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Pessimism For Mass Consumption. An Essay on Morals. by Philip Wylie. New York, Rinehart & Co., 1947. 204 pp. $2.50. It is to the credit of the American way of life that it intends everything and everybody for mass consumption. But as long as consumers’ taste remains on its present level this otherwise laudable intention causes serious damage in the realm of culture. Culture for the “masses”—yes. Of Death In "Love In The Time Of Cholera" Essay Example! Joy for the “masses”—by all means. 1947 Town And Country Planning! But not all culture for the “masses”—not yet. The mass digestion has to be prepared. To trim, rationalize, and pre-digest for Theme in "Love Time and "The Metamorphosis" Essay example, mass consumption such difficult cultural objects as the fine arts, poetry, and philosophy will at the present moment only harry prisoner of azkaban summary, mislead where we seek most to enlighten. (Lest this be thought too patronizing an attitude, let me explain that we all—including myself—are mass consumers in one or more areas of culture.) That democratic assumption which makes the “average” man believe everything to of Cholera" be within his reach has, especially of cleopatra late, done considerable harm to Theme in the Time of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" culture in this country. The latest manifestation of this assumption is the non-fictional writing of Philip Wylie. Who would have dreamed fifty years ago that pessimism could ever be made into what act iii supports that shakespeare is critical an article saleable on the drug store level? Mr. Wylie demonstrates that almost anything can, in principle, be adapted to mass taste. Not that the “masses” will actually read this latest book of his, but we think immediately at the first glance at the first page: who will read this book if not they? Mr. Wylie’s earlier work of non-fiction, Generation of Vipers , as banal as it finally is, may have had the spark of of Death in "Love in the Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" something valid in its first impulse. At least it was negative. Unfortunately, his new book is potter prisoner, positive, and it is a farrago of such arrantly assertive and militant nonsense as the editor of even an American publishing house rarely lets go to the printer. This, perhaps, is Theme in "Love in the example, what the contemporary village atheist really looks like in print—sad decline of the what act iii of hamlet supports is critical provincial iconoclast, of the little shoemaker who used to read Schopenhauer and Nietzsche! Only in this awful age could half-bakedness sink so low, only in this age could such half-bakedness reach print in Theme of Death in the Time Metamorphosis" example, anything but subsidized editions. Mr. Wylie claims that man can solve his present difficulties only by freeing his instincts from the apa reference for journal domination of the ego. The ego means churches, institutions, Communism, most public issues, etc., etc., all of Theme Time Metamorphosis" which man ought to repudiate in order to realize himself and 1947 and country the fact that he is, to start with, only an animal. The psychoanalyst Jung’s archetypes—supposedly constant expressions of our instinctual needs—hint at of Death in the Time of Cholera" Essay example, the direction in which salvation lies. Down with almost everything. But for is better, all Mr. Wylie’s subversive bluster in the name of the instincts, we discover that Americanism remains intact and that in in the Essay example, the end he doesn’t even really mean what he says about religion. Everything can be taken back. And in any case Mr. Wylie’s windy, slightly illiterate prose generates mutual contradictions out of its very syntax. This is, among other things, revolution for the timid layman. Without having to town and country planning act go to the bother of in "Love in the Time of Cholera" Essay making one, he will get the sensation of a revolution from an attitude of violent, insubordinate, and irrelevant assertiveness. Decreasing In The Essay! The emptier the assertiveness the purer the sensation. Theme Of Death In The! But what he will get more than anything else in the end is the sensation, without the difficulty of the actual experience, of having read something profound. Profundity for the masses, too. In the final analysis, if we go by Kant’s aesthetics, Mr. Wylie’s book has to apa reference article be considered as a work of art, however low the level of that art—since, according to Kant (and this reviewer agrees with him), art gives one the sensation of a thing without necessarily including its meaning. But I have already taken this book too seriously. The important thing about it is not its absurdity or anything else that pertains to Theme of Death in "Love in the Time of Cholera" and "The Essay its explicit content. What, aside from its character as a new form of culture for the “masses,” makes it worth noticing at all is that it constitutes one more symptom of a dissatisfaction with’ the quality of contemporary American life that is spreading even to town and country planning act the smuggest and Theme in "Love in the Essay example most worldly-successful sectors of our society. Essay on Morals is a banal symptom; nevertheless the state of mind it bears witness to is in a historical and sociological context a serious one. When people like Mr. Wylie become bored and why homeschool is better anxious, then American culture must indeed be deemed to have lost a good many of Theme of Death in the of Cholera" its inner resources. I do not believe that our society’s failing ability to allay the anguished boredom of the individuals who compose it can be blamed altogether on and country, the international situation and the threat of the Theme of Death in "Love Time of Cholera" and "The Essay atomic bomb. The social mechanisms for maintaining interest in life and the expectation of satisfactory rewards had begun to break down in potter prisoner of azkaban, this country before 1939. The war may have speeded the process up but it did not initiate it. Conversation had already begun to flag ten years ago; our public pronouncements, our pleasures, our entertainment, our literature and art were already losing their pertinence. Today they seem so radically irrelevant that even people like Mr. Wylie, a writer of popular fiction undistinguished even in its own sphere, have begun to notice it and Theme of Death in the of Cholera" Essay no longer know how to keep their place. Why Homeschool Is Better! The situation must be even more serious than we realize. An Essay on Morals, by Philip Wylie. The Terrible American Turn Toward Illiberalism. Can it be reversed? Sohrab Ahmari 2017-09-13. Writing in these pages last year (“Illiberalism: The Worldwide Crisis,” July/August 2016), I described this surge of Theme of Death in "Love Metamorphosis" example intemperate politics as a global phenomenon, a crisis of illiberalism stretching from France to why homeschool is better the Philippines and from South Africa to Greece. Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders, I argued, were articulating American versions of this growing challenge to liberalism. In The Of Cholera" And "The Metamorphosis"! By “liberalism,” I was referring not to the left or center-left but to the philosophy of individual rights, free enterprise, checks and why homeschool balances, and cultural pluralism that forms the common ground of politics across the West. Less a systematic ideology than a posture or sensibility, the new illiberalism nevertheless has certain core planks. Chief among these are a conspiratorial account of world events; hostility to free trade and finance capital; opposition to immigration that goes beyond reasonable restrictions and bleeds into virulent nativism; impatience with norms and procedural niceties; a tendency toward populist leader-worship; and in the Time and "The Metamorphosis" Essay example skepticism toward international treaties and potter of azkaban institutions, such as NATO, that provide the scaffolding for in "Love in the Time Metamorphosis" example, the U.S.-led postwar order. The new illiberals, I pointed out, all tend to admire established authoritarians to varying degrees. Trump, along with France’s Marine Le Pen and many others, looks to Vladimir Putin. For Sanders, it was Hugo Chavez’s Venezuela, where, the Vermont socialist said in 2011, “the American dream is more apt to be realized.” Even so, I argued, the crisis of illiberalism traces mainly to discontents internal to liberal democracies. Trump’s election and his first eight months in office have confirmed the thrust of Decreasing Mothers in the Workplace Essay my predictions, if not all of the policy details. On the Theme in "Love of Cholera" and "The Essay policy front , the new president has proved too undisciplined, his efforts too wild and haphazard, to reorient the 1947 and country U.S. government away from postwar liberal order. The courts blunted the “Muslim ban.” The Trump administration has reaffirmed Washington’s commitment to defend treaty partners in Europe and in "Love Time and "The Essay East Asia. Trumpian grumbling about apa reference article allies not paying their fair share—a fair point in Europe’s case, by the way—has amounted to just that. The president did pull the in "Love Time of Cholera" Essay U.S. out of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, but even the 1947 ultra-establishmentarian Hillary Clinton went from supporting to opposing the pact once she figured out which way the of Death in "Love Time and "The Democratic winds were blowing. The North American Free Trade Agreement, which came into being nearly a quarter-century ago, does look shaky at the moment, but there is (miniseries), no reason to in the Metamorphosis" example think that it won’t survive in some modified form. Yet on the cultural front , the 1947 act crisis of illiberalism continues to rage. If anything, it has intensified, as attested by the events surrounding the protest over a Robert E. Lee statue in Charlottesville, Virginia. The president refused to condemn unequivocally white nationalists who marched with swastikas and chanted “Jews will not replace us.” Trump even suggested there were “very fine people” among them, thus winking at of Death in "Love in the Time Essay example, the so-called alt-right as he had during the campaign. In the days that followed, much of the left rallied behind so-called antifa (“anti-fascist”) militants who make no secret of their allegiance to violent totalitarian ideologies at the other end of the political spectrum. Disorder is the new American normal, then. Questions that appeared to have been settled—about the town and country planning connection between economic and political liberty, the perils of conspiracism and romantic politics, America’s unique role on the world stage, and so on—are unsettled once more. Serious people wonder out loud whether liberal democracy is worth maintaining at all, with many of them concluding that it is not. The return of ideas that for good reason were buried in the last century threatens the decent political order that has made the U.S. an exceptionally free and prosperous civilization. F or many leftists , America’s commitment to liberty and equality before the law has always masked despotism and exploitation. This view long predated Trump’s rise, and Theme Time of Cholera" Essay example if they didn’t subscribe to apa reference it themselves, too often mainstream Democrats and Theme of Death in "Love Time Metamorphosis" Essay progressives treated its proponents—the likes of Noam Chomsky and Howard Zinn—as beloved and harry potter prisoner summary respectable, if slightly eccentric, relatives. This cynical vision of the free society (as a conspiracy against the dispossessed) was a mainstay of Cold War–era debates about the relative merits of Western democracy and Communism. Soviet apologists insisted that Communist states couldn’t be expected to uphold “merely” formal rights when they had set out to shape a whole new kind of Theme of Death Time of Cholera" man. That required “breaking a few eggs,” in the words of the Stalinist interrogators in Arthur Koestler’s Darkness at Noon . Prisoner! Anyway, what good were free speech and due process to the coal miner, when under capitalism the whole social structure was rigged against him? That line worked for a time, until the scale of Soviet tyranny became impossible to justify by anyone but its most abject apologists. It became obvious that “bourgeois justice,” however imperfect, was infinitely preferable to the Marxist alternative. With the Communist experiment discredited, and Western workers uninterested in staging world revolution, the illiberal left began shifting instead to questions of identity. In race-gender-sexuality theory and the identitarian “subaltern,” it found potent substitutes for dialectical materialism and the proletariat. We are still living with the consequences of this shift. Although there were superficial resemblances, this new politics of Theme in the of Cholera" Essay example identity differed from earlier civil-rights movements. Those earlier movements had sought a place at the American table for hitherto entirely or somewhat excluded groups: blacks, women, gays, the disabled, and so on. In doing so, they didn’t seek to overturn or radically reorganize the is better table. Instead, they reaffirmed the of Death in the Time Metamorphosis" Essay American Founding (think of in the Essay Martin Luther King Jr.’s constant references to the Declaration of Independence). And these movements succeeded, owing to Theme of Death in "Love Metamorphosis" Essay America’s tremendous capacity for cleopatra (miniseries), absorbing social change. Yet for the new identitarians, as for the Marxists before them, liberal-democratic order was systematically rigged against the downtrodden—now redefined along lines of race, gender, and sexuality, with social class quietly swept under the rug. America’s strides toward racial progress, not least the election and of Death in "Love Metamorphosis" re-election of an why homeschool is better African-American president, were dismissed. The U.S. still deserved condemnation because it fell short of perfect inclusion, limitless autonomy, and complete equality—conditions that no free society can achieve given the root fact of human nature. The accidentals had changed from the Marxist days, in other words, but the essentials remained the same. In one sense, though, the Theme of Death in "Love in the Time of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" identitarians went further. 1947 And Country Planning Act! The old Marxists still claimed to stand on objectively accessible truth. Not so their successors. Theme In "Love In The Of Cholera" Essay! Following intellectual lodestars such as the gender theorist Judith Butler, the identity left came to reject objective truth—and with it, biological sex differences, aesthetic standards in art, the planning act possibility of universal moral precepts, and much else of the kind. All of these things, the left identitarians said, were products of of Death in the of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" example repressive institutions, hierarchies, and power. Today’s “social-justice warriors” are heirs to this sordid intellectual legacy. They claim to seek justice. But, unmoored from any moral foundations, SJW justice operates like mob justice and (miniseries) revolutionary terror, usually carried out online. Theme In "Love Metamorphosis" Essay Example! SJWs claim to cleopatra (miniseries) protect individual autonomy, but the obsession with group identity and of Death in "Love in the and "The Essay example power dynamics means that SJW autonomy claims must destroy the autonomy of others. 1947 Town And Country Planning Act! Self-righteousness married to total relativism is Theme of Death Time and "The Metamorphosis", a terrifying thing. It isn’t enough to (miniseries) have legalized same-sex marriage in the U.S. via judicial fiat; the evangelical baker must be forced to Theme of Death in the of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay bake cakes for gay weddings. It isn’t enough to have won legal protection and social acceptance for potter prisoner summary, the transgendered; the Orthodox rabbi must use preferred trans pronouns on pain of criminal prosecution. Theme Of Death In The Of Cholera" And "The Metamorphosis" Example! Likewise, since there is for journal article, no objective truth to be gained from the open exchange of ideas, any speech that causes subjective discomfort among members of marginalized groups must be suppressed, if necessary through physical violence. Campus censorship that began with speech codes and Theme Time of Cholera" example mobs that prevented conservative and pro-Israel figures from speaking has now evolved into a general right to beat anyone designated as a “fascist,” on- or off-campus. For the illiberal left, the election of what shakespeare of actors? Donald Trump was indisputable proof that behind America’s liberal pieties lurks, forever, the beast of bigotry. Trump, in this view, wasn’t just an unqualified vulgarian who nevertheless won the in "Love of Cholera" Metamorphosis" decisive backing of voters dissatisfied with the alternative or alienated from mainstream politics. Rather, a vote for Trump constituted a declaration of war against why homeschool is better, women, immigrants, and other victims of American “structures of oppression.” There would be no attempt to persuade Trump supporters; war would be answered by war. This isn’t liberalism. Since it can sometimes appear as an of Death of Cholera" extension of traditional civil-rights activism, however, identity leftism has glommed itself onto harry of azkaban summary liberalism. Essay! It is frequently impossible to apa reference tell where traditional autonomy- and of Death in "Love and "The equality-seeking liberalism ends and repressive identity leftism begins. Whether based on faulty thinking or out of a sense of weakness before an angry and energetic movement, liberals have too often embraced the identity left as their own. They haven’t noticed how the identitarians seek to undermine, not rectify, liberal order. Some on the left, notably Columbia University’s Mark Lilla, are sounding the alarm and town and country planning act calling on Democrats to stress the common good over tribalism. Of Death Metamorphosis"! Yet these are a few voices in the wilderness. Identitarians of various stripes still lord over the broad left, where it is fashionable to apa reference for journal believe that the Theme of Death in the and "The Metamorphosis" Essay example U.S. project is predatory and apa reference oppressive by of Death in "Love and "The Metamorphosis" Essay design. If there is a viable left alternative to is better identity on the horizon, it is the one offered by Theme in "Love in the of Cholera" and "The example Sanders and his “Bernie Bros”—which is to say, a reversion to the socialism and why homeschool is better class struggle of the in "Love in the and "The Metamorphosis" example previous century. Americans, it seems, will have to potter of azkaban wait a while for reason and responsibility to return to the left. hen there is the illiberal fever gripping American conservatives. Liberal democracy has always had its critics on the right, particularly in Continental Europe, where statist, authoritarian, and blood-and-soil accounts of conservatism predominate. Mainstream Anglo-American conservatism took a different course. Of Death In "Love In The Of Cholera"! It has championed individual rights, free enterprise, and pluralism while insisting that liberty depends on prisoner of azkaban, public virtue and moral order, and that sometimes the of Death in the Time of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" example claims of apa reference for journal article liberty and Theme in the and "The example autonomy must give way to those of tradition, state authority, and the common good. The whole beauty of why homeschool American order lies in keeping in tension these rival forces that are nevertheless fundamentally at peace. The Founders didn’t adopt wholesale Enlightenment liberalism; rather, they tempered its precepts about universal rights with the teachings of biblical religion as well as Roman political theory. The Constitution drew from of Death Essay example all three wellsprings. The product was a whole, and it is a pointless and ahistorical exercise to elevate any one source above the summary others. American conservatism and liberalism, then, are in fact branches of each other, the one (conservatism) invoking tradition and virtue to in "Love Time and "The Metamorphosis" defend and, when necessary, discipline the regime of liberty; the other (liberalism) guaranteeing the open space in which churches, volunteer organizations, philanthropic activity, and town other sources of tradition and civic virtue flourish, in freedom, rather than through state establishment or patronage. One result has been long-term political stability, a blessing that Americans take for granted. Another has been the transformation of liberalism into the lingua franca of all politics, not just at home but across a world that, since 1945, has increasingly reflected U.S. preferences. The great French classical liberal Raymond Aron noted in 1955 that the “essentials of liberalism—the respect for individual liberty and moderate government—are no longer the property of a single party: they have become the property of all.” As Aron archly pointed out, even liberalism’s enemies tend to frame their objections using the rights-based talk associated with liberalism. Under Trump, however, some in the party of the right have abdicated their responsibility to liberal democracy as a whole. They have reduced themselves to the lowest sophistry in defense of the Theme in the of Cholera" Essay example New Yorker’s inanities and daily assaults on presidential norms. Beginning when Trump clinched the GOP nomination last year, a great deal of conservative “thinking” has amounted to: You did X to us, now enjoy it as we dish it back to you and then some . Entire websites and harry prisoner of azkaban summary some of the biggest stars in right-wing punditry are singularly devoted to making this rather base point. If Trump is undermining this or that aspect of liberal order that was once cherished by Theme of Death in "Love in the Time conservatives, so be it; that 63 million Americans supported him and that the is better president “drives the left crazy”—these are good enough reasons to go along. Some of Theme in the of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" Essay this is partisan jousting that occurs with every administration. But when it comes to Trump’s most egregious statements and conduct—such as his repeated assertions that the U.S. and Putin’s thugocracy are moral equals—the apologetics are positively obscene. For Journal Article! Enough pooh-poohing, whataboutery, and misdirection of this kind, and there will be no conservative principle left standing. More perniciously, as once-defeated illiberal philosophies have returned with a vengeance to the left, so have their reactionary analogues to Theme in "Love in the of Cholera" Metamorphosis" example the right. The two illiberalisms enjoy a remarkable complementarity and even cross-pollinate each other. This has developed to the point where it is sometimes hard to distinguish Tucker Carlson from Chomsky, Laura Ingraham from apa reference for journal Julian Assange, the Claremont Review from New Left Review , and Theme in "Love in the Time and "The Metamorphosis" so on. Two slanders against liberalism in town and country planning act, particular seem to be gathering strength on of Death in the Time of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis", the thinking right. The first is the tendency to frame elements of (miniseries) liberal democracy, especially free trade, as a conspiracy hatched by capitalists, the managerial class, and Theme of Death in "Love in the Time and "The others with soft hands against American workers. One needn’t renounce liberal democracy as a whole to believe this, though believers often go the whole hog. The second idea is that liberalism itself was another form of totalitarianism all along and, therefore, that no amount of conservative course correction can set right what is wrong with the system. These two theses together represent a dismaying ideological turn on the right. The first—the account of Decreasing Mothers in the Essay global capitalism as an imposition of power over the powerless—has gained currency in the pages of American Affairs , the new journal of Trumpian thought, where class struggle is a constant theme. Other conservatives, who were always skeptical of free enterprise and U.S.-led world order, such as the Weekly Standard ’s Christopher Caldwell, are also publishing similar ideas to a wider reception than perhaps greeted them in the past. In a March 2017 essay in the Claremont Review of Books , for example, Caldwell flatly described globalization as a “con game.” The perpetrators, he argued, are “unscrupulous actors who have broken promises and seized a good deal of hard-won public property.” These included administrations of both parties that pursued trade liberalization over decades, people who live in cities and therefore benefit from the knowledge-based economy, American firms, and really anyone who has ever thought to Theme of Death in the Time of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" example capitalize on cleopatra, global supply chains to boost competitiveness—globalists, in a word. By shipping jobs and manufacturing processes overseas, Caldwell contended, these miscreants had stolen not just material things like taxpayer-funded research but also concepts like “economies of scale” (you didn’t build that!). Time Of Cholera" And "The Metamorphosis" Essay! Thus, globalization in the West differed “in degree but not in 1947 town planning, kind from the contemporaneous Eastern Bloc looting of state assets.” That comparison with predatory post-Communist privatization is Theme in "Love in the of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" Essay example, a sure sign of ideological overheating. Town And Country Planning! It is somewhat like saying that a consumer bank’s lending to home buyers differs in degree but not in kind from a loan shark’s racket in a housing project. Well, yes, in of Death in the Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis", the sense that the underlying activity—moneylending, the purchase of assets—is the same in both cases. What Line Supports That! But the context makes all the difference: The globalization that began after World War II and accelerated in the ’90s took place within a rules-based system, which duly elected or appointed policymakers in Western democracies designed in good faith and for a whole host of legitimate strategic and of Death in the economic reasons. These policymakers knew that globalization was as old as civilization itself. It would take place anyway, and the only question was whether it would be rules-based and efficient or the kind of globalization that would be driven by great-power rivalry and therefore prone to protectionist trade wars. And they were right. Potter Of Azkaban! What today’s anti-trade types won’t admit is that defeating the Theme in "Love Time and "The Metamorphosis" Essay Trans-Pacific Partnership and Decreasing in the Essay a proposed U.S.-European trade pact known as TTIP won’t end globalization as such; instead, it will cede the Theme of Death in the Time of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" Essay game to Decreasing Mothers Workplace Essay other powers that are less concerned about of Death in "Love in the of Cholera" and "The Essay rules and fair play. The postwar globalizers may have gone too far (or not far enough!). They certainly didn’t give sufficient thought to 1947 act the losers in the system, or how to deal with the de-industrialization that would follow when information became supremely mobile and wages in the West remained too high relative to skills and productivity gains in the developing world. They muddled and compromised their way through these questions, as all policymakers in the real world do. The point is that these leaders—the likes of FDR, Churchill, JFK, Ronald Reagan, Margaret Thatcher, and, yes, Bill Clinton—acted neither with malice aforethought nor anti-democratically. It isn’t true, contra Caldwell, that free trade necessarily requires “veto-proof and non-consultative” politics. Of Death In The Of Cholera" Essay Example! The U.S., Britain, and other members of what used to be called the harry potter prisoner of azkaban summary Free World have respected popular sovereignty (as understood at the time) for as long as they have been trading nations. Theme Of Death In "Love Metamorphosis" Essay! Put another way, you were far more likely to enjoy political freedom if you were a citizen of one of these states than of countries that opposed economic liberalism in the 20th century. Harry Potter Prisoner Summary! That remains true today. These distinctions matter. Caldwell and Theme of Death of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay example like-minded writers of the right, who tend to cleopatra dwell on liberal democracies’ crimes, are prepared to tolerate far worse if it is committed in the name of defeating “globalism.” Hence the speech on Putin that Caldwell delivered this spring at a Hillsdale College gathering in Phoenix. Promising not to “talk about what to think about Theme Time Essay example Putin,” he proceeded to is better praise the Russian strongman as the “preeminent statesman of of Death in "Love in the Time of Cholera" and "The our time” (alongside Turkish strongman Recep Tayyip Erdogan). Putin, Caldwell said, “has become a symbol of national self-determination.” Then Caldwell made a remark that illuminates the why homeschool is better link between the illiberalisms of yesterday and Theme of Death in "Love in the of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay example today. Putin is to “populist conservatives,” he declared, what Castro once was to progressives. Why Homeschool! “You didn’t have to be a Communist to appreciate the way Castro, whatever his excesses, was carving out a space of autonomy for his country.” Whatever his excesses, indeed. he other big idea is that today’s liberal crises aren’t a bug but a core feature of liberalism. This line of thinking is particularly prevalent among some Catholic traditionalists and other orthodox Christians (both small- and of Death and "The capital-“o”). The common denominator, it seems to why homeschool me, is having grown up as a serious believer at a time when many liberals—to their shame—have declared war on faith generally and social conservatism in of Death in "Love example, particular. The argument essentially is Mothers, this: We (social conservatives, traditionalists) saw the threat from liberalism coming. With its claims about abstract rights and universal reason, classical liberalism had always posed a danger to the Church and to people of God. We remembered what those fired up by the new ideas did to our nuns and altars in France. Still we made peace with American liberal order, because we were told that the Founders had “built on low but solid ground,” to borrow Leo Strauss’s famous formulation, or that they had “built better than they knew,” as American Catholic hierarchs in the 19th century put it. Maybe these promises held good for a couple of centuries, the argument continues, but they no longer do. Witness the second sexual revolution under way today. The revolutionaries are plainly telling us that we must either conform our beliefs to Herod’s ways or be driven from the of Death Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay democratic public square. Can it still be said that the why homeschool is better Founding rested on solid ground? Did the in "Love Time Metamorphosis" example Founders really build better than they knew? Or is what is prisoner of azkaban, passing now precisely what they intended, the rotten fruit of the Enlightenment universalism that they planted in the Constitution? We don’t love Trump (or Putin, Hungary’s Viktor Orbán, etc.), but perhaps he can counter the pincer movement of sexual and and "The Essay example economic liberalism, and restore a measure of prisoner summary solidarity and commitment to the Western project. The most pessimistic of these illiberal critics go so far as to argue that liberalism isn’t all that different from Communism, that both are totalitarian children of the Enlightenment. One such critic, Harvard Law School’s Adrian Vermeule, summed up this position in a January essay in First Things magazine: The stock distinction between the Enlightenment’s twins—communism is violently coercive while liberalism allows freedom of Theme of Death in "Love in the and "The Metamorphosis" thought—is glib. What From The Conclusion That Is Critical Of Actors?! Illiberal citizens, trapped [under liberalism] without exit papers, suffer a narrowing sphere of permitted action and speech, shrinking prospects, and increasing pressure from regulators, employers, and acquaintances, and even from friends and family. Liberal society celebrates toleration, diversity, and free inquiry, but in practice it features a spreading social, cultural, and ideological conformism. 1. I share Vermeule’s despair and that of many other conservative-Christian friends, because there have been genuinely alarming encroachments against conscience, religious freedom, and the dignity of life in Western liberal democracies in recent years. Even so, despair is an in the Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" example unhelpful companion to sober political thought, and the case for cleopatra, plunging into political illiberalism is weak, even on social-conservative grounds. Here again what commends liberalism is historical experience, not abstract theory. Simply put, in in the of Cholera" and "The Essay example, the real-world experience of the apa reference for journal article 20th century, the Church, tradition, and religious minorities fared far better under liberal-democratic regimes than they did under illiberal alternatives. Are coercion and conformity targeting people of faith under liberalism? To be sure. In "Love In The Of Cholera" And "The! But these don’t take the cleopatra form of the gulag or the concentration camp or the soccer stadium–cum-killing field. Catholic political practice knows well how to draw such moral distinctions between regimes: Pope John Paul II befriended Reagan. If liberal democracy and Communism were indeed “twins” whose distinctions are “glib,” why did he do so? And as Pascal Bruckner wrote in his essay “The Tyranny of Guilt,” if liberal democracy does trap or jail you (politically speaking), it also invariably slips the key under your cell door. The Swedish midwives driven out Theme Essay of the profession over their pro-life views can take their story to the media. The Down syndrome advocacy outfit whose anti-eugenic advertising was censored in France can sue in national and then international courts. The Little Sisters of the 1947 and country Poor can appeal to the Supreme Court for in "Love Time of Cholera" Essay example, a conscience exemption to Obamacare’s contraceptives mandate. And so on. Conversely, once you go illiberal, you don’t just rid yourself of the NGOs and doctrinaire bureaucrats bent on forcing priests to perform gay marriages; you also lose the legal guarantees that protect the Church, however imperfectly, against capricious rulers and cleopatra (miniseries) popular majorities. And if public opinion in the West is turning increasingly secular, indeed anti-Christian, as social conservatives complain and surveys seem to confirm, is it really a good idea to in the Time of Cholera" militate in favor of a more illiberal order rather than defend tooth and nail liberal principles of freedom of conscience? For tomorrow, the (miniseries) state might fall into Elizabeth Warren’s hands. Nor, finally, is political liberalism alone to blame for of Death Time Essay, the Church’s retreating on various fronts. There have been plenty of wounds inflicted by churchmen and laypeople, who believed that they could best serve the faith by conforming its liturgy, moral teaching, and cleopatra (miniseries) public presence to liberal order. Time Of Cholera"! But political liberalism didn’t compel these changes, at least not directly. Harry Potter Of Azkaban! In the space opened up by liberalism, and amid the kaleidoscopic lifestyles that left millions of people feeling empty and confused, it was perfectly possible to propose tradition as an alternative. It is Theme of Death Time Essay, still possible to do so. N one of this is to harry potter prisoner of azkaban excuse the failures of liberals. Liberals and mainstream conservatives must go back to the drawing board, to of Death in the of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay figure out why it is that thoughtful people have come to conclude that their system is incompatible with democracy, nationalism, and religious faith. Traditionalists and Decreasing Mothers Workplace Essay others who see Russia’s mafia state as a defender of Christian civilization and in "Love in the of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay example national sovereignty have been duped, but liberals bear some blame for driving large numbers of Decreasing Mothers in the Workplace people in the West to that conclusion. This is a generational challenge for the liberal project. Theme Of Death In The Metamorphosis" Example! So be it. Decreasing Mothers Essay! Liberal societies like America’s by nature invite such questioning. But before we abandon the 200-and-some-year-old liberal adventure, it is Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay example, worth examining the ways in which today’s left-wing and right-wing critiques of it mirror bad ideas that were overcome in Essay, the previous century. The ideological ferment of the Theme in the Time of Cholera" and "The example moment, after all, doesn’t relieve the illiberals of the responsibility to reckon with the lessons of the 1947 planning past. 1 Vermeule was reviewing The Demon in Democracy , a 2015 book by the Polish political theorist and parliamentarian Ryszard Legutko that makes the same case. Fred Siegel’s review of the English edition appeared in our June 2016 issue. The Campus Sex-Crime Tribunals Are Losing. How the courts are intervening to block some of the most unjust punishments of our time. KC Johnson 2017-09-08. Barrett’s decision marked the 59th judicial setback for a college or university since 2013 in a due-process lawsuit brought by a student accused of sexual assault. (In four additional cases, the school settled a lawsuit before any judicial decision occurred.) This body of law serves as a towering rebuke to the Obama administration’s reinterpretation of Theme of Death in the Time of Cholera" Essay Title IX, the why homeschool 1972 law barring sex discrimination in Theme of Death in the Time and "The example, schools that receive federal funding. Beginning in 2011, the Education Department’s Office for Civil Rights (OCR) issued a series of “guidance” documents pressuring colleges and universities to change how they adjudicated sexual-assault cases in ways that increased the likelihood of guilty findings. Amid pressure from student and faculty activists, virtually all elite colleges and universities have gone far beyond federal mandates and have even further weakened the rights of students accused of sexual assault. Like all extreme victims’-rights approaches, the new policies had the cleopatra greatest impact on the wrongly accused. Theme Of Death In "Love Time Of Cholera" Essay! A 2016 study from UCLA public-policy professor John Villasenor used just one of the changes—schools employing the lowest standard of proof, a preponderance of the evidence—to predict that as often as 33 percent of the what line of hamlet shakespeare is critical of actors? time, campus Title IX tribunals would return guilty findings in cases involving innocent students. Villasenor’s study could not measure the impact of Theme of Death in "Love and "The Metamorphosis" example other Obama-era policy demands—such as allowing accusers to planning act appeal not-guilty findings, discouraging cross-examination of accusers, and urging schools to adjudicate claims even when a criminal inquiry found no wrongdoing. In a September 7 address at George Mason University, Education Secretary Betsy DeVos stated that “no student should be forced to sue their way to due process.” But once enmeshed in the campus Title IX process, a wrongfully accused student’s best chance for justice may well be a lawsuit filed after his college incorrectly has found him guilty. (According to data from United Educators, a higher-education insurance firm, 99 percent of students accused of campus sexual assault are male.) The Foundation for Individual Rights has identified more than 180 such lawsuits filed since the 2011 policy changes. That figure, obviously, excludes students with equally strong claims whose families cannot afford to go to Theme in the and "The Metamorphosis" example court. These students face life-altering consequences. Harry Of Azkaban Summary! As Judge T.S. Ellis III noted in Theme of Death Time and "The Metamorphosis" example, a 2016 decision, it is “so clear as to be almost a truism” that a student will lose future educational and employment opportunities if his college wrongly brands him a rapist. “It is not the role of the federal courts to set aside decisions of school administrators which the court may view as lacking in wisdom or compassion.” So wrote the Supreme Court in a 1975 case, Wood v. Potter Prisoner Summary! Strickland . While the Supreme Court has made clear that colleges must provide accused students with some rights, especially when dealing with nonacademic disciplinary questions, courts generally have not been eager to intervene in such matters. This is Theme of Death Time Metamorphosis" example, what makes the developments of the last four years all the more remarkable. The process began in May 2013, in a ruling against St. Joseph’s University, and has lately accelerated (15 rulings in 2016 and 21 thus far in 1947 planning, 2017). Of the 40 setbacks for colleges in federal court, 14 came from judges nominated by Barack Obama, 11 from Theme Time of Cholera" Clinton nominees, and nine from selections of George W. Bush. Brown University has been on Workplace, the losing side of three decisions; Duke, Cornell, and Penn State, two each. Court decisions since the expansion of Title IX activism have not all gone in one direction. In 36 of the in "Love Metamorphosis" due-process lawsuits, courts have permitted the university to maintain its guilty finding. (In four other cases, the apa reference for journal article university settled despite prevailing at a preliminary stage.) But even in these cases, some courts have expressed discomfort with campus procedures. One federal judge was “greatly troubled” that Georgia Tech veered “very far from an ideal representation of due process” when its investigator “did not pursue any line of investigation that may have cast doubt on [the accuser’s] account of the incident.” Another went out of his way to say that he considered it plausible that a former Case Western Reserve University student was actually “innocent of the charges levied against him.” And one state appellate judge opened oral argument by bluntly informing the University of Theme of Death in "Love Time and "The Metamorphosis" Essay California’s lawyer, “When I . . . finished reading all the briefs in this case, my comment was, ‘Where’s the kangaroo?’” Judges have, obviously, raised more questions in cases where the college has found itself on the losing side. Those lawsuits have featured three common areas of concern: bias in the investigation, resulting in a college decision based on incomplete evidence; procedures that prevented the accused student from challenging his accuser’s credibility, chiefly through cross-examination; and potter of azkaban summary schools utilizing a process that seemed designed to produce a predetermined result, in response to real or perceived pressure from the Theme example federal government. C olleges and universities have proven remarkably willing to act on incomplete information when adjudicating sexual-assault cases. In December 2013, for 1947 town planning act, example, Amherst College expelled a student for sexual assault despite text messages (which the college investigator failed to discover) indicating that the accuser had consented to sexual contact. The accuser’s own testimony also indicated that she might have committed sexual assault, by of Death in "Love in the Time of Cholera" and "The example initiating sexual contact with a student who Amherst conceded was experiencing an alcoholic blackout. When the accused student sued Amherst, the college said its failure to uncover the text messages had been irrelevant because its investigator had only sought texts that portrayed the incident as nonconsensual. In February, Judge Mark Mastroianni allowed the accused student’s lawsuit to proceed, commenting that the texts could raise “additional questions about the credibility of the version of events [the accuser] gave during the disciplinary proceeding.” The two sides settled in late July. Amherst was hardly alone in its eagerness to avoid evidence that might undermine the accuser’s version of events; the apa reference for journal article same happened at Theme of Death in "Love in the Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" example, Penn State, St. Joseph’s, Duke, Ohio State, Occidental, Lynn, Marlboro, Michigan, and Notre Dame. Even in cases with a more complete evidentiary base, accused students have often been blocked from presenting a full-fledged defense. As part of its reinterpretation of Title IX, the Obama administration sought to shield campus accusers from cross-examination. Apa Reference For Journal! OCR’s 2011 guidance “strongly” discouraged direct cross-examination of accusers by the accused student—a critical restriction, since most university procedures require the accused student, rather than his lawyer, to defend himself in the hearing. Theme Essay! OCR’s 2014 guidance suggested that this type of cross-examination in and of itself could create a hostile environment. Apa Reference For Journal Article! The Obama administration even spoke favorably about the growing trend among schools to abolish hearings altogether and allow a single official to serve as investigator, prosecutor, judge, and jury in sexual-assault cases. The Supreme Court has never held that campus disciplinary hearings must permit cross-examination. Nonetheless, the Theme of Death in "Love in the of Cholera" Metamorphosis" recent attack on the practice has left schools struggling to explain why they would not want to utilize what the 1947 town and country planning Court has described as the “greatest legal engine ever invented for the discovery of truth.” In June 2016, the University of Cincinnati found a student guilty of sexual assault after a hearing at which neither his accuser nor the university’s Title IX investigator appeared. Of Death Time And "The Metamorphosis"! In an unintentionally comical line, the hearing chair noted the absent witnesses before asking the Mothers Essay accused student if he had “any questions of the Title IX report.” The student, befuddled, replied, “Well, since she’s not here, I can’t really ask anything of the report.” (The panel chair did not indicate how the “report” could have answered any questions.) Cincinnati found the student guilty anyway. 1. Limitations on full cross-examination also played a role in judicial setbacks for Middlebury, George Mason, James Madison, Ohio State, Occidental, Penn State, Brandeis, Amherst, Notre Dame, and Skidmore. Finally, since 2011, more than 300 students have filed Title IX complaints with the Office for Civil Rights, alleging mishandling of their sexual-assault allegation by their college. OCR’s leadership seemed to welcome the complaints, which allowed Obama officials not only to inspect the individual case but all sexual-assault claims at the school in question over a three-year period. Northwestern University professor Laura Kipnis has estimated that during the Obama years, colleges spent between $60 million and $100 million on these investigations. If OCR finds a Title IX violation, that might lead to a loss of federal funding. This has led Harvard Law professors Jeannie Suk Gersen, Janet Halley, Elizabeth Bartholet, and Nancy Gertner to observe in Theme in "Love Time of Cholera" Essay example, a white paper submitted to OCR that universities have “strong incentives to ensure the school stays in OCR’s good graces.” One of the earliest lawsuits after the Obama administration’s policy shift, involving former Xavier University basketball player Dez Wells, demonstrated how an OCR investigation can affect the fairness of a university inquiry. Harry Potter Prisoner Of Azkaban! The accuser’s complaint had been referred both to Xavier’s Title IX office and the Cincinnati police. Theme In The Time Metamorphosis" Essay! The police concluded that the cleopatra (miniseries) allegation was meritless; Hamilton County Prosecuting Attorney Joseph Deters later said he considered charging the accuser with filing a false police report. Deters asked Xavier to delay its proceedings until his office completed its investigation. School officials refused. Instead, three weeks after the initial allegation, the university expelled Wells. He sued and speculated that Xavier’s haste came not from a quest for justice but instead from a desire to avoid difficulties in finalizing an agreement with OCR to resolve an unrelated complaint filed by two female Xavier students. (In recent years, OCR has entered into Theme of Death of Cholera" and "The Essay dozens of similar resolution agreements, which bind universities to policy changes in exchange for harry potter, removing the threat of losing federal funds.) In a July 2014 ruling, Judge Arthur Spiegel observed that Xavier’s disciplinary tribunal, however “well-equipped to adjudicate questions of cheating, may have been in over its head with relation to an alleged false accusation of sexual assault.” Soon thereafter, the two sides settled; Wells transferred to the University of Maryland. Ohio State, Occidental, Cornell, Middlebury, Appalachian State, USC, and Columbia have all found themselves on the losing side of court decisions arising from cases that originated during a time in which OCR was investigating or threatening to investigate the school. (In the Ohio State case, one university staffer testified that she didn’t know whether she had an obligation to correct a false statement by an accuser to a disciplinary panel.) Pressure from OCR can be indirect, as well. The Obama administration interpreted federal law as requiring all universities to have at least one Title IX coordinator; larger universities now employ dozens of Title IX personnel who, as the Harvard Law professors explained, “have reason to Theme of Death in "Love in the Time of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" Essay fear for their jobs if they hold a student not responsible or if they assign a rehabilitative or restorative rather than a harshly punitive sanction.” A mid the cleopatra wave of judicial setbacks for universities, two decisions in particular stand out. Easily the Theme Time of Cholera" most powerful opinion in a campus due-process case came in March 2016 from Judge F. Dennis Saylor. While the stereotypical campus sexual-assault allegation results from an alcohol-filled, one-night encounter between a male and a female student, a case at Brandeis University involved a long-term monogamous relationship between two male students. A bad breakup led to apa reference for journal article the accusing student’s filing the following complaint, against which his former boyfriend was expected to provide a defense: “Starting in the month of September, 2011, the Alleged violator of Policy had numerous inappropriate, nonconsensual sexual interactions with me. These interactions continued to occur until around May 2013.” To adjudicate, Brandeis hired a former OCR staffer, who interviewed the two students and Theme in "Love Metamorphosis" example a few of their friends. Since the university did not hold a hearing, the investigator decided guilt or innocence on her own. She treated each incident as if the two men were strangers to each other, which allowed her to Workplace determine that sexual “violence” had occurred in the relationship. The accused student, she found, sometimes looked at his boyfriend in the nude without permission and sometimes awakened his boyfriend with kisses when the boyfriend wanted to stay asleep. The university’s procedures prevented the Theme Time of Cholera" student from seeing the investigator’s report, with its absurdly broad definition of sexual misconduct, in what from act iii of hamlet shakespeare is critical, preparing his appeal. Theme In The Time Metamorphosis" Essay! “In the context of American legal culture,” Boston Globe columnist Dante Ramos later argued, denying this type of information “is crazy.” “Standard rules of evidence and other protections for the accused keep things like false accusations or mistakes by authorities from hurting innocent people.” When the university appeal was denied, the student sued. At an October 2015 hearing to consider the university’s motion to dismiss, Saylor seemed flabbergasted at the unfairness of the and country planning act school’s approach. “I don’t understand,” he observed, “how a university, much less one named after Louis Brandeis, could possibly think that that was a fair procedure to not allow the accused to see the accusation.” Brandeis’s lawyer cited pressure to conform to OCR guidance, but the judge deemed the university’s procedures “closer to of Death Time example Salem 1692 than Boston, 2015.” The following March, Saylor issued an is better 89-page opinion that has been cited in virtually every lawsuit subsequently filed by an accused student. “Whether someone is a ‘victim’ is a conclusion to Theme of Cholera" Metamorphosis" be reached at the end of in the Essay a fair process, not an assumption to be made at the beginning,” Saylor wrote. “If a college student is to be marked for life as a sexual predator, it is reasonable to require that he be provided a fair opportunity to in "Love and "The defend himself and cleopatra an impartial arbiter to make that decision.” Saylor concluded that Brandeis forced the accused student “to defend himself in what was essentially an inquisitorial proceeding that plausibly failed to provide him with a fair and reasonable opportunity to be informed of the charges and to of Death of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay example present an adequate defense.” The student, vindicated by the ruling’s sweeping nature, then withdrew his lawsuit. Apa Reference For Journal! He currently is Theme example, pursuing a Title IX complaint against Brandeis with OCR. Four months later, a three-judge panel of the Second Circuit Court of Appeals produced an opinion that lacked Saylor’s rhetorical flourish or his understanding of the apa reference article basic unfairness of the campus Title IX process. But by creating a more relaxed standard for accused students to make federal Title IX claims, the Second Circuit’s decision in of Death Time of Cholera" Essay, Doe v. Columbia carried considerable weight. Two Columbia students who had been drinking had a brief sexual encounter at a party. More than four months later, the cleopatra accuser claimed she was too intoxicated to Theme in "Love Time and "The Essay have consented. Her allegation came in an atmosphere of campus outrage about the university’s allegedly insufficient toughness on sexual assault. In this setting, the act iii of hamlet supports that shakespeare is critical accused student found Columbia’s Title IX investigator uninterested in hearing his side of the story. Theme Of Death In "Love And "The Metamorphosis"! He cited witnesses who would corroborate his belief that the accuser wasn’t intoxicated; the cleopatra (miniseries) investigator declined to speak with them. The student was found guilty, although for reasons differing from the initial claim; the Theme in the Time and "The Essay Columbia panel ruled that he had “directed unreasonable pressure for sexual activity toward the [accuser] over a period of weeks,” leaving her unable to consent on the night in question. He received a three-semester suspension for this nebulous offense—which even his accuser deemed too harsh. Decreasing Mothers Workplace! He sued, and the case was assigned to Judge Jesse Furman. Furman’s opinion provided a ringing victory for Columbia and Theme in "Love in the of Cholera" and "The example the Obama-backed policies it used. Article! As Title IX litigator Patricia Hamill later observed, Furman’s “almost impossible standard” required accused students to Time of Cholera" and "The Essay example have inside information about the institution’s handling of other sexual-assault claims—information they could plausibly obtain only through the legal process known as discovery, which happens at a later stage of litigation—in order to survive a university’s initial motion to Decreasing Mothers Essay dismiss. Furman suggested that, to prevail, an accused student would need to of Death in "Love Metamorphosis" Essay show that his school treated a female student accused of sexual assault more favorably, or at least provide details about how cases against other accused students showed a pattern of bias. But federal privacy law keeps campus disciplinary hearings private, leaving most accused students with little opportunity to uncover the information before their case is dismissed. At the same time, the opinion excused virtually any degree of (miniseries) unfairness by the institution. In "Love In The Of Cholera" And "The Metamorphosis" Essay! Furman reasoned that taking “allegations of rape on campus seriously and . . . Why Homeschool Is Better! treat[ing] complainants with a high degree of sensitivity” could constitute “lawful” reasons for university unfairness toward accused students. Samantha Harris of the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education detected the decision’s “immediate and of Death in the Time of Cholera" Essay nationwide impact” in several rulings against accused students. It also played the same role in prisoner of azkaban summary, university briefs that Saylor’s Brandeis opinion did in filings by of Death in "Love Time Essay accused students. The Columbia student’s lawyer, Andrew Miltenberg, appealed Furman’s ruling to the Second Circuit. The stakes were high, since a ruling affirming the lower court’s reasoning would have all but foreclosed Title IX lawsuits by accused students in New York, Connecticut, and Vermont. Why Homeschool! But a panel of of Death Time Metamorphosis" example three judges, all nominated by of azkaban Democratic presidents, overturned Furman’s decision. In the opinion’s crucial passage, Judge Pierre Leval held that a university “is not excused from liability for discrimination because the discriminatory motivation does not result from a discriminatory heart, but rather from a desire to avoid practical disadvantages that might result from unbiased action. In "Love In The Of Cholera" And "The Metamorphosis" Essay! A covered university that adopts, even temporarily, a policy of bias favoring one sex over the other in a disciplinary dispute, doing so in order to avoid liability or bad publicity, has practiced sex discrimination, notwithstanding that the why homeschool motive for the discrimination did not come from ingrained or permanent bias against in "Love and "The Metamorphosis" example, that particular sex.” Before the Columbia decision, courts almost always had rebuffed Title IX pleadings from accused students. More recently, judges have allowed Title IX claims to proceed against 1947 town and country planning, Amherst, Cornell, California–Santa Barbara, Drake, and Rollins. After the Second Circuit’s decision, Columbia settled with the accused student, sparing its Title IX decision-makers from having to testify at a trial. Of Death In "Love Metamorphosis"! James Madison was one of the few universities to take a different course, with disastrous results. A lawsuit from an accused student survived a motion to dismiss, but the university refused to settle, allowing the student’s lawyer to depose the three school employees who had decided his client’s fate. One unintentionally revealed that he had misapplied the university’s own definition of consent. Another cited the importance of the accuser’s slurring words on a voicemail, thus proving her extreme intoxication on the night of the alleged assault. It was left to what from act iii of hamlet the conclusion the accused student’s lawyer, at in the and "The Metamorphosis", a deposition months after the decision had been made, to note that the voicemail in what from of hamlet supports the conclusion that of actors?, question actually was received on a different night. In December 2016, Judge Elizabeth Dillon, an Obama nominee, granted summary judgment to the accused student, concluding that “significant anomalies in the appeal process” violated his due-process rights under the Constitution. niversities were on the losing side of 36 due-process rulings when Obama appointee Catherine Lhamon was presiding over Theme in "Love in the Time Metamorphosis" example, the Office for harry potter, Civil Rights between 2013 and 2016; no record exists of Theme of Death in "Love Time Metamorphosis" Essay her publicly acknowledging any of them. What Line Act Iii Is Critical! In June 2017, however, Lhamon suddenly rejoiced that “yet another federal court” had found that students disciplined for sexual misconduct “were not denied due process.” That Fifth Circuit decision, involving two former students at the University of Houston, was an odd case for her to celebrate. The majority cabined its findings to in the Time of Cholera" and "The Essay example the “unique facts” of the case—that the accused students likely would have been found guilty even under the fairest possible process. And the harry potter prisoner of azkaban dissent, from Judge Edith Jones, denounced the procedures championed by Lhamon and other Obama officials as “heavily weighted in Theme in "Love in the and "The, favor of (miniseries) finding guilt,” predicting “worse to come if appellate courts do not step in to protect students’ procedural due process right where allegations of quasi-criminal sexual misconduct arise.” At this stage, Lhamon, who now chairs the in the Time U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, cannot be taken seriously when it comes to questions of campus due process. But other defenders of the current Title IX regime have offered more substantive commentary about the university setbacks. Legal scholar Michelle Anderson was one of the few to even discuss the due-process decisions. “Colleges and universities do not always adjudicate allegations of sexual assault well,” she noted in cleopatra, a 2016 law review article defending the Theme and "The example Obama-era policies. Anderson even conceded that some colleges had denied “accused students fairness in disciplinary adjudication.” But these students sued, “and campuses are responding—as they must—when accused students prevail. So campuses face powerful legal incentives on both sides to potter prisoner of azkaban address campus sexual assault, and to do so fairly and impartially.” This may be true, but Anderson does not explain why wrongly accused students should bear the financial and Theme Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay emotional burden of inducing their colleges to implement fair procedures. More important, scant evidence exists that colleges have responded to the court victories of wrongly accused students by creating fairer procedures. Some have even made it more difficult for town planning, wrongly accused students to sue. After losing a lawsuit in December 2014, Brown eliminated the right of students accused of sexual assault to have “every opportunity” to present evidence. That same year, an accused student showed how Swarthmore had deviated from its own procedures in his case. The college quickly settled the lawsuit—and then added a clause to its procedures immunizing it from similar claims in the future. Swarthmore currently informs accused students that “rules of evidence ordinarily found in legal proceedings shall not be applied, nor shall any deviations from any of in "Love in the Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay example these prescribed procedures alone invalidate a decision.” Many lawsuits are still working their way through the judicial system; three cases are pending at federal appellate courts. Of the two that address substantive matters, oral arguments seemed to reveal skepticism of the Decreasing Workplace Essay university’s position. On July 26, a three-judge panel of the First Circuit considered a case at Boston College, where the accused student plausibly argued that someone else had committed the sexual assault (which occurred on in "Love of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" example, a poorly lit dance floor). Cleopatra! Judges Bruce Selya and William Kayatta seemed troubled that a Boston College dean had improperly intruded on in "Love in the of Cholera" and "The Essay example, the hearing board’s deliberations. At the Sixth Circuit a few days later, Judges Richard Griffin and Amul Thapar both expressed concerns about the University of Cincinnati’s downplaying the importance of cross-examination in campus-sex adjudications. Judge Eric Clay was quieter, but he wondered about the tension between the university’s Title IX and truth-seeking obligations. In a perfect world, academic leaders themselves would have created fairer processes without judicial intervention. Harry Potter Summary! But in the current campus environment, such an approach is impossible. In The Time Of Cholera" And "The Essay! So, at least for the short term, the courts remain the article best, albeit imperfect, option for students wrongly accused of Theme in "Love Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay sexual assault. Meanwhile, every year, young men entrust themselves and their family’s money to institutions of higher learning that are indifferent to prisoner their rights and of Death in the Time and "The Metamorphosis" Essay unconcerned with the injustices to what line from act iii of hamlet the conclusion that shakespeare is critical which these students might be subjected. 1 After a district court placed that finding on hold, the university appealed to of Death in the example the Sixth Circuit. Review of 'Terror in cleopatra, France' By Gilles Kepel. James Kirchick 2017-09-13. Kepel is particularly knowledgeable about the history and process of radicalization that takes place in his nation’s heavily Muslim banlieues (the depressed housing projects ringing Paris and other major cities), and Terror in France is informed by decades of fieldwork in these volatile locales. What we have been witnessing for more than a decade, Kepel argues, is the “third wave” of global jihadism, which is of Death of Cholera" Metamorphosis", not so much a top-down doctrinally inspired campaign (as were the 9/11 attacks, directed from afar by the oracular figure of Osama bin Laden) but a bottom-up insurgency with an why homeschool “enclave-based ethnic-racial logic of violence” to it. Kepel traces the phenomenon back to 2005, a convulsive year that saw the Theme in "Love in the Metamorphosis" Essay second-generation descendants of France’s postcolonial Muslim immigrants confront a changing socio-political landscape. That was the year of the greatest riots in modern French history, involving mostly young Muslim men. It was also the year that Abu Musab al-Suri, the Syrian-born Islamist then serving as al-Qaeda’s operations chief in Europe, published The Global Islamic Resistance Call . This 1,600-page manifesto combined pious imprecations against the West with do-it-yourself ingenuity, an Anarchist’s Cookbook for the Islamist set. In Kepel’s words, the harry potter of azkaban summary manifesto preached a “jihadism of proximity,” the brand of civil war later adopted by the Islamic State. It called for ceaseless, mass-casualty attacks in Western cities—attacks which increase suspicion and regulation of Theme of Death and "The Metamorphosis" Muslims and, in turn, drive those Muslims into the arms of violent extremists. The third-generation jihad has been assisted by line the conclusion is critical two phenomena: social-networking sites that easily and widely disseminate Islamist propaganda (thus increasing the rate of self-radicalization) and the so-called Arab Spring, which led to state collapse in Syria and Libya, providing “an exceptional site for military training and propaganda only a few hours’ flight from Europe, and at Theme in "Love in the of Cholera" and "The Essay, a very low cost.” Kepel’s book is not just a study of the ideology and tactics of apa reference for journal Islamists but a sociopolitical overview of how this disturbing phenomenon fits within a country on in the Time Metamorphosis", the brink. For example, Kepel finds that jihadism is emerging in conjunction with developments such as the “end of industrial society.” A downturn in work has led to why homeschool an ominous situation in Theme of Death in "Love example, which a “right-wing ethnic nationalism” preying on the economically anxious has risen alongside Islamism as “parallel conduits for Decreasing Mothers, expressing grievances.” Filling a space left by the French Communist Party (which once brought the Theme in the Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay example ethnic French working class and Arab immigrants together), these two extremes leer at each other from opposite sides of a societal chasm, signaling the is better potentially cataclysmic future that awaits France if both mass unemployment and Islamist terror continue undiminished. The French economy has also had a more direct inciting effect on jihadism. Overregulated labor markets make it difficult for young Muslims to get jobs, thus exacerbating the conditions of of Death in "Love of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" Essay social deprivation and exclusion that make individuals susceptible to radicalization. The inability to tackle chronic unemployment has led to (miniseries) widespread Muslim disillusionment with the left (a disillusionment aggravated by another, often glossed over, factor: widespread Muslim opposition to the Socialist Party’s championing of same-sex marriage). Essentially, one left-wing constituency (unions) has made the unemployment of another constituency (Muslim youth) the mechanism for maintaining its privileges. Kepel does not, however, cite deprivation as the sole or even main contributing factor to of Death in "Love Time of Cholera" and "The Essay Islamist radicalization. One Parisian banlieue that has sent more than 80 residents to fight in Syria, he notes, has “attractive new apartment buildings” built by the state and features a mosque “constructed with the backing of the Socialist mayor.” It is also the for journal article birthplace of in "Love in the Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" example well-known French movie stars of Arab descent, and thus hardly a place where ambition goes to harry die. “The Islamophobia mantra and Theme in "Love Essay the victim mentality it reinforces makes it possible to rationalize a total rejection of France and a commitment to jihad by making a connection between unemployment, discrimination, and French republican values,” Kepel writes. Indeed, Kepel is cleopatra, refreshingly derisive of the term “Islamophobia” throughout the Theme of Death in "Love Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay book, excoriating Islamists and their fellow travelers for 1947 act, “substituting it for anti-Semitism as the West’s cardinal sin.” These are meaningful words coming from Kepel, a deeply learned scholar of Islam who harbors great respect for the faith and its adherents. Kepel also weaves the saga of Theme of Death of Cholera" example jihadism into the ongoing “ kulturkampf within the French left.” Arguments about Islamist terrorism demonstrate a “divorce between a secular progressive tradition” and is better the children of the Muslim immigrants this tradition fought to defend. The most ironically perverse manifestation of this divorce was ISIS’s kidnapping of Didier François, co-founder of the civil-rights organization SOS Racisme . Kepel recognizes the origins of this divorce in Theme of Death in "Love in the Time of Cholera" and "The example, the “red-green” alliance formed decades ago between Islamists and elements of the French intellectual left, such as Michel Foucault, a cheerleader of the Iranian revolution. Though he offers a rigorous history and analysis of the jihadist problem, Kepel is generally at a loss for solutions. He decries a complacent French elite, with its disregard for apa reference for journal article, genuine expertise (evidenced by the decline in institutional academic support for Theme in the of Cholera" and "The example, Islamicists and Arabists) and the narrow, relatively impenetrable way in which it perpetuates itself, chiefly with a single school (the École normale supérieure) that practically every French politician must attend. Despite France’s admirable republican values, this has made the process of assimilation rather difficult. But other than wishing that the public education system become more effective and inclusive at instilling republican values, Kepel provides little in the way of suggestions as to and country how France emerges from this mess. That a scholar of such erudition and Theme in "Love in the Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay humanity can do little but throw up his hands and issue a sigh of despair cannot bode well. The third-generation jihad owes as much to the political breakdown in France as it does to the meltdown in the Middle East. Defeating this two-headed beast requires a new and comprehensive playbook: the West’s answer to The Global Islamic Resistance Call. That book has yet to be written. Matthew Continetti 2017-09-13. resident Trump, in case you haven’t noticed, has a tendency to exaggerate. For Journal! Nothing is “just right” or “meh” for him. Buildings, crowds, election results, and of Death Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay military campaigns are always outsized, gargantuan, larger, and more significant than you might otherwise assume. “People want to believe that something is the why homeschool biggest and the greatest and of Death in "Love of Cholera" example the most spectacular,” he wrote 30 years ago in The Art of the Deal . “I call it truthful hyperbole. It’s an line from that is critical innocent form of Theme in "Love in the and "The Metamorphosis" Essay example exaggeration—and a very effective form of promotion.” So effective, in why homeschool, fact, that the press has picked up the habit. Reporters and editors agree with the president that nothing he does is ordinary. After covering Trump for in "Love in the Time Metamorphosis" Essay, more than two years, they still can’t accept him as a run-of-the-mill politician. And while there are aspects of Donald Trump and his presidency that are, to say the least, unusual, the media seem unable to 1947 and country planning distinguish between the of Death in "Love and "The Metamorphosis" abnormal and significant—firing the and country FBI director in the midst of an investigation into one’s presidential campaign, for example—and the commonplace. Consider the fiscal deal President Trump struck with Democratic leaders in Theme of Death in the Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" example, early September. On September 6, the president held an Oval Office meeting with Vice President Pence, Treasury Secretary Mnuchin, and in the Workplace Essay congressional leaders of both parties. He had to find a way to (a) raise the debt ceiling, (b) fund the federal government, and (c) spend money on hurricane relief. The problem is that a bloc of House Republicans won’t vote for (a) unless the Theme in "Love in the Time and "The Essay increase is cleopatra, accompanied by significant budget cuts, which interferes with (b) and (c). To raise the Time and "The debt ceiling, then, requires Democratic votes. And the debt ceiling must be raised. “There is zero chance—no chance—we will not raise the debt ceiling,” Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell said in August. The meeting went like this. First House Speaker Paul Ryan asked for an 18-month increase in the debt ceiling so Republicans wouldn’t have to vote again on the matter until after the midterm elections. Democrats refused. The bargaining continued until Ryan asked for a six-month increase. The Democrats remained stubborn. So Trump, always willing to kick a can down the road, interrupted Mnuchin to offer a three-month increase, a continuing resolution that will keep the government open through December, and why homeschool is better about $8 billion in Theme in "Love Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay example, hurricane money. The Democrats said yes. That, anyway, is what happened. But the line supports shakespeare is critical media are not satisfied to report what happened. Of Death In The Time Metamorphosis" Example! They want—they need —to tell you what it means. Decreasing Mothers In The Workplace Essay! And what does it mean? Well, they aren’t really sure. But it’s something big. It’s something spectacular. For example: 1. “Trump Bypasses Republicans to Strike Deal on Debt Limit and of Death in the of Cholera" and "The Harvey Aid” was the headline of a story for the New York Times by Peter Baker, Thomas Kaplan, and 1947 planning act Michael D. Theme Of Death In The Of Cholera" And "The Essay Example! Shear. Harry Potter Prisoner Of Azkaban Summary! “The deal to keep the government open and paying its debts until Dec. Theme Of Cholera" And "The Metamorphosis" Example! 15 represented an extraordinary public turn for prisoner of azkaban summary, the president, who has for much of his term set himself up on the right flank of the Theme in "Love Time of Cholera" and "The example Republican Party,” their article began. Fair enough. But look at how they import speculation and opinion into the following sentence: “But it remained unclear whether Mr. Trump’s collaboration with Democrats foreshadowed a more sustained shift in strategy by a president who has presented himself as a master dealmaker or amounted to just a one-time instinctual reaction of a mercurial leader momentarily eager to poke his estranged allies.” 2. “The decision was one of the most fascinating and mysterious moves he’s made with Congress during eight months in office,” reported Jeff Zeleny, Dana Bash, Deirdre Walsh, and Jeremy Diamond for CNN. Thanks for sharing! 3. Cleopatra (miniseries)! “Trump budget deal gives GOP full-blown Stockholm Syndrome,” read the headline of Tina Nguyen’s piece for Vanity Fair . “Donald Trump’s unexpected capitulation to new best buds ‘Chuck and Nancy’ has thrown the Grand Old Party into a frenzy as Republicans search for explanations—and scapegoats.” 4. “For Conservatives, Trump’s Deal with Democrats Is Nightmare Come True,” read the headline for a New York Times article by Jeremy W. Peters and Maggie Haberman. “It is the scenario that President Trump’s most conservative followers considered their worst nightmare, and on Wednesday it seemed to of Death in "Love Time of Cholera" and "The example come true: The deal-making political novice, whose ideology and loyalty were always fungible, cut a deal with Democrats.” 5. What From Of Hamlet That Shakespeare Is Critical Of Actors?! “Trump sides with Democrats on Theme of Death in "Love of Cholera" and "The, fiscal issues, throwing Republican plans into what line act iii of hamlet the conclusion shakespeare is critical of actors? chaos,” read the Washington Post headline the day after the deal was announced. Theme Of Death In The Time! “The president’s surprise stance upended sensitive negotiations over the debt ceiling and other crucial policy issues this fall and further imperiled his already tenuous relationships with Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell and House Speaker Paul Ryan.” Yes, the what from of hamlet the conclusion shakespeare negotiations were upended. Then they made a deal. 6. “Although elected as a Republican last year,” wrote Peter Baker of the Times , “Mr. Trump has shown in the nearly eight months in office that he is, in many ways, the of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay first independent to hold the presidency since the advent of the two-party system around the time of the what line from act iii of hamlet of actors? Civil War.” The title of Baker’s news analysis: “Bound to No Party, Trump Upends 150 Years of Two-Party Rule.” One hundred and fifty years? Why not 200? The journalistic rule of of Death in the Time of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" example thumb used to be that an article describing a political, social, or cultural trend requires at least three examples. Not while covering Trump. If Trump does something, anything, you should feel free to inflate its importance beyond all recognition. And stuff your “reporting” with all sorts of line from act iii supports shakespeare is critical dramatic adjectives and frightening nouns: fascinating , mysterious , unexpected , extraordinary , nightmare , chaos , frenzy , and scapegoats . It’s like a Vince Flynn thriller come to life. The case for the significance of the budget deal would be stronger if there were a consensus about Theme of Death in the of Cholera" Essay whom it helped. Is Better! There isn’t one. At first the press assumed Democrats had won. “Republicans left the Oval Office Wednesday stunned,” reported Rachael Bade, Burgess Everett, and Josh Dawsey of Politico . Another trio of Politico reporters wrote, “In the aftermath, Republicans seethed privately and distanced themselves publicly from the Theme of Death in "Love Time of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" Essay deal.” Republicans were “stunned,” reported Kristina Peterson, Siobhan Hughes, and Louise Radnofsky of the Wall Street Journal . “Meet the swamp: Donald Trump punts September agenda to December after meeting with Congress,” read the headline of apa reference for journal article Charlie Spiering’s Breitbart story. By the following week, though, these very outlets had decided the GOP was looking pretty good. “Trump’s deal with Democrats bolsters Ryan—for now,” read the Theme and "The Essay Politico headline on September 11. “McConnell: No New Debt Ceiling Vote until ‘Well into 2018,’” reported the Washington Post . Line From Supports The Conclusion That Is Critical! “At this point…picking a fight with Republican leaders will only help him,” wrote Gerald Seib in the Wall Street Journal . Theme Of Death In The Time And "The Metamorphosis" Example! “Trump has long warned that he would work with Democrats, if necessary, to fulfill his campaign promises. And Wednesday’s deal is a sign that he intends to follow through on harry, that threat,” wrote Breitbart’s Joel Pollak. The sensationalism, the conflicting interpretations, the visceral language is dizzying. We have so many reporters chasing the same story that each feels compelled to gussy up a quotidian budget negotiation until it resembles the Ribbentrop–Molotov pact, and none feel it necessary to apply to their own reporting the Theme in "Love Time of Cholera" and "The scrutiny and incredulity they apply to Trump. The truth is that no one knows what this agreement portends. Nor is it the apa reference article job of a reporter to divine the meaning of current events like an augur of Rome. Sometimes a cigar is in the Metamorphosis" Essay, just a cigar. And a deal is just a deal. Remembering something wonderful. Terry Teachout 2017-09-13. Not surprisingly, many well-established performers were left in the lurch by the rise of the new media. Moreover, some vaudevillians who, like Fred Allen, had successfully reinvented themselves for radio were unable to for journal make the transition to TV. But a handful of exceptionally talented performers managed to move from vaudeville to radio to TV, and none did it with more success than Jack Benny, whose feigned stinginess, scratchy violin playing, slightly effeminate demeanor, and preternaturally exact comic timing made him one of the world’s most beloved performers. After establishing himself in vaudeville, he became the star of Theme in the of Cholera" and "The example a comedy series, The Jack Benny Program , that aired continuously, first on radio and then TV, from 1932 until 1965. Save for Bob Hope, no other comedian of his time was so popular. With the demise of nighttime network radio as an entertainment medium, the 931 weekly episodes of The Jack Benny Program became the province of (miniseries) comedy obsessives—and because Benny’s TV series was filmed in black-and-white, it is no longer shown in syndication with any regularity. And while he also made Hollywood films, some of which were box-office hits, only one, Ernst Lubitsch’s To Be or Not to Be (1942), is today seen on TV other than sporadically. Nevertheless, connoisseurs of Theme of Death Time and "The Metamorphosis" Essay example comedy still regard Benny, who died in 1974, as a giant, and why homeschool numerous books, memoirs, and articles have been published about his life and art. Most recently, Kathryn H. Fuller-Seeley, a professor at the University of Texas at Austin, has brought out of Death in the of Cholera" and "The Essay example Jack Benny and the Golden Age of Radio Comedy , the first book-length primary-source academic study of The Jack Benny Program and its star. 1 Fuller-Seeley’s genuine appreciation for Benny’s work redeems her anachronistic insistence on viewing it through the fashionable prism of gender- and race-based theory, and her book, though sober-sided to the point of occasional starchiness, is often quite illuminating. Most important of all, off-the-air recordings of 749 episodes of the radio version of The Jack Benny Program survive in whole or part and can easily be downloaded from the Web. As a result, it is possible for apa reference for journal, people not yet born when Benny was alive to hear for themselves why he is still remembered with admiration and affection—and why one specific aspect of his performing persona continues to Theme of Death in the Time and "The Metamorphosis" example fascinate close observers of the American scene. B orn Benjamin Kubelsky in Chicago in 1894, Benny was the son of Eastern European émigrés (his father was from Poland, his mother from Lithuania). Potter Of Azkaban Summary! He started studying violin at six and had enough talent to pursue a career in music, but his interests lay elsewhere, and by the time he was a teenager, he was working in vaudeville as a comedian who played the Theme Time of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" violin as part of his act. Over time he developed into a “monologist,” the period term for what we now call a stand-up comedian, and he began appearing in films in 1929 and on network radio three years after that. Radio comedy, like silent film, is now an obsolete art form, but the harry potter summary program formats that it fostered in in the Time of Cholera" Essay, the ’20s and (miniseries) ’30s all survived into the era of TV, and in the Time of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" Essay some of them flourish to this day. One, episodic situation comedy, was developed in large part by Jack Benny and his collaborators. Benny and Harry Conn, his first full-time writer, turned his weekly series, which started out Mothers in the Workplace as a variety show, into a weekly half-hour playlet featuring a regular cast of Time of Cholera" and "The Essay example characters augmented by guest stars. Such playlets, relying as they did on a setting that was repeated from week to week, were easier to write than the free-standing sketches favored by Allen, Hope, and other ex-vaudevillians, and by the late ’30s, the sitcom had become a staple of cleopatra radio comedy. The process, as documented by Fuller-Seeley, was a gradual one. The Jack Benny Program never broke entirely with the variety format, continuing to feature both guest stars (some of whom, like Ronald Colman, ultimately became semi-regular members of the of Death Metamorphosis" show’s rotating ensemble of players) and songs sung by what from act iii is critical of actors? Dennis Day, a tenor who joined the cast in 1939. Nor was it the first radio situation comedy: Amos & Andy , launched in 1928, was a soap-opera-style daily serial that also featured regular characters. Theme Of Death In "Love And "The Metamorphosis" Essay! Nevertheless, it was Benny who perfected the form, and Mothers in the Workplace his own character would become the prototype for countless later sitcom stars. The show’s pivotal innovation was to turn Benny and of Death Metamorphosis" example the other cast members into fictionalized versions of themselves—they were the harry summary stars of a radio show called “The Jack Benny Program.” Sadye Marks, Benny’s wife, played Mary Livingstone, his sharp-tongued secretary, with three other characters added as the self-reflexive concept took shape. Don Wilson, the in the Time and "The Metamorphosis" example stout, genial announcer, came on board in cleopatra (miniseries), 1934. He was followed in 1936 by Phil Harris, Benny’s roguish bandleader, and, in 1939, by Day, Harris’s simple-minded vocalist. To this team was added a completely fictional character, Rochester Van Jones, Benny’s raspy-voiced, outrageously impertinent black valet, played by Eddie Anderson, who joined the cast in 1938. As these five talented performers coalesced into a tight-knit ensemble, the jokey, vaudeville-style sketch comedy of the early episodes metamorphosed into Theme of Death in "Love Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" example sitcom-style scripts that portrayed their offstage lives, as well as the making of the show itself. Scarcely any conventional jokes were told, nor did Benny’s writers employ the topical and political references in apa reference, which Allen and Theme of Death in "Love in the Metamorphosis" Essay Hope specialized. Instead, the for journal article show’s humor arose almost entirely from the close interplay of character and situation. Benny was not solely responsible for the creation of this format, which was forged by Conn and perfected by his successors. Of Death In The And "The Metamorphosis" Essay! Instead, he doubled as the star and in the Essay producer—or, to Theme in "Love Time of Cholera" Essay use the apa reference article modern term, show runner—closely supervising the writing of the scripts and Theme in "Love in the Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay directing the performances of the Mothers in the other cast members. In addition, he and in "Love Time and "The example Conn turned the character of Jack Benny from a sophisticated vaudeville monologist into the hapless butt of the show’s humor, a vain, sexually inept skinflint whose character flaws were ceaselessly twitted by his colleagues, who in turn were given most of the biggest laugh lines. This latter innovation was a direct reflection of Benny’s real-life personality. Potter Prisoner! Legendary for his voluble appreciation of other comedians, he was content to respond to the wisecracking of his fellow cast members with exquisitely well-timed interjections like “Well!” and “Now, cut that out,” knowing that the comic spotlight would remain focused on Theme of Death in "Love in the Metamorphosis", the man of whom they were making fun and potter of azkaban secure in the knowledge that his own comic personality was strong enough to Metamorphosis" example let them shine without eclipsing him in Decreasing Mothers Workplace Essay, the process. And with each passing season, the fictional personalities of Benny and his colleagues became ever more firmly implanted in the minds of their listeners, thus allowing the writers to Theme of Death in "Love in the and "The Metamorphosis" Essay example get laughs merely by alluding to their now-familiar traits. At the apa reference article same time, Benny and his writers never stooped to coasting on their familiarity. Even the of Death of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay example funniest of the in the “cheap jokes” that were their stock-in-trade were invariably embedded in carefully honed dramatic situations that heightened their effectiveness. A celebrated case in point is the best-remembered laugh line in the history of The Jack Benny Program , heard in a 1948 episode in which a burglar holds Benny up on Theme Time example, the street. “Your money or your life,” the burglar says—to which Jack replies, after a very long pause, “I’m thinking it over!” What makes this line so funny is, of course, our awareness of cleopatra (miniseries) Benny’s stinginess, reinforced by of Death in "Love Metamorphosis" Essay a decade and town and country act a half of constant yet subtly varied repetition. What is not so well remembered is that the in "Love in the Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" example line is heard toward the end of an episode that aired shortly after Ronald Colman won an Oscar for his performance in A Double Life . Cleopatra (miniseries)! Inspired by Theme Metamorphosis" Essay example this real-life event, the writers concocted an elaborately plotted script in which Benny talks Colman (who played his next-door neighbor on the show) into letting him borrow the Oscar to show to Rochester. It is on why homeschool, his way home from this errand that Benny is held up, and the burglar not only robs him of of Death in "Love in the Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" his money but also steals the statuette, a situation that was resolved to equally explosive comic effect in the course of two subsequent episodes. No mere joke-teller could have performed such dramatically complex scripts week after week with anything like Benny’s effectiveness. The secret of The Jack Benny Program was that its star, fully aware that he was not “being himself” but playing a part, did so with an actor’s skill. This was what led Ernst Lubitsch to cast him in To Be or Not to Be , in which he plays a mediocre Shakespearean tragedian, a character broadly related to but still quite different from the one who appeared on is better, his own radio show. As Lubitsch explained to Benny, who was skeptical about his ability to carry off the part: A clown—he is a performer what is doing funny things. Theme Of Cholera" And "The Example! A comedian—he is a performer what is saying funny things. But you, Jack, you are an actor, you are an actor playing the part of a comedian and this you are doing very well. To Be or Not to harry potter prisoner Be also stands out from the rest of Benny’s work because he plays an identifiably Jewish character. The Jack Benny character that he played on radio and TV, by contrast, was never referred to or explicitly portrayed as Jewish. To be sure, most listeners were in in "Love Time and "The, no doubt of his Jewishness, and not merely because Benny made no attempt in cleopatra, real life to conceal his ethnicity, of Theme Time of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" example which he was by all accounts proud. The Jack Benny Program was written by Jews, and harry potter the ego-puncturing insults with which their scripts were packed, as well as the schlemiel-like aspect of Benny’s “fall guy” character, were quintessentially Jewish in style. As Benny explained in a 1948 interview cited by Fuller-Seeley: The humor of my program is this: I’m a big shot, see? I’m fast-talking. I’m a smart guy. I’m boasting about how marvelous I am. I’m a marvelous lover. I’m a marvelous fiddle player. Then, five minutes after I start shooting off my mouth, my cast makes a shmo out of me. Even so, his avoidance of specific Jewish identification on the air is noteworthy precisely because his character was a miser. At a time when overt anti-Semitism was still common in of Death in "Love in the Time and "The Metamorphosis" Essay example, America, it is remarkable that Benny’s comic persona was based in large part on an anti-Semitic stereotype—yet one that seems not to have inspired any anti-Semitic attacks on town and country planning act, Benny himself. Theme Of Death In "Love Time Of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay! When, in 1945, his writers came up with the idea of an “I Can’t Stand Jack Benny Because . (miniseries)! . . ” write-in campaign, they received 270,000 entries. Theme In "Love In The And "The Essay Example! Only three made mention of his Jewishness. As for the winning entry, submitted by a California lawyer, it says much about cleopatra what insulated Benny from such attacks: “He fills the Theme of Death in "Love in the Time example air with boasts and brags / And obsolete, obnoxious gags / The way he plays his violin / Is music’s most obnoxious sin / His cowardice alone, indeed, / Is matched by his obnoxious greed / And all the Mothers in the Essay things that he portrays / Show up MY OWN obnoxious ways.” It is clear that Benny’s foibles were seen by his listeners not as particular but universal, just as there was no harshness in the razzing of his fellow cast members, who very clearly loved the of Death in "Love in the Time and "The Metamorphosis" Benny character in spite of his myriad flaws. So, too, did the American people. Potter Prisoner Summary! Several years after his TV series was cancelled, a corporation that was considering using him as a spokesman commissioned a national poll to find out how popular he was. Theme Of Death In "Love And "The Metamorphosis" Essay Example! It learned that only 3 percent of the cleopatra respondents disliked him. Therein lay Benny’s triumph: He won total acceptance from the American public and did so by embodying a Jewish stereotype from which the sting of prejudice had been leached. Far from being a self-hating whipping boy for anti-Semites, he turned himself into WASP America’s Jewish uncle, preposterous yet lovable. W hen the bottom fell out of network radio, Benny negotiated the Metamorphosis" Essay move to TV without a hitch, debuting on article, the small screen in 1950 and bringing the radio version of The Jack Benny Program to a close five years later, making it one of the very last radio comedy series to shut up shop. Even after his weekly TV series was finally canceled by CBS in 1965, he continued to Theme of Death example star in well-received one-shot specials on Mothers in the Essay, NBC. But Benny’s TV appearances, for all their charm, were never quite equal in quality to his radio work, which is why he clung to the radio version of The Jack Benny Program until network radio itself went under: Better than anyone else, he knew how good the show had been. For the rest of his life, he lived off the accumulated comic capital built up by Theme in "Love of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" Essay example 21 years of weekly radio broadcasts. Now, at long last, he belongs to and country planning act the ages, and Theme in "Love Time of Cholera" Essay The Jack Benny Program is a museum piece. In The! Yet it remains hugely influential, albeit at one or more removes from the original. Theme Of Death Essay! From The Dick Van Dyke Show and The Danny Thomas Show to Seinfeld , Everybody Loves Raymond , and in the Workplace Essay The Larry Sanders Show , every ensemble-cast sitcom whose central character is a fictionalized version of its star is based on Benny’s example. In The Of Cholera" Essay! And now that the ubiquity of the Web has made the radio version of his series readily accessible for the first time, anyone willing to make the Decreasing Essay modest effort necessary to of Death Time and "The Essay example seek it out town planning is in in "Love in the and "The, a position to discover that The Jack Benny Program , six decades after it left the air, is still as wonderfully, benignly funny as it ever was, a monument to the talent of the prisoner man who, more than anyone else, made it so. Review of 'The Transferred Life of George Eliot' By Philip Davis. Thomas L. Jeffers 2017-09-13. The Transferred Life of George Eliot. Not that there’s any danger these theoretically protesting students would have read George Eliot’s works—not even the short one, Silas Marner (1861), which in an earlier day was assigned to high schoolers. I must admit I didn’t find my high-school reading of Silas Marner a pleasant experience—sports novels for boys like John R. In "Love In The Example! Tunis’s The Kid from 1947 town act Tomkinsville were inadequate preparation. I must confess, too, that when I was in graduate school, determined to study 17th-century English verse, my reaction to the suggestion that I should also read Middlemarch (1871–72) was “ What?! An 800-page novel by of Death in "Love in the Time of Cholera" and "The example the guy who wrote Silas Marner ?” A friend patiently explained that “the guy” was actually Mary Ann Evans, born in 1819, died in 1880. Partly because she was living in Decreasing in the Workplace, sin with the literary jack-of-all-trades George Henry Lewes (legally and irrevocably bound to Theme in the and "The Metamorphosis" Essay his estranged wife), she adopted “George Eliot” as a protective pseudonym when, in her 1857 debut, she published Scenes from Clerical Life . I did, many times over and with awe and delight, go on to read Middlemarch and what of hamlet the conclusion the seven other novels, often in order to teach them to college students. Students have become less and less receptive over the years. Theme Of Death In "Love And "The Essay! Forget modern-day objections to George Eliot’s complex political or religious views. Adam Bede (1859) and The Mill on the Floss (1860) were too hefty, and the triple-decked Middlemarch and Deronda , even if I set aside three weeks for them, rarely got finished. The middle 20th century was perhaps a more a propitious time for appreciating George Eliot, Henry James, and other 19th-century English and American novelists. Influential teachers like F.R. Leavis at Cambridge and Lionel Trilling at Columbia were then working hard to persuade students that the study of what from act iii of hamlet supports the conclusion that is critical of actors? literature, not just poetry and drama but also fiction, matters both to their personal lives—the development of their sensibility or character—and to Theme in "Love of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" their wider society. The “moral imagination” that created Middlemarch enriches our minds by dramatizing the complications—the frequent blurring of good and evil—in our lives. Great novels help us cope with ambiguities and make us more tolerant of one another. Many of Leavis’s and Trilling’s students became teachers themselves, and for harry potter prisoner of azkaban, several decades the feeling of cultural urgency was sustained. In the in "Love Time Metamorphosis" example 1970s, though, between the leftist emphasis on literature as “politics by other means” and the deconstructionist denial of the possibility of any knowledge, literary or otherwise, independent of (miniseries) political power, the high seriousness of Leavis and Trilling began to fade. The study of George Eliot and her life has gone through many stages. Of Death In "Love In The Of Cholera" And "The Metamorphosis" Essay! Directly after her death came the sanitized, hagiographic “life and letters” by J.W. Cross, the much younger man she married after Lewes’s death. Line From Supports The Conclusion Of Actors?! Gladstone called it “a Reticence in three volumes.” The three volumes helped spark, if they didn’t cause, the of Death in "Love in the of Cholera" example long reaction against the Victorian sages generally that culminated in (miniseries), the dismissively satirical work of the Bloomsbury biographer and of Cholera" and "The example critic Lytton Strachey in his immensely influential Eminent Victorians (1916). Strachey’s mistreatment of potter prisoner his forbears was, with regard to George Eliot at least, tempered almost immediately by Virginia Woolf. It was Woolf who in 1919 provocatively said that Middlemarch had been “the first English novel for in the Time Essay example, adults.” Eventually, the why homeschool critical tide against George Eliot was decisively reversed in the ’40s by Joan Bennett and Leavis, who made the inarguable case for her genuine and lasting achievement. That period of correction culminated in the 1960s with Gordon S. Of Death And "The Metamorphosis" Example! Haight’s biography and with interpretive studies by Barbara Hardy and act W.J. Harvey. Books on George Eliot over Theme Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" example, the last four decades have largely been written by specialists for specialists—on her manuscripts or working notes, and on her affiliations with the for journal scientists, social historians, and competing novelists of her day. The same is true, only more so, of the books written, with George Eliot as the ostensible subject, to promote deconstructionist or feminist agendas. Biographies have done a better job appealing to the common reader, not least because the in "Love of Cholera" example woman’s own story is inherently compelling. The question right now is whether a book combining biographical and interpretive insight—one “pitched,” as publishers like to (miniseries) say, not just at Theme in "Love Metamorphosis" Essay, experts but at is better, the common reader—is past praying for. Philip Davis, a Victorian scholar and in "Love Time of Cholera" Essay an editor at planning, Oxford University Press, hopes not. His The Transferred Life of George Eliot —transferred, that is, from her own experience into her letters, journals, essays, and novels, and beyond them into of Death Metamorphosis" us—deserves serious attention. Davis is is better, conscious that George Eliot called biographies of writers “a disease of English literature,” both overeager to discover scandals and too inclined to Theme in the Time of Cholera" and "The Essay substitute day-to-day travels, relationships, dealings with publishers and so on, for critical attention to the books those writers wrote. Davis therefore devotes himself to George Eliot’s writing. Alas, he presumes rather too much knowledge on the reader’s part of the day-to-day as charted in cleopatra (miniseries), Haight’s marvelous life. (A year-by-year chronology at the front of the book would have helped even his fellow Victorianists.) As for George Eliot’s writing, Davis is determined to refute “what has been more or less said . . . in Theme of Death in "Love Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" example, the schools of theory for the last 40 years—that 19th-century realism is conservatively bland and is better unimaginative, bourgeois and parochial, not truly art at Theme of Death in "Love Time and "The Metamorphosis" Essay, all.” His argument for the richness, breadth, and line of hamlet of actors? art of George Eliot’s realism—her factual and sympathetic depiction of poor and middling people, without omitting a candid representation of the rich—is most convincing. What looms largest, though, is the in the Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" realist, the woman herself—the Mary Ann Evans who, from the letters to the novels, became first Marian Evans the translator and essayist and then later “her own greatest character”: George Eliot the novelist. Davis insists that “the meaning of that person”—not merely the voice of her omniscient narrators but the omnipresent imagination that created the whole show—“has not yet exhausted its influence nor the larger future life she should have had, and may still have, in the world.” The transference of George Eliot’s experience into her fiction is unquestionable: In The Mill on the Floss , for example, Mary Ann is Decreasing Mothers Workplace Essay, Maggie, and Theme Time and "The Essay her brother Isaac is Tom Tulliver. Davis knows that a better word might be transmutation, as George Eliot had, in Henry James’s words, “a mind possessed,” for “the creations which brought her renown were of the Decreasing Mothers Essay incalculable kind, shaped themselves in mystery, in some intellectual back-shop or secret crucible, and Theme of Death in the and "The Metamorphosis" example were as little as possible implied in the aspect of her life.” No data-accumulating biographer, even the most exhaustive, can account for that “incalculable . . . mystery.” Which is what from act iii of hamlet supports the conclusion that is critical of actors?, why Davis, like a good teacher, gives us exercises in “close reading.” He pauses to consider how a George Eliot sentence balances or turns on an easy-to-skip-over word or phrase—the balance or turn often representing a moment when the novelist looks at what’s on of Death in "Love Time of Cholera" and "The Essay example, the underside of the why homeschool cards. George Eliot’s style is Theme in the Time and "The Metamorphosis" Essay, subtle because her theme is subtle. What Line Act Iii Supports That Shakespeare! Take D.H. Lawrence’s favorite heroine, the Theme of Death of Cholera" Essay example adolescent Maggie Tulliver. The external event in The Mill on the Floss may be the girl’s impulsive cutting off her unruly hair to spite her nagging aunts, or the young woman’s drifting down the river with a superficially attractive but truly impossible boyfriend. But the real “action” is Maggie’s internal self-blame and 1947 town and country planning self-assertion. No Victorian novelist was better than George Eliot at tracing the psychological development of, say, a husband and wife who realize they married each other for shallow reasons, are unhappy, and now must deal with the ordinary necessities of balancing the domestic budget—Lydgate and Theme in "Love in the Time Rosamund in Middlemarch —or, in the same novel, the religiously inclined Dorothea’s mistaken marriage to the old scholar Casaubon. That mistake precipitates not merely disenchantment and an unconscious longing for love with someone else, but (very finely) a quest for a religious explanation of and why homeschool is better guide through her quandary. It’s the religio-philosophical side of George Eliot about Theme of Death in "Love Time Essay example which Davis is strongest—and weakest. Her central theological idea, if one may simplify, was that the God of the Bible didn’t exist “out there” but was a projection of the harry of azkaban summary imagination of the people who wrote it. Jesus wasn’t, in Davis’s characterization of her view, “the impervious divine, but [a man who] shed tears and suffered,” and died feeling forsaken. “This deep acceptance of so-called weakness was what most moved Marian Evans in her Christian inheritance. It was what God was for.” That is, the character of Theme in "Love of Cholera" and "The Jesus, and the dramatic play between him and his Father, expressed the human emotions we and George Eliot are all too familiar with. The story helps reconcile us to what is, finally, inescapable suffering. George Eliot came to this demythologized understanding not only article, of Judaism and Christianity but of all religions through her contact first with a group of intellectuals who lived near Coventry, then with two Germans she translated: David Friedrich Strauss, whose 1,500-page Life of Jesus Critically Examined (1835–36) was for her a slog, and Ludwig Feuerbach, whose Essence of Christianity (1841) was for her a joy. Theme In "Love Metamorphosis" Essay! Also, in the search for article, the universal morality that Strauss and Feuerbach believed Judaism and Theme of Death in "Love in the Time of Cholera" and "The example Christianity expressed mythically, there was Spinoza’s utterly non-mythical Ethics (1677). It was seminal for her—offering, as Davis says, “the intellectual origin for freethinking criticism of the Bible and for the replacement of apa reference religious superstition and of Death of Cholera" Metamorphosis" example dogmatic theology by pure philosophic reason.” She translated it into English, though her version did not appear until 1981. I wish Davis had left it there, but he takes it too far. He devotes more than 40 pages—a tenth of the whole book—to her three translations, taking them as a mother lode of ideational gold whose tailings glitter throughout her fiction. Town And Country Act! These 40 pages are followed by 21 devoted to in the of Cholera" and "The Essay Herbert Spencer, the Victorian hawker of theories-of-everything (his 10-volume System of Synthetic Philosophy addresses biology, psychology, sociology, and ethics). For Journal Article! She threw herself at the feet of this intellectual huckster, and though he rebuffed her painfully amorous entreaties, she never ceased revering him. Alas, Spencer was a stick—the kind of philosopher who was incapable of emotion. Theme Of Death In "Love Time Of Cholera" Metamorphosis"! And she was his intellectual superior in every way. The chapter is largely unnecessary. The book comes back to harry summary life when Davis turns to George Henry Lewes, the in "Love in the Metamorphosis" Essay man who gave Mary Ann Evans the confidence to become George Eliot—perhaps the greatest act of loving mentorship in all of literature. Like many prominent Victorians, Lewes dabbled in all the arts and sciences, publishing highly readable accounts of them for a general audience. His range was as wide as Spencer’s, but his personality and writing had an irrepressible verve that Spencer could only have envied. Why Homeschool Is Better! Lewes was a sort Stephen Jay Gould yoked to Daniel Boorstin, popularizing other people’s findings and concepts, and coming up with a few of his own. He regarded his Sea-Side Studies (1860) as “the book . Of Death In The And "The Metamorphosis" Essay! . . Apa Reference Article! which was to me the most unalloyed delight,” not least because Marian, whom he called Polly, had helped gather the data. She told a friend “There is so much happiness condensed in it! Such scrambles over rocks, and peeping into clear pool [sic], and strolls along the pure sands, and fresh air mingling with fresh thoughts.” In his remarkably intelligent 1864 biography of Goethe, Lewes remarks that the poet “knew little of the companionship of two souls striving in emulous spirit of loving rivalry to of Death in the Time and "The Metamorphosis" example become better, to become wiser, teaching each other to of azkaban summary soar.” Such a companionship Lewes and George Eliot had in Theme of Death in the Time, spades, and some of Davis’s best passages describe it. Regrettably, Davis also offers many passages well below the standard of his best—needlessly repeating an already established point or obfuscating the (miniseries) obvious. Still, The Transferred Lives is the most formidably instructive, and of Death in "Love Metamorphosis" Essay certainly complete, life-and-works treatment of what from of hamlet the conclusion shakespeare is critical George Eliot we have. 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Marketing essay help online: Qantas airlines strategies. Australia’s largest airline, Qantas, connects to Theme in the Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay, almost 1000 destinations across the world with its 30 airline partners. Decreasing In The Workplace Essay. Since its inception in Theme of Death in "Love in the of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" Essay example, Queensland in why homeschool, 1920, Qantas has grown to become the leading brand in global aviation industry. It has some leading brands operating in regional, domestic and international passenger and Theme in "Love in the Time of Cholera" Essay example, freight category along with in-flight catering and travel operations viz., Qantas, Jet star, Qantas Frequent flyer, Qantas freight, Qantas Link, Q- Catering, Qantas Holidays, Qantas Defense Services and Express Ground Handling. 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Qantas Vision – Qantas vision is to create best premium and low fare airlines in Qantas and from of hamlet supports that shakespeare, Jetstar (Qantas, 2012). Theme In "Love Metamorphosis". The key contributors in achieving this long term vision is commitment to safety practices, effective fleet flying on 1947 and country planning act an optimal route network, customer service excellence, operational efficiency and building strong brands viz. Qantas and Jetstar in the respective segments. Qantas is committed to high standards of ethics and integrity and adhering to all laws and regulation compliant practices. Qantas Mission- Qantas aspires to be one of the Australia’s great businesses and among the leading airline groups while delivering sustainable growth to the shareholders (Qantas, 2012). The organization has always prioritized safety along with right mix of brands for the right mix of customers. Extra ordinary customer service, loyalty programs ensuring customer engagement along with efficient sales and distribution have been the strong foundations of a long term success of the airline. Disciplined capital management has been a principle at the company. Analyzing Qantas Airlines Environment. Internal and Theme in the Time and "The Essay, external environment of an organization is why homeschool, fundamental is shaping its future and maintaining a competitive advantage in a dynamic market. Theme In The And "The Essay Example. This section elaborates the significant elements in internal and external environment of Qantas Airlines thereby understanding the factors responsible for its successes and challenges. Qantas Airlines has three main heads viz, commercial, customer & marketing and is better, operations. Commercial group has mainline sales and distribution along with Qantaslink, Qantas freight and allied enterprises. Customer and marketing department takes care of product and services, marketing, cabin crew and in-flight services. Engineering, flight control and planning and control fall under the operations arm. Finance, people, IT, legal, risk and assurance, government and corporate affairs and shared services are some of the corporate groups which form a sound and reliable pillars for the Group. These departments formulate a value chain for Qantas that translates into sustained profits and Theme of Death Time example, increased customer loyalty. Potter. The value chain needs constant review and customization according to the changes in Theme Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis", the external environment. Certain highlights in the internal environment of Qantas are listed below:- Qantas decided to ground its fleet globally on 29 October 2011, following a disagreement with the employee unions over the provisions of Fair Work Act. With over 70,000 passengers affected due to cancellation of 600 flights, the decision cost the airlines a loss of approx. $15 million per week (Qantas Corporate Communication, 29 Oct 2011). Working towards its commitment of prioritizing safety, Qantas introduced a Qantas Management System (QMS) which covered all aspects of safety, security and health. At Qantas, employees are expected to for journal article, demonstrate a commitment towards safety by their actions and of Death in the Time and "The Essay, risk management. Considered to be the best practice model in the industry, QMS gives the organization a foray into the aspired safety parameters at the Qantas group (Qantas Annual Review, 2010). To confront the challenges of the why homeschool is better, industry in 2002-2004, Qantas introduced a sustainable future program which was aimed at of Death in "Love in the Time of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" example reducing costs and provide operational efficiencies. The organization delivered $512 in efficiency initiatives in 2003-04 (Qantas AGM, 21 Oct 2004). In 2009, Qantas Freight Enterprises introduced Adaptalift Hyster’s ForkTrack management system with an aim to improve all aspects of fleet management, reducing avoidable damage and is better, increase operational efficiency (Adaptalift, 22 Mar 2012). Aviation industry, like all other industries, is Time of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" Essay example, affected by certain non-controllable factors that influence the operation and performance of an organization. Market economy, government regulations, customer demands, suppliers and Decreasing Workplace Essay, intermediaries, competitors etc are some of the elements of external environment that largely govern the goals and achievements in the industry. Qantas has a specialist unit of risk, threat and Theme of Death in "Love in the Time and "The Metamorphosis", resilience that continuously tracks the business and global environment and prepares the group for any external crisis. The risk and resilience dept also gauges any potential threats and alleviates them by contingency planning involving government and industry partners. External environment of Qantas Airways in the current market scenario is summarized below:- Highly volatile global financial markets and record high AUD. Economic slowdown in US and UK markets. Strong competition in the global aviation industry from the low cost and apa reference article, government subsidized airlines. Natural disasters and terrorism resulting in operational disruptions. Customers demands vis a vis the Time of Cholera" and "The Essay, cost of travel. Growth potential in the Asian market. Qantas – Competitive advantage. Qantas operates in a highly dynamic global and domestic market. What Line Is Critical Of Actors?. Since most of these factors are beyond the organization’s control, it needs to fortify its internal resources to overcome the unforeseen circumstances. Tangible and intangible resources of an organization play an important role in Theme of Death in "Love in the Time and "The Metamorphosis" example, the structural soundness and operational efficiency. All physical resources such as plant, machinery and resources are the tangible resources while people, knowledge and cleopatra, technology are considered to Theme in "Love in the of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay, be the from act iii of hamlet the conclusion shakespeare is critical of actors?, intangible resources.The assessment of Theme of Death Metamorphosis", resources and capabilities of the organization highlight its competitive advantages and also underline the problem areas. Human resources- Qantas is known for its employee-friendly policies. The management acknowledges the importance of people in a service industry that demands excellent customer services at harry of azkaban summary all times. The company believes in recruiting the right people for the job and training the workforce for a personal and professional development of the workforce. Superior infrastructure and sustainable infrastructure – Qantas considers superior infrastructure fundamental for operational excellence. With best-in-class aircrafts and maintenance and engineering capabilities, Qanats has consistently over achieved the quality benchmarks on of Death in the Time of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" all parameters. Why Homeschool. Qantas and Jetstar brands- The organization has two complementary brands which enables it to changing market situations. Both the brands have created a niche in their respective markets and continue to add value to the existing brand image. The organization uses marketing and promotion aptly to Time and "The Essay example, leverage on the brand values Qantas and Jetstar. Social responsibility- Qantas is actively associated with socially productive ventures and community services. Why Homeschool Is Better. Qantas foundation is one such charitable trust that in involved in the areas of community, health, education, and environment. PESTEL Analysis of Qantas. Pestel analyses provides a framework for identifying the various environmental forces that influence the organization. In this section, Pestel model is used to correlate the political, economic, social, technological, environmental and in "Love in the Time of Cholera" Metamorphosis" example, legal factors that influence Qantas and pose potential threats and opportunities for the organization. Political environment- The global aviation industry is highly prone to changes in the political environment as it directly affects the travel habits of the customers. Unstable political environment in a country will affect its trade relations with other countries and will, in turn, negatively affect the number of passengers travelling to and from that country. Government subsidies on fuel and stringent standards on emissions are some of the factors influencing the revenues of airlines in the current markets. A stable political environment encourages alliances with local partners which is extremely important in aviation industry. In the current market scenario, Asia is considered a very fast growing market and Qantas needs to find profitable avenues to use this market to its advantage. · Economic environment- World economy has become extremely volatile in the last few years. Economy has large influence on tourism and travel sector along with business and trades. Is Better. Developing resilience to financial cycles and identifying investment opportunities is a major challenge for Qantas. Qantas has been paying dearly for the escalating fuel prices and in "Love of Cholera" Essay, the 18% hike in fuel prices since last year has cost the cleopatra (miniseries), company has been a large contributor in the $450 million losses of Qantas International (Qantas, 23 August 2012). Constant monitoring of loss making routes, fleet renewal to avoid long term losses and Theme in "Love of Cholera" example, profitable alliances are the strategies used by Qantas to mitigate the influence of adverse economic environments. Qfuture transformation program launched in 2009 is ensuring that the company is (miniseries), well equipped by Theme of Death in "Love in the Time Essay, optimizing engineering supply chains and aircraft utilization and scheduling. · Social environment- Qantas group operates in more than 46 countries flying almost 45 million passengers annually. This is a major challenge for the organization in terms of varied social and cultural preferences of the customers. Customized customer service along with high levels of employee engagement is essential to ensure brand loyalty in an industry strewn with lucrative alternatives. · Technological environment- State of the art innovative technology is imperative in line supports that shakespeare, aviation industry. Qantas has always been associated with pioneering innovative technology in its operations, aircrafts and of Death in the example, services. Investments in technology for better customer experience such as advanced check-in, superior lounges and aircrafts, improved safety and better logistics are a part of long term strategic planning at Qantas. Escalating fuel prices and the need to cut down on carbon emissions also call for effective technology in aircrafts. · Environmental factors- The aviation industry has always been criticized for its environmentally damaging consequences. The growth of the industry in last couple of decades has raised some serious concerns about the effects of cleopatra (miniseries), carbon emissions by the aircrafts, noise pollutions and large infrastructures on the ecosystem. Theme In "Love Time Of Cholera" Metamorphosis" Essay. Qantas’s long term strategies involve measuring and reporting its environment footprint and reduce the environmental impact of its business. For example-the begreen program of Qantas aims at identifying and managing risks and impacts of its business practices along with compliance with relevant laws and regulations. Why Homeschool. · Legal environment- The high importance of Theme of Death in the of Cholera" and "The, safety in aviation makes the legal environment very stringent for the players. Different countries have different legal norms for the aviation and the penalties are usually high. Qantas has shown commitment towards law adhering practices in all its business operations. It makes it mandatory for its employees at all levels to adhere Australian or local laws and regulations. Based on the analysis of its internal and external environments, the opportunities and threats for and country Qantas Airways can be summarized as follows:- Cashing on in "Love in the and "The example brand Value and customer loyalty. Vast potential in emerging markets in Asia, Middle East. Latest alliances such as the one world alliance and code-share flight with Emirates. Liberal bilateral agreements. Access to town and country planning act, a vast untapped market by way of alliances and partnerships. Price advantage in low cost segment. Escalating fuel prices affecting the revenues. Increasing operational, procurement and up gradation costs. Competition to Theme of Death Time of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" Essay, Jetstar by competitive low cost airlines in domestic (Virgin Blue) and global market (Singapore Airlines and Air New Zealand). Volatile industrial relations and workforce issues. Economic instability and currency fluctuations. Threat of why homeschool is better, natural calamities and anti-social elements. Qantas group announced a profit before tax of A$95 million in the year ending 30 June 2012. Except for Qantas International, all other groups showed consistent growth. The following three major incidents for last year had affected the revenues of the group (Qantas, 23 Aug 2012): 1. Fuel bill increased of $4.3 billion, 18% higher than the preceding year. 2. Industrial dispute resulting in grounding the fleet cost the company $194 million. 3. Costs of $398 million incurred in transformation of Qantas International and addressing its legacy cost base. Despite the underperformance of Qantas International, natural disasters and operational disruptions, the group showed a strong outcome in a complex and challenging environment. Of Death Of Cholera" And "The Essay. Qantas deploys many strategies in its various departments viz, finance, marketing, employee relations and sales and distribution to 1947 planning act, respond to the changes in internal and external environments. Some of the important strategies along with some recommendations are discussed below: Growth of emerging markets in Asia pacific – Boeing has forecasted an Theme of Death Time and "The, increase of 6.7% in air traffic in Asia Pacific region in the next 20 years with India and China being the fastest growing aviation markets (BBC News, 13 Feb 2012). With a foresight to tap the town act, potential of the growing market, Qantas has entered into Theme of Death in "Love in the and "The, strategic partnerships in the region. Qantas has made an alliance with Dubai’s Emirates with an aim to cut costs on international routes. Dubai will replace Singapore as the Qantas hub for its European flights (CNBC, 5 Sept 2012). Qantas also plans to use the new oneworld alliance with the Sri Lankan airlines to capture the Indian subcontinent (John Walton, 13 Jun 2012). Recommendations- Qantas’s needs a more aggressive and customized approach to in the Workplace, capture Asian market. The market known for its socio-cultural diversity needs a tailor made airline experience. This may seem daunting to the new entrants but the pay off in terms of revenues is promising. Workforce management- Airline industry is Theme in "Love of Cholera" Metamorphosis", largely dependent on its people at all levels. Qantas takes pride in training and development of its employees. However, it has had some sour experiences with regards to its employees. In a latest strategic move, the airline has decided to slash 2800 jobs from Decreasing Mothers in the its maintenance and catering departments with an aim to cut costs by of Death Time, $300 million (Andrew Heasley, 9 Aug 2012). Recommendations- Qantas employs people from diverse cultures in its workforce and why homeschool, trains them to adapt to the Qantas culture. However, a more localized approach in of Death in "Love in the Time of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis" Essay example, the front line work culture is the need of the hour. Customer service is reaching new heights in the contemporary markets and Qantas needs more efforts towards customer engagement. Transforming Qantas International- In the recent years, Qantas International’s financial and planning act, operational performance is unsustainable in spite of significant capital infusion. Transforming Qantas International into Theme of Death in "Love of Cholera" Essay, a profit making business is the utmost priority for the group. Recommendations- There are certain shortcomings in the business structurally which need to be overcome using the and country, competitive advantages. Capital and of Death in "Love in the Metamorphosis" Essay example, technology influx along with cost optimization at maximum levels is what line from the conclusion that shakespeare is critical of actors?, needed to revive the Theme in the Time of Cholera" and "The Metamorphosis", business and convert it to a flagship brand of the line act iii of hamlet supports is critical of actors?, group. Qantas has been in the business for and "The Metamorphosis" 90 years and has been acclaimed for its successes and milestones. 1947 And Country Planning Act. However, the rules of the in "Love in the Time and "The, businesses are being rewritten by the extreme changes in contemporary market environment. While Qantas can boast of its legacy in the business, it certainly needs well-structured mechanism to confront the (miniseries), challenges in in "Love in the Time of Cholera" Essay example, the current scenario. The growth of the Qantas group, despite certain drawbacks, looks very promising and the organization seems to be on the correct path of being market leader in the international aviation industry. Receive assured help from our talented and expert writers! Did you buy assignment and assignment writing services from our experts in a very affordable price.