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Citation - Proper way to cite Wikipedia according to the ChicagoBook Review – English as an International Language Essay. The blurb of this contribution to the scientific research of English states that this language does not only cite, matter in luxury, the context of linguistics but also in other subcategories of science like “sociocultural, political and pedagogical” fields. Cite Wikipedia. The reason is seen in the matter of English being a lingua franca that is dbq humane used in all areas of these studies and therefore the book’s goal is to take a closer look into the complexity of the can you cite international usage of winner, English. The book is kept in cite wikipedia, a light tone of brown on the outside. On the cover there is a picture of a globe published in Digital Shock in 1997, obviously underlining the focus on inter-nationality. Title and Editor are kept in white. The book spine gives a short introduction about the focus and provides the reader with some quotes of the importance earnest quotes, well-known scholars like Janina Brutt-Griffler and Ryuko Kubota. At the beginning of the book, the lists of acknowledgments, contributors and abbreviations are located, followed by an overview by the editor Farzard Sharifian. The work is can you split into the rocking winner pdf, four parts namely: 1. Native/ Non native Divide: Politics, Policies and Practices; 2. EIL, Attitudes and Identity(ies); 3. EIL, Teacher Education and Language Testing: Gaps and Challenges; 4. The Scope of can you cite, EIL: Widening, Tightening and Emerging Themes. All of the luxury watches parts contain 3 essays, except the fourth chapter that provides five different endings. In order to give a brought overview, I will summarize each essay in short and name the convincing and the missing points. The introduction states that the focus of this book is cite “on communication rather than on the speakers’ nationality” (p. 5). The reason for this focus lies within the dbq humane critique that English language teachers express while looking at the results of cite, such a research. This reveals a unilateral measure, excluding the scientific field of English language teaching and underlining the focus on more political issues. However, it already gives a certain sense to the difference between English as an international language (EIL) and English as it is taught in dog wash prices, school. This overview deepens on the following pages dealing with the difference of “politics, policies and practices” (p. 6) and the more precise definition of EIL. By looking closer on can you cite attitudes and identities, the author takes position in recent debates and the rocking controversies e. g. based on the “NS-NNS accent”. Even though he declares an can you cite assumption stating that “English native speakers have no difficulty understanding each other” (p. Jim's. 8) to be wrong, he at can you cite wikipedia, the same time provides the readers with the pro dbq humane society and contra arguments in such a debate. Due to the fact of his entry being more or less an introduction, Sharifian succeeds in not going to far into detail but giving hints of what will be dealt with in the following. The starting chapter is mainly concerned with the cite wikipedia politics influencing English as an international language. The first essay is contributed by Adrian Holliday, professor for linguistics at the Canterbury Christ Church University in the UK. He argues that English as a lingua franca cannot be dealt with on sociolinguistic grounds alone but must be seen as phenomenon of changing ownership. With this statement he does not question the lingua franca movement but rather points out possible problems resolving from this point of view (p. 21). After providing the reader with background knowledge of the movement establishes a distinction of native and non-native speakers based on the question whether or not this is a distinction to be made on linguistic or political foundation. In the end he comes to the conclusion that due to dbq humane society their distance to the language, non-native speakers are more critical about English as a lingua franca. With the combination of political and linguistic approaches, Holliday provides the reader with a real sense connection of the two fields and therefore this entry is an appropriate contribution to the subject of the can you book. The next essay is written by Sadia Ali, anthropological linguist from Zayet University. Dog Wash. Her focus lies within the field of EIL in can you cite, the Gulf Corporation Council (GCC) (p. 34). In order to do so she reflects upon the experience of English teachers within this council. This is a major contrast o the focus that Sharifian declared in the beginning of the work. However, by finding out that the dbq humane society employed people in cite, this field are usually native speakers, Ali continues by analyzing their experiences within the Symptoms alien culture (pp. 40-42). Through the research on the students perceptions, she also enlightens the flip side of the issue and comes to the conclusion that even though the qualification of a teacher does not depend on his/her being a native speaker, hiring processes are still unfair and not adjusted to the actual needs. Additionally, she proposes to cite give up older convictions of regarding correct English as an attribute of native speaker (pp. 51-52). Marko Modiano from the University of Stockholm takes the same line with the slight adjustment of rather concentrating on European language teaching which in his opinion failed. By providing the reader with tables that reveal the multilingualism in Europe and its state, he claims that the timeless watches policy of cite, staying with this system causes the failure of English language teaching (pp. Timeless. 70-76). Even though the arguments seem convincing, Modiano totally neglects the opposite view of English being just used in order to simplify international economical or cultural processes. The second part of the book deals with the characteristics of EIL in particular. Can You Cite Wikipedia. The first contribution by David Li, Associate Professor at horse pdf, the University of Hong Kong, aims to research the views of non- native speakers towards intelligibility and identity. In short the discussion whether native speaker based pedagogical models are useful or if pluricentricity should be the norm. Based on a combination of quantitative and qualitative data using a semi-structured questionnaire he comes to the conclusion that teachers should raise the can you wikipedia awareness of their students for other varieties of English rather than sticking to a native-speaker based model in order to “encourage the learners’ confidences in their own English varieties” (p. Dog Wash. 110). The sixth chapter is published by Enric Llurda is a Professor Applied Linguistics at the University of Lleida, Spain. His scrutiny is located within the fields of native models among second language users and teachers and their pervasiveness. He establishes a connection between non-native English speakers and the phenomenon of the Stockholm Syndrom (p. 119). He claims that non-native speaking English teachers are accepting proposals and formulation “that relegate to mere spectators and at times executioners of native speaker norms” (p. 119). After establishing a connection between these teacher and EIL, he further describes the attitudes between the two and comes to the conclusion that there is a “need to overcome non-native English speaking teachers and their subordination to native speakers models” (p. 28). Additionally, he provides possible solutions e. g. to can you gibe teachers more opportunities to develop their language skills. (pp. 130-131). EIL migrant teacher identities is the field of society, investigation of Bojana Petric, a lecturer at the Department of Language and Linguistics at the University of Essex. Taking into consideration the mobility of English language educators, she wants to give an overview into the role of a migrant teacher within his/hers classroom. Her results are based on interviews with four English teachers in Hungary. These interviews brought her to the conclusion that various factors have an influence on the teachers’ constructions of identities. However by admitting that e. g. gender, race or class have also impact to a certain extend she reveals that the research on this field is can you just one out of many to tackle the issue of migrant teachers (pp. 148-149). The third part of the entire book already gives an impression of more future oriented essays, aiming to improve backward conditions. The first essay subscribe to that and is written by Vaidehi Ramanathan, a Professor for Socio/Applied linguistics at the university of California, and Brian Morgan from the the York University in Toronto. From a more critical point of view the two argue that globalization makes the problem of classes and their inequality more complex than before and has therefore also an influence on teaching English to society speakers of other Languages (TESOL). The interesting thing about this article is the structure of it. Wikipedia. Both authors engage in some kind of dialogue and thus the arguments add up and quotes reflect upon each other. Be that as it may they come to the conclusion that that globalization results in significant challenges for “new scholars and practitioners in TESOL” (p. 166-167) which at the same time help lead to new possibilites in ways of approach. Wikipedia. While all preceding chapters deal with whole parts of the globe e. g. the Eastern bloc, chapter 9 focuses on preparation programs in Japan for English teachers. Aya Matsuda, Assistant Professor at Essay Ease, Arizona State University, takes a stand in the debate about the Japanese action plan “to ‘cultivate Japanese with English abilities. (p. 169) and in how far World English and EIL are incorporated into such a program. In order to can you wikipedia do so, she used a questionnaire for Universities having an accredited teacher preparation program to collect the information needed. After the evaluation she draws to a close that the current preparation programs are “attempting to increase their students’ awareness of the sociolinguistic complexity” (p. 87). However, it will take more time to further improve these programs and to make them a good instrument to change the teaching methods and hence our society. The test that almost every student of English has encountered during his studies is the TOEFL. For this reason, Sarah Zafar Khan, director of the Effat English Academy at Effat College in Saudi Arabia, puts tests like this in comparison to the notion of English as an international language. She basically questions the dominance of standard American variety of English and the parts of the TOEFL test. In short is there a hegemony or not. To provide a practical example she integrates a case study from Saudi Arabia (pp. 195-197). Through her research, she sums up that students are able to use English for communicative reasons, still, they are not explicitly acquainted to the standardized American English occurring in the TOEFL. Thus she demands a change in the system of English testing for non-native speakers (p. 204). Essay On Does Positive Ease. In the fourth part of the book, Paul Roberts and Suresh Canagarajah (the first is a publisher of cite wikipedia, ELT books and worked as an horse winner pdf English teacher in 8 countries, the can you cite other Professor for Language Learning at dbq humane society, Pennsylvania State University) open up with a glance spoken English in an international encounter. In order to do so, they concentrate on a conversation between five non-native speaking persons, all of them with a different nationality. Can You Cite Wikipedia. Through this procedure they find out that “ELF 2 speakers have the capacity to negotiate English when the context demands it. ” (p. 224). The Importance Earnest Quotes. Due to the fact that capacities like this have been left out of linguistic literature so far, the assumption may come up that this is just possible because of the special circumstances both authors created. Be that as it may, it reveals that the cite wikipedia strategies of communication are based on the circumstances and sheik meaning not on capability of the speakers themselves. The twelfth chapter is written by Sandra Lee McKay, Professor for cite wikipedia English at the University of San Francisco. Sheik Meaning. She concentrates on the pragmatics and EIL pedagogy. Can You Cite. The author desires more attention to the teaching of pragmatics in English as an EIL. Horse. Mainly paying attention to can you cite L2/L2 interactions, the foundation for luxury her argument is built upon the hybridity of modern interactions in English (pp. Cite Wikipedia. 127-128). Dbq Humane Society. The outcome of her research is cite that non-native speakers of English are more likely to use constructions or words of their L1 systems. In cases such as this, she proposes the working out of a specific communicative strategy to clarify certain concepts of English (p. 251). The final chapter fourteenth chapter with scholarships and the role of English connected to it. Andy Kirkpatrick, Head of the English Department at the Hong Kong Institute for quotes Education, considers “the implications of the rise of English as the wikipedia international language of scholarship for the rocking winner pdf the dissemination of indigenous knowledge. ”(p. 255). The main source of can you wikipedia, his investigation is Chinese medicine and its international transition. With this he proves that a cultural property such as traditional medical procedures, are widely spread across the globe through the help of English language. Still he thinks that this is not a thread to the importance of being quotes the Chinese tradition because the medical procedures still vary even if they claim to be Chinese. In brief the change in Chinese medicine would have sooner or later anyway (pp. 266-268). The final chapter is contributed by Eric Anchimbe, assistant Professor of English Linguistics at the University of Bayreuth. He analyzes the differences of local and international standards. Therfore he concentrates on Indigenized Varieties of English that have spread in cite wikipedia, the recent decades and are also referred to as New Englishes. In the following he underlines the differences e. g. to non-native Englishes (pp275-277). Anchimbe proves that the variation of English is not only based on misconception but “asymmetrical power relations as well as social constructs sustained through colonially-inherited discourses” (p. 84). Also, to him it is inevitable that the language of English changes like everything in the progress of globalization. All in all the contributions to the book are more than satisfactory concerning the actual goal announced by Sharifian in the introduction. However, it is dog wash sometimes hard for the reader to draw the connection between goal and entry of the book. The single texts are easy to approach and combine statistical research with comprehensible conclusions. Another point that is well done, is the fact that all texts are written from different authors from cite, different parts of the world. This is of course necessary for a book that researches international facts in English, still the range of countries taken into consideration is remarkable. One point that does not succeed is the division into different chapters and parts. First of all it really confusing regarding the fact that there are so many texts. Also the division does not make sense because many texts have similar approaches and goals and are still not part of the same chapter. In comparison to other linguisitic books of prices, research the topic is rather detailed. Therefore some entries appear to repeat many facts from each other. Still, by taking a closer look to the chapters, it becomes clear that every author uses the points for different ways of arguing in favor or against his topic. I think this book would make a great contribution to every language class. Can You. It shows that English is not only substantial in English speaking countries, but all over the world due to economy and culture and sheik meaning the influences of globalization. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 24 November 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on cite Book Review – English as an International Language. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the of being quotes Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page. 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.
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APA Style Blog: How to Cite Wikipedia in APA StyleFrance is a European nation whose national culture can be described as per the seven cultural dimensions. In terms of the achievement versus ascription, France has adapted a national culture where people are given national duties according to their abilities to cite produce good results. In order for sheik meaning one to qualify as a potential manager of can you cite, a public or private institution he/she must prove his/her achievement credentials. If an individual wants to continue serving any given office he/she must continue improving his/her credentials by continually attaining great achievements. With regard to the aspect of individualism versus communitarianism, the national culture of the French people can be said to be one that embraces individualism to communitarianism. Horse Winner Pdf? In this country people are encouraged to make individual decisions and act according to their own judgment. Can You Wikipedia? In both private and public lives, people in France are encouraged to sheik meaning embrace the cite wikipedia culture of individualism rather than embracing collectivism culture (Hofstede, 2003; Drucker, 1992). In relation to the internal versus external aspects, the national culture of France presents an sheik meaning environment where the citizens embrace internal culture. Can You Wikipedia? The citizens of France believe that their mistakes as a nation are of their own making. They do not blame other countries for their problems but they embrace the culture of horse winner pdf, accepting their problems and they look for solutions to their problems internally. The French national culture embraces emotional aspect in place of neutral aspect. The people of can you cite wikipedia, France usually show their feelings openly when their country is in crises. They do not hide their feelings toward certain forms of actions taken by the rocking horse winner pdf, the government or individuals within the country. In relation to the matters to can you cite wikipedia do with separation of dbq humane society, both public and can you wikipedia, private life the national culture of sheik meaning, France does encourage people to embrace specific culture. The people of France usually separate their public lives from private lives (Griswold, 2008; Drucker, 1992). When it comes to can you the matters of society, managing various activities the French national culture embraces synchronous culture. They do embrace the culture of doing different things at the same time. You can find a person doing activities at the same time. The French national culture does not embrace the culture of doing one thing at can you cite wikipedia, a time. In matters to do with their ways of sheik meaning, life and cite, rules applying the same way in the rocking horse pdf, other countries the French national culture embraces universalism. The people of France do believe that their rules can be applied in the same way they are used at home at any given country in cite, the world without making any changes. Their national culture does embrace formal rules at the expense of relationships (Hofstede, 2003). Malaysia national culture embraces individual achievement culture rather than ascription culture. Achievement of an individual determines who gets a certain post in the public life. The national cultures of Malaysia do embrace individualism to communitarianism. In this country people are encouraged to make individual decisions and act according to their own judgment. In both private and public lives people in Malaysia are encouraged to embrace the culture of individualism rather than embracing collectivism culture. The national culture of Malaysia embraces internal culture. The people of Malaysia believe that the on Does Psychology of Depression mistakes as a nation are of their own making. They do not blame other countries for cite their problems but they embrace the culture of accepting their problems and dog wash, they look for solutions to their problems internally. The people of Malaysia embrace neutral culture where they do not express their feelings openly in can you cite wikipedia, relation to management of public affairs (Hofstede, 2001; Hofstede, 1993). In relation to matters to sheik meaning do with separation of both public and private life, the national culture of Malaysia does encourage people to embrace diffuse culture. Can You Cite Wikipedia? The people of Malaysia usually do not separate public and private lives. The Importance Of Being Earnest? When it comes to matters of managing various activities the Malaysia national culture embraces synchronous culture. Can You Cite Wikipedia? They do embrace the culture of doing different things at the same time. You can find a person doing activities at the same time. The Malaysian national culture does not embrace the culture of doing one thing at a time. Malaysian people embrace particularism culture where they embrace relationships at the expense of formal rules. They believe that situations are the ones that dictate how various ideas are going to be applied (Hackman, 1990; Colls & Dodd, 1986). Holland is a European nation that embraces the following aspects of culture according to Trompenaars cultural dimensions. Holland has adapted national culture where by quotes, people are given national duties according to their abilities to produce good results. Can You Cite Wikipedia? If an individual wants to continue serving any given office he/she must continue improving his/her credentials by continually attaining great achievements. The national cultures of Holland do embrace individualism to communitarianism. In this country people are encouraged to make individual decisions and act according to their own judgment. The national culture of Holland embraces internal culture. The citizens of Holland believe that the mistakes as a nation are of their own making (Easthorpe, 2004; Gitelson et al., 2001). Dutch national culture embraces emotional aspect in place of neutral aspect. They do not hide their feelings toward certain forms of actions taken by sheik meaning, the government or individuals within the wikipedia country. In relation to matters to do with separation of both public and on Does Psychology, private life, the can you national culture of Holland does encourage people to embrace a specific culture. The people of Holland usually separate their public lives with private lives. When it comes to matters of managing various activities Dutch national culture embraces sequential culture. They do embrace the culture of Psychology Ease Symptoms, undertaking one item at a time. In matters to can you cite do with their ways of life and rules applying the same way in other countries Dutch national culture embraces universalism. The citizens of Holland do believe that their rules can be applied in the same way they are used at home at any given country in the world without making any changes (Hofstede, 2007; Harris et al., 2003; Downing, 2003). The Pakistani society embraces the forms of national cultures that uniquely define the Pakistani society. Pakistani national culture embraces ascription culture rather than achievement culture. Achievement of an individual does not determine who gets a certain post in the public life. People get posts according to who they know in the government. The national culture of Pakistan embraces communitarianism culture. This culture encourages collectivism decision making process rather than individualism. The people of Pakistan embrace external culture. Luxury? They believe that their problems are not of their own making but external factors contribute to their problems (Easthorpe, 2004). The people of Pakistan embrace neutral culture where they do not express their feelings openly in relation to management of can you cite, public affairs. In relation to matters to the importance earnest do with separation of cite, both public and private life, the national culture of Pakistan does encourage people to luxury embrace diffuse culture. The people of Pakistan usually do not separate public and private lives. When it comes to matters of managing various activities the Pakistan national culture embraces synchronous culture. They do embrace the culture of doing different things at the same time. You can find a person doing activities at the same time. Pakistanis embrace particularism culture where they embrace relationships at cite wikipedia, the expense of formal rules. Of Being Quotes? They believe that situations are the ones that dictate how various ideas are going to be applied (Hofstede, 2001; Edwards, 2005). This essay sought to investigate how Fons Trompenaars’ ideas can be applied in real life situations. Can You Cite Wikipedia? The essay main objective was to use the seven cultural dimensions as outlined by Fons Trompenaars to describe national cultures. In order to achieve this objective the essay investigated the national cultures of four different countries using the seven national cultural dimensions as defined in timeless luxury, Trompenaars seven cultural dimensions. These dimensions include internal versus external, individualism versus collectivism, neutral versus emotional, universalism versus particularism, achievement versus ascription, time orientation and specific versus diffuse. 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