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The Film “Look Both Ways” Essay Sample. The film “Look Both Ways” directed by Sarah Watt explores many ideas such as fear, religion/faith, and of social entrepreneurship loneliness. These ideas are portrayed to the viewer using a variety of is meant by stereotyping, visual techniques such as animation, photomontage, transitions, close-ups, adjacent worlds, music, tracking, still shots, sound effects and cuts. The idea of fear of various characters is portrayed in the film using a variety of of social, techniques. Watt uses animation when Meryl is walking and imagines someone coming up to her and attacking her. This shows how ridiculous some of issues malaysia, Merylʼs fears are and gives the viewers some brief characteristics on her. likewise, Watt explores fear through the use of importance of social, photomontage in the scene where Nick reminisces on how he gets the cancer and questioning himself whether or not it was his lifestyle that caused his diagnosis. This makes the viewer ask themselves questions and shoes make a judgement on Nickʼs pessimistic thoughts. When Watt uses cuts and importance abrupt transitions when Nick remembers his Dad after he found out he was diagnosed with cancer and environmental malaysia how he reacted to it. it shows the of social entrepreneurship similarities and contrasts of Nick and pacific his father and gives the viewer thoughts on importance of social entrepreneurship, Nickʼs fear of death. Nickʼs dad tryʼs to stay positive and it gives Nick thoughts on whether or not he should react the same way. The abrupt transitions build intensity in the viewer and also build suspense. The scene where Nick sees a sick boy in a wheel chair smiling at him is use of an adjacent world. Watt does this to reflect Nickʼs fears and what he is going through. It shows the similarities and contrasts of Nickʼs attitude. When the boy smiles, it suggests that there is environmental malaysia still some hope for Nick. Sarah Watt also explores religion and faith in this film and of social the attitudes some characters have towards it. When Watt used cut scenes in the scene were Nick is looking at everyone on the train with religious merchandise, It makes him reflect on his own spiritual beliefs and also gives the viewer information about it. Similarly, when Andy takes his kids to the art gallery and asks his children, “Do you know who that is?” and the boy replies “Jesus Christ Almighty!”. A still shot is then taken on operations management, the image of Jesus from Andyʼs perspective. This gives time for Andy to of social reflect on his faith and attitude he has towards it. When his child clumsily falls down, it is symbolic of Andyʼs faith slipping away or getting weaker. Sarah Watt also uses diegetic sound when Andy hears the choir singing when Andy is walking past the church. This juxtaposes between Andyʼs rage and the choirs joy making Andy even more angry. When Nick has a deep conversation with Andy asking him “Do you believe in God?”, Watt uses close-ups so the viewer can see the facial expressions and is meant by stereotyping emotions both are feeling in regards to the topic and what each character has to say about it, particularly Andy. Most characters in the film, especially Nick and Meryl experience extreme loneliness. For instance, when Meryl is importance reading the news paper, she reads nothing but death and misfortune. The use of adjacent world compares to her thoughts and emotions suggesting that maybe her surroundings are responsible for making her feel this way. She then throws the paper away and imagines herself getting trapped under the ground all alone and isolated. Criticism Ethics! This is displayed in the form of an animation to show how she is literally feeling. The music used in the film registers rise and fall of thought on the character. The song “Lonely wonʼt leave me alone” relates back to entrepreneurship when Nickʼs mother says “Everyone has to find a way to deal with their own death… and life”. The song is used by Sarah Watt to convey the Applying Content Area idea that the importance viewers need each others presence to get rid of their loneliness. Also, in shoes the scene where Watt uses a tracking shot on the birds, which are symbolic of importance entrepreneurship, freedom, they are flying under dark grey clouds suggesting Meryl wantʼs to Literacy to Instruction in Your be free but her loneliness and pessimistic attitude is too much of a barrier to entrepreneurship overcome. In conclusion, Sarah Watt cleverly explores many ideas like fear, religion/faith and loneliness. She used a variety of issues malaysia, techniques to convey these ideas clearer to the viewers and to give them a better understanding on the concept. Motifs are also included in importance of social entrepreneurship the techniques to mens give the viewer an even better understanding. Is this the perfect essay for importance of social entrepreneurship you? Save time and order The Film “Look Both Ways” essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for shoes The Film “Look Both Ways” How does Sarah Watt explore the ways people deal with their personal tragedies in Look Both Ways? Discuss. In Look Both Ways, Sarah Watt explores a variety of emotions and… Film analysis done for Charlie Chaplin’s film, “Modern Times” “While watching a silent picture each individual supplies the unspoken words according to importance of social his own understanding of the action. The dullard sees the story in his own way as does… To be used as “unheard” or “heard” music, some of the red tape mens shoes factors have to meet the criteria. In “unheard” music, intensified scene dominated music. Casablanca’s As time Goes By was… Film Analysis Of Braveheart. The world has been plagued with inequality issues since the beginning of time. The film Braveheart portrays this issue magnificently. Braveheart, directed by Mel Gibson, was released in importance of social entrepreneurship 1995 and… Bowling for Columbine: Film Techniques. Bowling for Columbine is a film by Michael Moore about the shooting at Columbine High School. Moore, using his average American persona, explores controversial issues such as gun control in… Bird’s eye view- An aerial shot of ethics, a view, sensation of flying or floating Eye level- Camera is positioned at the character’s eye level. Often used to display facial expressions…

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In order to ensure that all master´s theses and doctoral dissertations produced at Georgia State University are captured, preserved, and of social entrepreneurship, appropriately made available, the University requires all students who produce a master´s thesis or doctoral dissertation in fulfillment of by stereotyping, his/her degree to importance entrepreneurship, upload the final version of these documents to ScholarWorks@Georgia State University as a condition of the malaysia award of the degree. Programs requiring extra time to of social entrepreneurship, submit master´s theses or doctoral dissertations will have no more than five years to meet the submission requirement. Have you included any copyrighted material in criticism with an example your thesis or dissertation? If yes, have you obtained permission to of social, include that copyrighted material in management example your thesis or dissertation? If you included copyrighted material and have not obtained permission, then you must obtain these permissions before you can continue with the submission process. Importance Of Social? Contact the pacific rim (2013) Office of entrepreneurship, Legal Affairs if you have any questions. Does your thesis or dissertation disclose or describe any inventions or discoveries that could potentially have commercial application and therefore warrant patenting? (If you and/or your faculty advisor(s) have any questions about making this determination, please contact the Office of Applying Research to Instruction in Your Content Area, Technology Commercialization & Industry Relations). If yes, the technology transfer and importance of social, patenting process necessitates further conversation before you can continue with the ETD submission process, in order to determine the mens shoes appropriate embargo on access to your dissertation to protect patent eligibility. Are you requesting an entrepreneurship access restriction for pacific your thesis or dissertation? Colleges at Georgia State have different policies regarding embargos, and many require permission for an embargo, so be sure to check with your college before making this decision. By choosing no embargo you are agreeing to publish your thesis or dissertation in entrepreneurship ScholarWorks@GSU immediately after graduation. This option will provide the broadest possible access to your work. The full-text of your thesis or dissertation and any supplemental files will be accessible on the internet for unlimited viewing. Operations Example? Your thesis or dissertation will be indexed and discoverable via major search engines. By choosing an embargo, you are requesting that there be no access to the full-text of your thesis or dissertation for a specified period of time. Your dissertation will be listed and indexed in the Georgia State University Library Catalog and in entrepreneurship ScholarWorks@GSU, but the what is meant full text of importance entrepreneurship, your thesis or dissertation, and any supplementary files, will not be accessible until the expiration of the embargo. The title, author, keywords, and abstract will be displayed on ethics with the web in the record for your thesis or dissertation even if you have restricted access to the full-text copy. By choosing a Closed Thesis or Closed Dissertation you limit online access to the full-text of your submission to the Georgia State University campus (IP address). No one outside of GSU will be able to see your thesis or dissertation. This is the equivalent of the access that was available when theses and dissertations were only on a library shelf. Your thesis or dissertation will be shared as the result of an Interlibrary Loan request. This page shows you what you will see when you submit your thesis or dissertation. For a text version click on the arrow next to the Submitting ETDs to of social entrepreneurship, ScholarWorks tab above. Make sure you have all of the what information you will need before you begin submission. Find your way to of social, ScholarWorks @ Georgia State University. Click this link Type in is meant by stereotyping your browser's address bar: From Georgia State University's Homepage Click: Academics > University Library > Search Collections > ScholarWorks @ Georgia State University. Click on the "College, School or Department" link. Scroll through the importance entrepreneurship list to find your department, then click on the Thesis or Dissertation link under that department. Example : I'm submitting my Counseling and Psychological Services Dissertation, so I would scroll to College of Education > Department of Counseling and rim (2013), Psychological Services > Counseling and Psychological Services Dissertations. Note : If you do not see a link for Theses or Dissertations in importance your department, contact On the operations management bottom of the importance of social entrepreneurship right side menu, under "Authors," click "Submit ETD (Thesis/Dissertation)." Log in using your CAMPUSID and password. Or, if you'd like, you can create a new account with a different user ID and password. Then move on to Step 6. You'll see a "Submission Instructions/Submission Agreement" page. Be sure to read it all. Take particular note of the "Submission Agreement" section. Pacific Rim (2013)? You may want to of social, print a copy to Essay, keep for your records since it outlines the rights you retain and the rights you grant to of social entrepreneurship, Georgia State University. You can see a copy of the agreement by clicking here. You'll see a page with several required fields where you'll need to enter information: Author - This is pre-populated with the information you entered when you created your account. Literacy Research Essay? Make sure it is in MLA style - meaning capitalize the first letter of each name/word. Do not use all Capital Letters. Of Social Entrepreneurship? For example, John Q. Doe. If you would like to continue to receive monthly download counts for your thesis or dissertation after you graduate, you should enter a persistent, non-GSU email in the Author Email field. If you need to edit your author information, click the button. Date of Award - Please use your Commencement (Graduation) date (NOT a defense or submission date) and do NOT add a season. Embargo Period - Please discuss your embargo decision with your college and your advisor.Different colleges have different policies. Access Confirmation - confirm that you made the rim (2013) intended Embargo selection in the previous step. Degree Type / Degree Name / Department - Please make the appropriate selections from the drop-down menus. Abstract - Type or paste your abstract here. Keywords - Add appropriate keywords or phrases separated by commas. Do NOT use all CAPS. Upload Full Text - Most of you will want to click " Upload file from your computer " radio button: You will see a "Choose File" button appear. Click it. Navigate to your file and click "Open" The system attaches your file. Note: If you are submitting a thesis or dissertation with a linked Table of importance of social entrepreneurship, Contents, convert the file to pdf format and check the TOC links before uploading the issues malaysia file from your computer. Entrepreneurship? This will help eliminate any problems associated with automatic file conversion. If the red tape mens "Save as PDF" function in Word does not create a PDF with active Table of Contents links, try using Adobe Acrobat to convert the file. Additional Files - this will not apply to most of importance, you, but if your thesis/dissertation has related files you need to upload (and you have the rights to upload them) you must check this box in order to operations management example, attach them. Double Check all your entries and click "Submit." You will get a confirmation screen that shows what you have submitted and importance of social entrepreneurship, gives you the pacific rim (2013) opportunity to revise if necessary by clicking the "Revise Submission Button." You will also get an email confirmation of submission. You can click on "My Account" to see the status of your Thesis/Dissertation (you may log in at any time to importance of social, see this). Note: If you need to make revisions to your thesis or dissertation, please do so by using the "Revise Submission" option. Log in, re-upload the what by stereotyping revised version of your thesis or dissertation and it will replace the previous version. Please do not submit multiple copies of your thesis or dissertation. For more information about Copyright and your ETD, please see:

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In the past ten years, there has been increasing recognition that children who have been exposed to traumatic events can, like traumaexposed adults, develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Practitioners therefore need to be able to recognise and treat post-traumatic stress reactions in children. However, the direct application of adult diagnostic criteria for PTSD can result in the misdiagnosis of entrepreneurship post-traumatic stress reactions in children, while research has only recently begun to investigate the effectiveness of operations management different treatments for of social children with PTSD. This article discusses issues regarding the assessment and diagnosis of post-traumatic stress reactions in children at different developmental stages, considers neurobiological, cognitive and other factors that are theorized to increase the risk of PTSD in trauma-exposed children, and evaluates current psychotherapeutic and what is meant by stereotyping pharmacotherapeutic treatments for childhood PTSD. The need for more systematic research on the management of PTSD in importance, children is Literacy to Instruction Area Essay, noted. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) first appeared in the DSM-III in 1980. Importance Of Social Entrepreneurship. The impetus for the development of this diagnostic category arose primarily from the need to account for the characteristic array of symptoms displayed by Vietnam veterans in the United States, and as such PTSD was conceptualized around traumatized adults. However, since that time there has been increasing recognition that children, too, can develop severe and debilitating reactions to traumatization. Studies indicate that children can develop PTSD after exposure to criticism of kantian with an example, a range of traumatic stressors, including violent crime, sexual abuse, natural disasters, and of social entrepreneurship war. Where relatively standardized assessment methods have been used, the incidence of PTSD among child survivors of specific disasters ranges from 30 to 60% (1,2). Operations Management Example. As yet there are no epidemiological studies of the prevalence of PTSD among children in the general population; however, community studies in the United States have consistently indicated that around 40% of importance entrepreneurship high school students have experienced some form of domestic or community violence, and rim (2013) between 3 and 6% have PTSD (3,4). High rates of of social trauma exposure and evidence of PTSD among child populations suggest that mental health practitioners worldwide need to be able to recognize those posttraumatic reactions in pacific rim (2013), children that require intervention, and offer timeous and effective treatments. This is particularly critical given the substantial challenges that post-traumatic stress poses to the healthy physical, cognitive and emotional development of importance children and adolescents (5). The DSM-IV-TR describes three symptom clusters in PTSD: persistent re-experiencing of the trauma (e.g., intrusive memories and flashback experiences, often triggered by exposure to traumatic reminders, and recurring traumarelated nightmares); avoidance of traumatic reminders (including places, people, and conversations) and a general numbing of emotional responsiveness; and Research Content Area chronic physiological hyperarousal, including sleep disturbances, poor concentration, and hypervigilance to of social entrepreneurship, threat. The DSM notes that, in environmental, children, re-experiencing may occur through repetitive play involving trauma-related themes, rather than through memories, and importance of social entrepreneurship nightmares may have generalized, rather than trauma-specific, content. Following a traumatic experience, it is normal and of kantian an example expectable for children and of social entrepreneurship adults to exhibit some intrusive, avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms, which remit spontaneously within a few days or weeks. In order to meet the PTSD diagnosis, at least one re-experiencing symptom, three avoidance/numbing symptoms and two hyperarousal symptoms should be present for at of kantian least one month, and must cause significant distress or functional impairment. When symptom duration is entrepreneurship, less than one month, a diagnosis of acute stress disorder (ASD) is made. Childhood PTSD lends itself to malaysia, both over- and underdiagnosis, especially when assessments are not thoroughly or expertly conducted. There are a number of importance of social assessment instruments available to aid the diagnosis of PTSD in children. Several structured psychiatric interviews for children, such as the shoes, Diagnostic Interview for importance of social Children and Adolescents - Revised (DICA-R, 6) and is meant by stereotyping the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children- Version IV (DISC-IV, 7), include a PTSD module. Similarly, the importance of social, Schedule for Affective Disorders and pacific rim (2013) Schizophrenia for School Age Children (K-SADS, 8) contains a PTSD module reflecting both DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria. There are also some PTSD-specific interviews, such as the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale - Child and of social entrepreneurship Adolescent Version (9), the Child PTSD Checklist (10), and the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (11). Finally, a number of scales are available for assessing the severity of PTSD symptoms in children, such as the Child Post-Traumatic Stress Reaction Index (12), the Child and Adolescent Trauma Survey (13) and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (14). While PTSD in operations management example, older adolescents is of social entrepreneurship, similar to adult PTSD, there are two major limitations of the PTSD diagnostic criteria when assessing post-traumatic pathology in red tape shoes, young children. Firstly, eight of the eighteen PTSD criteria require a verbal description of internal states and experiences, a task beyond the of social, cognitive and expressive language skills of young children (15). The clinician must therefore attempt to infer from behavioral observations whether the child's thoughts and feelings are consonant with PTSD symptoms. Direct reports from pacific rim (2013) parents, teachers and other observers in the child's milieu are an important component of the evaluation, although it should be borne in mind that parents often minimize the child's PTSD symptomatology (15). Of Social. The DISC-IV, DICA-R and K-SADS all determine diagnostic status on the basis of combined child and shoes parent reports. The use of multiple assessment instruments and multiple informants to measure PTSD across different areas of functioning is therefore recommended (15). That said, nothing can replace a properly conducted and comprehensive clinical interview. Secondly, while traumatized children often display the importance of social, core symptom clusters of adult PTSD, they also commonly present with an array of symptoms not typically assessed by existing structured interviews and scales. These may include the loss of recently acquired developmental skills (regression), the onset of new fears or the re-activation of old ones, accidents and reckless behavior, separation anxiety (often manifested in anxious clinging), and psychosomatic complaints such as stomach aches and headaches (16,17). Additionally, young children may express post-traumatic anxiety through hyperactivity, distractibility and increased impulsivity, symptoms that may be confused with attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder. The persistence of PTSD symptoms coupled with an accumulation of post-trauma adversities can also produce a secondary depression and, when the traumatic context also includes the death of a family member, children can present with complicated grief and bereavement (5). Example. Therefore, while a structured interview may seem to indicate that a traumatized child does not fully meet the entrepreneurship, DSM's "adulto-centric" (2) diagnostic criteria for PTSD, there may nonetheless be a range of of kantian ethics with post-traumatic responses that warrant intervention. Thirdly, recent findings support the hypothesis that children with subthreshold criteria may not differ significantly from children meeting all three cluster criteria (re-experiencing, avoidance, hyperarousal) with regard to functional impairment and distress. In a study by Carrion et al (18), children with subthreshold PTSD had functional impairment that was specific to PTSD symptoms and was not due to entrepreneurship, comorbidity. This suggests that it might be more precise to make a diagnosis of PTSD in children and adolescents based on the intensity of symptoms and an example their relationship to importance of social, functional impairment, than on the threshold number of symptoms. Fourthly, while prospective studies in adults have shown that ASD is associated with later PTSD (19,20), there is little published empirical data regarding this entity in children. A recent prospective study in children has raised questions about the appropriateness of the current diagnostic criteria, in what is meant, that 60% of children with trafficrelated injuries in the study who went on to develop PTSD did not meet criteria for even subsyndromal ASD within the first month of of social injury (21). These findings suggest that it is crucial to include developmental and example social contextual factors possibly mediating or moderating the transformation of ASD into PTSD (e.g., age, gender, psychiatric morbidity, other life events, family functioning, parental psychopathology) in of social entrepreneurship, the assessment of ASD in children (22). Since not all children (or adults) who experience a trauma will go on to develop PTSD, identification of etiological mechanisms and risk factors for development of the disorder has been an important recent thrust in PTSD research. Neurobiological theories have to mens, a large extent implicated adrenergic, serotonergic, dopaminergic, gamma-aminobutyric acid, opioid, N-methyl-D-aspartate, and neuroendocrine systems in the pathophysiology of PTSD (23). Current evidence indicates that traumatized children, like traumatized adults, demonstrate altered hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis circadian rhythmicity, although there is little consensus on whether cortisol levels are elevated or reduced in pediatric PTSD. Of Social. For example, a recent study in adolescents did not find evidence for enhanced suppression of morning cortisol in multiply traumatized adolescents with or without PTSD (24), in contrast to reports in adults with PTSD. In adults, recent data suggest that low cortisol levels may be an early predictor rather than a consequence of the disorder. For example, in a study examining cortisol responses in the acute aftermath of rape, low cortisol was associated with a prior rape or assault (risk factors for PTSD) but not with the development of operations PTSD per se (25). These findings have not yet been replicated in child and adolescent PTSD. Brain imaging studies that have specifically assessed the effects of importance entrepreneurship childhood trauma and issues malaysia PTSD on brain volumes are limited. Importance Entrepreneurship. De Bellis et al (26) found no evidence of reduced hippocampal volumes in Applying Research to Instruction, survivors of importance of social childhood abuse, but did demonstrate smaller intracranial, whole brain and corpus callosum volumes, which may suggest an impact on global brain development. In a follow-up analysis, controlling for socio-economic status (27), the authors found that brain volumes positively correlated with age of onset of PTSD and pacific rim (2013) negatively correlated with the abuse. Debate continues on whether reduced hippocampal volumes predate or follow the development of of social PTSD and to Literacy Essay, what extent this predicts response to trauma. However, the findings of a recent study in twin-pairs discordant for trauma exposure and PTSD suggest that lower preexisting hippocampal volumes may, in fact, predispose a person to develop PTSD after trauma (28). Cognitive-behavior theories have highlighted the involvement of information-processing and learning in the development of PTSD. Importance. For example, Foa et al (29) suggest that, following a trauma, a fear network that stores information about sources of threat is formed, and these trauma-related representations are activated by external and internal cues. In people with PTSD, this fear structure includes an environmental issues, especially large number of stimuli elements and importance of social is therefore easily accessed. Management Example. Similarly, Keane et al (30) propose that the PTSD fear response develops through a process of classical conditioning, whereby fear comes to be associated with cues present during the actual trauma (e.g., gunfire), as well as through a process of stimulus generalization, whereby any stimuli associated with these cues (e.g., a car backfiring or a firecracker exploding) also produce a fear response. Continued avoidance of of social traumatic cues reinforces the ethics, fear response, which has no opportunity to be "un-learned". Etiological formulations of childhood PTSD must necessarily incorporate a developmental perspective. For example, subjective cognitive appraisals of traumatic events vary with the developmental level of the child, as does the way in which traumatic memories are encoded and importance entrepreneurship recalled (5). Much remains to red tape mens shoes, be understood about the role of developmental factors in the neurobiological, cognitive and other mechanisms that may create a vulnerability to PTSD. There is some evidence that, as for adults, the risk of PTSD in children increases with physical proximity to the trauma and previous trauma exposure, and (due to importance, biological and/or socio-cultural factors) may be greater for Applying Research to Instruction Essay girls than for boys (see 31 for importance of social entrepreneurship a review). Red Tape Shoes. Additionally, for children, parental trauma-related distress increases the risk of developing PTSD (15), since it affects the parent's capacity to of social entrepreneurship, create a post-trauma climate of safety and security and to emotionally contain the child's fear and pacific rim (2013) anxiety. Intervention with children with PTSD is typically multimodal, including treatment for entrepreneurship the child, intervention with parents or caregivers, and optimizing the support provided by the school environment. Before psychotherapeutic work can begin, it is important that the physical safety of the child be established, particularly if the child has been the victim of abuse; this may entail liaison with appropriate agencies (e.g., social services, police or the legal system). Current practice parameters recommend that the first-line treatment for PTSD in children should be psychotherapy, and psychopharmacology should be considered as an adjunctive treatment in those children who have prominent comorbid depressive or panic symptoms (15). Recent evidence suggests that some medications may also be effective in addressing the core symptoms of what by stereotyping PTSD in children. As the systematic empirical study of the efficacy of PTSD interventions for children is still in entrepreneurship, its infancy, there is as yet no empirical evidence to demonstrate either the superiority of psychotherapy over medication, or that the combination of the two is more effective than either one alone. Psychotherapeutic interventions for children are generally based on those developed for traumatized adults, with ageappropriate modifications, although there is less empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of these interventions for children than there is for adults. Intervention with the child usually includes the following components: psychoeducation, direct exploration of the trauma, symptom management techniques, exploration and modification of inaccurate cognitive attributions regarding the trauma (15,32). The effectiveness of malaysia cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for PTSD in children has been empirically demonstrated more often than other interventions, although randomized controlled studies of CBT are still few (33). Arguably the most rigorous studies (usually random assignment to welldefined manualized treatment versus comparison treatment or waitlist control) have focused on importance of social, trauma-focused CBT in rim (2013), sexually abused children (34), although CBT treatments have been extended to children exposed to other types of trauma (35,36). Importance Of Social Entrepreneurship. These studies have added to the growing evidence supporting the efficacy of trauma-focused CBT on measures of mens shoes PTSD, depression, and behavior problems in children with PTSD (37). Typically gradual exposure is used with children and this consists of detailed discussion of the traumatic experience, and memories, thoughts, and feelings that occurred associated with the event. Importance Of Social. This can be facilitated by having the child or adolescent write a report about the trauma, which the child and therapist can re-read during therapy sessions (38). This helps the child to environmental issues, develop a sense of mastery over symptoms and overwhelming feelings. Of Social. Distorted cognitive assumptions regarding the trauma (e.g., self-blame) are also explored, and alternative, more realistic, assumptions are developed. Other psychotherapeutic interventions supported by pacific, anecdotal evidence but, as yet, little empirical data include psychodynamic therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (33). There is also general consensus that parents should be included in the psychotherapeutic intervention for children with PTSD (15,33,39). At a minimum, this should entail some psychoeducation, including normalization and explanation of post-traumatic responses, and information on how these can be managed in the child's home environment. Where the parents appear to be experiencing significant emotional distress as the entrepreneurship, result of the trauma, intervention should also assist them to explore and resolve these feelings, so that they can better respond to the child's emotional needs. Psychoeducation can also be provided to the child's teachers, so that they may understand and be responsive to the child's emotional needs, and develop appropriate expectations and behavioral management techniques. Little is known about the potential benefits or harm of criticism of kantian an example providing early psychosocial interventions to children in the immediate aftermath of trauma (40). It has been suggested that there may be inherent dangers in exposing traumatized children to a psychosocial intervention prematurely, as one runs the risk of sensitizing children to traumatic reminders of the importance, event without permitting timeous resolution of the experience (40). To date, no empirical studies have evaluated psychological debriefing for children and adolescents within the first month of of kantian with an example a traumatic event. However, studies in adults suggest that psychological debriefing may result in importance entrepreneurship, poorer longterm outcomes than no debriefing at all. Based on in Your, empirical evidence, trauma-focused CBT can be recommended as an early intervention (1-6 months post-trauma) for symptomatic children, particularly in of social, the context of is meant sexual abuse (40). Pharmacological agents for childhood PTSD have received little empirical investigation. Effective pharmacological agents are ideally those which: a) target disabling symptoms, b) improve the quality of life of the child/adolescent allowing for normal growth and development in the long-term, and importance entrepreneurship c) facilitate the process of psychotherapy by allowing traumatized children to deal with emotionally distressing material and work through their distress (41). Adrenergic agents (e.g. the α 2 -adrenoreceptor antagonists clonidine and guanfacine, and the β-adrenoreceptor antagonist propranolol) reduce sympathetic arousal and have been shown to be effective in treating the hyperarousal, reexperiencing, and impulsivity seen in PTSD. In two openlabel trials, oral clonidine (0.05 to 0.1 mg/day) (42) and is meant by stereotyping clonidine transdermal patches (0.1 to of social, 0.2 mg/day) (43) were effective in reducing PTSD symptoms in children, particularly anxiety, arousal, insomnia, and rim (2013) impulsive and aggressive behavior. Guanfacine was reported to importance, be effective in reducing nightmares in a single case study (44). Propranolol significantly reduced intrusion and arousal symptoms over 5 weeks in 8 of 11 abused children with PTSD (45). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used to Applying Research in Your Content Area, treat adult PTSD. Consistent with controlled data in adults, there is emerging evidence for their efficacy in anxiety disorders other than PTSD in children and adolescents (46). While there are no published controlled trials of SSRIs in childhood PTSD, some open-label data exist for citalopram in adolescent PTSD, showing efficacy on all three symptom clusters (47). Given that the SSRIs target broad-band symptom clusters and entrepreneurship have a favorable side effect profile, they are likely to red tape mens shoes, be used as first-line agents in PTSD. Other serotonergic agents such as nefazodone and cyproheptadine have been used in entrepreneurship, this age group, but safety data are lacking (48,49). While randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of criticism of kantian tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors in adult PTSD, no controlled studies have been reported in pediatric PTSD. The dopamine blocking agent risperidone (50) and the anti-kindling medication carbamazepine (51) have demonstrated promise in small open studies of children and adolescents respectively with chronic PTSD. The utility of benzodiazepines for pediatric PTSD has not been established. Lack of of social entrepreneurship evidence for their efficacy in reducing ASD/PTSD symptoms in traumatized adults coupled with an unfavorable side effect profile make them a less than ideal choice in youth. There are almost no controlled studies to guide the use of very early medication interventions in traumatized children (40). There has been one published double-blind randomized study in children with ASD in the context of acute burns. Imipramine was compared to chloral hydrate over a 7 day period in 25 children with ASD (52) and was found to be superior in treating ASD symptoms. In a more naturalistic study, Saxe et al (53) investigated the use of an opiate medication (morphine) as a possible preventive agent in Literacy in Your Area Essay, children with burns-related PTSD. The dose of morphine administered to children during hospitalization for burn injuries was associated with a significant reduction in PTSD symptoms over a 6-month period. PTSD is increasingly recognized to be a prevalent and disabling disorder in children and importance adolescents, in both the developed and the developing world. Although much remains to be learned, there have been important advances in understanding its risk factors and pathogenesis. Research on the management of PTSD in this age group is itself relatively young, and environmental there is an urgent need for entrepreneurship additional randomized controlled trials. Nevertheless, we now have a number of interventions at our disposal.