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A PhD proposal is a an Message I Grew outline of your proposed project that is mary kay slogan designed to: Define a clear question and approach to answering it Highlight its originality and/or significance Explain how it adds to, develops (or challenges) existing literature in the field Persuade potential supervisors and/or funders of the importance of the work, and why you are the right person to undertake it. Research proposals may vary in length, so it is important to check with the department(s) to which you are applying to Langston Hughes' Message in 'As Essay check word limits and guidelines. Generally speaking, a proposal should be around 3,000 words which you write as part of the application process. What is the lyrics research proposal for? Potential supervisors, admissions tutors and/or funders use research proposals to assess the quality and originality of your ideas, your skills in Langston Message in 'As I Grew Older' Essay critical thinking and the feasibility of the research project. Please bear in mind that PhD programmes in the UK are designed to be completed in three years (full time) or six years (part time). Ancient Egyptian And Architecture! Think very carefully about the scope of your research and be prepared to explain how you will complete it within this timeframe. Research proposals are also used to assess your expertise in the area in which you want to conduct research, you knowledge of the existing literature (and how your project will enhance it). Moreover, they are used to assess and assign appropriate supervision teams. If you are interested in the work of a particular potential supervisor – and especially if you have discussed your work with this person – be sure to Langston Hughes' Message I Grew Older' mention this in your proposal. We encourage you strongly to identify a prospective supervisor and get in touch with them to mary kay slogan discuss your proposal informally BEFORE making a formal application, to ensure it is of mutual interest and to gain input on the design, scope and Langston Hughes' in 'As I Grew Essay, feasibility of your project. Remember, however, that it may not be possible to guarantee that you are supervised by a specific academic. Crucially, it is also an opportunity for you to communicate your passion in the subject area and to make a persuasive argument about what your project can accomplish. Ancient Arts! Although the proposal should include an outline, it should also be approached as a persuasive essay – that is, as an Message in 'As I Grew opportunity to establish the attention of readers and convince them of the importance of your project. Is the theory research proposal вЂset in Hughes' Message in 'As Essay stone’? No. Good PhD proposals evolve as the and architecture work progresses. It is normal for Langston Hughes' Message in 'As Older' students to refine their original proposal in light of detailed literature reviews, further consideration of research approaches and comments received from the supervisors (and other academic staff). Roman Dieties! It is Langston Hughes' I Grew Older' useful to view your proposal as an initial outline rather than a summary of the вЂfinal product’. Please check carefully with each department to find out whether a specific template is provided or required. In general, however, the following elements are crucial in a good research proposal: This can change, but make sure to include important вЂkey words’ that will relate your proposal to relevant potential supervisors, funding schemes and so on. Make sure that your title goes beyond simply describing the subject matter – it should give an indication of your approach or key questions. In this section you should provide a short overview of your research and where it fits within the existing academic discourses, debates or literature. Be as specific as possible in identifying influences or debates you wish to engage with, but try not to get lead astray into roman dieties a long exegesis of Hughes' I Grew Essay specific sources. Ancient Egyptian Arts And Architecture! Rather, the point is to sketch out the context into which your work will fit. You should also use this section to make links between your research and the existing strengths of the department to which you are applying. Visit appropriate websites to find out Hughes' Message in 'As I Grew Older' Essay, about existing research taking place in the department and how your project can complement this. If applying to multiple departments, be sure to max weber theory tailor a unique proposal to Langston Older' Essay each department – readers can tell if a proposal has been produced for roman dieties ‘mass consumption’! Be sure to establish a solid and convincing framework for your research in this section. Hughes' I Grew! This should include: research questions (usually, 1-3 should suffice) and the reason for asking them the major approach(es) you will take (conceptual, theoretical, empirical and normative, as appropriate) and rationale significance of the research (in academic and, if appropriate, other fields) Positioning of the lyrics research (approx. 900 words) This section should discuss the texts which you believe are most important to the project, demonstrate your understanding of the research issues, and identify existing gaps (both theoretical and practical) that the Message in 'As I Grew Older' Essay research is intended to address. This section is intended to mary kay slogan вЂsign-post’ and contextualize your research questions, not to provide a detailed analysis of Older' Essay existing debates. Research design & methodology (approx. 900 words) This section should lay out, in clear terms, the way in which you will structure your research and roman dieties, the specific methods you will use. Research design should include (but is not limited to): The parameters of the research (ie the definition of the subject matter) A discussion of the overall approach (e.g. is it solely theoretical, or does it involve primary/empirical research) and your rationale for adopting this approach Specific aims and objectives (e.g. ‘complete 20 interviews with members of Message in 'As I Grew Older' group x’) A brief discussion of the timeline for achieving this. A well developed methodology section is crucial, particularly if you intend to conduct significant empirical research. Be sure to include specific techniques, not just your general approach. This should include: kinds of resources consulted; methods for what is pidgins collecting and analyzing data; specific techniques (ie statistical analysis; semi-structured interviewing; participant observation); and Langston Hughes' Older' Essay, (brief) rationale for adopting these methods. Your references should provide the reader with a good sense of i'm a lyrics your grasp on the literature and how you can contribute to it. Be sure to reference texts and resources that you think will play a large role in Langston Hughes' Message in 'As Essay your analysis. Remember that this is not simply a bibliography listing вЂeverything written on the subject’. Rather, it should show critical reflection in the selection of appropriate texts. Quite often, students who fit the minimum entrance criteria fail to mary kay slogan be accepted as PhD candidates as a result of Langston Essay weaknesses in the research proposal. To avoid this, keep the following advice in mind: Make sure that your research idea, question or problem is very clearly stated, persuasive and addresses a demonstrable gap in the existing literature. Put time into formulating the questions- in the early stages of egyptian and architecture a project, they can be as important as the Message in 'As Older' projected results. Make sure that you have researched the departments to which you are applying to arts and architecture ensure that there are staff interested in your subject area and available to supervise your project. As mentioned above it is Hughes' in 'As strongly advised that you contact potential supervisors in max weber theory advance, and provide them with a polished version of your proposal for in 'As I Grew comment. Make sure that your proposal is well structured. Poorly formed or rambling proposals indicate that the proposed project may suffer the same fate. Ensure that the scope of your project is sample reasonable, and remember that there are significant limits to the size and complexity of a project that can be completed and written up in three years. We will be assessing proposals not only for their intellectual ambition and significance, but also for Langston Hughes' I Grew Older' the likelihood that the candidate can complete this project. Make sure that your passion for the subject matter shines through in the structure and arguments presented within your proposal. Remember that we may not be experts in your field – it is up to ancient arts and architecture you to make your project and subject matter engaging to your readers! The following books are widely available from bookshops and libraries and may help in Langston in 'As I Grew Essay preparing your research proposal (as well as in term sample doing your research degree): Bell, J. (1999): Doing Your Research Project: A Guide for First-time Researchers in Hughes' in 'As I Grew Essay Education & Social Science, (Oxford University Press, Oxford). Baxter, L, Hughes, C. and Tight, M. (2001): How to Research, (Open University Press, Milton Keynes). Cryer, P. (2000): The Research Student's Guide to Success, (Open University, Milton Keynes). Delamont, S., Atkinson, P. and Parry, O. (1997): Supervising the PhD, (Open University Press, Milton Keynes). Last updated - 09/02/2017. This article is based on material originally published at the One Hundred Thousand Words blog, used with kind permission.

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Langston Hughes: Poems “As I Grew Older” Summary and Analysis

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Aim: To investigate the Message I Grew Essay effect of substrate concentration on the rate of activity of the enzyme catalase. Catalase is an mary kay slogan enzyme which is found in most living organisms. It catalyses the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide into water and Hughes' in 'As Older' oxygen. Catalase dramatically reduces the roman dieties activation energy needed for Langston Hughes' in 'As Essay, the reaction. Without catalase the decomposition would take much longer, and would not be fast enough to sustain human life. Hydrogen peroxide is also a dangerous, very potent by-product of metabolism, so it is essential that it is broken down quickly, otherwise it would cause damage to cells. I have done some preliminary work and as a result, have identified problems that may occur in my main investigation, such as timing, measuring and keeping variables that I am not investigating constant, (such as temperature etc). In the main procedure I will control the temperature in a water bath in order to create a constant external temperature to dissipate the heat energy. Banana. This will minimise the effect of temperature on the results of the experiment. Older' Essay. I have decided to do this because in my preliminary procedures, I used a thermometer to measure the temperature of the hydrogen peroxide (when left on the side) at different intervals, and on different days, and mary kay slogan found that the temperature of the hydrogen peroxide fluctuated slightly. By doing this, it will ensure that the test is as fair as I can make it. Although the reaction is exothermic and Langston Hughes' Message I Grew will give out heat during the term paper proposal reaction anyway, since the heat has been dissipated by Message I Grew being kept in the water bath, the amount of max weber heat given off in the experiment will be relative to the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, but obviously some reactions will take longer than others, so more heat will be produced. However the temperature initially will be kept the same in Langston in 'As Older' Essay, each case. This is also very relevant because we may not get the opportunity to do the theory whole experiment on one day, or in the same class room. This means the room temperature in each class room or on different days will not be the same for Message I Grew Older' Essay, each procedure, because of obvious factors such as type of day (very cold or mild etc) and the level of heating within the class rooms. Temperature directly affects the shape of the active site. At a temperature below the roman dieties optimum, the molecules have less kinetic energy so the Hughes' Message I Grew Older' Essay rate of term collisions between enzyme and Langston Essay substrate molecules are low and therefore less enzyme-substrate complexes are formed. As the temperature increases the molecules have more kinetic energy and so collide more often, resulting in an increased rate of reaction. Because of this, it is very important to control the temperature, in order to ensure a constant temperature is maintained. Above the optimum temperature, the thermal energy breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the secondary and tertiary structure together, so the roman dieties active site changes shape and Langston Hughes' Message in 'As eventually the mary kay slogan reaction can no longer be catalysed. I will keep the water bath at 25 o C because the optimum temperature for the enzyme catalase at which it works most effectively is 45 o C. This will ensure that, since the temperature is below the optimum the Langston Message I Grew Older' reaction will be slower and therefore enable me to collect oxygen at a measurable rate. I may, however need to change this as I have not done a preliminary experiment using a water bath. In my preliminary work I also found that when doing the what is pidgins experiment with 1g of yeast, and Message 5cm 3 of 20 volume of ancient hydrogen peroxide, the rate of reaction was too fast to collect oxygen at a measurable rate, and therefore made it impossible to gain meaningful results. I consequently reduced the Langston Hughes' Message in 'As I Grew Older' Essay mass of ancient egyptian and architecture yeast to 0.2g rather than the 1.0g I used initially, and still used the same volume (5cm 3 )of hydrogen peroxide. This meant that because the enzyme concentration (catalase in yeast) was reduced there were less collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules so the rate of enzyme-substrate formations were reduced. This meant that less gas evolved with time, so I could effectively time, and measure the volume of oxygen produced. Another factor which I had to consider was the surface area of the yeast granules, because each yeast granule has a different surface area the amount of enzyme will differ in each granule, but more importantly the greater the Hughes' Essay surface area of the yeast the more reactions take place because of the term paper fact that there will be more collisions between the Langston Hughes' in 'As Older' Essay enzyme and ancient arts and architecture substrate molecules. In my first preliminary experiment I just weighed 1.0g of Langston Hughes' Message Older' Essay yeast as it was supplied in its granule form. Mary Kay Slogan. However in Message I Grew Essay, my next preliminary experiment, I decided this would be unfair in egyptian and architecture, the main procedure and because of this I decided to in 'As Essay, grind the yeast into a powder so that the surface area would be more similar in each yeast granule. Also, in my main procedure I will grind a larger mass of yeast (more than I need), and then weigh it, rather than weighing the yeast and then grinding. This is ancient egyptian arts and architecture important because if I weigh the yeast and then grind with the pestle, some of the yeast will be lost because it might get stuck to the pestle, hence decreasing the I Grew Essay mass of yeast slightly. I will also use the same batch of yeast because this will ensure that the yeast granules have the same surface area. I also used 2 different methods in order to determine which would be the most effective in gaining the best possible results, with minimal error. In my first experiment, I used the displacement of water method, whereby a measuring cylinder (containing water) is placed upside down in what is pidgins, a plastic tub, with a tube attached to the test tube (airtight). A syringe with hydrogen peroxide is also present (as shown in in 'As Essay, the diagram). I believe that as the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide (substrate) decreases, the rate of reaction will decrease consequently. Term Paper Proposal Sample. This is because there will be fewer collisions between the substrate and enzyme molecules (catalase in yeast) – because there are fewer molecules of Langston Hughes' I Grew Older' hydrogen peroxide, so there will be a decrease in enzyme-substrate complexes formed. The reaction will then stop because all of the active sites become saturated with substrate because the enzyme is the limiting factor. This will result in a decreased volume of oxygen being produced as one of the by-products of this reaction. In addition, based on my knowledge of the ancient and architecture collision theory I believe that if the concentration of hydrogen peroxide is doubled (or halved) then the rate of reaction is also doubled (or halved). This is Langston I Grew Essay because if the what is pidgins concentration is doubled the number of molecules of the substrate is also doubled. This means there will be twice as many successful collisions. Therefore it is true to say that in theory: rate Р’Вµ concentration. I will investigate if this is true for this reaction. The hydrogen peroxide is injected into the test tube and the volume of oxygen gas is recorded (by the amount of water displaced). This would determine the rate of reaction. However I decided against this method for several reasons. Firstly, because I used such a large measuring cylinder, the volume of gas produced was hard to measure as not much water had been displaced. Although I could have used a smaller measuring cylinder, I decided that the best possible way I could do the experiment was by Langston Hughes' Older' measuring the volume of gas directly using a gas syringe, rather than by the displacement of water. Also, because the hydrogen peroxide had to be inserted into egyptian arts and architecture, the syringe before the reaction could begin, the amount of time it would be out of the water bath (which I intend to use in my main experiment) was longer than necessary. I decided that I could reduce this time by using a different method. In my second preliminary experiment, I used a gas syringe instead, which measured the volume of Message in 'As I Grew Essay oxygen produced directly, rather than by the displacement of water. Roman Dieties. The hydrogen peroxide is inserted into a 5cm 3 small beaker and then tipped over to “spill” the contents and Langston Hughes' Message start the reaction. Ancient Arts. I felt that this would give me more reliable result in my main investigation because the Message in 'As Older' length of time that the hydrogen peroxide is out of the water bath is reduced. Furthermore, the volume of gas is ancient measured directly. I noticed that when doing the first method that “bubbles of gas” were affected by people bumping the table, and Hughes' Message Essay that sometimes they got trapped in term paper proposal, the tube, so even though the product of the Hughes' Message in 'As I Grew reaction (oxygen) had been formed it was not measured until afterwards, (at a later stage in the reaction). Also, the bubble volume is affected by the diameter of the tube and the overall pressure of the water (depth of the water) so I believe that by using the gas syringe, I will be able to eliminate this inaccuracy as water will not be involved. The gas syringe, however, also has a small volume of air displaced within it when it is attached to the conical flask, so I will have to consider this in the main procedure. I will subtract this volume of roman dieties air from each of Message Essay my results so that I can gain a precise measure of the volume of gas produced. The preliminary experiment also gave me an lyrics idea as to Langston I Grew Older', how often I should measure the volume of max weber gas formed (i.e. Hughes' Message In 'As Older' Essay. every 5, 10, 15 seconds etc). What Is Pidgins. In my first preliminary experiment the reaction went to fast to collect oxygen at a measurable rate, but in in 'As Essay, the second preliminary experiment I measured the volume of gas every 10 seconds, but found that the reaction was over before I had enough measurements and that the results I gained would not be sufficient to what is pidgins, obtain enough results and make a valid conclusion. I therefore did a further experiment based on mainly on timing only, and Langston Hughes' Message I Grew found that if I measured the theory volume of gas every 5 seconds I obtained enough measurements. However, I do have to take into account that I will be using different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in my main experiment, so 5 seconds may not be sufficient to measure the volume of I Grew Older' Essay oxygen produced in roman dieties, the slower reactions and I may need to change this. The concentrations of hydrogen peroxide I will use will be 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and Message I Grew 50%. I will use these concentrations because I believe that if I were to term proposal sample, go any lower than 50% that the rate of reaction will be relatively slow, and will not produce enough results because the substrate concentration (hydrogen peroxide) will be too low in concentration. I also want to decrease in 10% because I believe it will provide me with closer results rather than decreasing by Langston Message Older' 20% which will mean I would be testing a concentration of 0% of hydrogen peroxide. Finally, I also want to determine whether or not half the 100% concentration of term hydrogen peroxide (50%) would produce half the volume of gas. Bored of revsion? need to read something GOOD? Want to say thanks for Langston Message Older', this article? Help me out by checking out this book I helped co-edit. Thanks in what is pidgins, advance! The independent variable will be the factor that I am going to manipulate. Message I Grew Older' Essay. This will be the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide. I intend to use a pipette in order to term proposal sample, make up the concentrations of 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, and 50%. I will do this by making each mixture up to 100cm 3 , so for example, the 90% concentrated solution will consist of 90cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide, and 10cm 3 water. I will put the 6 different concentrated solutions in a conical flask which will be placed into Message, a water bath. Because a pipette is a very accurate way of egyptian arts and architecture measuring volumes, I believe that this will be the best method to make up the concentrations. Older'. This will eliminate a very large apparatus error that would occur if I used a beaker or conical flask. The dependant variable – the variable I intend to measure is the volume of gas produced in each reaction. This will vary as a direct result to the different concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Controlled variable – the controlled variable consist of all the other factors which must be kept constant. This will be the mass of yeast for each experiment (0.2g). I will make sure that I measure 0.2g of yeast as accurately as I can using the i'm a lyrics balance. The balance has a mechanism whereby it can be made level (so perfectly balanced) regardless of the Hughes' Message in 'As angle of the desk or counter it is what is pidgins placed on. In 'As I Grew Older'. I have explained this is my method below. I will also consider the apparatus error of the balance (and indeed all the equipment I use) so I can work out the overall error derived from the what is pidgins apparatus and identify this in Langston Hughes' Message in 'As I Grew Older' Essay, my conclusion. I am also controlling the what is pidgins temperature, so this has to Langston Hughes' Older' Essay, be considered, because I am controlling 2 variables. Max Weber Theory. This will affect my results, but I believe it will make them more accurate since the temperature will be constant, and so eliminate any fluctuations in temperature (as I have explained earlier). It will also rule out the fact that if I have to do my procedures in different rooms/days, the temperature in the room might be different. Conical flask 20 vols hydrogen peroxide Water Yeast Gas syringe Stop clock Clamp stand 50cm 3 pipette 20cm 3 pipette 25cm 3 pipette Water bath Syringe Stopper Pestle and mortar Thermometer Tweezers 5cm 3 Beaker. Firstly I am going to measure out the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide that I have decided on. This will be 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50%. I will do this by adding different volumes of water to make up 100cm 3 .For example, the 80% concentrated solution will consist of 80cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide and Langston Hughes' Message I Grew Essay 20cm 3 of water, (as shown in the table below). Instead of roman dieties using a conical flask or a measuring cylinder, I will use a pipette because they are very accurate for Langston Message Older', measuring volumes. I will then place the 6 conical flasks in what is pidgins, a water bath, at 25 o C, to create a constant external temperature to dissipate the heat energy. I will do this first to Hughes' in 'As, ensure that the mixtures have enough time to reach a constant temperature, rather than only sample putting them in for a short time because this will mean there may be fluctuations in temperature of the different molecules which I was initially trying to eliminate. Next, I will grind the yeast into a powder using a pestle and mortar. I will grind up more than I need, so that I can use the same (ground) yeast for all of my experiments. This will also be fairer than grinding the yeast on different days or for different procedures, because the time spent grinding may be different. Hopefully this will mean that each yeast granule will have the same (or a very similar) surface area. I will then set up my apparatus. Finally, on setting up the apparatus, I will place the balance on the table, making sure the Hughes' Message Essay bubble in the spirit level is in the middle level, thereby eliminating any deviation from the banana lyrics balance position. This means that even though the table may not be level, the pan (or weighing basin) is perfectly level. I will set up my apparatus this way every time I need to, e.g. when I need another lesson to Hughes' Message Older', complete my investigation. Once the paper sample apparatus is Langston Hughes' Message Essay set up, I will place a conical flask on the balance, and set the what is pidgins balance to 0, so that I can weigh the yeast only, which I will place in the conical flask using a spatula until the right weight (0.2g) is in the conical flask. I will weigh the yeast directly into the conical flask, not a Petri dish, because then I do not have to worry about transferring the yeast from the Petri dish to Langston Message in 'As Essay, the conical flask. Next I will place the conical flask under the term paper proposal gas syringe and place an airtight stopper in the top, with a single tube attached to the gas syringe as shown in the diagram. I will then take the conical flask with the Langston in 'As 100% hydrogen peroxide out of the ancient egyptian arts and architecture water bath and Hughes' Older' measure exactly 5cm 3 of the roman dieties mixture using a syringe, and Langston Hughes' Message I Grew Older' place it into the 5cm 3 small beaker. Being very careful as not to mary kay slogan, spill the mixture, I will take the stopper off the conical flask and lower the beaker into the conical flask using tweezers. I will then put the stopper back on the conical flask so the procedure is ready to Langston Hughes' Message Essay, commence. Using a stop clock I will time from the moment the small beaker is tipped over to when the roman dieties reaction stops, measuring the volume of gas evolved every 15 seconds. The reaction is over when I record 3 volumes of gas that are concordant or very similar. Hughes' Message Older' Essay. This indicates that no more gas is being produced because the enzyme is the limiting factor as all the active sites are occupied. I will repeat this method using the different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide making sure to wash the equipment thoroughly after each reaction. I will carry out each reaction 3 times for each to mary kay slogan, gain an average. I hope to record concordant results for each repeat, so if an anomaly occurs I can discount it and repeat the procedure again. I will record the data in a table and allow me to work out the rate of reaction. I will then represent the Message in 'As Essay results in a graph. This will enable me to work out the gradient and make a conclusion based on the evidence I have obtained. Hydrogen peroxide, if inhaled or has contact with the i'm a lyrics skin or eyes, can be very dangerous and toxic. I will therefore be wearing safety goggles whenever I am handling the Hughes' Message Older' hydrogen peroxide and during the reaction, and what is pidgins will also wear gloves. I will also make sure that my hair is tied back at all times and that I am not wearing any jewellery or articles of clothing that may come into contact with the hydrogen peroxide. I will also clean up any spillages immediately. I believe that the graph will firstly start of steep in all the reactions, but steepest in the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide and gradually decreasing as the concentration of hydrogen peroxide decrease. Langston Older'. This is because there will be more collisions between the enzyme and substrate molecules so more enzyme-substrate complexes. Mary Kay Slogan. The curve will then level off and this represents the point where most of the enzymes active sites are saturated. Langston Hughes' In 'As Older' Essay. The curve will eventually stay constant and ancient and architecture this is because the enzyme molecules are fully saturated. This is called the Langston Message I Grew Older' Essay maximum velocity of reaction or Vmax. The substrate concentration at this point, even if increased, will not affect the rate of mary kay slogan reaction because it is the enzyme which is in low concentration. I believe that the graph for one of the concentrations, for example 100% hydrogen peroxide, will look similar to the one below. I believe that each curve for each concentration will look like the one above, but for each decreased concentration – 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50%, the value of the Vmax will decrease too, as will the initial rate of reaction, This is because of the fact that there will be less substrate molecules in each successive concentration, so fewer collisions between particles that can react with each other. Hughes' I Grew Older'. This means that the arts and architecture number of collisions that reach the activation energy also decreases. This can be explained by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve: THEN Draw the graph using your results or the Langston in 'As I Grew one's in the above table. "Based on the information above, I therefore believe that the graph with all the concentrations plotted will look similar to the one below". I will record my results in a table like the one below, and then record further, average results, in a similar table. Theory. I will draw a graph based on the average results, and draw a curve of best fit for each concentration which will help me analyse my results. I will then work out the gradient of each curve and plot a further graph of I Grew Essay percentage of roman dieties H 2 O 2 against rate of Hughes' I Grew Older' reaction on the y-axis. I would expect this graph to be linear as this would show that as the concentration increases, time taken for a set volume of gas would decrease - in other words, the rate is proportional to the concentration. I expect this graph to lyrics, look similar to the one I have drawn previously. I will work out the rate of reaction from the results gained in the first 5 seconds as this will be the point where the greatest volume of gas is evolved. I had to change the volume of hydrogen peroxide used from 5cm 3 to 4cm 3 because in the first reaction with 100% hydrogen peroxide went too fast to collect oxygen at Langston Hughes' Message I Grew Older' Essay a measurable rate. When I did repeat the procedure with 4cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide, I could effectively measure the mary kay slogan volume of gas. Hughes' Message In 'As I Grew Older'. I also had to change the roman dieties gas syringe because at first the reaction did not occur, and this was because a large volume of gas was leaking from a tear in the tube. I also had to repeat the whole of the Langston in 'As I Grew Essay 70% concentration of hydrogen peroxide because the results were all anomalous when compared to the rest of the what is pidgins data. I will talk about why this might have been in my evaluation. * Another factor which I found out later when I drew my graphs was that there were limitations to the range of results I collected, so I decided to collect some more results. I have explained this later on. Below is Langston Hughes' Message in 'As I Grew Older' a table of the results I collected, including all the results which I had to repeat. The raw results can be seen in the appendix. Because my results where mostly concordant, and at what is pidgins the very least there was only a 2cm 3 difference between any 2 repeats out of 3, I decided that I did not need to repeat any of the procedures, apart from the Langston Hughes' Message in 'As Older' whole of concentration 7 which I will discuss later. This then enabled me to what is pidgins, work out an average by Langston I Grew Essay adding up 3 three repeat values and dividing by 3. For example the 100% concentration average would be (48+49+48) Г· 3). Below is a table showing the average results. From these results, I can see instantly that less gas was evolved in the first 5 seconds as the concentration decreased and that the and architecture overall volume of gas also became successively lower in each decreased concentration. Hughes' Message In 'As Older'. This is because there were more molecules of hydrogen peroxide in the higher concentrations, so more collisions took place and ancient egyptian arts and architecture so there was a greater probability of successful collisions. This resulted in more enzyme-substrate complexes formed in the higher concentrations, and Langston Hughes' in 'As I Grew Older' less in the each decreased concentration. This supports the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve I drew earlier. I have drawn a graph based on these average results, with a curve of best fit for each concentration which will allow me to identify any anomalies. From the graph I can see that as the concentration of hydrogen peroxide decreased, the volume of oxygen produced decreased as a direct result. This is because as the roman dieties concentration decreased, the number of molecules of hydrogen peroxide also decreased. This decreased the Message Essay number of particles that can react with each other, and so the number of max weber collisions that reached the Hughes' Message Older' activation energy also decreased. This means that there are also less successful collisions, and theory so less enzyme-substrate complexes formed. The final volume of oxygen produced also decreased as the concentration decreased, and this is because less collisions overall took place, and so a reduced number of collisions reached the activation energy. This was because there were fewer molecules initially, and this resulted in Hughes' Message Older' Essay, a lower probability that the molecules would collide. This means that there were less successful collisions overall. For example, the 100% concentration of banana hydrogen peroxide evolved a final volume of oxygen of 88.3cm 3 , 90% concentration evolved 73.3cm 3 of oxygen, 80% - 63.7cm 3 , 70% - 49.3cm 3 , 60% - 44.7cm 3 and Langston Hughes' I Grew Older' Essay the 50% concentration evolved 37cm 3 of oxygen. The initial rate of reaction is fastest for the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide and gradually decreases as the concentration decreases. This can be explained by the collision theory, which states that the time taken for a reaction to take place, and so a set volume of gas to be evolved, becomes shorter for higher concentrations substrate. This is because at higher concentrations there are more substrate molecules than in egyptian arts, lower concentrations. Subsequently, if there are more molecules, then there will be more collisions taking place, and Hughes' Message in 'As I Grew therefore more reactions between enzyme and substrate molecules take place in 1 second, and so oxygen is evolved more rapidly. So at the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the oxygen was given of more rapidly because there were more substrate and enzyme molecules reacting in mary kay slogan, a second. From the curves of Langston Hughes' Message in 'As I Grew best fit, I can also see that there were no anomalous results, only some results which were slightly above or below the mary kay slogan curve, though they were not excessively distorted. This shows that my results were relatively accurate for each concentration alone. To find out if the concentrations together were accurate, I worked out the rate of reaction. This enabled me to find out if each concentration, based on the number of molecules of substrate in each decrease of 10%, was similar or even showed a pattern which I failed to identify with my previous results. I did this by working out the gradient of Langston in 'As Essay each curve and plotting these values against max weber the concentrations on the x- axis. The method which I used to do this can be seen on the next page. By plotting these values on a graph I could also see if there was a relationship between the different concentrations. On the Hughes' I Grew Older' Essay next page is a graph showing the rate of reaction, with a line of best fit. (again - on your graph showing rate of reaction, draw a line of best fit) Overall, I believe my experiment went well and I believe that I gained sufficient results because I repeated each concentration 3 times, and investigated 8 concentrations in total. I believe that my results were also relatively reliable because as you can see from the graph I plotted with the curve of theory best fit for each concentration, as the concentration decreases the volume of oxygen produced also decreases. For example, the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide evolved a final average volume of gas of 77cm 3 of oxygen while the 90% concentration evolved a final average volume of 73.3cm 3 . Also most of the points were on or close to Hughes' Message, the curve of best fit for each concentration. Max Weber Theory. However there are some factors that I must take into consideration. Firstly, there were limitations of the apparatus that I used. Each piece of apparatus has an apparatus error in which there is an upper and lower limit. Langston Message I Grew Essay. For example the i'm a banana lyrics balance had an Langston Message in 'As I Grew Older' apparatus error of Р’В±0.01 which means that since I used 0.2g of yeast, this value could either be 0.21g or 0.19g. This obviously affects the amount of mary kay slogan catalase present, and this means that there could be more or less collisions and so successful collisions between enzyme and Message I Grew substrate molecules depending on the greater or lower mass of yeast. For example, if there were more molecules of yeast the rate of reaction would increase because there would be more collisions between enzyme and roman dieties substrate molecules which would result in a greater probability of successful collisions, and therefore more enzyme-substrate complexes being produced. This means that in my results, the Langston Hughes' in 'As volume of gas produced in the first 5 seconds may have been higher than it should have been if I had used exactly 0.2g of yeast. This could have been a reason for the very fast rate of i'm a banana lyrics reaction of the 100% hydrogen peroxide, which showed up as an Hughes' Older' Essay anomalous result on lyrics the first rate of reaction graph. This would apply for the substrate concentration too, in that the Message in 'As Essay pipettes also had an apparatus error. This would also mean the max weber theory amount of substrate molecules could have been different for each repeat, even though I used the same concentration. For example in Langston Message in 'As I Grew Essay, the 100% concentration I used two 50cm 3 pipettes which had an apparatus error of Р’В±0.01. What Is Pidgins. So in 100cm 3 the actual volume could have been either 99.98cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide or 100.02cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide so there would have either been more or fewer molecules of hydrogen peroxide. If there were fewer molecules of I Grew Older' hydrogen peroxide, there would have been fewer collisions between molecules of enzyme and substrate, resulting in fewer enzyme-substrate complexes being made. However, I do not believe they were significantly different because each of my repeats were mostly concordant, so a similar amount of oxygen was produced which must mean that there was a similar number of max weber theory substrate molecules in I Grew, each. For example, from my results, in mary kay slogan, the 100% concentrated solution on the first repeat, 48cm 3 of oxygen was produced. In the second repeat, 49cm 3 was and in the third repeat 48cm 3 of oxygen was produced. I tried to select the best method with which I considered would be most accurate. I decided on the gas syringe method because, as I explained in my plan, it measured the volume of gas directly and would also minimise the volume of Langston Hughes' Older' oxygen which could potentially dissolve in water. Ancient Arts And Architecture. However, some oxygen was displaced in the gas syringe and I had to solve this by subtracting this small volume from the volumes produced in each of the reactions. Also, I noticed if the barrel was wet, the syringe often got stuck for a short time before it recorded the volumes of gas. To prevent this I had to dry out the barrel and Langston Hughes' in 'As I Grew Older' syringe before commencing the roman dieties procedure. It was very hard to insert the small 5cm 3 beaker into the conical flask, and when it came to tipping it over, some of the substrate was still trapped inside the I Grew Older' beaker. I solved this by swirling the i'm a banana conical flask constantly throughout the reactions and this seemed to solve the problem. Although, this means that the amount of swirling had to be the same in order to ensure a fair test. I tried to keep this constant by making sure I swirled the conical flask evenly. The accuracy of the results showed that this factor did not distort the results too much, and so a similar amount of Hughes' in 'As Older' substrate molecules were present in each reaction. For example, the repeated concentration of 80% had values of 32cm 3 ,33cm 3 and 32cm 3 which means that a similar number of substrate was present in each reaction. Another factor which was hard to measure was the volume of gas produced because some of the higher concentration reactions were very fast, so it was hard to i'm a lyrics, read off the correct values every time. I tried to make this as accurate as possible by making sure my eyes were level with the gas syringe. Hughes'. Again, judging by max weber theory the accuracy of my repeat results, I believe that this factor was not an issue. Although I did not check for gas leaks beforehand, there was good agreement between my replicates. In the 60% concentration the repeats at 5 seconds were 20, 21 and 20cm 3 , which is concordant. If my replicates had not been so close I would have had to change the tube. I ground up the yeast to try to make the surface area as similar as possible, because surface area is Langston Message in 'As Older' Essay a major factor in my experiment. A larger surface area means there is more molecules being exposed to what is pidgins, collisions with other molecules, with sufficient energy to cause a reaction. This means that having the Langston Hughes' Message same surface area of yeast in each reaction is very important in ensuring a fair test because the number of molecules exposed to collisions must be the same. Temperature is a major factor which affects rate of reaction. This is because at higher temperatures, molecules of both enzyme and substrate have more kinetic energy and so collide more often. I'm A Banana. This results in a bigger proportion of molecules having a higher energy greater than that of the activation energy. More collisions are therefore successful so more substrate is converted into product. The reaction is Langston Hughes' Message in 'As I Grew exothermic, and so heat is obviously produced in the reaction. The higher the concentration the more heat will be produced because the molecules of both substrate and enzyme have more energy, and so collide more often producing more heat energy. This heat energy is transferred to the environment. Although I tried to control the temperature in i'm a lyrics, a water bath, and to Hughes' Message in 'As I Grew Older', good effect because a constant external temperature was produced and ancient arts so the heat energy was dissipated, I could not control the amount of heat given off in Langston in 'As Older' Essay, each reaction. This would have affected my results for roman dieties, several reasons. Firstly, more oxygen dissolves in water at a lower temperature than at high temperatures and this means that for the reactions involving low concentrations more oxygen would have dissolved than in the higher concentrations because of the decreased amount of heat energy given off. Because the volume of Langston Message Older' Essay oxygen dissolved in the reaction is not constant for all the reactions, because less oxygen is dissolved in water at higher temperatures, this would have affected my results. This may have been why the difference in the final volume of oxygen produced was not equal, but instead decreased in lyrics, steps of 3.7cm 3 , 9.6cm 3 , 14.4cm 3 , 4.6cm 3 and 7.7cm 3 . The different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide that I made up could not have been exactly accurate because this would have meant that the volume of gas evolved would have increased in Langston Hughes' in 'As Essay, equal steps which it did not. For example, the final average volume of gas for 100% hydrogen peroxide was 77cm 3 , and for 90% was 73.3cm 3 , 80% - 63.7cm 3 , 70% - 49.3cm 3 , 60% - 44.7cm 3 and 50% it was 37cm 3 . As I have mentioned earlier, this decreases in roman dieties, steps of 3.7cm 3 , 9.6cm 3 , 14.4cm 3 , 4.6cm 3 and 7.7cm 3 , which is far from Langston Hughes' Message in 'As Older', equal. This may have been because I only used a pipette when measuring the hydrogen peroxide, and term paper proposal only poured the water into the volumetric flask to make up the Langston Hughes' in 'As I Grew Older' 100cm 3 . I believed this was accurate, but upon reflection using a pipette would have been much more accurate as pipettes have a much lower apparatus error than the term volumetric flask. Langston In 'As I Grew Essay. This may have also been a reason why I had to repeat the whole of the 70cm 3 concentration, which initially had a final volume of gas, 72cm 3 , which was greater than the final volume of oxygen produced in the 80% concentration, 64cm 3 . Also I had to roman dieties, make sure I washed out the conical flask and beaker thoroughly with distilled water and Hughes' in 'As Older' Essay addition I made sure they were also dried sufficiently. If I hadnРІР‚в„ўt I could have risked diluting the solutions more and this would have affected the number of molecules of hydrogen peroxide present which in turn would have affected the number of roman dieties collisions between enzyme and Message Older' substrate molecules. For example, if there was still only mary kay slogan 1cm 3 of water still remaining in the conical flask and beaker combined, then in Langston I Grew Essay, say the 80% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the concentration would have been closer to 79%. Ancient. This can be shown by the simple calculation of 80 Г· 101 x 100 = 79.2%. Overall I believe that my data does reflect my hypothesis that “ as the concentration of hydrogen peroxide decreases that rate of reaction will decrease consequently because there will be few collision between enzyme and substrate molecules due to a decreased number of molecules ”. This is shown by my rate of Message in 'As I Grew Older' Essay reaction graph which shows that for the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the roman dieties rate of reaction was 8cm 3 second -1 , and the 90% concentration was only 7.4cm 3 second -1 . My results also showed that the reaction will gradually slow and eventually stop because the enzyme will become the limiting factor. This is shown when oxygen stops being produces and Langston Hughes' I Grew the same results is proposal sample recorded 5 times. So for example, I knew that the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide reaction was over Hughes' Message Older', because I recorded 88cm 3 at least 5 times. However, I also believed that if I halved the concentration then the rate of reaction (volume of oxygen produced) would also be halved, and what is pidgins so the rate would be proportional to the concentration. This would show that the reaction is a first order reaction. Though in theory this should be the trend, my results did not show this pattern. So, although my results did show a positive correlation, it doesnРІР‚в„ўt necessarily mean I have an accurate correlation, because my results do not follow specific trends. For example the final value at 50% was 37cm 3 whilst the volume of oxygen produced at 100cm 3 was 77cm 3 which is not double 37. Message Essay. Again the final volume of oxygen produced at 30% was 27.3cm 3 , whilst the term paper sample final value produced in the 60% concentration was 44.7cm 3 which also not double. As can be seen from the Message Older' rate of reaction graph, the concentrations of 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% are relatively even, and would suggest that the line of term sample best fit should be drawn where I have drawn the line of best fit (1). Langston Message I Grew Older'. However this does not account for the fact that a concentration of 0% hydrogen peroxide produces 0cm 3 of oxygen. If the line of best fit (1) is correct it would make this value an anomaly, which clearly it is not since it is the most accurate value on the graph. The line of best fit (2) therefore makes much more sense, because it is crosses through (0,0), and also shows that the concentrations of 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% are still quite even. However, this presents a problem because this either suggests that the egyptian arts and architecture concentration of 100% is Message I Grew not accurate and is an i'm a anomaly, or that the line of best fit should in fact be a curve of best fit. This presents me with a problem in the fact that I now have limitations because I did not test any of the concentrations below 50%, which would clearly define whether the graph should have a line or a curve of best fit. Consequently I have decided to do further experiments with concentrations of 10% and Hughes' Message in 'As I Grew 30% hydrogen peroxide. I will use exactly the same method as I did previously, and since I still have some yeast left, I can still use the same batch of yeast. I will then work out the gradient of the 2 concentrations and plot them on a rate of reaction graph along with the other concentrations. I will also repeat the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, because I believe this was an anomalous result. Because it had a rate of reaction that was so much higher than the other values. Hopefully, with the new and repeated results I will be able to analyse my results further and therefore evaluate them with more evidence than I had previously. I will work out the gradient of ancient and architecture these new results and plot them on a new rate of reaction graph. This should tell me whether the reaction is Langston Hughes' Message Older' Essay indeed is a first order reaction, or if a curve of best fit is required. Now I have carried out the roman dieties repeats and plotted the points on the rate of Hughes' Message in 'As I Grew Older' reaction graph I can see that the graph is in theory, fact clearly linear. This means that the reaction a first order reaction, so the rate is proportional to Hughes' Message Essay, the concentration. I believe that the data also shows strong positive correlation, and ancient arts there are few outliers which show that my results are accurate. I have drawn a line of Message in 'As I Grew best fit to clearly illustrate this trend. The line of best fit also suggests values of concentrations which I have not investigated. I can find out what these values might be by drawing a line up and across from the line of best fit. So, for example the roman dieties 40% concentration should have a curve gradient near to Hughes' Message in 'As Older' Essay, the value of 3 (shown by red line on the graph) Overall, the there is roman dieties a pattern showing a constant trend in that as the Hughes' I Grew concentration decreases the rate of reaction decreases too, and that the overall volume of gas evolved also decreases. Max Weber. This is because at higher concentration there is more molecules of substrate , so more collision take place, resulting in Hughes' Older' Essay, more enzyme-substrate complexes being formed. This is shown in term paper proposal, the table with all the results I have gained. Apparatus error was one of the main factors in my experiment which I tried to keep at a minimal. I did this by only using pipettes which have a very small apparatus error when compared to in 'As I Grew, beakers. Max Weber. I also avoided using apparatus more than I had to when measuring amounts. The balance proved to be the biggest apparatus error and this would have been much bigger if I had used only 0.1g rather than 0.2g of Langston Hughes' Message Older' yeast. Below is a summary of what is pidgins all the percentage errors. 50cm 3 pipette Р’В± 0.01. 20cm 3 pipette Р’В± 0.03. 10cm 3 pipette Р’В± 0.02. Balance 0.01 Г· 0.2 x 100 = 5% Making up concentrations. 100% using 2 x 50cm 3 pipettes: 0.01 Г· 50 x 100 = 0.02% x 2. 90% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 Г· 50 x 100 = 0.02% 2 x 20cm 3 pipette: 0.03 Г· 20 x 100 = 0.15% x 2 = 0.3% 1 x 20cm 3 pipette, 1 x 10cm 3 pipette 0.01 Г· 50 x 100 = 0.02% 0.03 Г· 20 x 100 = 0.15% 0.02 Г· 10 x 100 = 0.10% 70% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 Г· 50 x 100 = 0.02% 1 x 20cm 3 pipette 0.03 Г· 20 x 100 = 0.15% 60% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 Г· 50 x 100 = 0.02% 1 x 10cm 3 pipette 0.02 Г· 10 x 100 = 0.02 % 50% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette 0.01 Г· 50 x 100 = 0.02% Total apparatus error for apparatus used for concentrations = 0.66% Total error for apparatus – 5.66% Considering the whole experiment, 5.66% is a relatively small apparatus error, and taking into account that the fact that the balance contributed to Langston Hughes' Message Older', 5% of this error, the remaining error is minimal. Remembering that a apparatus error on the balance is Р’В±0.01, this would mean that the proposal sample yeast could weigh 2.01g or 1.19g and this either increases or decreases the number of molecules present. I will talk about this in my evaluation. for original and inspiring surf photography, articles and interviews with your favourite surfers. A grade GCSE chemistry coursework - Rates of reaction Decomposition of sodium thiosulphate. The Enzyme Catalase Activity at Different Conditions Lab Report. by hyunchang 70. Oxygenate Your Body - Proper Regimen for Powerful Results. by Fairwitness 0. by Rhys Baker 1. Biochemistry Notes on Proteins, Denaturation, and Langston in 'As Structure. by Nalini Marquez 3. A grade GCSE chemistry coursework - Rates of reaction Decomposition of sodium thiosulphate. MemeMachine 4 months ago. Everybody knows that luno2012 has some of the dopest fresh swag. I like memes tbh. Are you of insultings me. I am of here to max weber, the learn of biology not for the English. English of no importants to of becomings doctor. Please shut off. This is the very good the piece of the Hughes' Message Older' Essay work but i think the conclusion could be the better man so the marks could the be the highest. Nice hub with great information about enzyme kinetics. (Ignore the last question) What board gave the mary kay slogan grade? What mark did this get? Thanks, this is great! full marks..nice! Copyright © 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and Langston in 'As I Grew Essay company names shown may be trademarks of and architecture their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and Message in 'As I Grew Older' Essay advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright © 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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The Crisis
Every year more than 3 million reports of Langston in 'As I Grew Older' Essay child abuse are made in the United States. It’s a terrible epidemic that we at Childhelp are dedicated to put an ancient egyptian and architecture, end to. To do this, we need to first increase awareness of the issue itself. What is child abuse? Child abuse is when a parent or caregiver, whether through action or failing to Older' Essay act, causes injury, death, emotional harm or risk of serious harm to banana lyrics a child. There are many forms of child maltreatment, including neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, exploitation and emotional abuse. Read through the sections below on Langston in 'As I Grew Older', the different types of mary kay slogan child abuse to learn the signs. If you see these signs in Hughes' in 'As I Grew Older' anyone you know, or are a victim of child abuse, get help right away. Physical abuse of a child is when a parent or caregiver causes any non-accidental physical injury to i'm a a child. There are many signs of Langston in 'As physical abuse. If you see any of the following signs, please get help right away. 28.3% of adults report being physically abused as a child. Physical abuse includes striking, kicking, burning, biting, hair pulling, choking, throwing, shoving, whipping or any other action that injures a child. Even if the egyptian arts, caregiver didn’t mean to cause injury, when the child is injured it is Langston Hughes' I Grew abuse. Physical discipline from max weber, a parent that does not injure or impair a child is Hughes' I Grew Older' not considered abuse; however non-violent alternatives are always available. Bruises, blisters, burns, cuts and mary kay slogan, scratches Internal injuries, brain damage Broken bones, sprains, dislocated joints Emotional and psychological harm Lifelong injury, death. Signs of physical abuse in parent or caregiver: Can’t or won’t explain injury of child, or explains it in a way that doesn’t make sense Displays aggression to child or is overly anxious about child’s behavior Indicates child is Hughes' not trustworthy, a liar, evil, a troublemaker Delays or prevents medical care for child Takes child to different doctors or hospitals Keeps child from i'm a, school, church, clubs Has history of violence and/or abuse. Signs of physical abuse in in 'As a child: Any injury to mary kay slogan a child who is not crawling yet Visible and severe injuries Injuries at different stages of healing On different surfaces of the I Grew, body Unexplained or explained in a way that doesn’t make sense Distinctive shape Frequency, timing and history of injuries (frequent, after weekends, vacations, school absences) Aggression toward peers, pets, other animals Seems afraid of parents or other adults Fear, withdrawal, depression, anxiety Wears long sleeves out of season Violent themes in fantasy, art, etc. Nightmares, insomnia Reports injury, severe discipline Immaturity, acting out, emotional and max weber theory, behavior extremes Self-destructive behavior or attitudes. Sexual abuse occurs when an Langston Hughes' Message in 'As Older', adult uses a child for sexual purposes or involves a child in sexual acts. Ancient Egyptian! It also includes when a child who is older or more powerful uses another child for sexual gratification or excitement. 20.7% of adults report being sexually abused as a child. Sexual abuse of children includes: Non-contact abuse Making a child view a sex act Making a child view or show sex organs Inappropriate sexual talk Contact abuse Fondling and oral sex Penetration Making children perform a sex act Exploitation Child prostitution and child pornography. Signs of sexual abuse in parent or caregiver: Parent fails to supervise child Unstable adult presence Jealous/possessive parent Sexual relationships troubled or dysfunctional Parent relies on child for Langston Hughes' Essay, emotional support. Difficulty sitting, walking, bowel problems Torn, stained, bloody undergarments Bleeding, bruises, pain, swelling, itching of banana genital area Frequent urinary tract infections or yeast infections Any sexually transmitted disease or related symptoms. Doesn’t want to change clothes (e.g., for P.E.) Withdrawn, depressed, anxious Eating disorders, preoccupation with body Aggression, delinquency, poor peer relationships Poor self-image, poor self-care, lack of confidence Sudden absenteeism, decline in school performance Substance abuse, running away, recklessness, suicide attempts Sleep disturbance, fear of bedtime, nightmares, bed wetting (at advanced age) Sexual acting out, excessive masturbation Unusual or repetitive soothing behaviors (hand-washing, pacing, rocking, etc.) Sexual behavior or knowledge that is advanced or unusual Reports sexual abuse. When a parent or caregiver harms a child’s mental and social development, or causes severe emotional harm, it is considered emotional abuse. Hughes' I Grew Older'! While a single incident may be abuse, most often emotional abuse is a pattern of behavior that causes damage over time. 10.6% of adults report being emotionally abused as a child. Rejecting or ignoring: telling a child he or she is roman dieties unwanted or unloved, showing little interest in child, not initiating or returning affection, not listening to the child, not validating the child’s feelings, breaking promises, cutting child off in Message Older' conversation Shaming or humiliating: calling a child names, criticizing, belittling, demeaning, berating, mocking, using language or taking action that takes aim at banana lyrics, child’s feelings of Langston Hughes' Message Older' Essay self-worth Terrorizing: accusing, blaming, insulting, punishing with or threatening abandonment, harm or death, setting a child up for failure, manipulating, taking advantage of term paper proposal a child’s weakness or reliance on adults, slandering, screaming, yelling Isolating: keeping child from peers and positive activities, confining child to small area, forbidding play or other stimulating experiences Corrupting: engaging child in criminal acts, telling lies to Langston Hughes' Message justify actions or ideas, encouraging misbehavior. Signs of emotional abuse in parent or caregiver: Routinely ignores, criticizes, yells at proposal sample, or blames child Plays favorites with one sibling over Hughes' Message I Grew Essay another Poor anger management or emotional self-regulation Stormy relationships with other adults, disrespect for authority History of paper violence or abuse Untreated mental illness, alcoholism or substance abuse. Signs of emotional abuse in a child: Delays in Langston Hughes' I Grew Essay development Wetting bed, pants Speech disorders Health problems like ulcers, skin disorders Obesity and mary kay slogan, weight fluctuation. Habits like sucking, biting, rocking Learning disabilities and Langston Hughes' in 'As Older', developmental delays Overly compliant or defensive Extreme emotions, aggression, withdrawal Anxieties, phobias, sleep disorders Destructive or anti-social behaviors (violence, cruelty, vandalism, stealing, cheating, lying) Behavior that is i'm a lyrics inappropriate for age (too adult, too infantile) Suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Child neglect is when a parent or caregiver does not give the care, supervision, affection and support needed for a child’s health, safety and well-being. Langston Message Older' Essay! Child neglect includes: Physical neglect and inadequate supervision Emotional neglect Medical neglect Educational neglect. Children need enough care to be healthy and enough supervision to i'm a banana lyrics be safe. Message I Grew Essay! Adults that care for paper, children must provide clothing, food and drink. Message I Grew Older'! A child also needs safe, healthy shelter, and adequate supervision. Examples of physical neglect: Deserting a child or refusing to take custody of a child who is under your care Repeatedly leaving a child in i'm a another’s custody for days or weeks at a time Failing to Langston Message in 'As Older' provide enough healthy food and drink Failing to ancient arts provide clothes that are appropriate to the weather Failing to ensure adequate personal hygiene Not supervising a child appropriately Leaving the child with an Langston Hughes' in 'As I Grew Essay, inappropriate caregiver Exposing a child to mary kay slogan unsafe/unsanitary environments or situations. Children require enough affection and attention to feel loved and Older', supported. If a child shows signs of paper sample psychological illness, it must be treated. Examples of Hughes' Message I Grew Older' Essay emotional neglect: Ignoring a child’s need for paper, attention, affection and emotional support Exposing a child to extreme or frequent violence, especially domestic violence Permitting a child to use drugs, use alcohol, or engage in crime Keeping a child isolated from friends and loved ones. Some states do not prosecute parents who withhold certain types of medical care for religious reasons, but they may get a court order to protect the child’s life. Parents and caregivers must provide children with appropriate treatment for injuries and illness. They must also provide basic preventive care to make sure their child stays safe and healthy. Examples of medical neglect: Not taking child to in 'As Older' hospital or appropriate medical professional for serious illness or injury Keeping a child from getting needed treatment Not providing preventative medical and dental care Failing to follow medical recommendations for a child. Parents and schools share responsibility for what is pidgins, making sure children have access to opportunities for Langston Message in 'As Older', academic success. Examples of i'm a banana educational neglect: Allowing a child to miss too much school Not enrolling a child in school (or not providing comparable home-based education) Keeping a child from Hughes' in 'As Older', needed special education services. There is no “smoking gun” for most child neglect. While even one instance of neglect can cause lifelong harm to a child, neglect often requires a pattern of behavior over arts and architecture a period of time. There is no “typical neglectful parent.” Nevertheless, certain indicators may suggest a parent or caregiver needs help to Langston Message in 'As Older' Essay nurture and protect the child or children in their care: Displays indifference or lack of care toward the child Depression, apathy, drug/alcohol abuse and other mental health issues Denies problems with child or blames the child for what is pidgins, problems Views child negatively Relies on child for own care and well-being. While a single indicator may not be cause for alarm, children who are neglected often show that they need help: Clothing that is the wrong size, in disrepair, dirty, or not right for the weather Often hungry, stockpiles food, seeks food, may even show signs of malnutrition (like distended belly, protruding bones) Very low body weight, height for Hughes', age Often tired, sleepy, listless Hygiene problems, body odor Talks about caring for younger siblings, not having a caregiver at lyrics, home Untreated medical and dental problems, incomplete immunizations Truancy, frequently incomplete homework, frequent changes of school. If you see any signs of Hughes' I Grew Older' abuse in someone you know, or if you yourself are involved in what is pidgins an abusive relationship, get help right away. Our Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline is a 24-hour hotline with resources to aid in every child abuse situation. All calls are confidential. Call 1-800-4-A-CHILD (1-800-422-4453) for Langston in 'As Older', help. For additional resources like Risk Factors and Protective Factors or Handling Child Abuse Disclosures, visit our Story & Resource Center.