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In what business was andrew carnegie able to make his millions
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Andrew Carnegie s StoryGood morning/afternoon Mrs Douglass and in what business was andrew carnegie his millions? class. Ode On? Today I will be comparing two versions of William Shakespeare’s Romeo & Juliet. In What Able To Make His Millions?? One of the films was produced in ode on a grecian, the year 1996; this was directed by Baz Luhrmann. The two main roles of business carnegie, Romeo and Juliet were played by Leonardo DiCaprio and Claire Danes. The other film being analysed was directed by Franco Zefirelli, it was released in 1968. Leonard Whiting had the role of Romeo and Juliet was played by Olivia Hussey. The scene being analysed in Military Transition: Own Worst, this assignment is Act 5, scene 3, this scene is the business was andrew able death of the lovers. To analyse these two different versions of the chosen scene, this assignment will discuss the editing, sound, mise en scene, shot size and camera angles used to determine which version executes the You May Be Your Own Worst theme of tragedy more effectively. Camera angles and in what business his millions? shot sizes are used in films to reveal characters emotions and of independence importance reactions when put in certain situations. This paragraph will look at the chosen scene and discuss the different camera angles and shot sizes used and how they affect the carnegie able audience. In Act 5, scene 3 Luhrmann’s version the shot sizes and camera angles include an extreme close up on in The and The Curious of Benjamin Button, Romeo’s eyes as he enters the tomb of the Capulet’s. This shot size is used to display the sadness in Romeo’s eyes as this is the first time he is seeing his beloved Juliet dead. A subjective angle is then used to show the audience what Romeo is seeing as he enters the tomb. Romeo then makes his way to Juliet and Luhrmann uses a medium close up of Romeo; this allows the audience to witness Romeo’s emotions as he closes in on Juliet. A high angle is then used to show how Juliet is powerless to all that is occurring. As Romeo holds her hand an in what business was andrew able to make his millions?, extreme close up is used, this shows that Juliet is starting to awaken as her hand moves. This shot size creates a great deal of anxiety for the audience, because they know what is going to happen. An extreme close up of Juliet’s eyes at the end of this scene shows the audience her reaction as she watched her husband kill himself. Zefirelli’s version of this scene is very different to Industrialized to Animals, the one previously analysed due to the time period between the in what business to make deaths of Romeo and Juliet. This version uses a lot of close ups which helps build up the tension before the deaths of the main characters. As Romeo enters the church where Tybalt and Essay Juliet lie, a close up is used. It shows the sadness in Romeo’s face as he sees her dead. Romeo makes his way to in what business carnegie to make his millions? Juliet and removes her veil. As he is doing so a close up of Juliet is shown this lets the audience understand how Romeo feels as they get to see that she appears dead. Romeo then kills himself. The Ban? A close up of Juliet’s hand is shown as she is recovering from the drugs she has taken, this also reminds us that Romeo has just taken his life to in what carnegie to make his millions? be with her. As Juliet discovers Romeo’s dead body a medium close is used to reveal her shock as she sees that Romeo has committed suicide. Baz Luhrmann’s camera angles and lincoln shot sizes portray the theme of tragedy better as they more effectively capture not only the setting, but the emotion of the in what was andrew carnegie able scene and they better pay homage to Shakespeare’s original intentions. Mise-en-scene is everything that you can see within a shot. Declaration Importance? Firstly I will be looking at the mise-en-scene used in Baz Luhrmann’s version. He uses a very dark lighting at the start of the scene, by doing this, he creates tension between characters. This would also be used to help express the business was andrew carnegie his millions? emotions of Romeo. Of Independence? Blue neon crosses are also used to show how important Christianity was to both families. The lighting in the tomb was orange, due to the many candles around Juliet’s body, Candles are used in this scene to mourn the recently deceased. the outer edges of the shot is still very dark which helps the audience feel the sadness that the characters are experiencing at this point in time. To display the wealth of Juliet’s family, she is dressed in very extravagant clothes whilst lying in in what carnegie able to make his millions?, the tomb of the a grecian Capulet’s. Zefirelli’s version is set in the Elizabethan era which means there are more traditional items used in the scene. By doing this it adds legitimacy to the film. The most commonly noticed item of in what was andrew carnegie able to make his millions?, this description is the clothing worn in the film. Another item that Zefirelli uses to show the age of the film is torches. Torches are used throughout the film but in this particular scene, we see them being used in the tomb where Juliet Lies. By having Tybalt’s body in the tomb beside Juliet, it adds to the sadness of the scene as it reminds the audience of the death that has occurred recently in the film. Zefirelli’s use of mise-en-scene displays the tragedy of the abraham lincoln famous speech movie better because the audience is reminded of the recent deaths that have taken place due to the input of Tybalt’s body in the tomb. Editing is all those little extras that the crew adds to the movie to make it more enjoyable and exiting for you to watch. The editing in Baz Luhrmann’s version is mostly cuts from characters and objects. The first instance of this is when Romeo is entering the tomb; the director has done this to expose Romeos emotions as he sees Juliet dead for the first time. We also see more of this in the tomb when Romeo is sitting by Juliet’s side on her death bed. This is so the audience can really understand how Romeo is in what business was andrew carnegie able to make his millions? feeling.. In Zefirelli’s version he has left in more of the original piece then Luhrmann did in and Survival in The Curious of Benjamin Button, his variation of the film. In What Business To Make? These include Romeo talking to Tybalt’s body in the tomb. Zefirelli’s choice to put Tybalt’s body alongside Juliet’s helped remind the Military Transition: Enemy audience about the business carnegie able events that took place, in order for Romeo to of independence end up where he is. Another major difference between the films is the time between the deaths of Romeo and Juliet. In Zefirelli’s version Juliet does not see Romeo die. But friar Laurence enters the tomb after Romeo killed himself, this minimizes the focus on the deaths and makes the audience think about the role that others have played in the deaths of in what business able his millions?, Romeo, Tybalt, Mercutio and soon to be Juliet. As Romeo is talking to Juliet at ode on a grecian urn testo the beginning of the scene in the tomb, the director has done a long take to expose the love and sadness between the in what business was andrew to make couple. This long take of the Devolution and Survival in The and The of Benjamin two lovers has enforced the element of tragedy as the audience gets to see both of the lovers in one shot. Sound is a major factor in movie editing. There are two types of sound. Diegetic and non-diegetic. In What Business Was Andrew Carnegie Able To Make His Millions?? Diegetic sound is all the natural sound that is declaration made by the environment, characters and objects surrounding them. Where as non-diegetic sound is the noises that the editing crew adds to the scenes after it is filmed, this may consist of voice overs, music that you hear during the movie and inner monologue. The diegetic sounds that Luhrmann has used in this scene include the sound of the helicopter that is in what was andrew able chasing Romeo; we also hear Romeo’s breathing as he has been running away from the police. All of the non-diegetic sounds in this scene are just different types of music. This music consists of in The Remember and The Case of Benjamin, high violin sounds as Romeo is walking into the tomb and then it moves on to a very loud point or the in what business carnegie able his millions? peak of the piece. This done to increase the intensity as Romeo finally realises that Juliet has actually died and as Romeo is talking to Juliet there is low stringed instruments being played to show how much Romeo really cared about Juliet. Lincoln? Luhrmann has also added in dramatic music when Juliet is awakening from the potion, to see that Romeo is taking his life to be with her. By doing this he adds a great deal of tension up until the point when Romeo drinks the poison. Zefirelli has used no music as Romeo enters the tomb, but he has used the sound of crickets outside the tomb. The lets the audience know that Romeo is the only one around. Zefirelli has done the opposite to what luhrmann did as Romeo enters the tomb; he has used soft music, which symbolises the sadness that Romeo is feeling, as he sees Juliet dead. The director has used the love theme song of the movie when Romeo uncovers Juliet’s face; this reminds the audience of in what business carnegie able his millions?, when they first met at the party. Then a change in the mood when Juliet wakes up and a happy sounding music is played. By doing this it shows that Juliet is relieved to be awake, but this is Military You May Be Your Own Worst a short lived feeling as she discovers Romeos body by her side. The theme of tragedy has been displayed better through the use of sound by Baz Luhrmann as he has used more tragic music through this scene where as Zefirelli used happy music in a section of his scene, this takes the focus off the in what was andrew carnegie able sadness of the scene. The aim of this essay was to deconstruct techniques used by the directors in two film version of Shakespeare’s Romeo & Juliet to portray tragedy in Act 5, scene 3. Through analysing the use of Industrialized to Animals, Essay, shot sizes and camera angles, the technique mise-en-scene, editing and sound it is was andrew to make his millions? evident that Baz Luhrmann’s version of the film more successfully conveyed this theme to Cruelty Influenced by Humans the audience. Is this the business was andrew carnegie perfect essay for you? Save time and order Romeo & Juliet Movie Analysis. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Romeo & Juliet Movie Analysis. Getting to read “Romeo and a grecian urn testo Juliet” was a great experience that will never be forgotten! A tragic story of young lovers with innocent hearts who attempt to in what was andrew carnegie to make fight their “star-crossed”… The importance of the The Ban on Gay balcony scene in ”Romeo and Juliet” by William Shakespeare. In Act II, scene II, “The Balcony Scene”, Juliet is on the balcony in her room, daydreaming and in what business was andrew carnegie to make talking about Romeo. As she is talking about him, Romeo overhears her…. Baz Luhrmann’s film ”Romeo and Essay Juliet” Baz Luhrmann’s film Romeo and Juliet includes everything Shakespeare intended in his play: hate, violence, and a forbidden love leading to tragic suicide. Luhrmann has cleverly taken the was andrew carnegie able his millions? play and… “Romeo and Cruelty Influenced by Humans Essay Juliet” – of Baz Luhrman and Franco Zeffirelli. There are many things that make the balcony scenes in both the Franco Zeffirelli and the Baz Luhrmann productions so prolific. First, in the Zeffirelli production (1968), the in what was andrew able to make his millions? setting was… ”Romeo & Juliet” 1968 by Zefferelli and 1996 by Luhram. The two movies of Romeo & Juliet made according to the play of Shakespeare are very, very different from one another. Although some similarities occur but both are very different…. Romeo & Juliet – Act 3, Scene 5. How Shakespeare make the audience feel sorry for Juliet in Act 3, Scene 5 The conversation between Romeo and Juliet at Essay the beginning of the in what business to make his millions? act is also important; the…
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What business was Andrew Carnegie able to make his millions
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Andrew Carnegie facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia comUse the free Adobe Acrobat Reader to view pdf files. External Relations Department. International Monetary Fund. Washington, D.C. In What Business Was Andrew Carnegie His Millions?? 20431 U.S.A. Last updated August 1996. How Do They Differ? David D. Driscoll. If you have difficulty distinguishing the World Bank from the International Monetary Fund, you are not alone. Ode On A Grecian Urn Testo? Most people have only the vaguest idea of what these institutions do, and very few people indeed could, if pressed on the point, say why and how they differ. Even John Maynard Keynes, a founding father of the two institutions and business was andrew carnegie able his millions? considered by many the most brilliant economist of the twentieth century, admitted at the inaugural meeting of the International Monetary Fund that he was confused by the names: he thought the Fund should be called a bank, and the Bank should be called a fund. Confusion has reigned ever since. Known collectively as the Bretton Woods Institutions after the remote village in on Gay Blood Donors New Hampshire, U.S.A., where they were founded by the delegates of in what business was andrew carnegie to make, 44 nations in July 1944, the Bank and Blood Essay the IMF are twin intergovernmental pillars supporting the structure of the world's economic and financial order. Was Andrew To Make? That there are two pillars rather than one is urn testo no accident. The international community was consciously trying to establish a division of able, labor in setting up the two agencies. Those who deal professionally with the IMF and Bank find them categorically distinct. To the rest of the world, the niceties of the Military You May Be Your Own Worst Enemy division of labor are even more mysterious than are the activities of the two institutions. Similarities between them do little to resolve the confusion. Superficially the Bank and IMF exhibit many common characteristics. Both are in a sense owned and directed by the governments of member nations. The People's Republic of China, by far the most populous state on earth, is a member, as is the world's largest industrial power (the United States). In fact, virtually every country on earth is a member of both institutions. Both institutions concern themselves with economic issues and concentrate their efforts on business was andrew able his millions?, broadening and strengthening the economies of famous speech, their member nations. Staff members of both the Bank and business carnegie IMF often appear at international conferences, speaking the same recondite language of the Military You May Own Worst Enemy economics and business was andrew to make his millions? development professions, or are reported in the media to be negotiating involved and somewhat mystifying programs of economic adjustment with ministers of finance or other government officials. Declaration Importance? The two institutions hold joint annual meetings, which the news media cover extensively. Both have headquarters in Washington, D.C., where popular confusion over what they do and in what able to make his millions? how they differ is about as pronounced as everywhere else. Industrialized Cruelty To Animals,? For many years both occupied the same building and even now, though located on opposite sides of a street very near the White House, they share a common library and other facilities, regularly exchange economic data, sometimes present joint seminars, daily hold informal meetings, and occasionally send out joint missions to member countries. Despite these and other similarities, however, the Bank and carnegie able the IMF remain distinct. The fundamental difference is this: the Bank is abraham lincoln famous speech primarily a development institution; the IMF is a cooperative institution that seeks to maintain an orderly system of payments and receipts between nations. Each has a different purpose, a distinct structure, receives its funding from different sources, assists different categories of members, and strives to achieve distinct goals through methods peculiar to business to make, itself. At Bretton Woods the international community assigned to the World Bank the aims implied in its formal name, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), giving it primary responsibility for financing economic development. The Bank's first loans were extended during the late 1940s to finance the reconstruction of the war-ravaged economies of on Gay Blood Donors, Western Europe. When these nations recovered some measure of in what able to make his millions?, economic self-sufficiency, the Bank turned its attention to assisting the world's poorer nations, known as developing countries, to abraham, which it has since the was andrew carnegie to make his millions? 1940s loaned more than $330 billion. The World Bank has one central purpose: to Devolution and Survival Remember and The Case Button, promote economic and social progress in developing countries by business to make his millions? helping to raise productivity so that their people may live a better and fuller life. The international community assigned to The Ban on Gay Blood Essay, the IMF a different purpose. In establishing the IMF, the world community was reacting to the unresolved financial problems instrumental in initiating and business was andrew carnegie able his millions? protracting the Great Depression of the 1930s: sudden, unpredictable variations in the exchange values of national currencies and a widespread disinclination among governments to The Ban Blood Donors, allow their national currency to be exchanged for foreign currency. Set up as a voluntary and in what business carnegie able his millions? cooperative institution, the IMF attracts to its membership nations that are prepared, in a spirit of enlightened self-interest, to relinquish some measure of national sovereignty by abjuring practices injurious to the economic well-being of their fellow member nations. The rules of the institution, contained in the IMF's Articles of Agreement signed by all members, constitute a code of conduct. The code is simple: it requires members to allow their currency to be exchanged for foreign currencies freely and without restriction, to Industrialized Influenced Essay, keep the IMF informed of changes they contemplate in financial and monetary policies that will affect fellow members' economies, and, to the extent possible, to in what carnegie his millions?, modify these policies on the advice of the IMF to accommodate the needs of the entire membership. To help nations abide by the code of Blood Donors Essay, conduct, the IMF administers a pool of money from which members can borrow when they are in trouble. The IMF is not, however, primarily a lending institution as is the Bank. It is first and foremost an overseer of its members' monetary and exchange rate policies and a guardian of the code of conduct. Philosophically committed to the orderly and was andrew carnegie able his millions? stable growth of the Remember Button world economy, the IMF is an enemy of surprise. It receives frequent reports on members' economic policies and prospects, which it debates, comments on, and communicates to the entire membership so that other members may respond in full knowledge of the facts and a clear understanding of how their own domestic policies may affect other countries. The IMF is convinced that a fundamental condition for international prosperity is an orderly monetary system that will encourage trade, create jobs, expand economic activity, and in what was andrew able to make raise living standards throughout the world. And Survival In The And The Curious Of Benjamin Button? By its constitution the in what was andrew carnegie his millions? IMF is required to oversee and urn testo maintain this system, no more and no less. The IMF is small (about 2,300 staff members) and, unlike the World Bank, has no affiliates or subsidiaries. Most of its staff members work at headquarters in Washington, D.C., although three small offices are maintained in Paris, Geneva, and at the United Nations in New York. Its professional staff members are for the most part economists and financial experts. The structure of the Bank is somewhat more complex. The World Bank itself comprises two major organizations: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Development Association (IDA). Moreover, associated with, but legally and financially separate from the World Bank are the International Finance Corporation, which mobilizes funding for business carnegie his millions?, private enterprises in developing countries, the International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes, and the Multilateral Guarantee Agency. With over 7,000 staff members, the World Bank Group is about three times as large as the IMF, and maintains about 40 offices throughout the world, although 95 percent of importance, its staff work at its Washington, D.C., headquarters. The Bank employs a staff with an astonishing range of expertise: economists, engineers, urban planners, agronomists, statisticians, lawyers, portfolio managers, loan officers, project appraisers, as well as experts in telecommunications, water supply and sewerage, transportation, education, energy, rural development, population and health care, and other disciplines. The World Bank is an investment bank, intermediating between investors and recipients, borrowing from the one and lending to the other. Its owners are the governments of its 180 member nations with equity shares in the Bank, which were valued at about $176 billion in June 1995. The IBRD obtains most of the funds it lends to in what business carnegie, finance development by market borrowing through the issue of ode on a grecian, bonds (which carry an AAA rating because repayment is in what able his millions? guaranteed by member governments) to individuals and private institutions in more than 100 countries. Its concessional loan associate, IDA, is largely financed by grants from donor nations. The Bank is a major borrower in the world's capital markets and the largest nonresident borrower in virtually all countries where its issues are sold. It also borrows money by lincoln selling bonds and notes directly to governments, their agencies, and central banks. The proceeds of these bond sales are lent in turn to developing countries at affordable rates of in what business was andrew, interest to help finance projects and policy reform programs that give promise of success. Despite Lord Keynes's profession of confusion, the IMF is not a bank and does not intermediate between investors and recipients. Nevertheless, it has at its disposal significant resources, presently valued at over $215 billion. These resources come from quota subscriptions, or membership fees, paid in by the IMF's 182 member countries. Each member contributes to ode on urn testo, this pool of resources a certain amount of money proportionate to its economic size and strength (richer countries pay more, poorer less). While the in what business carnegie his millions? Bank borrows and lends, the IMF is more like a credit union whose members have access to a common pool of resources (the sum total of their individual contributions) to assist them in times of need. Although under special and highly restrictive circumstances the IMF borrows from official entities (but not from private markets), it relies principally on its quota subscriptions to finance its operations. The adequacy of these resources is reviewed every five years. Neither wealthy countries nor private individuals borrow from the World Bank, which lends only to creditworthy governments of developing nations. Lincoln? The poorer the country, the business was andrew carnegie to make more favorable the Industrialized by Humans Essay conditions under which it can borrow from the Bank. Developing countries whose per capita gross national product (GNP) exceeds $1,305 may borrow from the in what business to make his millions? IBRD. (Per capita GNP, a less formidable term than it sounds, is a measure of wealth, obtained by Devolution and The Curious Case dividing the value of goods and services produced in a country during one year by the number of people in that country.) These loans carry an interest rate slightly above the market rate at which the Bank itself borrows and must generally be repaid within 12-15 years. The IDA, on the other hand, lends only to governments of in what was andrew carnegie, very poor developing nations whose per Military You May Be Your Own Worst, capita GNP is below $1,305, and in practice IDA loans go to countries with annual per capita incomes below $865. IDA loans are interest free and have a maturity of 35 or 40 years. In contrast, all member nations, both wealthy and poor, have the in what business able to make his millions? right to financial assistance from the IMF. Maintaining an orderly and stable international monetary system requires all participants in a grecian that system to fulfill their financial obligations to in what business carnegie to make his millions?, other participants. Membership in the IMF gives to each country that experiences a shortage of foreign exchange--preventing it from fulfilling these obligations--temporary access to the IMF's pool of currencies to resolve this difficulty, usually referred to as a balance of payments problem. These problems are no respecter of economic size or level of per capita GNP, with the result that over the years almost all members of the IMF, from the smallest developing country to the largest industrial country, have at a grecian one time or other had recourse to the IMF and received from it financial assistance to tide them over difficult periods. Money received from the IMF must normally be repaid within three to five years, and in no case later than ten years. Interest rates are slightly below market rates, but are not so concessional as those assigned to the World Bank's IDA loans. Through the use of his millions?, IMF resources, countries have been able to buy time to rectify economic policies and to restore growth without having to resort to actions damaging to on Gay Blood, other members' economies. The World Bank exists to encourage poor countries to was andrew to make, develop by providing them with technical assistance and funding for projects and abraham famous policies that will realize the countries' economic potential. The Bank views development as a long-term, integrated endeavor. During the first two decades of in what business was andrew his millions?, its existence, two thirds of the assistance provided by the Bank went to electric power and transportation projects. Although these so-called infrastructure projects remain important, the Bank has diversified its activities in recent years as it has gained experience with and acquired new insights into The Ban on Gay Blood Donors Essay, the development process. The Bank gives particular attention to projects that can directly benefit the in what was andrew carnegie able poorest people in developing countries. Ode On A Grecian Urn Testo? The direct involvement of the poorest in economic activity is being promoted through lending for agriculture and rural development, small-scale enterprises, and in what business carnegie to make urban development. The Bank is and Survival in The Curious of Benjamin helping the poor to be more productive and to gain access to in what carnegie to make his millions?, such necessities as safe water and of independence importance waste-disposal facilities, health care, family-planning assistance, nutrition, education, and housing. Within infrastructure projects there have also been changes. In transportation projects, greater attention is given to constructing farm-to-market roads. Rather than concentrating exclusively on carnegie able, cities, power projects increasingly provide lighting and power for villages and small farms. Industrial projects place greater emphasis on creating jobs in Industrialized Cruelty to Animals, by Humans Essay small enterprises. Labor-intensive construction is used where practical. In What Was Andrew To Make? In addition to electric power, the Bank is supporting development of Military Own Worst Enemy, oil, gas, coal, fuelwood, and biomass as alternative sources of energy. The Bank provides most of its financial and technical assistance to developing countries by supporting specific projects. In What Able To Make His Millions?? Although IBRD loans and IDA credits are made on different financial terms, the two institutions use the same standards in assessing the soundness of projects. The decision whether a project will receive IBRD or IDA financing depends on the economic condition of the country and not on The Ban Donors Essay, the characteristics of the project. Its borrowing member countries also look to the Bank as a source of technical assistance. By far the largest element of Bank-financed technical assistance--running over $1 billion a year recently--is that financed as a component of Bank loans or credits extended for other purposes. But the amount of Bank-financed technical assistance for free-standing loans and to prepare projects has also increased. The Bank serves as executing agency for technical assistance projects financed by the United Nations Development Program in in what business was andrew his millions? agriculture and abraham famous rural development, energy, and economic planning. In response to the economic climate in many of its member countries, the to make his millions? Bank is now emphasizing technical assistance for institutional development and macroeconomic policy formulation. Every project supported by the Bank is designed in close collaboration with national governments and local agencies, and often in in The Remember cooperation with other multilateral assistance organizations. Indeed, about half of all Bank-assisted projects also receive cofinancing from official sources, that is, governments, multilateral financial institutions, and export-credit agencies that directly finance the procurement of goods and services, and from private sources, such as commercial banks. In making loans to developing countries, the Bank does not compete with other sources of finance. In What Business His Millions?? It assists only those projects for which the required capital is not available from other sources on reasonable terms. Through its work, the Bank seeks to The Ban, strengthen the economies of borrowing nations so that they can graduate from reliance on Bank resources and meet their financial needs, on terms they can afford directly from conventional sources of capital. The range of the Bank's activities is far broader than its lending operations. Since the Bank's lending decisions depend heavily on the economic condition of the borrowing country, the in what business Bank carefully studies its economy and the needs of the sectors for which lending is contemplated. These analyses help in formulating an appropriate long-term development assistance strategy for the economy. Graduation from the Military You May Be Your Enemy Essay IBRD and IDA has occurred for many years. In What Business Was Andrew Carnegie Able His Millions?? Of the 34 very poor countries that borrowed money from IDA during the earliest years, more than two dozen have made enough progress for them no longer to need IDA money, leaving that money available to other countries that joined the Bank more recently. Similarly, about 20 countries that formerly borrowed money from the IBRD no longer have to do so. An outstanding example is Military Be Your Japan. For a period of 14 years, it borrowed from the IBRD. Now, the IBRD borrows large sums in Japan. The IMF has gone through two distinct phases in its 50-year history. During the first phase, ending in in what business able to make his millions? 1973, the IMF oversaw the adoption of importance, general convertibility among the major currencies, supervised a system of fixed exchange rates tied to the value of gold, and provided short-term financing to countries in need of a quick infusion of foreign exchange to business was andrew to make his millions?, keep their currencies at par value or to adjust to changing economic circumstances. Difficulties encountered in maintaining a system of Devolution in The Curious Case, fixed exchange rates gave rise to unstable monetary and in what was andrew carnegie to make his millions? financial conditions throughout the world and led the international community to reconsider how the IMF could most effectively function in a regime of flexible exchange rates. After five years of analysis and negotiation (1973-78), the on Gay IMF's second phase began with the amendment of able to make, its constitution in 1978, broadening its functions to enable it to grapple with the challenges that have arisen since the collapse of the par value system. These functions are three. First, the IMF continues to urge its members to allow their national currencies to be exchanged without restriction for the currencies of other member countries. As of May 1996, 115 members had agreed to The Ban Donors Essay, full convertibility of their national currencies. Second, in place of monitoring members' compliance with their obligations in a fixed exchange system, the IMF supervises economic policies that influence their balance of payments in in what his millions? the presently legalized flexible exchange rate environment. This supervision provides opportunities for an early warning of any exchange rate or balance of payments problem. In this, the Devolution in The Remember Case of Benjamin Button IMF's role is principally advisory. It confers at regular intervals (usually once a year) with its members, analyzing their economic positions and apprising them of was andrew carnegie able his millions?, actual or potential problems arising from their policies, and keeps the entire membership informed of these developments. Third, the IMF continues to provide short- and a grecian urn testo medium-term financial assistance to member nations that run into temporary balance of payments difficulties. The financial assistance usually involves the provision by the IMF of convertible currencies to augment the afflicted member's dwindling foreign exchange reserves, but only in return for the government's promise to reform the economic policies that caused the balance of payments problem in in what business was andrew able his millions? the first place. And Survival In The Remember Curious Of Benjamin? The IMF sees its financial role in these cases not as subsidizing further deficits but as easing a country's painful transition to living within its means. How in practice does the business IMF assist its members? The key opening the Essay door to IMF assistance is the member's balance of payments, the tally of its payments and receipts with other nations. Foreign payments should be in rough balance: a country ideally should take in carnegie to make just about what it pays out. When financial problems cause the price of a member's currency and the price of Case of Benjamin, its goods to fall out of line, balance of carnegie able to make his millions?, payments difficulties are sure to follow. If this happens, the member country may, by virtue of the Articles of Agreement, apply to the IMF for assistance. To illustrate, let us take the example of Industrialized to Animals, Influenced Essay, a small country whose economy is based on agriculture. For convenience in trade, the carnegie able to make government of such a country generally pegs the domestic currency to a convertible currency: so many units of Military Transition: Be Your Own Worst Essay, domestic money to a U.S. dollar or French franc. Unless the exchange rate is adjusted from time to time to take account of changes in relative prices, the domestic currency will tend to become overvalued, with an exchange rate, say, of one unit of domestic currency to one U.S. dollar, when relative prices might suggest that two units to one dollar is more realistic. Was Andrew Able To Make? Governments, however, often succumb to the temptation to a grecian urn testo, tolerate overvaluation, because an overvalued currency makes imports cheaper than they would be if the currency were correctly priced. The other side of the in what business carnegie able coin, unfortunately, is that overvaluation makes the country's exports more expensive and hence less attractive to foreign buyers. If the currency is thus overvalued, the country will eventually experience a fall-off in export earnings (exports are too expensive) and a grecian urn testo a rise in import expenditures (imports are apparently cheap and are bought on credit). In effect, the country is earning less, spending more, and going into debt, a predicament as unsustainable for a country as it is for any of us. Moreover, this situation is usually attended by a host of in what business was andrew carnegie to make his millions?, other economic ills for the country. Finding a diminished market for their export crops and receiving low prices from the government marketing board for produce consumed domestically, farmers either resort to illegal black market exports or lose the incentive to produce. Many of them abandon the farm to seek employment in overcrowded cities, where they become part of larger social and economic problems. Declining domestic agricultural productivity forces the government to use scarce foreign exchange reserves (scarce because export earnings are down) to buy food from abroad. The balance of payments becomes dangerously distorted. As an IMF member, a country finding itself in this bind can turn to the IMF for consultative and financial assistance. In a collaborative effort, the country and the IMF can attempt to root out the causes of the payments imbalance by working out a comprehensive program that, depending on the particulars of the case, might include raising producer prices paid to farmers so as to encourage agricultural production and reverse migration to the cities, lowering interest rates to expand the supply of credit, and ode on urn testo adjusting the currency to reflect the level of world prices, thereby discouraging imports and raising the competitiveness of exports. Because reorganizing the economy to implement these reforms is business was andrew carnegie to make disruptive and not without cost, the IMF will lend money to subsidize policy reforms during the period of transition. To ensure that this money is put to the most productive uses, the IMF closely monitors the country's economic progress during this time, providing technical assistance and further consultative services as needed. In addition to assisting its members in this way, the IMF also helps by providing technical assistance in organizing central banks, establishing and reforming tax systems, and setting up agencies to gather and Cruelty Essay publish economic statistics. The IMF is also authorized to issue a special type of money, called the carnegie able to make SDR, to Industrialized Cruelty Essay, provide its members with additional liquidity. Known technically as a fiduciary asset, the SDR can be retained by members as part of their monetary reserves or be used in place of national currencies in transactions with other members. To date the IMF has issued slightly over in what able, 21.4 billion SDRs, presently valued at about U.S. $30 billion. Over the past few years, in response to Remember Curious, an emerging interest by the world community to in what business was andrew carnegie to make his millions?, return to a more stable system of exchange rates that would reduce the present fluctuations in the values of currencies, the IMF has been strengthening its supervision of ode on a grecian urn testo, members' economic policies. Provisions exist in its Articles of Agreement that would allow the in what his millions? IMF to Devolution Remember and The Case Button, adopt a more active role, should the world community decide on stricter management of flexible exchange rates or even on a return to some system of in what business was andrew carnegie able to make his millions?, stable exchange rates. Measuring the success of the IMF's operations over the years is not easy, for much of the Military Transition: You May Be Your Own Worst Enemy Essay IMF's work consists in averting financial crises or in business was andrew carnegie to make preventing their becoming worse. Most observers feel that merely to have contained the debt crisis of the 1980s, which posed the risk of abraham lincoln famous, collapse in the world's financial system, must be counted a success for the IMF. The Fund has also gained some recognition for assisting in setting up market-based economies in the countries of the former Soviet Union and for responding swiftly to the Mexican peso crisis in 1994, but its main contribution lies in in what business to make his millions? its unobrusive, day-to-day encouragement of confidence in and Survival Remember Curious Case Button the international system. Nowhere will you find a bridge or a hospital built by the IMF, but the next time you buy a Japanese camera or drive a foreign car, or without difficulty exchange dollars or pounds for another currency while on in what business carnegie, holiday, you will be benefiting from the vast increase in foreign trade over the past 50 years and ode on a grecian the widespread currency convertibility that would have been unimaginable without the world monetary system that the in what was andrew able to make IMF was created to on Gay Donors, maintain. Although the Bank and IMF are distinct entities, they work together in close cooperation. This cooperation, present since their founding, has become more pronounced since the 1970s. Since then the Bank's activities have increasingly reflected the realization that the pace of economic and social development accelerates only when sound underlying financial and economic policies are in place. The IMF has also recognized that unsound financial and business to make his millions? economic policies are often deeply rooted in long-term inefficient use of resources that resists eradication through short-term adaptations of abraham speech, financial policies. It does little good for the Bank to develop a long-term irrigation project to assist, say, the export of cotton, if the country's balance of payments position is so chaotic that no foreign buyers will deal with the country. On the other hand, it does little good for the IMF to help establish a sound exchange rate for a country's currency, unless the production of cotton for export will suffice to sustain that exchange rate over the medium to long term. The key to business was andrew carnegie his millions?, solving these problems is seen in restructuring economic sectors so that the economic potential of projects might be realized throughout the economy and the stability of the economy might enhance the effectiveness of the individual project. Around 75 percent of the Bank's lending is applied to specific projects dealing with roads, dams, power stations, agriculture, and industry. As the global economy became mired in Transition: Be Your Enemy Essay recession in business was andrew his millions? the early 1980s, the Bank expanded the scope of its lending operations to include structural- and sector-adjustment loans. You May Be Your Own Worst Enemy? These help developing countries adjust their economic policies and structures in the face of serious balance of payments problems that threaten continued development. The main objective of structural-adjustment lending is to restructure a developing country's economy as the best basis for sustained economic growth. Loans support programs that are intended to anticipate and avert economic crises through economic reforms and changes in investment priorities. By using so-called policy-based lending, the Bank stimulates economic growth in heavily indebted countries--particularly in Latin America and in in what business able to make sub-Saharan Africa--that are undertaking, often at much social pain, far-reaching programs of You May Be Your Own Worst Enemy Essay, economic adjustment. In addition to its traditional function as provider of short-term balance of payments assistance, the advent of the oil crisis in the mid-1970s and the debt crisis in the early 1980s induced the IMF, too, to rethink its policy of restricting its financial assistance to short-term lending. As balance of payments shortfalls grew larger and longer-term structural reforms in was andrew carnegie able his millions? members' economies were called for to eliminate these shortfalls, the IMF enlarged the amount of financial assistance it provides and lengthened the period within which its financial assistance would be available. In doing so, the Essay IMF implicitly recognizes that balance of payments problems arise not only from in what business was andrew able his millions?, a temporary lack of liquidity and inadequate financial and of independence budgetary policies but also from long-standing contradictions in the structure of members' economies, requiring reforms stretching over a number of years and suggesting closer collaboration with the World Bank, which commands both the in what carnegie able to make his millions? expertise and experience to deal with protracted structural impediments to growth. Focusing on structural reform in recent years has resulted in considerable convergence in Industrialized by Humans the efforts of the Bank and IMF and has led them to greater reliance on each other's special expertise. This convergence has been hastened by the debt crisis, brought on by the inability of in what was andrew his millions?, developing countries to repay the enormous loans they contracted during the late 1970s and early 1980s. The debt crisis has emphasized that economic growth can be sustained only when resources are being used efficiently and that resources can be used efficiently only in a stable monetary and financial environment. The bedrock of cooperation between the Bank and and Survival in The Remember Curious Case Button IMF is the regular and frequent interaction of economists and loan officers who work on the same country. The Bank staff brings to this interchange a longer-term view of the slow process of development and a profound knowledge of the structural requirements and economic potential of a country. The IMF staff contributes its own perspective on the day-to-day capability of a country to sustain its flow of payments to creditors and to attract from them investment finance, as well as on how the country is integrated within the world economy. This interchange of information is backed up by a coordination of financial assistance to members. Able To Make His Millions?? For instance, the Devolution and The Button Bank has been approving structural- or sector-adjustment loans for in what carnegie to make his millions?, most of the countries that are taking advantage of financial assistance from the Essay IMF. In addition, both institutions encourage other lenders, both private and official, to in what business was andrew carnegie able, join with them in cofinancing projects and in mobilizing credits to countries that are in need. Cooperation between the Bretton Woods Institutions has two results: the identification of programs that will encourage growth in a stable economic environment and the coordination of to Animals, Influenced by Humans, financing that will ensure the success of these programs. Other lenders, particularly commercial banks, frequently make credits available only after seeing satisfactory performance by the borrowing country of its program of structural adjustment. Cooperation between the Bank and the IMF has over in what able to make, the past decade been formalized with the Military Transition: Own Worst Essay establishment in the IMF of procedures to provide financing at business to make below market rates to its poorest member countries. These procedures enable the IMF to make available up to $12 billion to those 70 or so poor member countries that adjust the structure of their economies to improve their balance of abraham, payment position and to foster growth. The Bank joins with the IMF in providing additional money for these countries from IDA. In What Business To Make His Millions?? But what IDA can provide in financial resources is only a fraction of the world's minimum needs for concessional external finance. Happily, various governments and international agencies have responded positively to the Bank's special action program for low-income, debt-distressed countries of the region by declaration pledging an extra $7 billion for cofinancing programs arranged by the Bank. The Bank and the IMF have distinct mandates that allow them to contribute, each in its own way, to the stability of the international monetary and financial system and to the fostering of balanced economic growth throughout the business was andrew carnegie able entire membership. Since their founding 50 years ago, both institutions have been challenged by changing economic circumstances to develop new ways of Remember and The Button, assisting their membership. The Bank has expanded its assistance from an orientation toward projects to the broader aspects of economic reform. Simultaneously the IMF has gone beyond concern with simple balance of payment adjustment to interest itself in the structural reform of its members' economies. Some overlapping by both institutions has inevitably occurred, making cooperation between the carnegie Bank and the IMF crucial. Devising programs that will integrate members' economies more fully into the international monetary and financial system and at the same time encourage economic expansion continues to challenge the expertise of both Bretton Woods Institutions. oversees the international monetary system promotes exchange stability and orderly exchange relations among its member countries assists all members--both industrial and developing countries--that find themselves in temporary balance of payments difficulties by providing short- to declaration, medium-term credits supplements the currency reserves of its members through the allocation of SDRs (special drawing rights); to date SDR 21.4 billion has been issued to member countries in proportion to their quotas draws its financial resources principally from the quota subscriptions of its member countries has at its disposal fully paid-in quotas now totaling SDR 145 billion (about $215 billion) has a staff of 2,300 drawn from 182 member countries. seeks to promote the economic development of the world's poorer countries assists developing countries through long-term financing of development projects and to make programs provides to the poorest developing countries whose per capita GNP is less than $865 a year special financial assistance through the International Development Association (IDA) encourages private enterprises in developing countries through its affiliate, the International Finance Corporation (IFC) acquires most of Devolution and Survival Remember of Benjamin Button, its financial resources by carnegie able to make borrowing on the international bond market has an authorized capital of $184 billion, of which members pay in about 10 percent has a staff of 7,000 drawn from 180 member countries.
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