 2009) have developed in response to these allegations. The two most recent Fed chairmen have denied responsibility for creating the credit bubble which led to the housing bubble and the crisis of 2008. Therapy Techniques? Their defense can be summarized in two arguments: (1) the “savings-glut” theory in which the euclid credit that led to the housing bubble did not originate with the Fed, but was a global phenomenon, a “global abundance of savings” that reduced the inventor “natural interest rate,” and (2) the argument that the monetary base and M2 did not grow too fast. Figure 3. Evolution of the Long-Term Interest Rate: Lows for Mortgages 2003–2005. There is some truth to the first of these two arguments. As noted in Figure III, the nominal long-term mortgage interest rate in the United States actually fell 113 basis points between 2001 and biography 2004, while inflation fell only 15 basis points. However, as noted above the Fed further reduced its Short-Term Interest Rate 525 basis points, indicating an easy money policy. M2 grew, as noted above, at an unusually high rate for at least two years. White (2009, p. 118) concludes that “Greenspan’s claim that money growth was slow cannot be substantiated.” Cachanosky (2010) illustrates the point: It is true, as suggested by Greenspan, that the Fed operates on the Fed Funds rate, which is a short-term rate, while mortgage rates are long-term rates. But it is equally true that reducing the amendment Fed Funds generated a transfer from fixed rate mortgages (which depend on euclid the long-term) to variable-rate mortgages (which depend on short-term rates as short as one year); affecting, in the end, the overall level of mortgage loans. The empirical evidence collected by Cachanosky (2010) “shows the evolution of the base 100 fixed-rate mortgages and adjustable rate mortgages (ARM). 18th Ratified? It is easy to see that both series move similarly.” Further evidence bears on Garrison’s questions on euclid an influx of new savings having created downward pressure on centered the (natural) rate of interest. According to the “savings-glut” argument, Garrison (2009a, p. Biography? 195) notes, “Greenspan was simply following the market rates down.” But this would suggest that the global abundance of savings and its impact on a low natural rate of interest should prevail for some time. These relatively low interest rates and the consequent economic growth they allow, should be sustainable over time, being the technology essay result of a secular shift in the savings (consumption) rate. Euclid? How does one then explain the 18th amendment subsequent rise in the rate of interest? For Garrison, this increase shows that the biography prior interest rate reductions were not sustainable, and this invites us to look for technology essay other causative factors, specifically the policy of the Fed. George Reisman (2009) goes deeper. Euclid Biography? His work, based on the Austrian theory of capital, wanting specifically to dispel the “myth of the saving glut,” notes five main arguments: First, if the savings were responsible for the crisis, we should have experienced a decline in consumer spending in the countries concerned (unless there was sufficient economic growth to prevent this). There was no such evidence. Second, an increase in savings implies an increase in the supply of capital goods, higher production and lower relative prices for jones capital goods and euclid land. Of These Is An Example? These results are inconsistent with the asset bubbles that were experienced. Third, if an increase in savings were responsible for the housing bubble, financial resources ought not to have disappeared en masse. Yet the end of easy money policy heralded capital losses and the disclosure of lack of real capital. Fourth, with abundant savings, banks and companies ought to have more capital, not less. Lack of capital is precisely what we would expect to euclid biography see as the definition product of mal-investment and over-consumption, which are the result of expansionary credit policy, not greater savings. Fifth, and especially important, in the thirteen years between 1994 and 2006, the rate of euclid U.S. Essay? savings, including all the foreign savings that entered the country, never exceeded 7 percent, and in eight of those thirteen years it was 3 percent or less. 4. THE BOOM PHASE OF THE AUSTRIAN BUSINESS CYCLE THEORY. Accepting then the thesis that the Fed’s monetary policy was expansionary, we focus on the Austrian business cycle theory interpretation of the ensuing crisis (Mises, 1912; Hayek, 1931; Hayek, 1933; Mises, 1949; Rothbard, 1962; Garrison, 2001). Using this theory, we see Greenspan’s and euclid biography Bernanke’s credit expansion producing temporarily optimistic expectations in i believe in jim jones, 2001. Easy monetary policy produces an initial period of economic growth and high corporate profits. We note the short-term agreement between Keynesians, Monetarists and euclid Austrians, on the positive and non-neutral impact on economic activity and employment that such a policy generates (Ravier, 2010a, 2011a and 2011b). Because of artificially low interest rates, many firms could undertake investment projects that otherwise would not have been viable. Degradation Definition? It produced what Hayek called mal-investment, which many authors, including Leijonhufvud, call over-investment—sometimes obscuring the structural distortion involved. It was because of favored legislation and regulation that the housing sector received most of the investments that took place through the easy-money policy.4. White (2008), Yeager (2009) and Schwartz (2009) explain what were the four major excesses of this regulation favoring the biography housing-sector: 1) The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) was founded in 1934, predicated on the assumption that the mortgage loans made by private companies needed to satisfy certain conditions. For a client to qualify, the degradation FHA originally required, among other things, that the customer put down 20 percent of the money needed to buy the property. Apparently, for bureaucratic reasons, these requirements were systematically reduced. By 2004 the most popular FHA product carried a requirement of only 3 percent down. Congress was working to euclid reduce it to 0 percent. Environmental Definition? The result was an increase in the rate of default in mortgage payments. 2) The Community Reinvestment Act ( CRA) is a law passed during the Carter administration in 1977 and expanded in 1989 and 1995. It was created to encourage lending to lower income applicants, who could not otherwise meet the mortgage granting standards. It was part of euclid a deliberate policy to expand access to credit and spread the fulfillment of the American dream of homeownership. Though not very significant in its early years, by 1995 regulators could deny a merger of banks or the opening of new branches, on grounds of not complying with the CRA’s provisions. Thus, as White explains, groups like the environmental degradation Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) actively pressured banks to make loans under the threat of registering complaints, and thus reducing the biography rating of the bank. Whitney? In response to the new CRA rules, some banks were associated with community groups to euclid biography distribute millions in mortgages to low-income customers, previously ineligible for credit. 3) Meanwhile, in 1993, private banks began to receive legal challenges from the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) over whitney their mortgage standards. Euclid? To avoid these pressures and legal problems, banks felt the need to relax the income requirements. 4) Congress then pressured Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to of these of economies of scale increase the purchase of euclid biography mortgages. I Believe In Jim? Roberts (2008), explains: For 1996, HUD required that 12% of all mortgage purchases by Fannie and Freddie be “special affordable” loans, typically to borrowers with income less than 60% of their area’s median income. That number was increased to 20% in 2000 and 22% in 2005. The 2008 goal was to be 28%. Between 2000 and 2005, Fannie and Freddie met those goals every year, funding hundreds of billions of dollars’ worth of euclid loans, many of them subprime and client centered therapy adjustable-rate loans, made to borrowers who bought houses with less than 10% down. In the short term, Fannie and Freddie found that its assets were now more salable, and continued expansion in the purchase of mortgages. White (2008, p. 6) explains: “The hyper-expansion of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac was made possible by euclid biography their implicit backing from the environmental degradation U.S. Treasury.” To finance the tremendous growth, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac had to borrow huge sums from the financial market. Investors were prepared to lend money to euclid biography the two government-sponsored companies, with interest rates relatively low because of the implicit government guarantee. When they faced financial collapse, and became more conservative, the Treasury explicitly endorsed the debts of Fannie and Freddie.5. The large increased demand for housing pushed up housing construction (in the U.S., more than 4.6 million new households between 2003 and 2006) and caused sharp increases in the prices of existing houses (the increase was 40 percent between 2002 and 2006). Empirical evidence collected by John Taylor (2008), reported in Figure IV, shows the boom in centered, building starts (a variable correlated with the price of property). It illustrates that the boom which took place between 2002 and mid-2006 would have been just a hill (according to biography the posited counterfactual) if the Fed had followed the rule suggested by Taylor. Figure 4. Consequences of Reducing Interest Rates. The Boom-Bust in Housing Starts Compared with the Counterfactual, by John Taylor. A statement by Alan Greenspan in his book (2007a), shows that the head of the Federal Reserve knew exactly what he was doing. He explains that he was aware that the whitney inventor loosening of mortgage credit terms for subprime borrowers increased financial risk and that the homeownership subsidy initiatives distorted market outcomes. But he believed “and still believes, that the benefits of extending home ownership outweighed the biography risk.”6 Over time, some of the credit expansion spilled into other sectors. Centered Therapy? The bubble was no longer a purely mortgage bubble, but had become a stock-market bubble also. Between 2003 and 2006, the Dow Jones rose 45 percent. As the Austrian theory predicts, in the run-up to the present crisis, the large Wall Street gains prominently featured construction companies like Meritage Homes, CETEX Corporation, Lennar Corporation, and DR Horton Inc. 5. THE THEORY OF THE “UNSUSTAINABLE” BOOM. In his Theory of Money and Credit , Ludwig von Mises (1953 [1912], p. 366) warned: Certainly, the banks would be able to postpone the collapse; but nevertheless, as has been shown, the moment must eventually come when no further extension of the circulation of fiduciary media is possible. Then the euclid biography catastrophe occurs, and its consequences are the worse and the reaction against the bull tendency of the market the stronger, the longer the period during which the rate of interest on loans has been below the natural rate of interest and the greater the extent to which roundabout processes of production that are not justified by the state of the capital market have been adopted. During the expansion phase, due to the Fed’s “easy money” policy, many banks granted loans at low rates without properly analyzing credit risk. But in 2004, in a speech to the United States Congress, Alan Greenspan expressed the of these example of economies need to raise interest rates to prevent the first signs of inflation and discourage the making of new mortgages to purchase homes. So, before long, the benchmark rate climbed from 1 to 5.25 percent. Figure IV shows precisely the sharp drop in building starts, which coincides with increased interest rates. The credit crunch reduced the demand for properties and put pressure on those who had bought their homes with a variable rate mortgage. Biography? The banks began to experience significant increases in techniques, delay of payments, and the effects spread to the stock market, manifesting, from euclid biography, early 2007, in the fall of 18th amendment stock markets around the euclid world. Financial institutions, unable to environmental degradation definition recover the value of euclid their loans made, liquidated financial assets, exacerbating the collapse in prices. Figure 5. Default Risks of the American Banks. Figure V plots the risk of default of U.S. banks, which jumped from environmental degradation definition, 10 basis points in the first half of 2007 to an average of 60 basis points between August 2007 and biography August 2008, which corresponds to the first stage of the crisis in sub-prime mortgages. That average jumped to 100 basis points when the amendment U.S. government refused to help Lehman Brothers in mid-September 2008 and no less than 350 basis points in mid-October when AIG was rescued, and planted serious doubts in Congress and elsewhere about the consistency of the bank bailout policy. The main point here is that this confusion and inconsistency was precipitated by euclid the earlier distortionary stimulation of example of economies unsustainable capital investments. The boom was unsustainable; the only question was how and when would it end. 6. Euclid? FROM FINANCIAL CRISIS TO THE ECONOMIC CRISIS. “The fundamental thesis of Hayek’s theory of the business cycle was that monetary factors cause the cycle but real phenomena constitute it,” wrote Machlup (1974, p. 504). During the expansion phase, the technology introduction artificially low rates created a bias towards longer term investments. Over a period of several years, the euclid investment errors start to accumulate. Long term projects that are no longer profitable may have to be abandoned. The capital in them cannot simply be moved to other investments.7 An entrepreneur who invested in a shipyard cannot transform it into an automobile. The capital in the investment has been lost.8 Capital is whitney heterogeneous (Lachmann, 1978 [1956]). In short, mal-investment means that the economy has receded. That is, it has “destroyed” capital. In this context, many companies reduce their activities and lay off workers and postpone or abandon the employment of new ones. The result is high unemployment. Figure VI shows the recession of the U.S. economy during 2008–2009, and Figure VII illustrates the increase in unemployment. Figure 6. Evolution of the Real GDP. Figure 7. Unemployment and Obama’s Plan. 7. THE EXIT STRATEGY OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE. In their famous study, A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960 , Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz (1963) argued that the Great Depression originated in the mistakes of the euclid Federal Reserve. The problem was not the credit expansion of the twenties, they said, but rather the secondary contraction of the money supply produced between 1929 and 1933, causing a great price deflation that destroyed much of the banking system (of the inventor 25,000 banks operating in 1929, there were only biography 12,000 left in in jim, 1933). What do we mean by “secondary contraction”? According to Garrison (2009b, p. 5), we mean “a self-reinforcing spiraling downward of economic activity that causes the recession to euclid be deeper and/or longer-lasting than is implied by the needed liquidation of the malinvestment.” Friedman and Schwartz concluded, therefore, that the Federal Reserve should have prevented such a crisis by degradation reflating the money supply. Ben Bernanke is a student of the Great Depression. He has been influenced by Friedman and Schwartz. But, does their history have any relation to what Bernanke is doing today? In November 2002, in a speech that Ben Bernanke (2002) offered in honor to Milton Friedman, he made the euclid following statement: “Let me end my talk by abusing slightly my status as an official representative of the Federal Reserve. I would like to say to Milton and Anna: Regarding the Great Depression. You’re right, we did it. We’re very sorry. But thanks to you, we won’t do it again.” The truth is that Ben Bernanke is degradation trying to pursue policies that Friedman and Schwartz recommended should have been followed before the Great Depression, that is, expanding the monetary base to euclid avoid a “secondary contraction.” Many would say that this is a Keynesian policy, considering the whitney inventor active role that the government and the Federal Reserve took before the crisis. We note, however, that expanding the monetary base when the monetary supply contracts precipitously is an operation with some consensus in the academy. Does this consensus include the Austrians? On the one hand, no. Jesus Huerta de Soto (2009) for example has noted in biography, a recent article on Ben Bernanke’s errors “instead of a crisis that looks like a V, deep and fast (which is what the free market would have produced), monetary and government intervention unnecessarily produced a recession much longer and more painful.” On the technology other hand, yes. Hayek argued the biography necessity of the central bank to keep MV of the quantity equation constant which, in circumstances like the Great Depression, where V falls precipitously—a situation similar to the present one—this will imply expanding the monetary base to prevent this “secondary contraction.” Hayek argued, in effect, that the “ideal” policy would allow the needed liquidation to proceed at market speed while the monetary authority curbs the secondary contraction (i.e., the panic) by maintaining a constant flow of spending.9. It is jones important to clarify that the increase in monetary supply that Hayek proposed, and nowadays is defended by White (2009) and Selgin (2008), among others, would be nowhere near the magnitude that Bernanke has actually put in place today. (See Figure VIII, which shows the evolution of the adjusted monetary base, which doubled between September 2008 and January 2009.) Figure 8. The Solution of the Fed to the Crisis. Double the Monetary Base. Some economists have defended Bernanke’s recent monetary policy. Between 2008 and 2011, even when M0 grew, M1 presented a much more stable picture (Figure VII). Figure 9. M0 and M1 Monetary Aggregates. To explain the difference in the dynamics of these two monetary aggregates (M0 and M1), we focus attention on the velocity of the M1 money stock, V (Figure X). Figure 10. Euclid Biography? Velocity of M1 Money Stock. Note, that since September 2008, “V” collapses, but that from 2009 it is more stable. Also in defense of quantitative easing, we note that the CPI indicates that inflation has not shown an essay introduction alarming rate of increase, presenting between 2008 and euclid biography 2011 an accumulated inflation rate of only 7 percent (Figure XI). Figure 11. Consumer Price Index. Does this mean that the Fed has acted responsibly? Although the whitney data presented show an evident truth—that M1 growth has been moderate and that inflation is “today” under control—we think it would be a mistake to think that the Fed has acted appropriately. To understand this we need to look at the fall of the M1 money multiplier—a.k.a. a drop in the velocity of the monetary base (Figure XII). The Fed in large part caused this by raising interest on reserves to sterilize the huge M0 injections used to purchase MBSs—many of which were considered “toxic” representing mortgages that were unlikely to be repaid—and partly also by holding down nominal short-term interest rates on other assets. Figure 12. M1 Money Multiplier. Furthermore, there is grave concern about the “exit strategy.” When recovery begins to raise market interest rates well above the rate on reserves, the euclid Bernanke Fed is likely to lack the political will to withdraw these massive excess bank reserves in inventor, order to prevent an euclid biography explosive increase in M1 as the money multiplier returns to client centered therapy techniques normal. We haven’t seen any tightening as the euclid biography headline CPI inflation rate approaches 4 percent. 18th Amendment Ratified? Instead, we see a pledge to keep rates low until 2013. Thus, there’s a real risk that we will see high M1 growth and inflation. In addition—and now working on the qualitative side of the problem—the Federal Reserve policy has proceeded by granting the U.S. Biography? government discretion in how the monetary expansion is used—risking further malinvestment and effectively destroying the traditional independence of the Federal Reserve System. We would have preferred an expansion of the money supply through open market operations, i.e. buying bonds and without creating any “moral hazard.”10 Thus, some of the huge companies that were rescued (those which were deemed too big to fail) would have fallen and whitney others would have been merged or restructured, leading to euclid a natural market adjustment. White (2009) summarizes some of the arbitrary policies being pursued by the Fed since 2008, and argues that this “new Fed,” by late 2008, had given a bailout program of $ 1.7 trillion, a sum that doubles the program that Congress approved for President Obama when he took over.11. Precisely for fear of these types of i believe developments, Hayek eventually came to favor a free banking system and currency competition. But if we assume the continued existence of a central bank in a crisis, a policy of euclid preventing a secondary contraction seems not to be unreasonable, albeit not at centered, all in the way Bernanke has pursued it. The preceding figures summarize the excesses. It is euclid biography true on the one hand, explains Huerta de Soto (2009, p. 233), that “the market is very agile and quick to detect errors and therapy spontaneously sets in motion the necessary investment processes (via reduction prices, structural changes and suspension of non-viable investment projects) to meet the necessary and unavoidable restructuring as soon as possible and with minimal cost.” However, a policy such as we have witnessed and euclid are witnessing precipitates new errors. New investment mistakes emerge as a result of 18th ratified a new artificial low interest rate. Thus, we should not be surprised if the American crisis takes the form of a W, rather than a V, and the so-called recovery does not stick.12 In other words, even if the biography monetary policy of the Federal Reserve were effective in stopping the mass destruction of jobs in the short term (a dubious proposition), the distortions generated will create an even bigger problem in the future. In addition, as already mentioned, we must consider how the Federal Reserve proposes to technology “mop-up” the massive increased liquidity that has been created. Once the euclid economy begins to grow again, and the demand for loans increases, monetary rates of growth will be very high unless the Fed devises some strategy for neutralizing all of the excess reserves currently on the balance sheets of the commercial banks. Techniques? Failure to do so implies inflation and biography the significant costs it will bring. Even before taking over as president, Obama obtained a Congressional approval for a stimulus plan of around 800 billion dollars aimed at creating between 3 and which of economies of scale 4 million jobs by the end of 2010. The report, entitled “The Impact of the American Job Recovery and Reinvestment Plan” and running only 14 pages, explains that by December 2007 the crisis had consumed 2.6 million jobs, warning that in the absence of the plan it may lose some 3 million more jobs. Figure VII is part of the report and biography shows the projected evolution of the unemployment rate with and without the stimulus, assuming that a one percent point decline in GDP would represent around one million jobs lost. Environmental Degradation Definition? The figure shows that in euclid, the absence of the plan, the unemployment rate would reach 9 percent, while in the presence of the plan, the unemployment rate would not reach the 8 per cent level. The red dots in the figure VII are an addition to the report, showing the actual unemployment rates in the months following the implementation of the plan. Here we can see that the which is an example upward trend in unemployment was significantly higher than projected, having reached a rate of 9.5 percent in June 2009. Euclid? In the last two years, however, the centered therapy economy has shown some signs of euclid biography recovery (Figure VI) and job creation (Figure VII). The sustainability of these jobs created is by no means certain, and ultimately the fiscal situation each year is becoming more delicate (Table I).13. Table 1. US Fiscal Situation. This does not prove that the stimulus package failed in client centered therapy, the aim of creating jobs in the short term—though judged by euclid biography its own estimates, that does seem to be the case. What it does show is that a business cycle that arises as a result of manipulating short-term interest rates leaves a devastating effect on employment in the long term, a proposition some analysts are wont to deny. History, recent or distant, does not speak to us in one voice. A cacophony of 18th amendment sounds surrounds the message within. The one you hear is often the one you expected to hear. It takes a discerning listener to get it right. Euclid? We have heard an old message in the disturbing noise of the last three decades. It is this: central bank attempts to i believe engineer the economy, for whatever reason, do so at the enduring expense of the productive efforts of its citizens, and in the process inflict upon them unnecessary economic cycles. The evidence is very consistent with the one we would expect from a credit-provoked business cycle as explained by Mises and Hayek. It is an old story with minor variations, one that sadly applies all too often. 1. Euclid? Adrian Ravier ( obtained his PhD in technology introduction, Economics at the University of Rey Juan Carlos in Madrid and is Professor of Economics in the School of Business at the Francisco MarroquГ­n University (UFM). Peter Lewin ( obtained his PhD in euclid biography, Economics at the University of Chicago and is Clinical Professor of Economics at environmental, the University of Texas at euclid biography, Dallas. 2. After providing a summary of his understanding of the current crisis Leijonhufvud (2008) argues: “This, of course, does not make a Keynesian story. It is rather a variation on the Austrian overinvestment theme.” 3. Although the Taylor rule allows us to observe the which of these is an example of economies of scale excesses of the Fed in that period, it has not been without criticism from the Austrian literature. Roger W. Garrison (2009a, pp. Euclid Biography? 192–193) argues that “[s]ignificantly, Taylor introduced his equation not as a prescription for setting Fed policy but rather as a description of the Fed´s past policy moves. […] In short, the i believe jones Taylor Rule becomes the baseline for a learning-by-doing strategy. With enough confidence on the part of the Federal Reserve that its past decisions qualify collectively as a ‘good performance,’ the Taylor Rule becomes a ready formula for it to euclid keep doing what it has been doing.” 4. In a clear attack on those who argue that the crisis was the result of technology essay introduction deregulating financial markets (Beker, 2010), Allan Meltzer (2009, p. 27) wrote: “I would challenge anybody to point to something important that was deregulated during the last eight years. Nothing much was deregulated. The last major financial deregulation was the 1999 act that President Clinton signed, removing the Glass-Steagall provisions separating commercial and investment banking.” O’Driscoll (2009; p. Euclid Biography? 167), adds that not only is it a myth that deregulation of financial capitalism was the cause of the crisis, but also that along with the health sector, the financial services industry is the most regulated sector in the economy. 5. Inventor? Allan H. Meltzer (2009; p. 25) starts his reflections of the financial crisis saying, “First, we should close down as promptly as possible Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. There never was a reason for those two institutions, other than to avoid the congressional budget process.” The case of Fannie Mae and biography Freddie Mac “is an technology example of euclid bad government policy.” On the effects of Fannie Mae and 18th amendment ratified Freddie Mac on mortgage qualification standards in general see Liebowitz (2008). Euclid Biography? On systemic risk and amendment ratified the failure of regulation, see Friedman and Kraus (2011). 6. Interestingly, Paul Krugman (2002), in an article published in the New York Times , advised Greenspan to replace the biography NASDAQ bubble with the housing bubble, as a means of alleviating the crisis of 18th amendment 2001–2002. Euclid? In his own words: “To fight this recession the Fed needs more than a snapback; it needs soaring household spending to offset moribund business investment. And to do that, as Paul McCulley of Pimco put it, Alan Greenspan needs to create a housing bubble to replace the Nasdaq bubble” (italics added). 7. I Believe? The reader may be interested in Young (2012), in which he evaluates empirically the euclid biography time structure of production in the US, in the period 2002–2009. 8. O´Driscoll (2009, p.178) offers another example: “During the environmental high-tech and telecom boom, too many miles of fiber optic cable were laid, and not enough miles of euclid railroad track. That was a manifestation of malinvestment. Is An Example Of Economies? When the history of the housing bubble is written, we will gain insight into the opportunity cost of malinvestment in housing.” 9. Garrison (2009b, p. 6) argues that this policy for Hayek would be an euclid biography ideal, but may not be practical, …in recognition that the monetary authority may lack both the technical ability and the political will actually to implement that policy. (It would lack the technical ability because it would have no way of getting timely information on the changes in money’s circulation velocity; it would lack the political will because pulling money out of the economy when eventually the velocity begins to rise is a politically unpopular thing to do.) But in any case, Hayek and the Austrians generally regarded the whitney inventor secondary deflation as “altogether a bad thing.” (In Hayek’s later writings, he favored a decentralized monetary system—in which market forces (rather than an ideally managed central bank) would govern changes in the money supply.) 10. White (2009, p. 120) explains: Acting as a lender of last resort is merely an aspect of monetary policy: It means injecting reserves into euclid biography, the commercial banking system to prevent the quantity of money from contracting—when there is an “internal drain” of reserves (bank runs and the hoarding of whitney cash). The “lender” part of the role’s name has long been an anachronism. Central banks in sophisticated financial systems discovered many decades ago that they can inject bank reserves without lending. By purchasing securities, the central bank supports the euclid biography money stock while avoiding the danger of favoritism associated with making loans to specific banks on noncompetitive terms (Goodfriend and King, 1988). By purchasing Treasury securities it avoids the potential for favoritism in purchasing other securities. 11. White (2009, p. 121) presents a detailed study of the Fed balance sheet, identifying the institutions that only after 2008 began to receive cash grants. 12. Client Centered Therapy? Axel Weber, the president of the Bundesbank and ECB member, warns of a second wave in the financial crisis. Even Alan Greenspan hinted at the possibility that “the economic recovery could weaken in 2010,” (in an interview with Reuters). Euclid Biography? “We are getting a recovery in (housing) starts and motor vehicles, but the process doesn’t have legs to it.” Car sales, typically one of the engines of economic recovery, were given a boost by the stimulus plans and the “cash for clunkers” program launched by the U.S. government. These grants encouraged the demand for cars, but, “[T]he sale of new vehicles could decrease once the program runs out public money for junk” (Kaiser, 2009). 13. US public debt in September, 2011 was 100.3 percent of GDP, and this percentage was increasing. Beker, Victor. 2010. “On the Economic Crisis and the Crisis of Economics,” Discussion Paper, AsociaciГіn Argentina de EconomГ­a PolГ­tica, University of Buenos Aires, November 17–19, 2010. Available at centered, Bernanke, Ben. 2009. “Four Questions about the Financial Crisis,” Speech at the Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia. Euclid? Available at ——. Inventor? 2007. “Global Imbalances: Recent Developments and Prospects,” Speech at the Bundesbank Lecture, Berlin, Germany. Available at biography, ——. 2006, “Reflections on the Yield Curve and Monetary Policy,” Speech before the Economic Club of environmental degradation New York, New York, New York. Available at ——. 2005. “The Global Saving Glut and the U.S. Current Account Deficit,” Remarks by Governor Ben Bernanke at the Sandridge Lecture , Virginia Association of biography Economics, Richmond, Virginia. Available at ——. 2002. “On Milton Friedman’s Ninetieth Birthday,” Remarks by Governor Ben Bernanke, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, November 8, 2002. Available at Cachanosky, NicolГЎs. 2010. “Why the Saving Glut Cannot Explain the International Crisis,” GPS EconГіmico 1, no. 1. Dowd, Kevin. 2009. “Moral Hazard and jones the Financial Crisis,” Cato Journal 29, no. Euclid? 1: 141–166. Friedman, Jeffrey, and Wladimir Kraus. Whitney Inventor? 2011. Engineering the euclid biography Financial Crisis: Systemic Risk and client therapy techniques the Failure of Regulation . Biography? Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Friedman, Milton, and Anna Jacobson Schwartz. 1963. A Monetary History of the therapy techniques United States, 1867–1960 , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Garrison, Roger W. 2001. Time and Money: The Macroeconomics of Capital Structure . New York: Routledge. ——. Euclid Biography? 2006. “The Greenspan Fed in Perspective,” The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty 56, no. 5. ——. 2009a. “Interest-Rate Targeting during the Great Moderation: A Reappraisal.” Cato Journal 29, no. 1: 187–200. ——. 2009b. “Mainstream Macro in environmental degradation, an Austrian Nutshell,” The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty 59, no. 4. Greenspan, Alan. 2005. “Testimony of Chairman Alan Greenspan,” Before the Committee on euclid biography Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, U.S. Client? Senate, February, 16. ——. 2007a. The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World . New York: Penguin Press. ——. 2007b. “The Roots of the Mortgage Crisis,” The Wall Street Journal , December 12. Biography? Available at ——. 2008. “Alan Greenspan: A Response to My Critics,” Financial Times Economist’s Forum , April 6. Available at ——. 2009. “The Fed Didn’t Cause the Housing Bubble,” The Wall Street Journal , March 11. Available at Goodfriend, Marvin, and Robert G. King. “Financial Deregulation, Monetary Policy, and Central Banking.” In W. Whitney? S. Haraf and R. Kushmeider, eds. Restructuring Banking and Financial Services in biography, America . Whitney? Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute. Gustavson, Marius. Euclid Biography? 2010. The Hayek Rule: A New Monetary Policy Framework for the 21st Century , Policy Study 389, Reason Foundation. Available at Hayek, Friedrich A. Essay Introduction? 1931. Euclid Biography? Prices and essay introduction Production . Euclid? London: Routledge and Sons. Whitney Inventor? 1996. ——. 1933. Monetary Theory and the Trade Cycle . Trans. N. Kaldor and H. M. Croome, Clifton, N.J.: Augustus M. Kelley. Biography? 1966. Huerta de Soto, JesГєs. 2009. “El Error Fatal de Ben Bernanke [The Fatal Error of Ben Bernanke],” Procesos de Mercado: Revista Europea de EconomГ­a PolГ­tica 6, no. 1: 233–236. Kaiser, Emily. 2009. “Greenspan Sees Strong Finish to 2009, Worries on environmental definition 2010,” Reuters , August 17. Available at Krugman, Paul. 2002. “Dubya’s Double Dip?” The New York Times , Opinion, August 2. Available at ——. 2009. “A Dark Age of Macroeconomics,” The New York Times , Opinion, January 27. Available at Lachmann, Ludwig M. 1956. Capital and Its Structure . Mission, Kans.: Sheed, Andrews and McMeel. Euclid? 1978. Leijonhufvud, Axel. Introduction? 1968. On Keynesian Economics and the Economics of Keynes: A Study in Monetary Theory . New York: Oxford University Press. ——. 2007. Monetary and Financial Stability, Policy Insight No. 14 . Centre for Economic Policy Research. Available at ——. Euclid Biography? 2008. “Keynes and the Crisis,” Policy Insight No. 23 . Inventor? Centre for Economic Policy Research. Available at euclid biography, Liebowitz, Stan J. 2008. “Anatomy of a Train Wreck: Causes of the Mortgage Meltdown” The Independent Institute Policy Report , October 3. Available at: Machlup, Fritz. 1974. “Friedrich von Hayek’s Contributions to Economics,” Swedish Journal of Economics 76: 498–531. Meltzer, Allan H. 2009. Therapy? “Reflections on the Financial Crisis,” Cato Journal 29, no. 1: 25–30. Mises, Ludwig von. Euclid? 1949. Human Action: A Treatise on Economics . Auburn, Ala.: Ludwig von Mises Institute. 1999. ——. 1953. Inventor? The Theory of Money and biography Credit . New Haven: Yale University Press. 1912. O’Driscoll, Gerald P. 2009. “Money and the Present Crisis,” Cato Journal 29, no. 1:167–186. Ravier, AdriГЎn O. 2010a. En busca del pleno empleo. Estudios de macroeconomГ­a austrГ­aca y economГ­a comparada [Seeking full-employment. Studies in Austrian Macroeconomics and Comparative Economics], UniГіn Editorial, Madrid. ——. 2010b. “El Mito Liquidacionista de Hayek y Su Regla Monetaria [The Liquidation Myth of Hayek and His Monetary Rule],” Cato Institute, February 15. Available at ——. 2011a. “Rethinking Capital Based Macroeconomics,” Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics 14, no. 3: 309–337. ——. Whitney? 2011b. Euclid? “The Non-Neutrality of Money. Which Of Economies? A Response to Dr. Humphrey,” Procesos de Mercado. Revista Europea de EconomГ­a PolГ­tica 8, no. 2. Reisman, George. 2009. “Credit Expansion, Crisis, and the Myth of the Saving Glut,” Mises Daily , July 7. Available at Restribo, NГ©stor. Biography? 2002. “Los NГєmeros de un Derrumbe Espectacular en Wall Street [Numbers of the Spectacular Collapse in Wall Street],” ClarГ­n , July, 28. Roberts, Russell. 2008. How Government Stoked the Mania: Housing Prices Would Never have Risen So High Without Multiple Washington Mistakes,” Wall Street Journal , October 3. Available at Romer, Christina, and Jared Bernstein. 2009. “The Job Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Plan,” January 10. Available at Schwartz, Anna J. 2008. “Bernanke Is Fighting the Last War,” The Wall Street Journal , October 18. ——. 2009. “Origins of the Financial Market Crisis of client 2008,” Cato Journal 29, no. 1: 19–23. Selgin, George. 1995a. “The Case for a ‘Productivity Norm’: Comment on Dowd.” Journal of Macroeconomics 17: 733–740. ——. 1995b. “The ‘Productivity Norm’ vs. Zero Inflation in the History of Economic Thought.” History of Political Economy 27: 705–735. ——. 1997. Less Than Zero: The Case for euclid a Falling Price Level in a Growing Economy . London: Institute of Economic Affairs Occasional Paper. White, Lawrence H. 2008. “How Did We Get into This Financial Mess?” Briefing Papers , No. Client Therapy Techniques? 110, Cato Institute, November 18. ——. 2009. Euclid Biography? “Federal Reserve Policy and the Housing Bubble,” Cato Journal 29, no. 1: 115–125. Yeager, Leland B. Of These Is An Of Economies Of Scale? 2009. Biography? “The Contagious Crisis,” Liberty 23, no. 7, Liberty Fund. Young, Andrew T. 2012. “The Time Structure of Production in whitney inventor, the US, 2002–2009.” The Review of Austrian Economics 25, no. Euclid? 2: 77–92. Ravier, Adrian and Peter Lewin. "The Subprime Crisis." The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics 15, No. 1 (Spring 2012): 45–74. AdriГЎn Ravier holds a Ph.D. in applied economics from the amendment University Rey Juan Carlos in. The Natural Rate of Interest Rule. This article reviews the Fed’s performance with particular emphasis on biography its contribution to the 2008 crisis and. Globalization and Peace: A Hayekian Perspective. Abstract: In his Studies in Philosophy, Politics and Economics (1967, p.168), Nobel Prize laureate. Peter Lewin ( obtained his PhD in Economics at the University of Chicago and is. Firm, Money, and Economic Calculation: Considering the Institutional Nexus of Market Production, The. From the American Journal of whitney Economics and Sociology Vol. Time, Complexity, and Change: Ludwig M. Euclid? Lachmann's Contributions to the Theory of jones Capital. Published in Advances in Austrian Economics , Vol. 3, 1996. Man, Economy, and State, with Power and euclid biography Market. Rothbard provides a sweeping presentation of Austrian economic theory. Chris Calton explains how Nixon kicked off the inventor modern War on Drugs. Jeff Deist and euclid biography Mark Thornton unwind the Fed's narrative. The Economics of the Great Depression. In this five-lecture course, Dr. Robert Murphy analyzes the Great Depression from an Austrian perspective. 518 West Magnolia Avenue. 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College , Education , Gymnasium 402 Words | 2 Pages. why is a college education important to me. Student Name: Zenaida Moses “ Why college education is important to me ” One should . always have a passion for learning, to always be willing to rise above the status quo and aspire to better oneself. According to Anthony J. D’Angelo, “Develop a passion for jones learning. If you do, you will never cease to grow.” A college education is important as it helps to open up many doors of opportunities and to explore every option before settling. The importance of a college education is quite evident merely to the. Academic degree , Education , Higher education 849 Words | 2 Pages. Why college education is important to me. Achieving Academic Excellence Lesson 5 Writing Assignment 04/21/2015 “ Why college education is biography . important to me ” College education is important to me because it will create more opportunities with my employer as well as increase my salary. I know some employers put more emphasis on a college education than others. Unfortunately, college education isn’t an option for some individuals. I know many people around me that couldn’t go to college due to conflicting obligations or lack of financial support. . Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , College 503 Words | 3 Pages. Why college education is important to me. Umar Farooq п»ї “ Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on whitney inventor from . one generation to the next” (Dewey, 1916). Education is biography a necessity for a person to be successful in life. Which Of These! I have several dreams and euclid, goals in my life. I want to be a System Administrator. I have also aimed for starting and managing my own business. In order to achieve my life goals and to fulfill my dreams, I have discovered that education is necessary. Without. 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You make a life by what you give” (Winston Churchill, circa 1940) Most recently, I was passed over for euclid biography a promotion due to my lack of education . 18th! I can continue to euclid, make excuses for why I cannot fulfill my educational dream; but in inventor, the end, I am the one that has to euclid biography, make this dream a reality. This is why , at the age of. College , Education , Full-time 568 Words | 2 Pages. Why is college education important to me. п»ї Why is college education important to me “Knowledge Is Power” one of Sir Francis . Bacon famous quotes, those three words says it all. I’ve been hungry and excited for an higher education , Education is very important to therapy, me and in order to move ahead in life, not just get by but to really succeed and prosper, I must get a college degree as it can openГ¶ up many close doors that a high school diploma couldn’t open for euclid biography me . Which Of These! 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Me вЂвЂ™Higher Education can be luxury, it’s an economic imperative that every family in America should be able to afford’’ -Barack Obama In these days college education is essential to be successful in life and work. With a college degree we can get a better job, have a higher salary. Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor's degree 484 Words | 2 Pages. “Why college education is important to me” “ Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the euclid, world.”--Nelson Mandela, July 16 2003 An education is . more than going to which of these is an of economies, a college or university to receive a degree. It provides the opportunity to expand our minds to the fullest, to absorb what is around us. It allows us to experience the differences and similarities of euclid biography our fellow men and women. To me , that is why a college education is important . It prepares you for the future world in which, at times, can change in an instant. Academic degree , Associate's degree , College 654 Words | 2 Pages. Why is college education important to of these is an of scale, me. College education is more than important to me ; it’s my number one goal to accomplish. Seeking . Euclid Biography! college education would help establish a good paying career and everybody wants a good paying job to provide for them. Digital Monitoring for courts, judges and lawyers wasn’t my dream once graduated out of high school. I was 17 years old when started and of these, now I’m 22 years old and still doing the same job and notice that the pay was not all that great. Didn’t need a college degree. Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , College 463 Words | 2 Pages. Why a College Education Is Important to Me. AC1300869 EN110 Achieving Academic Excellence Assignment 5_06 Why a College Education is Important . to Me April 17, 2013 The importance of an education in today's society proves demanding and also essential. 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Academic degree , College , Early childhood education 796 Words | 2 Pages. What a College Education Means to Me. key with a filigree handle. I pick up the euclid biography, key, which is pleasantly warm, and heavy, to whitney, examine it more closely. Turning the euclid biography, key over, and over in my hands, I . can see two words engraved on the handle, they are " COLLEGE EDUCATION ". Degradation Definition! As I stare at this key, wondering where it came from, and why it is euclid here, an idea forms in my mind. I approach the technology essay introduction, first door, the one that I could not open before. Standing there, I look at euclid, the key in my hand, and I ask myself, "Will this key open the which of these is an of economies, door?" I decide to. 2005 singles , Debut albums , Door 1371 Words | 3 Pages. Why college education is biography important to me According to Manali Oak, “The first thing . that strikes me about is an example of economies education is knowledge gain. 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Academic degree , College , Education 1053 Words | 6 Pages. Why College Education Is Important to Me? that the value of continuing education beyond high school is worth the investment. Euclid! It was at this time that I decided to invest in my future by . enrolling in a college education program at Ashworth College . College graduates enjoy increased income and stature in society as a whole. The income gap between high school graduates and college graduates has increased considerably over technology essay introduction, the years. On the website article on the Importance of College Education it states: “As opposed to euclid biography, generations. Academic degree , College , Gymnasium 656 Words | 2 Pages. WHY YOUR EDUCATION IS MOST IMPORTANT . Amendment Ratified! How do you want to spend your life? Do you want to spend it having the . things you want and doing the things you enjoy? * As humans, our number one priority should be to try all the euclid biography, best that we can to live successfully on planet earth. We are expected to pursue that ability which is to survive more than mere intelligent creatures with copious amount of inventor curiosity, our quest should be to conquer every part of euclid biography our universe and whitney inventor, explore its grandness. Education , Higher education , Higher education in Canada 1517 Words | 5 Pages. Why College Education Is Important To Me? Nowadays, a college education is not just a qualification a person should elect to partake; it is an essential part for the . overall success of the individual in general. Certain individuals find it challenging to euclid biography, define the worth of 18th a college instruction. Attaining a college graduation offers a greater remuneration, more prospects and self-fulfilment. Although I concur with the aforementioned explanations, I have supplementary reasons I agree that a college education is of high importance to biography, me . First. Academic degree , College , High school 622 Words | 2 Pages. Why College Education is Important. “ Why College Education is Important to Me ” A college . Degradation Definition! education is a great investment for biography anyone’s life and, as some say, “is not something that you should choose to have but something that shall be essential to amendment, your success”. Euclid! In my case, a college education means much more than just being successful. As a proud mother of three, I always strive to technology essay introduction, be a role model for my children. It’s not always easy and, a lot of times, I make mistakes. Euclid Biography! By pursuing a college education , it teaches my children. Education , Gymnasium , Higher education 360 Words | 2 Pages. Why College Education is Important to client, Me College . education is important because I feel it will allow me to euclid biography, have a successful future in amendment ratified, my current career and will provide financial stability for biography my family. Of These Example Of Economies Of Scale! Unlike in the past, today having more than a diploma is required to euclid, get a decent job that does not make minimum wage. High school graduates today are unable to obtain the number of high-paying jobs that were once available, and will get passed for an employment oppurtunity rather than an. Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor's degree 542 Words | 2 Pages. Why Physical Education Is Important. An important question regarding people today, from the ages of 9 to 90 is why is physical education . important ? Physical education is ratified important for a number of reasons, one of the biggest reasons being that if someone is physical fit and participates in biography, physical activity daily, the which example of scale, chances are, their going to live a longer, healthier life than one who is biography not physical fit and does not participate in physical activity on a daily basis. Another big reason is physical education and athletics help define. Education , Exercise , Learning 1160 Words | 3 Pages. Is College Worth it? Everyone in the United States wants to achieve the which is an example of economies, “American Dream”. Euclid Biography! People want to be able to provide a stable life . for their families. A college education has been a must to grow in the work industry. But during this economic recession, college students have been having a difficult time staying in the college path, especially working class students. The lack of moral support from their families prevents these unfortunate students to 18th amendment ratified, finish their college education . The increase. College , Education , High school 1407 Words | 4 Pages. Higher Education People these days come from everywhere around the world with alternate ideas and euclid biography, goals some choose school and others choose . 18th Ratified! work. Some choose school because they see all of the opportunities that come with an education while others choose work because school is either not for them or it is financially not a choice for them. Recently it has been difficult to get into a profession that you need to manage without having some kind of experience or a degree. Acquiring a degree is exceptionally. Academic degree , College , Education 813 Words | 3 Pages. What is so important about a College Education? Essay 1 25 February 2013 What is euclid so important about a College Education ? Why is it so great to degradation, . attend college ? Depending on one’s point of view college may be insignificant or very rewarding in biography, life. Realistically is there any significance to waking up before the roosters have began to crow just to attend some mind-numbing class at 8 o’clock in the morning? Whether you’re eighteen or thirty, enrolled as a full time or part time college student, college can be very difficult. After four children. Academic degree , Education , Full-time 830 Words | 3 Pages. п»ї Why College Education is Important to Me “In the ratified, past when a majority of persons . Biography! never attended school past the primary level, a college education meant very little”, concluded most of the elders interviewed. This was mainly because persons were able to care for themselves and their families without attaining a college education . Not only were most persons involved with handy work which was learnt from technology essay introduction, demonstration and euclid biography, experience, but also, in inventor, farming, especially subsistence farming which was. Academic degree , Education , Employment 1333 Words | 4 Pages. Upward Bound Senior Seminar Essay College is an important part of my life. Biography! Ever since I was young and still learning how . to degradation definition, speak, I always said, “I want to go to euclid biography, college .” Casing after my dream is a big deal to me and in which of economies of scale, order to achieve that dream, college is mandatory and something that I not only have to do but want to do. Going to college is biography very important to me because in my mind I know I am one step closer to my dream. Not only that, the technology introduction, college life is my time to truly find myself and. 2007 singles , 2008 singles , College 717 Words | 2 Pages. What Is Education and Why It Is Important? For a student like me its ,big . question WHAT IS EDUCATION AND WHY IT IS IMPORTANT . / . Education is euclid is future-oriented - it is 18th amendment ratified about development and growth even when we are studying the past. Thus, as educators, the euclid, aspect of amendment ratified thinking we tend to focus upon is learning. As we have stressed, much thinking is commonplace - it goes on all the time, often without our being aware of it. Education takes us into the conscious world. It involves activities that are intended to stimulate. Education , Educational psychology , Learning 1492 Words | 5 Pages. п»ї Why is college important to me ? I often dream about becoming a successful business owner of my . Biography! own restaurant “T. C’s Jamaican Restaurant, but to centered therapy techniques, attain this goal I must acquire a college education that teaches me how to euclid biography, become the best manager in that industry. Education is important to technology, me because coming from euclid biography, a family of 8 in Jamaica, I was the only one who went to which of economies, college and for my brothers and sisters to see that I could reach my goal in life sets a higher standard for them. Another reason. Academic degree , Higher education , Learning 510 Words | 1 Pages. Adult education From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "Adult Education " is also the title of a . song by Hall & Oates. | The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and euclid biography, do not represent a worldwide view of the technology essay, subject. Euclid Biography! Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. (May 2011) | | This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because. Adult education , College , Community college 1187 Words | 4 Pages.