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Follow the steps below to formulate a thesis statement. All cells must contain text. 2. State your opinion/main idea about Measure Essay this topic. This will form the of paleolithic era heart of your thesis. An effective statement will. express one major idea. On My Smart Assessment Results Essay! name the topic and assert something specific about it. be a more specific statement than the topic statement above. take a stance on an issue about which reasonable people might disagree. state your position on or opinion about the issue. 3. Give the strongest reason or assertion that supports your opinion/main idea. 4. Give another strong reason or assertion that supports your opinion/main idea. 5. Give one more strong reason or assertion that supports your opinion/main idea. 6. Include an soft drink shares opposing viewpoint to your opinion/main idea, if applicable. This should be an argument for the opposing view that you admit has some merit, even if you do not agree with the overall viewpoint. 7. Provide a possible title for your essay. Thesis Statement Model #1: Sample Thesis Statement. Parents should regulate the amount of television their children watch. Thesis Statement Model #2: Thesis with Concession. Notice that this model makes a concession by addressing an Reflection on My Smart Essay argument from the opposing viewpoint first, and then uses the phrase "even though" and states the writer's opinion/main idea as a rebuttal. Even though television can be educational, parents should regulate the amount of Essay on Equality Between Genders, television their children watch. Thesis Statement Model #3: Thesis with Reasons. Here, the use of "because" reveals the reasons behind the writer's opinion/main idea. parents should regulate the amount of television their children watch because it shortens children's attention spans, it inhibits social interaction, and it isn't always intellectually stimulating. Thesis Statement Model #4: Thesis with Concession and Reasons. This model both makes a concession to opposing viewpoint and states the reasons/arguments for the writer's main idea. While television can be educational , parents should regulate the amount of Reflection Assessment, television their children watch because it inhibits social interaction, shortens children's attention spans, and Black & Decker Evaluating Lock Business isn't always intellectually stimulating. Remember: These thesis statements are generated based on the answers provided on the form. Use the Thesis Statement Guide as many times as you like. Your ideas and the results are anonymous and confidential. When you build a thesis statement that works for you, ensure that it addresses the assignment. Finally, you may have to on My Smart Assessment, rewrite the thesis statement so that the spelling, grammar, and punctuation are correct. Thesis Statement Guide: Sample Outline. Use the Between outline below, which is based on the five–paragraph essay model, when drafting a plan for Reflection on My Results, your own essay. This is meant as a guide only, so we encourage you to revise it in a way that works best for a mocking chapter, you. Start your introduction with an on My interesting "hook" to reel your reader in. An introduction can begin with a rhetorical question, a quotation, an anecdote, a concession, an of paleolithic interesting fact, or a question that will be answered in your paper. The idea is to begin broadly and gradually bring the reader closer to on My Smart Measure Assessment, the main idea of the paper. At the end of the introduction, you will present your thesis statement. The thesis statement model used in this example is a thesis with reasons. Even though television can be educational , parents should regulate the amount of television their children watch because it shortens children's attention spans, it inhibits social interaction, and Black for a Lock Business it is not always intellectually stimulating. First, parents should regulate the amount of television their children watch because it shortens children's attention spans . Notice that this Assertion is the Reflection on My Results first reason presented in the thesis statement. Remember that the thesis statement is definition era a kind of "mapping tool" that helps you organize your ideas, and it helps your reader follow your argument. In this body paragraph, after the Measure Assessment Results Essay Assertion, include any evidence–a quotation, statistic, data–that supports this first point. Explain what the evidence means. Show the to kill a mocking bird chapter 1 reader how this entire paragraph connects back to the thesis statement. Additionally, it inhibits social interaction . The first sentence of the second body paragraph should reflect an even stronger Assertion to support the Reflection Measure thesis statement. Generally, the second point listed in soft drink shares the thesis statement should be developed here. Like with the Measure Essay previous paragraph, include any evidence–a quotation, statistic, data–that supports this point after the Assertion. Explain what the evidence means. Show the bird chapter 1 reader how this entire paragraph connects back to the thesis statement. Finally, the most important reason parents should regulate the amount of television their children watch is it is not always intellectually stimulating . Your strongest point should be revealed in the final body paragraph. Also, if it's appropriate, you can address and refute any opposing viewpoints to your thesis statement here. As always, include evidence–a quotation, statistic, data–that supports your strongest point. Explain what the Measure Assessment evidence means. Show the strategies reader how this entire paragraph connects back to Reflection Smart Assessment Results, the thesis statement. Indeed, while television can be educational, parents should regulate the intensive amount of television their children watch . Rephrase your thesis statement in the first sentence of the Reflection Smart Measure Results Essay conclusion. Instead of summarizing the points you just made, synthesize them. Soft Drink Market Shares! Show the reader how everything fits together. On My Essay! While you don't want to present new material here, you can echo the definition introduction, ask the on My Measure reader questions, look to & Decker the Plan for a Global Lock Business, the future, or challenge your reader. Remember: This outline is based on the five–paragraph model. Reflection Assessment! Expand or condense it according to your particular assignment or the size of your opinion/main idea. Again, use the Thesis Statement Guide as many times as you like, until you reach a thesis statement and outline that works for you.

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Free sample essay on Reflection on My Assessment Results, Choosing a Career . Casual approach in choosing a career or profession can prove very harmful. Drink Market. It reflects indecision, lack of dedication, purpose and carelessness. Casual approach in choosing a career or profession can prove very harmful. It reflects indecision, lack of dedication, purpose and carelessness. Gone are the days when birth, caste, heredity and family decided one’s career. Reflection Smart Assessment Essay. One followed the footsteps of one’s father in India. Now, life is very complex and these are the days of specialisation. There is an infinite variety of professions and jobs, which may lead one to confusion and bewilderment. It makes the choice of a career all the more difficult. The lack of proper guidance and counseling further worsens the situation. Consequently, young men and women are seen groping in the dark and making wrong career-choices. The ever-increasing number of job- seekers, ill-equipped to make right decisions in the matter, has generated a lot of frustration, hopelessness, alienation, unrest and acts of Essay Genders indiscipline. It also means a waste of human resources and on My Smart Assessment Essay, national wealth. The right and timely choice of a career is strategies of fundamental importance. It is so crucial that the on My Smart future success or failure of a person depends on it. A correct choice of what is photoreceptors career may lead to success, happiness and prosperity, while a wrong and late one may lead to sorrow, repentance, failure and Smart Measure Results, lifelong frustration. The fruits of wrong and late decisions are numerous and Essay Genders, bitter. To avoid these, one should try to choose one’s career as early as possible, preferably at the high school stage, according to one’s aptitude and resources. Reflection Smart Assessment Results Essay. But school-going students are not the definition best judges in the matter as they are immature and inexperienced. They need sincere guidance, counseling and help, which can be very well provided by the teachers, counselors, elders, and professional experts in the field. Image Source : 185.26.182.219. Young people are ambitious and impatient. They aspire for top positions and careers without taking considering their skills, intellectual capacities, and aptitudes, financial and other resources. A young man or woman may hitch his or her wagon to a top post or to the I.A.S. Smart Measure Results. but may end up as a petty clerk or a receptionist. One may desire to become a star in the film- world and may end up as a mere casual artist or helper in the industry, or even worse. Choosing a profession for life is intensive strategies a little more than building castles in the air. It is Reflection Measure Assessment no use shooting in the dark and hoping to hit the bull’s eye. Vain efforts, ill- considered decisions and ill-conceived plans lead to repentance, failure, frustration and waste of national talent. Our defective education and examination system and on Equality Between, policies have further added to the confusion. What is Reflection Assessment Results needed now are immediate and fundamental changes in bird our education system, to vocationalised and diversify it at secondary level by introducing knowledge and skills that may enable a student to take up remunerative work without necessarily having to go in for higher education? There should be plenty of vocational courses to choose from at Reflection Assessment Essay the +2 level. & Decker International: Evaluating The Plan Business. There should also be counseling and guidance services in each and Reflection Assessment Results, every secondary school to help students in choosing their careers according to their aptitudes, skills, qualification and Business, resources. There are many training institutions, polytechnics, industrial training centres and professional colleges but they are not of much help in the absence of career guidance services. Therefore, the Reflection Smart Measure Assessment selection of the intensive strategies right profession and right institution has become difficult and complex and needs full consideration and professional approach. There are many careers and professions, such as teaching, engineering, law, technical trades, business, commerce, computer programming, banking, finance, journalism, publication, government employment, positions in police and armed forces, besides starting one’s own shop, factory or workshop. Then, one can choose acting, films, commercial art, and photography or become a stenographer. But each and every profession requires special skill, training and know how. One cannot choose a career at random. Choosing a career is no more a matter of one’s likes and dislikes. There are many other factors to be considered. Besides mental makeup, capability and interest, the financial resources also have to be taken into account. One may want to become a doctor, executive, business entrepreneur or a computer engineer and may be well qualified to enter a medical, business or engineering college, but cannot do so if financial resources and the required means are lacking. In such a condition one will have to settle for on My Smart Assessment Essay some humble and less ambitious career. Change of career midstream may prove very risky, and definition of paleolithic, so, a career should be selected very carefully and with full planning and deliberation and on My, consultations with parents, teachers, elders, friends and professionals. One can take to & Decker International: Evaluating the Plan for a Lock, politics if one has an Reflection on My Smart Measure Results aptitude for public life and skills to make the people listen and follow. You need not pay heed to the saying that politics is the last refuge of the scoundrels. There have been many highly noble souls and personalities in politics. Take for example, Gandhiji, Pt. Nehru, Deshbandhu Chittranjan Das or Aruna Asaf Ali or Sarojini Naidu, to name only a few. Black & Decker International: Evaluating Global. It is a profession full of ups and downs, sudden reversals of fortunes and, at times, long drawn out struggle and strife. If you possess staunch optimism, strong determination, ambition for fame and popularity and are prepared to face the worst and yet turn it into the best, you are well-suited for the career of a politician. Similarly, if you are adventurous, bold and Reflection on My Assessment Results, dashing, you can choose a military or a police career. There your abilities, skills, and aptitude, etc. will find full scope to definition of paleolithic era, flourish and blossom. If you have an Smart Measure Results aptitude for studies, books, magazines, learning and teaching, you may join the teaching profession as a teacher in a school or a lecturer in a college. Again, if you have enough money and resources and Essay Genders, want to grow rich, you can choose to start your own business. The choice is yours but needs a very careful selection, for once you have chosen a career, it is not possible or advisable to on My Smart Assessment, retrace your steps. While choosing a career one stands at cross-roads, with many roads converging on the point and you have to decide which one to take. Once the die is cast, there is no way out. In deciding your career you have to be practical, logical, rational, and what is photoreceptors, shrewd. This is Reflection Smart Measure Assessment Essay a crucial choice which will make or mar your future and also that of others who depend upon you. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Essay. What. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Before publishing your Essay on this site, please read the following pages:

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Photo ©John M. Randall/The Nature Conservancy. Zouhar, Kris. Reflection On My Measure Assessment. 2002. Cirsium vulgare. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/cirvul/all.html [ ]. The currently accepted scientific name of bull thistle is Evaluating the Plan Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore (Asteraceae) [13,28,39,53,56,69,71,75,76,84,93,107,136,145,157,160,161,165,166]. Bull thistle exhibits variation in several morphological characteristics that have been described as subspecies by some authors; however, the Flora Europaea does not recognize these taxa because they lack sufficient morphological or geographical delimitation [50]. Several hybrids of Reflection on My Smart Results Essay bull thistle have been described in of paleolithic era Europe, and 1 suggested in on My Smart Measure Assessment Results Essay California. See reviews by Klinkhamer and deJong [80] and Forcella and Randall [50] for more information. No special status. At the time of this writing (2002), bull thistle is classified as a noxious, restricted, or prohibited weed or weed seed in 10 states in the United States and 2 Canadian provinces [154]. See the Invaders or Plants databases for definition more information. The origin, distribution and spread of bull thistle are reviewed by Beck [15], Mitich [106] and Forcella and Randall [50]. The following is a summary from these reviews. Reflection Assessment Results Essay. Bull thistle is native to Europe, from intensive, Britain and Reflection on My Assessment Essay, Iberia northward to Black & Decker Evaluating for a Business Scandinavia, eastward to western Asia, and southward to northern Africa [50]. Smart Measure Assessment. It is found on every continent except Antarctica, although its distribution is of paleolithic era confined mostly to the northern and southern temperate zones. Bull thistle is not native to North America. On My Smart Measure Assessment. It is strategies thought to have been introduced to eastern North America during colonial times, and to on My Assessment Essay western North America in scattered locations in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Bull thistle is now common throughout the intensive strategies Pacific States, and it is the most common and widespread of pasture and rangeland thistles in western North America. The Plants database provides a distribution map of bull thistle in the United States. Although bull thistle has been reported in all 50 states and most Canadian provinces [75,153], it usually is not considered as problematic as musk thistle ( Carduus nutans ) or Scotch thistle ( Onopordum acanthium ) [15]. Smart Measure Assessment Results Essay. Bull thistle is most troublesome in recently or repeatedly disturbed areas such as pastures, overgrazed rangelands, forest clearcuts, and what, waste places; and along roads, ditches, and fences. It is also a problem in some natural areas such as Yosemite National Park, California [50]. The following lists reflect ecosystems and cover types in which bull thistle may be invasive. Because it is so widespread and has broad ecological tolerances, it is difficult to exclude many ecosystems as potential hosts of bull thistle plants or populations. FRES10 White-red-jack pine. FRES12 Longleaf-slash pine. FRES13 Loblolly-shortleaf pine. FRES21 Ponderosa pine. FRES22 Western white pine. FRES24 Hemlock-Sitka spruce. FRES26 Lodgepole pine. FRES28 Western hardwoods. FRES30 Desert shrub. FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe. FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub. FRES36 Mountain grasslands. FRES37 Mountain meadows. FRES38 Plains grasslands. FRES40 Desert grasslands. FRES41 Wet grasslands. FRES42 Annual grasslands. 1 Northern Pacific Border. 2 Cascade Mountains. 3 Southern Pacific Border. 4 Sierra Mountains. 5 Columbia Plateau. 6 Upper Basin and Range. 7 Lower Basin and Range. 8 Northern Rocky Mountains. 9 Middle Rocky Mountains. 10 Wyoming Basin. 11 Southern Rocky Mountains. 12 Colorado Plateau. 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont. 14 Great Plains. 15 Black Hills Uplift. 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands. K001 Spruce-cedar-hemlock forest. K002 Cedar-hemlock-Douglas-fir forest. K003 Silver fir-Douglas-fir forest. K004 Fir-hemlock forest. K005 Mixed conifer forest. K006 Redwood forest. K007 Red fir forest. K008 Lodgepole pine-subalpine forest. K009 Pine-cypress forest. K010 Ponderosa shrub forest. K011 Western ponderosa forest. K012 Douglas-fir forest. K013 Cedar-hemlock-pine forest. K014 Grand fir-Douglas-fir forest. K015 Western spruce-fir forest. K016 Eastern ponderosa forest. K017 Black Hills pine forest. K018 Pine-Douglas-fir forest. K019 Arizona pine forest. K020 Spruce-fir-Douglas-fir forest. K021 Southwestern spruce-fir forest. K022 Great Basin pine forest. K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland. K024 Juniper steppe woodland. K025 Alder-ash forest. K026 Oregon oakwoods. K027 Mesquite bosques. K028 Mosaic of K002 and K026. K029 California mixed evergreen forest. K030 California oakwoods. K031 Oak-juniper woodland. K032 Transition between K031 and K037. K034 Montane chaparral. K035 Coastal sagebrush. K036 Mosaic of K030 and K035. K037 Mountain-mahogany-oak scrub. K038 Great Basin sagebrush. K041 Creosote bush. K042 Creosote bush-bursage. K043 Paloverde-cactus shrub. K044 Creosote bush-tarbush. K048 California steppe. K049 Tule marshes. K052 Alpine meadows and on My Results, barren. K053 Grama-galleta steppe. K054 Grama-tobosa prairie. K055 Sagebrush steppe. K056 Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe. K057 Galleta-threeawn shrubsteppe. K058 Grama-tobosa shrubsteppe. K059 Trans-Pecos shrub savanna. K063 Foothills prairie. K065 Grama-buffalo grass. K068 Wheatgrass-grama-buffalo grass. K069 Bluestem-grama prairie. K070 Sandsage-bluestem prairie. K072 Sea oats prairie. K073 Northern cordgrass prairie. K074 Bluestem prairie. K075 Nebraska Sandhills prairie. K076 Blackland prairie. K077 Bluestem-sacahuista prairie. K081 Oak savanna. K082 Mosaic of K074 and K100. K083 Cedar glades. K084 Cross Timbers. K085 Mesquite-buffalo grass. K088 Fayette prairie. K089 Black Belt. K090 Live oak-sea oats. K093 Great Lakes spruce-fir forest. K094 Conifer bog. K095 Great Lakes pine forest. K096 Northeastern spruce-fir forest. K097 Southeastern spruce-fir forest. K098 Northern floodplain forest. K099 Maple-basswood forest. K100 Oak-hickory forest. K101 Elm-ash forest. K102 Beech-maple forest. K103 Mixed mesophytic forest. K104 Appalachian oak forest. K106 Northern hardwoods. K107 Northern hardwoods-fir forest. K108 Northern hardwoods-spruce forest. K109 Transition between K104 and to kill bird chapter, K106. K110 Northeastern oak-pine forest. K112 Southern mixed forest. K113 Southern floodplain forest. K115 Sand pine scrub. K116 Subtropical pine forest. 12 Black spruce. 13 Black spruce-tamarack. 14 Northern pin oak. 19 Gray birch-red maple. 20 White pine-northern red oak-red maple. 21 Eastern white pine. 22 White pine-hemlock. 23 Eastern hemlock. 24 Hemlock-yellow birch. 25 Sugar maple-beech-yellow birch. 26 Sugar maple-basswood. 28 Black cherry-maple. 30 Red spruce-yellow birch. 31 Red spruce-sugar maple-beech. 33 Red spruce-balsam fir. 34 Red spruce-Fraser fir. 35 Paper birch-red spruce-balsam fir. 37 Northern white-cedar. 39 Black ash-American elm-red maple. 40 Post oak-blackjack oak. 44 Chestnut oak. 46 Eastern redcedar. 50 Black locust. 51 White pine-chestnut oak. 52 White oak-black oak-northern red oak. 55 Northern red oak. 58 Yellow-poplar-eastern hemlock. 59 Yellow-poplar-white oak-northern red oak. 60 Beech-sugar maple. 61 River birch-sycamore. 62 Silver maple-American elm. 65 Pin oak-sweetgum. 66 Ashe juniper-redberry (Pinchot) juniper. 70 Longleaf pine. 71 Longleaf pine-scrub oak. 72 Southern scrub oak. 73 Southern redcedar. 74 Cabbage palmetto. 75 Shortleaf pine. 76 Shortleaf pine-oak. 78 Virginia pine-oak. 79 Virginia pine. 80 Loblolly pine-shortleaf pine. 81 Loblolly pine. 82 Loblolly pine-hardwood. 83 Longleaf pine-slash pine. 85 Slash pine-hardwood. 88 Willow oak-water oak-diamondleaf (laurel) oak. 91 Swamp chestnut oak-cherrybark oak. 92 Sweetgum-willow oak. 93 Sugarberry-American elm-green ash. 94 Sycamore-sweetgum-American elm. 95 Black willow. 96 Overcup oak-water hickory. 97 Atlantic white-cedar. 103 Water tupelo-swamp tupelo. 104 Sweetbay-swamp tupelo-redbay. 105 Tropical hardwoods. 107 White spruce. 111 South Florida slash pine. 201 White spruce. 202 White spruce-paper birch. 203 Balsam poplar. 204 Black spruce. 205 Mountain hemlock. 206 Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir. 208 Whitebark pine. 209 Bristlecone pine. 210 Interior Douglas-fir. 212 Western larch. 215 Western white pine. 216 Blue spruce. 218 Lodgepole pine. 219 Limber pine. 220 Rocky Mountain juniper. 222 Black cottonwood-willow. 223 Sitka spruce. 224 Western hemlock. 225 Western hemlock-Sitka spruce. 226 Coastal true fir-hemlock. 227 Western redcedar-western hemlock. 228 Western redcedar. 229 Pacific Douglas-fir. 230 Douglas-fir-western hemlock. 233 Oregon white oak. 234 Douglas-fir-tanoak-Pacific madrone. 237 Interior ponderosa pine. 238 Western juniper. 240 Arizona cypress. 241 Western live oak. 243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer. 244 Pacific ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir. 245 Pacific ponderosa pine. 246 California black oak. 247 Jeffrey pine. 248 Knobcone pine. 249 Canyon live oak. 250 Blue oak-foothills pine. 251 White spruce-aspen. 252 Paper birch. 253 Black spruce-white spruce. 254 Black spruce-paper birch. 255 California coast live oak. 256 California mixed subalpine. 101 Bluebunch wheatgrass. 102 Idaho fescue. 103 Green fescue. 104 Antelope bitterbrush-bluebunch wheatgrass. 105 Antelope bitterbrush-Idaho fescue. 106 Bluegrass scabland. 107 Western juniper/big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass. 108 Alpine Idaho fescue. 109 Ponderosa pine shrubland. 110 Ponderosa pine-grassland. 201 Blue oak woodland. 202 Coast live oak woodland. 203 Riparian woodland. 204 North coastal shrub. 205 Coastal sage shrub. 206 Chamise chaparral. 207 Scrub oak mixed chaparral. 208 Ceanothus mixed chaparral. 209 Montane shrubland. 211 Creosote bush scrub. 213 Alpine grassland. 214 Coastal prairie. 215 Valley grassland. 216 Montane meadows. 301 Bluebunch wheatgrass-blue grama. 302 Bluebunch wheatgrass-Sandberg bluegrass. 303 Bluebunch wheatgrass-western wheatgrass. 304 Idaho fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass. 305 Idaho fescue-Richardson needlegrass. 306 Idaho fescue-slender wheatgrass. 307 Idaho fescue-threadleaf sedge. 308 Idaho fescue-tufted hairgrass. 309 Idaho fescue-western wheatgrass. 310 Needle-and-thread-blue grama. 311 Rough fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass. 312 Rough fescue-Idaho fescue. 313 Tufted hairgrass-sedge. 314 Big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass. 315 Big sagebrush-Idaho fescue. 316 Big sagebrush-rough fescue. 317 Bitterbrush-bluebunch wheatgrass. 318 Bitterbrush-Idaho fescue. 319 Bitterbrush-rough fescue. 320 Black sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass. 321 Black sagebrush-Idaho fescue. 322 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany-bluebunch wheatgrass. 323 Shrubby cinquefoil-rough fescue. 324 Threetip sagebrush-Idaho fescue. 401 Basin big sagebrush. 402 Mountain big sagebrush. 403 Wyoming big sagebrush. 404 Threetip sagebrush. 405 Black sagebrush. 406 Low sagebrush. 407 Stiff sagebrush. 408 Other sagebrush types. 410 Alpine rangeland. 411 Aspen woodland. 412 Juniper-pinyon woodland. 414 Salt desert shrub. 415 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany. 416 True mountain-mahogany. 417 Littleleaf mountain-mahogany. 418 Bigtooth maple. 503 Arizona chaparral. 504 Juniper-pinyon pine woodland. 505 Grama-tobosa shrub. 507 Palo verde-cactus. 509 Transition between oak-juniper woodland and on My Measure Assessment Results, mahogany-oak association. 601 Bluestem prairie. 602 Bluestem-prairie sandreed. 603 Prairie sandreed-needlegrass. 604 Bluestem-grama prairie. 605 Sandsage prairie. 611 Blue grama-buffalo grass. 613 Fescue grassland. 614 Crested wheatgrass. 701 Alkali sacaton-tobosagrass. 702 Black grama-alkali sacaton. 703 Black grama-sideoats grama. 704 Blue grama-western wheatgrass. 705 Blue grama-galleta. 706 Blue grama-sideoats grama. 707 Blue grama-sideoats grama-black grama. 710 Bluestem prairie. 711 Bluestem-sacahuista prairie. 712 Galleta-alkali sacaton. 715 Grama-buffalo grass. 717 Little bluestem-Indiangrass-Texas wintergrass. 720 Sand bluestem-little bluestem (dunes) 721 Sand bluestem-little bluestem (plains) 722 Sand sagebrush-mixed prairie. 724 Sideoats grama-New Mexico feathergrass-winterfat. 725 Vine mesquite-alkali sacaton. 727 Mesquite-buffalo grass. 730 Sand shinnery oak. 731 Cross timbers-Oklahoma. 732 Cross timbers-Texas (little bluestem-post oak) 735 Sideoats grama-sumac-juniper. 802 Missouri prairie. 803 Missouri glades. 804 Tall fescue. 808 Sand pine scrub. 809 Mixed hardwood and soft drink market shares, pine. 815 Upland hardwood hammocks. 816 Cabbage palm hammocks. 817 Oak hammocks. Bull thistle is widespread and Reflection Measure Assessment Results, occurs in many types of plant communities in North America. A comprehensive treatment of plant communities in which it occurs is not available. The following discussion provides examples of plant communities associated with bull thistle that have been mentioned in the literature. In the soft drink market Pacific Northwest, bull thistle occurs on foothills and in Measure Essay dry meadows [69]. It occurs in bird chapter riparian areas, clearcuts, and alder ( Alnus spp.) flats in the western hemlock-Sitka spruce ( Tsuga heterophylla-Picea sitchensis ) zones on Smart Measure Assessment Results Olympic Peninsula in Washington [35]. Bull thistle also occurs in riparian areas and in ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa ) communities on preserves in northeastern Oregon [129]. In the Intermountain region, bull thistle occurs primarily in disturbed habitats and in seepage areas or along streams [28]. It often establishes after disturbance (logging with and & Decker International: Global Lock, without burning) in grand fir ( Abies grandis ), Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii ), and ponderosa pine forests in Idaho [57,141], Oregon [27,45,104], and Montana [4,5]. Reflection Smart Measure Assessment Results Essay. Bull thistle often establishes after timber harvest with and without burning in is photoreceptors western hemlock, western redcedar ( Thuja plicata ), and grand fir forests in Reflection on My Results Essay northern Idaho [72]; and in grand fir and subalpine fir ( Abies lasiocarpa ) forests in western Montana [2,92,143]. Bull thistle is also invasive in grasslands on Thousand Springs Preserve in what Idaho [129]. Bull thistle is found on tallgrass prairie sites on Reflection on My Assessment preserves in South Dakota [129]. In Michigan, bull thistle may establish after logging in oak-hickory ( Quercus-Carya spp.) and maple ( Acer spp.)-oak forests [29,85]. Drink Market Shares. Here it may also establish after fire or ground disturbance such as bulldozing, and can also invade natural communities adjacent to disturbed habitats [157]. Reflection Assessment Results. In Minnesota, bull thistle established after full-tree logging in a balsam fir-paper birch ( Abies balsamea - Betula papyrifera ) community [113]. Bull thistle often establishes in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests after clearcutting [1,95,96,97]. It is also an definition of paleolithic era important understory species in tanoak ( Lithocarpus densiflorus ) forests in California and Oregon [149]. BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS. The following description is based on reviews by Beck [15], Klinkhamer and de Jong [80] and Forcella and Randall [50]. Reflection On My Smart Measure Assessment Essay. It presents characteristics of bull thistle that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant to be used for identification. Keys for identifying bull thistle are available (e.g. [28,53,56,84,161]). Drink Market. A detailed description of the biology of bull thistle is given by Reflection on My Measure Assessment Results Klinkhamer and de Jong [80]. Bull thistle is a biennial, and sometimes annual or monocarpic perennial, forb. In the juvenile phase, individual bull thistle plants form a single rosette with a taproot up to 28 inches (70 cm) long. Rosettes may develop up to 3.3 feet (1 m) in diameter. The taproot does not spread, but develops several smaller lateral roots. Stems have spiny wings and grow 1 to 6.6 feet (0.3 to 2 m) tall, with many spreading branches, and sometimes a single stem. Bull thistle stem leaves are more or less lance-shaped and 3 to 12 inches (7.6-30 cm) long, prickly hairy on the top and very hairy underneath. Lobes on leaves are tipped with stout spines. To Kill Bird Chapter 1. Bull thistle flowerheads are 1.5 to 2 inches (3.8 to 5 cm) in diameter, 1 to Reflection Measure Essay 2 inches (2.5-5 cm) long, usually solitary, and more or less clustered at the ends of shoots and of paleolithic, branches. On My. Flowers are subtended by narrow, spine-tipped bracts. Intensive. Bull thistle fruits are achenes, 1/16th-inch (0.15 cm) long, with a long, hairy plume that is easily detached. The litter of Cirsium species is Reflection on My Smart Measure Assessment Essay said to inhibit the growth of other plants. In bull thistle, this is probably a result of the immobilization of nutrients during the process of litter breakdown [80]. Is Photoreceptors. Descriptions of on My Smart Measure Assessment mycorrhizal associations in bull thistle [17,62] and their positive effects on its growth [163] are available. A detailed description of reproductive and vegetative biology of to kill bird 1 bull thistle in New Zealand is provided by Michaux [103]. Breeding system: Bull thistle reproduces and spreads entirely from seeds [80]. Bull thistle flowers are bisexual [80,122]. While there is some evidence of Smart Measure Assessment self-pollination, selfing may result only in hollow seeds; therefore, bull thistle may require cross-pollination to set fertile seed. Only those plants that flower during the on Equality main flowering period, or where plants are growing in sufficient density, will contribute substantially to the following generation [103]. Klinkhamer and de Jong [80] report that self-pollinated plants produce a smaller number of large seeds than do cross-pollinated individuals. A review by Forcella and Randall [50], however, indicates that heavy seeds may be produced through self-pollination, and that these seeds can establish at high rates and enable isolated plants to begin new populations. Pollination: Bull thistle flowers produce abundant nectar [122] and require pollinators for effective pollination [103]. A wide variety of insects pollinate bull thistle [106]. Pollinators of bull thistle in Smart Measure Results New Zealand include honey bees, bumble bees, flower flies and various other adult Lepidoptera, Thysanoptera, and Hymenoptera [103]. Seed production: Bull thistle plants produce about a mocking bird chapter, 100 to 300 or more seeds per Reflection on My Essay flowerhead under favorable conditions, and definition of paleolithic, anywhere from Reflection on My Measure Essay, 1 to drink shares over 400 flowerheads per plant [50,79,80,103,122]. Variability in production of seeds per flowerhead and flowerheads per plant yields a wide range in number of seeds produced per Smart Measure Assessment Results Essay plant. Bull thistle seed production can also vary considerably among years and within populations [79]. Definition Era. Size of mature bull thistle plants, timing of Reflection Measure Results Essay flowering and environmental conditions can influence seed production. The number of viable seeds produced by a bull thistle plant varies with its overall size [50,103], which is, in turn, influenced by competition, site conditions, and herbivory [50]. Seed production and seedling establishment are often enhanced under disturbed conditions, which create open, habitable sites for invasive species [15]. A comparison of bull thistle demography in grazed and ungrazed pastures in Australia found that plants produced nearly 3 times as much seed on average in heavily grazed pasture (33 flowerheads per plant and 198 seeds per flowerhead) compared to to kill a mocking ungrazed pasture (19 flowerheads per Reflection Measure Assessment plant and 149 seeds per soft drink market flowerhead) when averaged over Reflection Smart Assessment Results, 3 years [49]. Bull thistle seed production on drink shares Dutch coastal dunes was much lower than that recorded in an experimental garden, and was positively correlated with July rainfall. Seed and stem predation contributed to losses of 95% to over 99% in seed production on coastal dunes [79,80]. Time of flowering also affects total seed production in bull thistle. Seed production is highest in flowerheads that bloom during the peak of flowering at a particular location. At this time, more flowers are available for cross-pollination, and pollinators are most active [49,103]. Forcella and Randall [50] suggest that a lack of sufficient photosynthate and nutrients during aging can decrease seed production substantially. Seed dispersal: Bull thistle seeds are equipped with a feathery pappus that is Reflection Results suited to wind dispersal, although it is unclear how effective this dispersal mechanism is. Several researchers (e.g. [1,92,95,97,137,143,150]) cite instances where bull thistle established after disturbance, possibly from wind-dispersed seed, unless bull thistle plants established from Between, seed carried by animals or human activities or from seed stored in Reflection on My Smart soil (see "Seed banking" section below). Michaux [103] notes that the Black for a Business pappus readily detaches from bull thistle seed at maturity, so a majority of seeds (91%) fall within a distance of on My Smart Results Essay 1.5 times the height of the Between parent plant. This explains the dense pattern of on My Smart Assessment Essay seedlings near the parent plant often observed in the field [103]. On Equality. On coastal dunes in the Netherlands, seeds landing within 3, 7, and 106 feet (1, 2, and 32 m) of parent plants represented 50, 66, and 90% of those observed. The remaining 10% reached higher air levels and dispersed to unknown distances greater than 106 feet (32 m) [79]. Reflection On My Measure Results Essay. Based on weight, size, shape, fall speed, and what is photoreceptors, lateral movement of bull thistle achenes in still air, the estimated lateral dispersal distance in a 6-mile-per-hour (10 km/hour) breeze is 38 feet (11.6 m) [94]. These studies suggest that wind dispersal is an inefficient mechanism for the majority of bull thistle seed, even under ideal conditions. However, up to 10% of seeds produced may travel distances of more than 90 feet (27 m), even on Smart Measure Essay days with little wind [122], thus providing opportunities for establishment of new populations. Rapid migration of bull thistle across large geographical regions is probably the result of human activities including movement of livestock, vehicles, farm machines, and plant products (such as seed and hay) [15,50,103]. Reviews by Mitich [106] and Beck [15] also suggest that bull thistle seeds may be carried by water and drink market, animals. Seed banking: Evidence for seed banking in bull thistle varies. Reflection Assessment Results. Numerous examples of is photoreceptors bull thistle establishment following disturbance suggest either long-distance seed dispersal or seed stored in the soil. Reviews by Doucet and Cavers [41], Michaux [103], and Forcella and Randall [50] indicate that bull thistle is characterized as having either a transient or a very small persistent seed bank. Reflection Smart Measure Assessment Essay. Doucet and Cavers [41] note that studies concluding that bull thistle has a short-lived seed bank (e.g. [79]) only consider seeds located on market shares or near the soil surface, and that seeds buried at least 6 inches (15 cm) may have over 50% viability 3 years after burial. Bull thistle seeds at or near the soil surface either germinate or are destroyed by rodents, insects, or microbes [79]. Smart Measure Assessment Essay. Those buried at greater depths appear to experience an induced dormancy, and decay more slowly with increasing depth [38,80,103]. Soft. A seed bank at 6 inches (15 cm) or deeper will not maintain a bull thistle population from year to year, but it could provide seeds that would re-establish the population after major physical disturbance of the soil [41]. In noncultivated areas, however, bull thistle seeds are not usually buried to Reflection on My Assessment great depths. To form a persistent seed bank, bull thistle seeds would have to exhibit some form of what dormancy that would enable them to remain viable at Reflection Smart Assessment Results Essay, or near the surface of the soil without germinating [41]. Klinkhamer and de Jong [80] state that maintaining bull thistle seeds in an imbibed state in darkness induces dormancy. This suggests that in densely vegetated habitats it is possible that bull thistle seeds may become dormant and remain viable without germinating. Bull thistle seeds from 2 populations in Ontario established a persistent seed bank when buried 6 inches (15 cm). After storage on the soil surface or at 1-inch (3 cm) depth, bull thistle seeds in sandy soil on an open site did not persist beyond 6 months. In contrast, 2 to 14% of shares bull thistle seeds stored in shaded conditions in a clay loam soil maintained viability for 30 months at Essay, the surface and at 1 inch below the strategies surface, with no decline in the number of viable seeds over time, suggesting an induced dormancy [41]. Induced dormancy might also explain why, although bull thistle was not present in the vegetation of 40- to 60-year-old, closed canopy forest understories in low-elevation forest on the Olympic Peninsula, it germinated from both litter and soil samples when placed in a greenhouse. This result suggests that bull thistle will establish on these sites following overstory removal [61]. Evidence provided by Doucet and Reflection Measure, Cavers [41,42], and by greenhouse studies in which bull thistle emerged from litter and soil samples from forested sites with little to no bull thistle cover [81,118,146], supports the to kill chapter 1 possibility of a small persistent seed bank in bull thistle. There are also numerous examples of bull thistle's early seral dominance after disturbances such as harvesting [4,5,27,29,57,60,72,113,128,131], burning [10,16], or both [4,5,45,85,104,141], although it is on My Measure Assessment Results not clear from these studies whether bull thistle established from buried seed or from seed dispersed from an off-site source. Germination: Bull thistle seed viability is generally high, and may vary between 60 and 90% [80,103] or more [122]. The Plan For A Global. Reviews by on My Smart Measure Michaux [103] and Klinkhamer and definition era, de Jong [80] indicate that bull thistle seeds have little innate dormancy and germinate rapidly after imbibition, while a review by Beck [15] indicates that 60 to 75% of bull thistle seeds may be dormant at on My Smart Measure Assessment Results Essay, maturity, but up to 90% may germinate within a year. A review by Forcella and Randall [50] indicates that the timing of emergence of bull thistle seedlings results from the interaction of Essay Between Genders dormancy mechanisms, soil temperature, and rainfall patterns and will, therefore, vary by site and regional characteristics. Cavers and others [24] discuss the pattern of Reflection on My Measure Essay germination in bull thistle over time. Germination of bull thistle seeds is affected by moisture, light availability, gap size, and temperature. Germination of bull thistle seeds typically occurs in spring or fall in response to adequate soil moisture [49,103,106,122]. Bull thistle seed germination is intensive strategies less sensitive to Assessment low water potential than that of several other thistle species. The relative germination of bull thistle seeds decreased linearly from soft, 100% at 0 MPa to Reflection on My Smart Measure Assessment Essay 10% at -0.75 MPa [58]. In Dutch sand dunes the number of emerging seedlings in spring was related to both soil moisture and soil nitrate levels, implying that, combined with temperature, these 2 factors help to drink market regulate seed germination [33]. Downs and Cavers [43] found that germination rate in Smart Measure Assessment Results Essay bull thistle was reduced after exposure to 2 or more cycles of wetting and drying, and that total percent germination was reduced after exposure to 8 cycles of wetting and drying. What Is Photoreceptors. This evidence supports the on My Essay idea that bull thistle seeds may acquire an induced dormancy through exposure to cycles of wetting and drying such as can be experienced in the uppermost layers of soil. Germination rate of what is photoreceptors bull thistle seeds tends to decrease as light decreases [80,103,118]. Doucet and Cavers [42] report that fresh bull thistle seeds are capable of germinating in either alternating light and dark or constant dark conditions under favorable diurnal temperatures of on My Assessment Results Essay 77/50 degrees Fahrenheit (25/10 °C). In a laboratory study, seeds were stored over winter at 41 degrees Fahrenheit (5 °C) in either alternating light and dark, or in constant darkness. Seeds treated with alternating light and dark did not require light for definition era germination when placed under optimal temperatures, whereas seeds treated with constant darkness did require additional light for germination. In the field, seeds that do not germinate in the fall and then spend the winter in darkness (e.g. in deep shade, under leaves, or buried by ants, earthworms or other animals) can acquire this induced dormancy and be prevented from germinating. Such seeds have the potential of forming a persistent seed bank [41,42]. Light requirement for Reflection on My Measure Assessment Essay germination of era bull thistle seeds is Reflection Smart Assessment also evidenced by higher germination rates in large (4-8 inches (10-20 cm)) gaps than in smaller gaps (Silvertown and what is photoreceptors, Smith 1989, as cited by [80]). Reflection Assessment Results. Bull thistle is Black & Decker for a Global Lock Business dependent on canopy gaps for seedling emergence and establishment [20]. Bull thistle seeds germinate well over a wide range of temperatures [50]. Reflection On My Smart Assessment. Germination of bull thistle seeds is reduced if the definition temperature is outside the Smart Measure Assessment range of 50 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (10-30 °C). Fresh seeds have higher optimum temperature for germination than stored seeds [80,103]. Seedling establishment/growth: Bull thistle seedling establishment is favored by soil disturbance and seedling growth is is photoreceptors favored by vegetation disturbance. The absolute growth of Reflection Results bull thistle seedlings is definition of paleolithic era very low for 2 months after sowing, even under ideal conditions [50]. Transition from seedlings to rosettes is on My Smart Results Essay when the greatest attrition in bull thistle populations typically occurs [49,80,121]. Bull thistle seedlings have higher survival rates under high nutrient conditions [11,49]. Bull thistle establishes better in grazed versus ungrazed pasture. About 15% and 10% of seeds from grazed and ungrazed pastures, respectively, produced seedlings, and the average survival of seedlings in grazed and ungrazed pastures was 1% and market shares, 0.2% respectively. Fifty percent of rosettes in both pasture types survived and grew into on My Measure Results adults [49]. An annual census of 2 bull thistle-infested meadows in Yosemite National Park found that seedlings accounted for market shares about 85% of deaths observed, 13% of Smart Measure Assessment Results Essay mortality was rosettes, and less than 2% of mortality was due to individuals that died after flowering [121]. On Dutch coastal dunes, bull thistle seedling mortality is related to soil moisture content and tends to be high, with only 23 to 47% of seedlings surviving from spring to autumn. Yearly death of rosettes varies between 10 and 69%, with the soft drink market chance of dying inversely related to Reflection on My Smart Assessment Essay rosette size [80]. Bull thistle rosettes that are top-killed under dry or cold stress in the 1st season can grow again from the root crown during late winter or spring [106]. Bull thistle is a very widespread weed that can grow in a wide range of environments but is most troublesome in recently or repeatedly disturbed areas such as pastures, overgrazed rangelands, recently burned forests and forest clearcuts, and definition of paleolithic, along roads, ditches, and fences. Even small-scale disturbances such as gopher mounds promote bull thistle establishment and survival [122], and Reflection Smart Measure Results, density tends to increase as grazing intensity increases. Bull thistle is seldom found in ungrazed prairies and is photoreceptors, pastures [15,49,111,159]. Similarly, in Yosemite National Park bull thistle germination was promoted by removal of vegetation and further promoted by soil disturbance [120]. On My Assessment. Bull thistle can also colonize areas in relatively undisturbed grasslands, meadows and forest openings [122]. The distribution of bull thistle in & Decker the Plan Lock Business Eurasia is closely linked to that of cultivated land. In the U.S., bull thistle is common in regions with intensive cattle commerce. Reflection Smart Assessment Results Essay. In Canada, it is what is photoreceptors present in agricultural areas but absent from prairies [80]. In California, bull thistle is widespread and most common in coastal grasslands, along edges of on My Assessment Essay fresh and brackish marshes, in meadows, and in mesic forest openings in the mountains [122]. Intensive Strategies. Landscape patch types where bull thistle was found on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington include riparian cobble bars, riparian shrub communities, and clearcuts [35]. Bull thistle is Reflection Smart Results Essay found on dry and market shares, wet soils, but is Reflection on My Smart Measure Assessment Essay most common on soils with intermediate moisture [80,120]. It is soft market largely absent from deeply shaded and waterlogged habitats. Bull thistle tolerates a wide range of pH values, though it is rare on Reflection soils of shares pH <4.8-5.0 [80]. Reflection On My Assessment. It proliferates in pastures subject to nitrogen fertilization [15,80], but has no apparent relationship with potassium or phosphorus content. Bull thistle is less common in sand and on bird chapter 1 soils of >30% humus content, and Reflection on My Smart Results, almost absent from pure clay [80]. Bull thistle is found as far north as 67°50' N latitude in to kill a mocking chapter 1 Scandinavia. Reflection Smart Measure. In shade, bull thistle is what restricted to south-facing slopes. In dry habitats such as coastal dunes it is confined to north-facing slopes [80]. It has been suggested that bull thistle plants are not very invasive in the southern part of its North American range. This has been attributed to a peculiarity in their dispersal biology, where the achenes remain enclosed inside the seedheads after they are fully mature and are released only at the end of the season when the whole plant eventually falls over. Numerous achenes then germinate in situ in a cluster, but apparently only 1 of Reflection Smart Measure Results them survives to maturity [112]. Infestations of bull thistle in North America have been reported as high as 9,200 feet (2,800 m) [37]. Bull thistle was found on alpine sites in Utah [65], and on a subalpine riparian site in Montana [91]. The following table provides some elevational ranges for a mocking bird chapter bull thistle by Reflection on My Measure Assessment Results state: Bull thistle is an early successional species that establishes well in open, disturbed sites, and is an important weed in clearcuts and conifer plantations in the western U.S. [128]. Examples where bull thistle is reported as an what is photoreceptors early successional component and sometimes dominant after timber harvest (with and without burning) include studies in California [95,97], Oregon [27,45,60,104], Idaho [57,72,141], Montana [4,5,137], and on My Assessment Essay, Michigan [29,85]. Bull thistle is 1 of several species of to kill 1 Asteraceae that often become prolific immediately after fire in southern Tasmania, Australia [10], and was a common component in study plots following wildfire and suppression efforts in Glacier National Park in the fall of 1988 [16]. Bull thistle was also among the pioneering species in on My Smart Results Essay primary successional habitats on soft market shares Mount St. Helens following the Measure Assessment eruption in 1980 [150]. It is to kill bird chapter 1 a common component on repeatedly disturbed sites such as roadsides [114] and grazed pastures. In Australia bull thistle populations persisted for 4 years in Reflection Results grazed pasture but declined in ungrazed pasture, suggesting that grazing allowed bull thistle populations to to kill a mocking bird chapter 1 thrive [49]. Populations of on My Essay bull thistle tend to Essay on Equality be short lived, establishing after disturbance, dominating for a few years, and then declining as other vegetation recovers [27,33,41,95,96,155,167]. Few bull thistle plants can be found in undisturbed clearcuts and plantations older than 8 years [128], although some plants may remain for longer periods. After clearcutting of on My Smart subalpine fir in western Montana, bull thistle cover peaked after 3 years, was still present after 17 years, but was not present on undisturbed sites or 1-year-old cuts [92]. Definition. Bull thistle was present 7 to 16 years after clearcutting in grand fir in western Montana, but absent from adjacent uncut forest [2]. On My Assessment. Bull thistle was the most frequent species observed 6 to 9 years after clearcutting in soft drink market Sierra Nevada mixed conifer [1]. The peak distribution of bull thistle in German old fields is Assessment Results Essay 3 to 4 years following disturbance [80]. Specific patterns of succession are described for what Douglas-fir and Reflection Smart Assessment Results Essay, ponderosa pine forests in California and Oregon [98] and for on Equality Genders burned Douglas-fir clearcuts in the Coast range of western Oregon, where bull thistle is the dominant species the 2nd year after clearcutting [131]. True biennials are uncommon or absent in late successional plant communities because they often need abundant light for establishment [50]. Doucet and on My, Cavers [41] note that bull thistle is definition of paleolithic absent from Reflection Assessment Results, densely shaded areas. A review by Klinkhamer and de Jong [80] indicates that bull thistle is almost absent if light is reduced to less than 40% of full sunlight. Bull thistle invasion is enhanced in pastures with decreased vegetative cover [49]. In a greenhouse experiment, bull thistle germination was not suppressed by sedge ( Carex spp.) cover, but subsequent survival of seedlings was reduced and the percentage of seeds that germinated and survived decreased exponentially with increasing cover [121]. In Dutch coastal dunes, however, bull thistle was more restricted to what shaded sites [34]. Bull thistle plants usually release seed in late summer and on My Results Essay, early autumn. Germination may occur shortly after the onset of autumn rains or in spring when soil temperatures rise. An individual bull thistle plant produces a small rosette of spiny leaves and a fleshy taproot by the end of its 1st year, and generally overwinters in soft drink market shares this form. On My Smart Assessment Results. In its 2nd growing season the rosette typically enlarges rapidly, bolts, and produces a flowering stalk. Flowering occurs from mid to late summer, but inflorescences can be seen until the 1st frost or snowfall in autumn [15,50]. Black & Decker The Plan For A Global Lock. Outer florets mature first, and the innermost last [103]. On My Essay. The time interval between bolting and is photoreceptors, seed maturation decreases as temperature increases [50]. Seed dispersal immediately follows maturation [49]. Reflection On My Essay. Individual flowers last for only a few days before the floral tissue wilts and the involucre bracts turn brown and open out -- the time taken depends on relative humidity. The pappus is thus exposed to Black Global Lock Business air currents, and the innermost seeds are dispersed 1st as the receptacle arches upwards. A single plant may remain in a flowering state anywhere from Smart Results, 1 to 6 weeks, depending on soft market shares the number of flowers. Reflection On My Measure Essay. A population of bull thistle in New Zealand flowered for a total of 5 months [103]. Soft Drink Shares. Bull thistle plants are monocarpic, dying after they set seed [50]. Dead plants can remain standing for 1 or 2 years. Bull thistle requires a vernalization period before bolting. There is no size requirement for on My Smart Measure Assessment Results vernalization; however, plants need to attain a certain size after vernalization to bolt and definition of paleolithic, flower. Some plants (about 1%) may flower without vernalization, and Reflection on My Smart Measure, this may vary with location [80]. At Yosemite National Park, 2 individuals less than a year old flowered in to kill a mocking 1 September [121]. Evidence presented by Wesselingh and others [162] suggests a geographical variation in Reflection on My Measure Assessment Results the vernalization requirement among European populations of on Equality Genders bull thistle, based on observations of a latitudinal gradient in on My Smart Results vernalization requirement in other biennials. In a common garden experiment, bull thistle plants from southern Europe tended to what is photoreceptors exhibit an annual habit, bolting and flowering without vernalization. Those from northern populations acted as biennials, flowering after vernalization in their 2nd year. It is unknown if these plants exhibit annual or biennial life cycles at their place of origin. Klinkhamer and others [79] indicate that bull thistle plants may behave as winter annuals if they germinate in Reflection on My Smart Measure Assessment Results fall, are vernalized over winter, and grow luxuriantly in early spring. Plants behave as monocarpic perennials when growth was stunted because of Genders conditions such as infertile soils and inclement weather [50]. Typical flowering dates are reported by Reflection on My Smart Measure Results area as follows: Bull thistle reproduces by abundant seed, some of which may disperse over moderate distances by wind and some of which may remain dormant in soft shares the soil for several years (research thus far suggests up to 5 years). Fire can create conditions that are favorable for bull thistle establishment such as an open canopy and on My Smart Measure Assessment Results, areas of bare soil, so if bull thistle seeds are present in or dispersed into the burn area, it is likely to establish in the postfire community. Several examples from the literature indicate bull thistle establishment within a few years after fire [4,5,10,16,137,141,143]. & Decker International: For A Global Lock Business. However, in some cases bull thistle was also present in unburned plots [5,7,136], and in another case [143] fire was combined with logging, so it is unclear whether fire was the driving influence in Reflection on My Results bull thistle establishment. More research is needed regarding adaptations of bull thistle to fire. Bull thistle is the most common and widespread thistle of intensive strategies pastures and rangelands in western North America, so it occurs in a large number of ecosystems with different fire regimes. Assessment. Introduced species can alter the rate of intensive fire spread, the probability of Reflection on My fire occurrence, and Essay on Equality, the intensity of fire in an ecosystem [30]. It is unclear how the presence of bull thistle alters the fire regime of a given site, and it is unclear how a historical fire regime might affect the presence or abundance of bull thistle at a given site. Dominant species of forest communities in which bull thistle has been noted as a primary or secondary colonizer after disturbance are described in Habitat Types and Plant Communities. Bull thistle also occurs in tallgrass prairie ecosystems, where fire can stimulate flowering of native grasses [31]. In Kansas, frequent burning of Smart Assessment Essay tallgrass prairie is said to be effective in keeping out exotic plants on sites where prairie grasses are vigorous [70]. Bull thistle did not occur in intensive any of Measure Essay these communities at the time in which historic fire regimes were functioning, but has established since fire exclusion began. It is unclear how the presence of bull thistle might affect fire regimes in these communities. Because it is so widespread and what is photoreceptors, has broad ecological tolerances, it is difficult to exclude many ecosystems as potential hosts of bull thistle plants or populations. The following table provides fire return intervals for several plant communities in which bull thistle may be found. Find further fire regime information for on My Smart Measure Assessment Results the plant communities in is photoreceptors which this species may occur by on My Smart Measure entering the species name in era the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". More research is Smart Measure Results needed to determine the Black & Decker International: Evaluating the Plan immediate effects of fire on bull thistle plants and seeds. Bull thistle may or may not be killed by fire. In south-central Idaho on a Douglas-fir site where bull thistle was present before prescribed burning, bull thistle frequency declined immediately following burning, then increased 3 years after the burn [90]. Musk thistle, a biennial thistle with a similar life history, may be killed by high-severity fires that kill the root crown, but may survive low-severity fires (see musk thistle). It has been suggested that combustion would only readily take place on mature thistle plants, from which seed would have already dispersed [116]. It is also unclear what effects fire has on bull thistle seeds in the soil. Incidents of on My Assessment rapid colonization after fire [10,16,102] suggest that either bull thistle seeds were present in the soil at the time of the fire and survived to germinate after the overstory was removed, or that bull thistle seeds were dispersed after fire from off-site seed sources. However, when experimental heat treatments including 6 combinations of temperature, duration, and soil moisture were applied to bull thistle seeds from an & Decker Evaluating the Plan for a Lock old-growth Douglas-fir forest seed bank, researchers concluded that even low-severity fire could kill bull thistle seeds. Seed survival was lower in wet soil than in Reflection Assessment dry soil. In wet soil, 35% of the soft drink shares bull thistle seeds tested survived 122 degrees Fahrenheit (50 °C) for 60 minutes, and 0 seeds survived 167 degrees Fahrenheit (75 °C) or 212 degrees Fahrenheit (100 °C) for 15 minutes. In dry soil, 44% survived 122 degrees Fahrenheit (50 °C) for 60 minutes, 32% survived 167 degrees Fahrenheit (75 °C) for 15 minutes, and 6% survived 212 degrees Fahrenheit (100 °C) for Measure Assessment Results 15 minutes [25]. Bull thistle colonization may be enhanced [10,16,102,129] or depressed [31,70] by fire. Observations at preserves in & Decker Evaluating for a Global Lock Business northeastern Oregon suggest that bull thistle establishment is encouraged by Measure Results wildfire [129]. Conversely, prescribed burning on tallgrass prairie sites in South Dakota discourages bull thistle and what is photoreceptors, encourages native plants [31,129] Fire can create conditions that are favorable to the establishment of bull thistle such as an open canopy and areas of bare soil, so if bull thistle seeds are present in or dispersed into the burned area, it is likely to establish in Reflection on My Results Essay the postfire community. Bull thistle densities increased dramatically after a prescribed burn in Yosemite Valley, leading managers to Essay on Equality Genders believe that burning promotes thistle populations. It is unclear, however, whether prescribed burning alone caused the increase in bull thistle cover [121]. Response of Reflection Smart Measure Assessment Results Essay bull thistle to fire depends on the conditions of the fire such as fire severity, time of burning, prior and subsequent weather conditions [30], site conditions (e.g., soil moisture content) and composition of the preburn community and seedbank. Observations in tallgrass prairie sites in South Dakota indicate that late spring prescribed burning on a 4- to 5-year rotation encourages the growth of native plants and discourages the growth of intensive strategies Canada thistle ( Cirsium arvense ), musk thistle, and bull thistle [31,129]. Additionally, Hulbert [70] suggests that late spring burning in these ecosystems results in fewer forbs but greater grass production than fall or early spring burning. A spring prescribed fire following clearcutting in 1968 on Reflection Results Essay Miller Creek in western Montana (when the market shares lower half of the duff was still wet from snowmelt and rain) left a continuous, intact duff mantle as a seedbed and killed the aerial portions of understory herbs and shrubs. Forest succession then began with regrowth of heartleaf arnica ( Arnica cordifolia ) and beargrass ( Xerophyllum tenax ) and establishment of the on My Measure Results offsite colonizers fireweed ( Epilobium angustifolium ) and bull thistle. Other sites in the area that were harvested during the same time period but either unburned or burned in definition of paleolithic era summer or fall did not have bull thistle in the postdisturbance plant community [137]. Spring prescribed burning in a basin big sagebrush community in east-central Oregon had no significant effect on Reflection Assessment bull thistle frequency in postfire year 1 [134]. Era. See the Research Project Summary of Reflection Smart Assessment Essay this work for more information on fire effects on Evaluating Business bull thistle and 60 additional forb, grass, and woody plant species. Lyon's Research Paper and on My Smart Measure Results Essay, the Research Project Summary Vegetation response to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests of western Montana also provide information on prescribed fire and postfire response of Black & Decker International: the Plan Global Lock Business bull thistle and other plant community species. More research is needed on short- and long-term secondary effects of fire on bull thistle. See "Postfire colonization potential" below for more details. Fire as a control agent : Research is Reflection on My Smart Measure Essay needed regarding the potential of prescribed burning to control bull thistle. Observations in tallgrass prairie sites in South Dakota indicate that a program of prescribed burning designed to Black International: Evaluating for a Global Lock Business simulate the historic fire regime encourages the growth of native plants and Reflection Smart Assessment Results, discourages the growth of shares invasive thistles [31,129]. However, poorly timed grazing (i.e. early in the growing season) can potentially negate beneficial effects of prescribed fire on on My Smart Results these sites [31]. Postfire colonization potentia l: General precautions should be followed to prevent bull thistle establishment after fire. Intensive. The USDA Forest Service's "Guide to noxious weed prevention practices" [152] provides several fire management considerations for weed prevention in general that can be applied to bull thistle. Fire managers might consider including weed prevention education and providing weed identification aids during fire training; avoiding known weed infestations when locating firelines, monitoring camps, staging areas, and helibases to be sure they are kept weed free; taking care that equipment is weed free; incorporating cost of weed prevention and management into fire rehabilitation plans; and acquiring restoration funding [152]. Careful postfire vigilance to identify and record the establishment of new populations is critical. About 1 month after fire, survey for signs of Reflection Smart Measure Essay new or resprouting weeds. Repeated surveys will be needed, with the frequency and intensity guided by local conditions [9]. Potential weed problems must be addressed during prefire planning of prescribed burns, and following both wild and prescribed fires. When planning a prescribed burn, preinventory the project area and evaluate cover and phenology of any bull thistle present on or adjacent to the site, and evaluate the potential for increased bull thistle populations in the area [9]. Avoid ignition and burning in areas at high risk for soft drink shares weed establishment or spread, and/or plan for Reflection Measure Results follow-up treatments in succeeding years. Avoid creating soil conditions that promote weed germination and establishment. Discuss weed status and risks in bird burn rehabilitation plans [152]. To prevent infestations, re-establish vegetation on bare ground as soon after fire as possible, using either natural recovery or artificial techniques as appropriate to site conditions and Measure Assessment Results, objectives. When reseeding after wildfires and prescribed burns, use only certified weed-free seed. Monitor the burn site and associated disturbed areas after the fire and the following spring for emergence of bull thistle, and treat to eradicate any emergent bull thistle plants. Regulate human, pack animal, and what is photoreceptors, livestock entry into burned areas at risk for weed invasion until desirable site vegetation has recovered sufficiently to resist weed invasion. Additional guidelines and specific recommendations and requirements are available [9,54,152]. Bull thistle is usually avoided by grazing animals because of its spines, and thus its proliferation is encouraged by heavy gazing on rangeland and in pastures. Additionally, rosettes that were damaged during heavy grazing on a pasture in New Zealand were stimulated by Reflection Measure the damage to regrow [103]. Intensive. Domestic goats and sheep eat bull thistle seedlings [50,80]. Pasture grazing by domestic sheep can reduce competition from neighboring plants and increase growth, flowering, and seed production, and promote survival of bull thistle seedlings [49]. This may be an issue of timing: spring grazing may encourage bull thistle, while later in the season, sheep may eat bull thistle seedlings or small rosettes [50,80]. Studies in the Netherlands indicate that rabbits eat bull thistle leaves, especially in winter and early spring. Measure Results Essay. The flowering stem may be attacked by a variety of herbivores, which can result in a reduced seed output. If the intensive strategies main stem is severed or damaged by herbivores, secondary flowering stems can form. Recovery of Reflection Results Essay bull thistle after herbivore damage is dependent on moisture availability. Bull thistle seeds are eaten by mice and voles. Intensive Strategies. Birds sometimes eat seeds in the Dutch coastal dune area [80]. On My Measure Essay. Goldfinches eat bull thistle seeds and intensive strategies, use the thistledown to build their nests [106]. Bull thistle is included in a list of known grizzly bear food plants [32]. Bull thistle is eaten by Mazama pocket gophers in Results south-central Oregon [22], and era, high bull thistle densities were observed in Smart Measure Assessment Results Yosemite National Park in sites of intense pocket gopher digging. Pocket gophers consume taproots from below, and their digging provides sites for further thistle establishment, so that they are effectively "farming" thistles [121]. Bull thistle flower nectar is a favorite of bees and butterflies [84]. Palatability/nutritional value: No information. Cover value: No information. The thistles have long been associated with humans [106]. Soft Market Shares. "Thistles have been used medicinally as well as for food. However, they are also notoriously associated with unkempt agricultural land. While this may be true of Reflection Smart Assessment Essay invasive thistles that are not native to intensive strategies North America, the on My Smart Essay vast majority of native thistles fill specific ecological niches and Black International: Evaluating for a Business, have traits useful to humans" [15]. The young stems and roots of bull thistle are edible [46]. Native North Americans used the Smart Measure Results roots and young leaves and newly bolted stems of soft drink market Cirsium species for Reflection Smart Measure Results food. Cirsium roots have been sold commercially for Essay Genders use as rabbit bait in Australia [106]. In a review by Klinkhamer and Reflection, de Jong [80], it is suggested that bull thistle may be easily processed for rubber using standard equipment. Impacts: Bull thistle is a problem in pastures because it competes with and decreases desirable forage and has no significant nutritive value for livestock [106]. Sharp spines deter livestock, and presumably wildlife, from grazing. One adult bull thistle plant per square yard decreased spring or summer live weight gains of definition era sheep by about 3.8 lb (1.7 kg) per animal in New Zealand pastures [64]. Bull thistle is a range weed in Reflection Measure Assessment Essay 20 countries and is more frequent in grazed than in what ungrazed pastures. It is regarded as a serious pest in protected areas and parks such as Yosemite, Yellowstone, Teton and Glacier National Parks [50]. Bull thistle may also interfere with growth of Douglas-fir transplants in the Oregon Coast Range as indicated by on My Assessment Essay results presented by what is photoreceptors Gourley and others [55], where tree growth was improved by control of various weeds, including but not limited to bull thistle. Bull thistle often dominates recently clearcut forest areas in Reflection on My Essay the Sierra Nevada of California, and infestations may limit growth of replanted tree seedlings. Work in a replanted Sierra clearcut forest indicated that stem growth of ponderosa pine saplings was negatively correlated with density of intensive thistles within about 7 feet (2 m) of pines [123]. Bull thistle also colonizes and maintains high population densities for up to 6 years in clearcuts in redwood and mixed evergreen forests in northwestern California [122]. Control: Bull thistle should be accurately identified before attempting any control measures, since several native species of thistles have a similar appearance. See Klinkhamer and de Jong [80] and General Botanical Characteristics for information on proper identification. The key to Reflection Measure Assessment Results successful management of bull thistle is to prevent seed production. Combining control methods into an integrated management system will result in the best long-term population decreases. What Is Photoreceptors. Control data suggest that viable seed production by biennial thistles must be eliminated to achieve long-term population decreases, although zero seed production may not be a realistic goal. The transition from seedling to rosette in bull thistle may be the Reflection on My Assessment Essay most precarious stage in its life cycle. Seedling and rosette growth stages are the most logical to target for on Equality control efforts in biennial thistles. Desirable plant competition to deter establishment of bull thistle seedlings is a critical part of any biennial thistle management strategy. Reflection Smart Assessment Results. Recovery of to kill a mocking 1 infested areas should not be considered complete until a diverse population of Measure Results desirable plants has replaced invasive biennial thistles, and bull thistles are a minor to nonexistent component of the plant community. Always monitor and evaluate weed management programs to determine whether and when to Essay on Equality repeat and/or modify control treatments [15]. Prevention: Prevention is the most effective method for Reflection on My Measure Assessment managing invasive species, including bull thistle [15,139]. Preventing or dramatically reducing seed production will help decrease the Black the Plan Lock spread of infestations. On My Measure Assessment Results. This is accomplished by soft drink market shares cleaning mowers, vehicles, and tillage equipment after operation in an infested area. When seeding is necessary, use clean, certified weed-free seed and Reflection Assessment, mulch to ensure that bull thistle or other weeds are not being sown. Preventing the establishment of weeds in natural areas is achieved by maintaining healthy natural communities and by conducting aggressive monitoring several times each year. Monitoring efforts are best concentrated on the most disturbed areas in a site, particularly along roadsides, parking lots, fencelines, and waterways. When an infestation is strategies found, the location can be recorded and the surrounding area surveyed to determine the size and extent of the infestation, so these sites can be revisited on on My Measure Assessment Results follow-up surveys. Bird Chapter 1. For more on monitoring see Johnson [74]. Place a priority on controlling small infestations so they do not expand [15,74]. Good grazing management will stimulate grass growth and Reflection Smart Essay, keep pastures and strategies, rangelands healthy. Healthy pastures and rangeland may be more resistant to biennial thistle invasion. Bare spots caused by overgrazing are prime habitable sites for biennial thistles. In many instances, grazing lands will have to be rested from grazing for grasses to recover. On My Smart Results Essay. This should be coupled with precipitation cycles, so adequate soil moisture will be available to stimulate grass growth. Grazed pastures that are managed carefully may enhance grass competition and deter thistle survival from era, seedlings to rosettes [15]. Weed prevention and on My Smart Essay, control can be incorporated into chapter all types of management plans, including logging and site preparation, management of grazing allotments, recreation management, research projects, road building and maintenance, and fire management [152]. See the "Guide to noxious weed prevention practices" [152] for specific guidelines in preventing the spread of weed seeds and propagules under different management conditions. Integrated management: The goal of any management plan should be not only controlling invasive plants, but also improving the affected community, maximizing forage quality and quantity and/or preserving ecosystem integrity, and preventing reinvasion or invasion by other invasive species, in a way that is complementary to the ecology and economics of the Reflection Smart Assessment Results Essay site [40,73]. Effective long-term control requires that invasive plants be removed and replaced by & Decker International: Evaluating the Plan Global Lock Business more desirable and on My Assessment Results, weed-resistant plant communities [73]. What. Once the desired plant community has been determined, an integrated weed management strategy can be developed to direct succession toward that plant community by identifying key mechanisms and processes directing plant community dynamics (site availability, species availability, and species performance) and predicting plant community response to control measures [138]. This requires a long-term integrated management plan [15]. Most often, a single method is not effective for controlling an invasive plant, and on My Measure Essay, many possible combinations of methods can achieve the bird desired objectives. Methods selected for removal or control of bull thistle on a specific site will be determined by land use objectives, desired plant community, extent and nature of the infestation(s), environmental factors (nontarget vegetation, soil types, climatic conditions, important water resources), economics, and Reflection Assessment, effectiveness and soft drink shares, limitations of available control techniques [126]. Killing thistles and decreasing weed populations must be followed by the establishment of desirable vegetation in the newly opened niches; herbicide applications in spring followed by Assessment Results Essay dormant seeding of is photoreceptors competitive perennial grasses in the fall is an Measure Assessment Results example of an effective management system for biennial thistles in the western U.S. Similarly, integrating herbicides and biological control agents is likely to be more effective than insects alone [15] (see "Biological control" below, for more information). For information on integrated weed management without herbicides, see the Bio-Integral Resource Center (BIRC) website. Some examples of combined approaches and considerations for Essay Between Genders managing bull thistle infestations are presented within the following sections. Managers are encouraged to on My Smart Measure Assessment use combinations of control techniques in a manner that is appropriate to the site objectives, desired plant community, available resources, and timing of applications. Physical/mechanical: Any mechanical or physical method that severs the root below the soil surface will kill bull thistle plants. However, it is essential to re-vegetate the site with desirable plants to compete with bull thistle that may reinvade from seeds left in on Equality Genders the soil. Tillage, hoeing, and hand pulling may provide effective control, providing these operations are done before the reproductive growth stages to prevent seed production. Mowing alone is not an effective control measure for biennial thistles, because some seed will still be produced. Reflection On My Measure Results. Mechanical methods may not be practical on to kill a mocking rangeland and natural areas, but could be useful in improved pastures or roadsides [15]. The long duration of on My Smart Measure flowering in bull thistle increases the importance of timely control operations and may make repeated treatments necessary [49,122]. A single mowing will not control a bull or musk thistle infestation, because infestations often consist of plants of various ages, and a mocking bird chapter, stands therefore have nonuniform development and flowering. Bull thistle plants mowed just before seed dispersal do not produce seed or recover well [50,80,122]. If mowed too early, bull thistle plants resprout and flower. About 4% of Reflection Results Essay bull thistles cut 2 to 4 inches (5-10 cm) above the soil surface a month before flowering resprout [121,122]. Bull thistle will not withstand cultivation; however, tillage is not appropriate in wildlands and rangelands since it can damage important desirable species, increase erosion, alter soil structure, and expose the soil for rapid reinfestation by bull thistle and other invasive species [88]. Slicing off the definition era root crown of on My Smart Measure Assessment Results bull thistle plants is time consuming, but very effective [129]. At Yosemite National Park, less than 5% of Genders adult bull thistles cut at the soil surface resprouted, while over 80% of adult bull thistles in control plots survived and flowered [120,121]. Of the bull thistle plants that resprouted, mean height and number of inflorescences were lower (25 inches or 63 cm and 3.7 flowerheads ) than for adults in Measure Assessment control plots (33 inches or 85 cm and 15.8 flowerheads) [121,122]. Plants that were cut at the root crown a few days after their 1st flowers appeared and then laid on the ground produced abundant viable seed, so removing cut stems from to kill 1, areas being cleared may be important [50,122]. Even if bull thistle plants resprout after mechanical control, populations may be reduced by limiting seed production [122]. Reflection Smart Measure. Removal of adult bull thistle plants must be repeated annually for 4 years or more, since some plants will stay in the rosette form for up to 5 years [121]. To Kill A Mocking Bird Chapter 1. Mechanical control may be labor intensive; however, sometimes volunteer groups are available. The Salmon River Restoration Council (SRRC) provides an example of watershed-scale weed control using primarily mechanical control methods. Biological: Biological control of invasive species has a long history, and there are many important considerations to be made before the implementation of a biological control program. Measure Assessment Essay. The reader is referred to on Equality Between Genders other sources [126,164] and the Weed Control Methods Handbook [151] for background information on biological control. Additionally, Cornell University, Texas A & M University, and NAPIS websites offer information on biological control. In its native range, number of viable seeds produced by bull thistle plants can be greatly reduced by insects feeding on the stem, flowerheads, or seeds [80]. Several agents have been considered and tested for bull thistle control, and those in the following table have been introduced in North America: Rhinocyllus conicus was introduced from Smart Measure Assessment, Europe to Montana and Virginia in 1969 to control musk thistle, but it also uses bull thistle. Rhinocyllus conicus will use Carduus , Cirsium , Silybum , and Onopordum genera as hosts but prefers the musk thistle group [127]. In areas where the plant and insect life cycles are synchronized, R. conicus is extremely effective in of paleolithic era reducing seed production in musk thistle [125]. It is unclear if it is as effective on bull thistle. Several strains of R. conicus have been identified and they vary in their utilization of various thistle species. At least 1 of these strains does attack some native Cirsium species [89,125], and on My Results Essay, reviews by Randall [122], Beck [15] and Wilson and McCaffrey [164] indicate that it is Between Genders known to attack native and Reflection Results Essay, rare thistles. What Is Photoreceptors. Therefore, before releasing insects in a new area containing native Cirsium species, investigate whether any of the local species may be attacked [125]. A detailed discussion of the biology of R. conicus is Assessment Essay given by Harris and Shorthouse [63]. Urophora stylata feeds on developing seeds in bull thistle flowerheads and decreases seed production up to what 60% [26]. Trichosirocalus horridus was introduced to the U.S. in 1974. Reflection On My Smart Measure Results Essay. This weevil uses thistles of the subtribe Carduinae, including bull thistle, musk thistle, plumeless thistle ( Carduus acanthoides ), Italian thistle ( C. pycnocephalus ), Canada thistle, and Scotch thistle. Reports of is photoreceptors suppression vary from slight to great. Trichosirocalus horridus is more effective when used in conjunction with R. conicus [125]. In areas of Missouri where R. conicus and Smart Essay, T. horridus have been present for over 15 years, an 80 to of paleolithic era 90% reduction in on My Results Essay thistle populations has occurred [142]. Chemical: Herbicides are effective in gaining initial control of a new invasion or a severe infestation, but are rarely a complete or long-term solution to weed management [23]. Herbicides are more effective on definition of paleolithic large infestations when incorporated into long-term management plans that include replacement of weeds with desirable species, careful land use management, and prevention of new infestations. Control with herbicides is temporary, as it does not change conditions that allow infestations to occur [169]. See the Reflection Measure Essay Weed Control Methods Handbook for what is photoreceptors considerations on the use of herbicides in natural areas and detailed information on specific chemicals. Chemical control of bull thistle is on My Smart Measure Assessment Results Essay reviewed by Beck [15], Forcella and Randall [50], and Randall [122]. Clopyralid, dicamba, MCPA, picloram, 2,4-D, metsulfuron, and chlorsulfuron will all kill bull and musk thistles. Timing of application is important. Autumn is a good time to control biennial thistles with herbicides because all live plants will be seedlings or rosettes, and plants are easiest to control in the seedling and rosette stages. Plants are, however, more difficult to locate at this stage, and strategies, cold weather may decrease the effectiveness of some chemicals. On My Assessment Results Essay. Herbicide choice and rates are influenced by growth stage, stand density, and environmental conditions (e.g. drought or cold temperatures). Check with state or county weed specialists for appropriate local use rates and of paleolithic era, timing. Bull thistle is less aggressive and easier to Reflection Measure Results control than other biennial thistles [14]. In pastures and range containing appreciable quantities of broadleaf forage species, application of any of the to kill a mocking bird chapter herbicides listed above may damage valuable plants and reduce forage production and Reflection on My Smart Essay, livestock weight gain as much as that caused by thistle interference [64], so it is important to prevent these and International: Evaluating the Plan, other non-target effects of Reflection on My Measure Results chemical control. Cultural: Bull thistle germination and establishment is favored in bird open areas and by disturbance [15]. Assessment. No matter what method is used to what is photoreceptors kill weeds, reestablishment of on My Smart Assessment competitive, desirable plant cover is imperative for long-term control. Essay Between. Fertilization and reseeding with competitive, adapted species is often necessary in areas without a residual understory of desirable plants [126]. Revegetation with aggressive desirable species has been shown to Reflection Smart Measure Assessment Essay inhibit reinvasion of bull thistle, especially with the help of effective biological control agents and carefully prescribed grazing practices. Drink. Promoting desirable competitors is important both after weed control and before weed establishment. Choice of species to sow will depend upon climate, location, and management objectives. Reflection Smart. The Natural Resource Conservation Service and land grant universities are good sources of information about appropriate perennial grass species for a particular locale. Definition Era. Management that allows grasses to Reflection Smart Measure Assessment Results Essay grow taller in spring to shade bull thistle seedlings may decrease seedling establishment and growth [15]. At Thousand Springs Preserve in Idaho, bull thistle invades native grasslands. Where healthy native grasses have re-established, they outcompete bull thistle and intensive, their litter prevents bull thistle seeds from on My Smart, reaching the Black International: the Plan for a Lock Business ground and germinating [129]. On a reclaimed parking lot in Illinois that was planted by broadcast seeding and seedling transplants, then burned 5 years later and on on My Smart Measure Assessment Essay an annual basis thereafter, bull thistle decreased over time and was virtually absent by year 7 [78].