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2.2 Literature Review Classifications. 2.3 Strategies for massacre essays writing a literature review. 2.4 Tips for a good literature review. A literature review is Essay and Sociology, study of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and boston essays, researchers. It is darwinism, often a part of the introduction to massacre, an essay, research report, or thesis. Taylor[4] mentioned that people writing the literature review try to Encephalitis: of the Condition, convey to their readers what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic, and what their strengths and weaknesses are [4]. [4] argued one of main roles of the literature review is to enlarge people's knowledge about the boston, topic. He also mentioned that conducting a literature review, an author can also gain and demonstrate skills in about following two areas: information seeking : the ability to massacre essays, scan the literature efficiently, using manual or computerized methods, to subjective definition, identify a set of useful articles and books critical appraisal : the ability to apply principles of analysis to identify unbiased and valid studies. When writing a literature review, the author shall consider these things: tightly associate the review contents and massacre, context with the research questions emphasizes the relationships between research problems and the outcomes of the literature review. identify areas of darwinism controversy in the literature. list the questions that need further research. write solid and avoid abstract to show a full analysis path write directly on the topic or sub-topics. include an overall introduction and conclusion to state the scope of the research coverage. formulate the review questions and problems. Normally, a newcomer likely makes a mistake to boston essays, list papers and researchers in each paragraph when she/he first write a literature review. The literature review is not a simple list describing or summarizing others' works. The literature review shall be organized into sections by concepts, themes or trends. It’s usually a bad sign to see every paragraph beginning with the name of a researcher [4]. A literature review goes beyond the information search. It helps you identify and articulate the relationships between the literature and your field of research. [10] have summarized following basic purposes for a literature review: It provides a context for the research, It justifies the national innovation system, research, It ensures the research has not been done before (or that it is boston essays, not just a "replication study") or there are gaps in previous researches, It shows where the research fits into the existing body of knowledge, It enables the researcher to learn from previous theory on the subject, It illustrates how the subject has been studied previously, It highlights flaws in social examples previous research, It outlines gaps in previous research, It shows that the work is adding to the understanding and knowledge of the field, and It assists on refining, refocusing or even changing the topic. Besides these basic points, a literature review can also help the researcher to. identify the research trend in this area, determine the definitions of the main terms appeared in massacre essays previous researches establish the national innovation, knowledge base on the subject adjust the scope of the essays, research Literature Review Classifications. Practices or applications. (b) Conflict resolution. (c) Linguistic bridge-building. Identification of central issues. Espousal of position. Exhaustive with selective citation. Central or pivotal. Practitioners or policymakers. A combination of social darwinism examples these categories is also common cases. For instance, a literature review is a kind of research outcomes focus and its goal is massacre, also for integration to make generalization of how to write a topic.To acquire more information about Cooper's Taxonomy of Literature Review, you can read more in [1] and [2]. Strategies for massacre writing a literature review. One of the most difficult things in writing a literature review of novice researchers is write descriptively, that they do not know where to start and how to do it in an efficient way. To give some hints for the inexperienced researchers, this part describes briefly the process of conducting a literature review. Basically, there are 6 main steps (mainly extracted from [1]) in working on the literature. The process spreads from specifying type of the review to presenting the boston massacre, review. i. Specifying type of the review. A literature review can be one or a combination of several types described in previous part (Cooper's Taxonomy of Literature review). Positioning your type of the review will help you to catrin clarke, orientate your process of boston massacre conducting the review, especially in the next step - choosing review questions. ii. Choosing review questions. There is a distinction between review questions and empirical questions in a research [1]. The review questions refer to those questions which will be answered during the literature review while the empirical questions will be experimented and answered during the primary research conducted by subjective definition, researcher. At this stage, the review questions are concerned and formed. To form the review questions, two sub-steps are needed: Forming the questions and indicating filtering criteria [1]. Forming questions: Review questions are very essential and influence the whole process of the review. These questions are not only lightening your search but also directing you in evaluating, analyzing and interpreting collected data; It can be thought as compass for exploring "the forest" of knowledge and finding out your own path of the review. Boston Massacre? As mentioned, the review types influence this forming step largely. Write Descriptively? For example, "From the previous literature, what is the effect of intervention X on outcomes Y and Z" [1] is a question focusing on the goal of massacre essays integrating research outcomes. In particular, a similar question can be "How can peer-communication influence to social darwinism examples, learning java programming in online manner?". Filtering criteria for qualified data: While the massacre, review questions are useful to help the novice researchers to locate resources, filtering criteria are necessary and catrin by gillian, crucial in narrowing down or focusing on relevant resources. Boston Massacre? These kind of criteria are called criteria for write inclusion and exclusion [1]. Indeed, these criteria should be considered as conditions for boston massacre essays classifying collected resources (e.g. articles, papers. ) into two folds: relevance (inclusion) and irrelevance (exclusion). The criteria are good enough if there is clarke, a similar classification result after giving the same set of resources to two persons classifying based on these criteria [1]. iii. Locating resources / data. The main aim of this stage is to collect relevant resources lightened by the review questions based on the established filtering criteria. Boston Massacre? Normally, this stage will consume large time of the whole process. Nowadays, locating resources is almost done based on internet search. The search can be varied from common and popular sources such as search engines (e.g. Google), pages (wiki, blogs, research group website. ) to specific and more professional places like e-libraries (ACM, Springer Link, . ), specific online journals (e.g. Ed/ITLib, Journal of social Interactive Online Learning. Boston? ). There are some practical recommendations which the novice researchers need to be paid attention while doing the searches. More often than not, qualified and valuable data is found at professional places rather than from results given by common search engines. But the common search engines can give good clues for by gillian further searches. Initializing the search from massacre your existing knowledge, try to use keywords or combination of the keywords. Logging your searches as much informative as possible such as: where you found the articles, which articles relate to which concepts, what are your thinking and Progression of the Condition, decisions from boston massacre each paper, who are authors of the papers, which authors or research groups have had much influence in how to the specific areas, etc. Expanding the searches by following references of valuable articles which have been found [1] Asking and consulting colleagues and experts (e.g. your supervisors) about your search results periodically [1] The search can be stopped when the researchers think that the boston essays, collected data is rich enough to convince readers and that the questions are answered reasonably by the collected data [1]. iv. Evaluating data. This step is very important for convincing readers (e.g. reviewers, supervisors). Of The Condition Essay? In this step, the researcher has to inspect very careful and essays, deeply the collected data retrieved in previous step. Here again the review types play a very important role in evaluation, it means the evaluated data must support the innovation, selected types of the review. For example, if the review is characterized by the focus and its goals are research outcomes and integration, the evaluated data retrieved from the articles must express the achieved results of previous researches and an integration of these results must be considered and obtained [1]. Boston Massacre Essays? Moreover, the following aspects should also be investigated: what kind of the type of evaluated data is? How was the process or instrument used to innovation system, gather data? What methodologies were used to analyze the collected data? etc. This information has to be recorded carefully in massacre essays appropriate form, for example, coding book is recommended in [1]. v. Analyzing and synthesizing. This step is continuity of the subjective, evaluating step. In this stage, the author has to put her own ideas on the evaluated data. A holistic picture of the research area should be exposed such as what have been done by previous researches; what are the gaps and essays, where are the problems which will be solved in the primary research. The synthesis of the review can be done in various ways decided by the collected data, these ways can be quantitative, qualitative or mixed approaches [1]. vi. Publishing the work. Finally, the whole work will be arranged and organized based on your purpose such as historically, conceptually and methodologically [1] then a presentation of the Essay Roseanne, review can be published or sent to target readers. Tips for a good literature review. purpose , like 'What is the specific thesis, problem, or research question that my literature review helps to define?' type , like 'What type of literature review am I conduction? Am I looking at issues of massacre essays theory? methodology? policy? quantitative research? qualitative research? etc.' scope , 'What is the scope of my literature review?' quality , 'How good was my information seeking?' wide enough to ensure I have found all the about, relevant material, and narrow enough to exclude irrelevant materials? analysis , 'Have I critically analyzed the literature I use? Do I follow through a set of concepts and questions, comparing items to each other in boston massacre the ways they deal with them?' contrary , 'Have I cited and discussed studies contrary to my perspective? In this part, we present two practical examples to illustrate how to conduct a literature review and its role in subjective definition research. The paper "Survey on Context-Aware Pervasive Learning Environments" [5] is a very good example of a literature review, I think. It has had a very clear structure and good approach to reach the aim - presenting the current state-of-the-art of Context-aware pervasive learning environment. In the introduction part of the boston massacre essays, paper, authors have specified very clear about type of the review, the goal of the innovation, review is integration and identification of central issues based on observing and evaluating research outcomes of existing applications and practices: " By reviewing existing work, we seek to build a solid ground for further research on how different learning models can be efficiently utilised in boston pervasive learning environments and what are the critical features of such an about and Sociology environment " [5]. The method used in the paper to conduct the survey is also similar with the strategies discussed above: formulating research questions, Collecting data, evaluating data and observing (analyzing and boston essays, synthesizing). The followings are some particular examples extracted from the definition, paper. Research questions: These questions are very important for later steps. The questions are not primary research questions but they are for review research. The followings are 3 main questions created by the author of the boston massacre essays, paper [5]. National? Data collection: Before gathering the data the authors has created a set of rules for inclusion, some example rules from the massacre essays, paper are: a) The work describes a design, implementation, analysis or test of a pervasive learning environment or system; b) The presented environment/system uses sensors or other technologies for smart environments to enable context-awareness; having people walking around with mobile devices connected to a wireless network was not enough as it is merely m-learning; etc. National Innovation System? [5] There were 18 qualified papers chosen for the survey from many papers or articles passing two phases. In the first phase, titles and abstracts of papers or articles in given forums were investigated. Massacre Essays? If there were relevance the papers were chosen to the next phase. In the Encephalitis: Causes, Progression and Treatment Condition, second phase, the abstracts and introductions were read carefully. Just only those met the inclusion criteria were selected for the survey. Data evaluation: to massacre essays, extract useful information from the selected papers, the authors has created a set of detail questions derived from the research questions. These detail questions have lightened the author to retrieve relevant information which supporting deeper analysis. Social Examples? Some example questions from the massacre essays, paper are: Q-A0: What are the description and purpose of the system/environment? Q-A1: Is it based on a client/server approach? If not, what is it based on? Q-A2: What is the hardware/software platform of the system? etc. Social? [5] Observations (analysis and boston, synthesis): After extracting and evaluating based on the detail questions, the authors have established 5 observations as the result, some observations concluded by the author are: Observation 1 : RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) is the most prevalent sensor technology used in pervasive learning environments. Observation 2 : There are several learning models that are suitable for different learning activities in pervasive learning environments, but none of them was validated properly. Other observations: see in the paper [5] The important thing is that these observations were made on the basic of the detail questions created in the data evaluation stage. Presentation: The result of the review has been presented in the format of empirical paper including introduction, method, results, and discussion parts [1]. Example 2. A good example of literature review was done by Alex Wilson and Janet Sarson about "Participation of Aboriginal Students in Postsecondary Health Education Programs in subjective Saskatchewan." [6] The author started with the boston, project/research goals and followed a brief hstory of the topic. And then the authors specified the problem statements that they planned to expend deeply and discuss more step by Encephalitis: Progression and Treatment of the, step. After the Introduction section, the authors discussed the first problem related to the research topic. They presented their points in the first sentence directly, then followed the found from the boston massacre essays, article or paper, which was cited from (Aboriginal Population Profile, 2006 Census, 2008; Saskatchewan Bureau of Statistics, n.d.), and ended with another issue that would be ready for how to descriptively the discussion in the next paragraph. In the second section, the massacre, authors use the same style to about Roseanne, directly state the problem and follow the facts found in articles, journal papers, and statistics reports from the grovernment. So, the entire literature review is structured in this style: Directly give out the research or project goals, Clearly state the problems, Briefly introduce the history related to the topic, Deeply expend each problem statement with facts found in jpurnal papers and reports, Intently identify areas of controversy in the literature, The review synthesize results into a summary of what is and is not known, The review materials are organized around based on the themes and trends. For instance, the project goal is “to improve coordination of health programming, reduce administrative duplication, better adapt programs to the needs of First Nations and address the gaps in health services for First Nations people” which was cited from (Government of Saskatchewan, 2008), and boston, then in the next paragraph, the authors use these statistic data to support the definition, prolem statement mentioned previously. In addition, the authors referred wide enough and boston essays, good quality resources for this review. Progression And Treatment Of The Essay? For instance, statistic reports from Statistics Canada , research paper from Canadian Council on Learning , and journal paper from Canadian Journal of massacre essays Native Education , etc. Thought as the first important brick for building a solid base for a good research later, the literature review needs to darwinism, be conducted by researcher in a very careful and deliberate manner before starting the boston massacre essays, primary research. Normally, novice researchers have very little experience in writing the literature review for their topics, they often feel confused and don't know where is the beginning point for conducting the subjective definition, review. Massacre? The Cooper's taxonomy, the summary of strategies for writing a literature review (mainly extracted from [1]) and some useful tips described above can provide some hints for the newcomers in considering and making a convincible literature review. Moreover, the two presented examples are also practical works where the novice can find more useful experiences from precedent researchers. In our opinion, this work is not a comprehensive material for writing an excellent review but we believe that it can provide inexperienced researchers some clues for thinking and conducting a reasonable literature review which will be a solid ground for establishing the primary research later. [2] Cooper, Harris M., A Taxanomy of Literature Review, Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (69th, Chicago, IL, March 31-April, 1985) [3] Boote, D.N. & Beile, P. System? (2005). Boston Essays? Scholars before researchers: On the centrality of the dissertation literature review in research preparation. Educational Researcher 34/6, 3-15. [5] Teemu Henrikki Laine, Mike Joy, Survey on Context-Aware Pervasive Learning Environments, International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM), Vol 3, No 1 (2009) [6] Wilson, A. and Sarson, J. (2008). Literature Review on Participation of Aboriginal Students in Postsecondary Health Education Programs in Saskatchewan. A Journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health 6(3) 2008. Retrieved at Roseanne and Sociology May 19th, 2010 at http://www.pimatisiwin.com.joecat.joensuu.fi:8080/uploads/1742634680.pdf. [7] Carole Gray and Julian Malins, Visualizing Research: A Guide to the Research Process in Art and Design (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2004). p. Massacre? 43.

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In the essay "Prison "Reform" in America," Roger T. Pray points out the much attention that has been devoted to research to help prevent crimes. Showing criminals the errors of their ways not by brutal punishment, but by locking them up in the attempt to reform them. Robert Pray, who is a prison psychologist, is currently a researcher with the Utah Dept. of Corrections. He has seen what has become of massacre essays our prison system and easily shows us that there is really no such thing as "Prison Reform"In Roger Prays essay we see how our prison system has come to where we are at now. He shows how history of prisons worked and how our basis of the prison system came about over the last 200 years.Robert states that it was the Americans that invented the prison. Darwinism. "The history of prison in America is the history of a troubled search for solutions." Before we had prisons in America, criminals where dealt with in a swift and brutal manner. Many prisoner where dealt with by corporal or capital punishment. Jails did exist in this time but they were "primarily for pretrail detention" stated Pray."Today's system, where imprisonment is a common penalty for boston essays, most crimes, is a historical newcomer." Many crimes during 1718 and 1776 were punishable by death. This was usually done by hanging, sometimes by stoning, breaking on the rack and burning at the stake. Towards the end of the 1700's people realized that cruel punishment did little to reduce crime and their society was changing the population grew and people started to move around more frequently. There had to be a search for new punishments . "New punishments were to catrin rely heavily on new ideas imported from Europe in the writing of such social thinkers of the Enlightenment as the baron de Montesquieu, Voltaire, Thomas Pain and Cesare Beccaria". These thinkers came to believe that criminals could be rehabilitated." Beccaria, a European theorizer, had the boston essays most influence on penology. "His work had a profound effect on criminal punishment the world over." Beccaria wrote "the purpose of Progression and Treatment Condition Essay punishment is not to torment a sensible being, or to undo a crime [but] is none other than to prevent the criminal from essays doing further injury to society and to prevent others from committing the like offense." This is how we came to categorizing crimes. In 1786, the Quakers played an important role in inventing the first prison. They felt that the brutal criminal punishment was irreconcilable with their Christian beliefs. So in 1786, they persuaded the Pennsylvania legislature to national innovation limit the death penalty to murder, treason, rape and arson. It was then that all other criminals would have to be imprisoned for up to ten years. As the population grew and more people where getting sent to prison instead of being executed the prison began to get crowded.The Walnut Street prison, which was the first prison, built in. . Punitive, Rehabilitative, And Restorative Punishment Essay. Introduction The philosophy of punishment has generally stayed the same in America. The nature and purpose shows us how there are certain punishments for certain crimes and whether or not the offender accepts the massacre essays punishment or not determines the length and type of punishment they will receive. Historical viewpoints of Encephalitis: Progression Condition Essay punishment have increased over massacre, time and today we are still trying to Causes, and Treatment of the Condition Essay come up with way where we can decrease crime as a whole in America. . A Brief History Of The Death Penalty In The Us And The Current Trends. The death penalty had been debated for decades. Essays. Many advocates are for subjective, the death penalty, but many more, now more than ever, are taking the stance that the death penalty is cruel and unusual punishment. Boston Massacre Essays. The death penalty, like any other punishment for crimes committed, is meant to be a deterrent. Is it time to catrin by gillian clarke abolish the death penalty - or make it more efficient, less gruesome, and more certain? I am not able to answer this question with definite words and I will not even try to attempt, but I will provide some facts and my own opinions on the death penalty. . Cullen and Agnew (2011) stated that deterrence occurs when a person refrains from committing a criminal act due to the threat of boston massacre essays punishment being greater than the chance for a reward. The typical, average, law abiding, rational thinking, and responsible American does not commit crimes. Why? Because it is against the law, and there is a punishment that for most people far exceeds the reward that they will receive for committing the crime. For most people the threat of Encephalitis: Progression and Treatment Condition Essay being punishment or the possibility of being caught for a crime is enough to deter criminal activity. Furthermore, for those people in boston, America that do commit crimes the same question could be proposed. Why? This question is more difficult to definition answer due to the various explanations as to why people commit crimes. Unfortunately the boston massacre deterrence/rational choice theories does not answer this question very effectively, other than offering the belief that for some people the by gillian reward of committing the crime far outweighs the chance they will be caught and subsequently punished for the crime. This basic risk versus reward decision making is at the core of human behavior, and provides the foundation of what the deterrence and rational choice theories believe. For the purpose of this paper I am going to essays discuss the how to descriptively origins of the deterrence/rational choice theories for crime. I will discuss why some criminologists support the deterrence/rational choice theories as an important explanation for crime. Boston Massacre Essays. Furthermore, I will discuss the key problems for the theory that limits its effective’s in criminology and understanding of the causes of crime. According to definition Cullen and Agnew (2011) the deterrence and rational choice theories of crimes originated from the massacre essays ideas generated from Cesare Becarria who is known as one of the first criminologists. Cullen and Agnew (2011) stated that Cesare Beccaria developed the “classical theory” of crime. According to Cullen and Agnew (2011) the classical theory of crime had primarily two parts. Rational decisions are made in which the Roseanne benefits of violating the law are weighed against possible punishments of violating the essays law. And to potentially deter crime, the pain of national system punishment must outweigh the benefit of the gains made through illegal means. Therefore, Cullen and Agnew (2011) stated that according to the classical theory, crime was the result of people choosing to engage in criminal behaviors based on a rational thought process that considered the negative and positive outcomes that were associated with the committing of the crime. The deterrence theory originated from boston massacre essays this “classical school” belief that criminals and non criminals are rational and pursue their own interests based off attempting to achieve positive outcomes and limit negative consequences from catrin clarke their actions. The rational choice theory is very similar to the classical theory and the deterrence theory. Cornish and Clark (1986) stated that the boston essays rational choice theory proposes that all offenders that. . Classical Theory Of Criminology Essay. Criminology is the study of why individuals engage or commit crimes and the reasons as to descriptively why they behave in certain ways in different situations (Hagan, 2010). Through understanding the reasons or why an individual commits a crime, one can come up with ways to prevent and boston essays control crime or rehabilitate criminals. There exist a large number of how to write criminology theories, some link crime to boston massacre essays an individual or person; they believe a person weighs the cons and pros and makes a conscious decision on whether to commit or not commit a felony. Others see the society as having a duty to Causes, and Treatment of the Essay make sure that its members do not engage in criminal acts by providing a secure and safe living place. Some claim that some people have hidden or dormant characteristics that determine their reaction or behavior when confronted or put in particular negative conditions (Akers & Sellers, 2012). By understanding and studying these theories, together with applying them to people, psychologists and authorities can prevent criminals from committing or repeating crimes and aid in their rehabilitation. As many theories have emerged over time, they continue to be surveyed and explored, both individually and in combination in massacre, order for criminologists to develop solutions and eventually reduce the levels and Encephalitis: Progression Essay types of crime. Massacre Essays. The most popular criminology theories emphasize on the individual, positivist and classical traits. Social Darwinism. This paper will explore the classical theory, which is among the earliest theories in criminology. Classical criminology theory is a legal systems approach, which emerged in boston massacre, the 1700s age of social examples enlightenment. Various philosophers like John Locke, Jeremy Bentham and Cesare Beccaria expanded upon boston essays the theory of the social contract to explain the reasons as to why people commit offenses, and Causes, and Treatment Condition Essay interventions through which communities can combat crime effectively. The basic foundation of massacre essays this theory is the Encephalitis: Causes, Progression and Treatment of the believe that people commit crime or engage in illegal activities when they view the benefits of boston massacre essays committing a crime as being greater than the possible costs or punishments (Hagan, 2010). According to this theory, the rational remedy for preventing crimes would be establishing harsher punishments or sentences for committing crimes. Cesare Beccaria is considered to definition be the classical theory founder. His concept even in today’s world continues to massacre essays play a significant role in many countries legal systems, however, this approach happens to be more flexible in the modern world. Cesare Beccaria theory emerged as a result of a reaction against the barbaric system of system justice, punishment and law present before 1789. It mainly emphasized on human rationality and boston massacre free will (Beccaria, 1986). The classical criminology theory was not concerned in studying and understanding criminals, but concentrated on legal processing and law making. According to the theory, crime was believed to be an activity engaged or committed out of free will and that criminals weighed their actions consequences. Punishment. . Criminology is defined as an interdisciplinary profession built around the scientific study of crime and criminal behavior including their forms, causes, legal aspects, and control. There are many aspects in the field of criminology. These aspects include the areas of research involved, the criminology schools of thought, theoretical developments and innovation system the people involved in creating and developing the boston massacre theories. What role do criminologists play in definition, the field of criminology? The term criminologist is used to describe any individual who is employed in the criminal justice field regardless of formal training. (Schmalleger) These individuals study crime, criminals, and criminal behavior. Massacre Essays. Those responsible for collecting and examining physical evidence of crime are referred to as criminalists. Encephalitis: Causes, Progression And Treatment. Criminologists perform a variety of activities such as data gathering, data analysis, theory construction, hypothesis testing, social policy creation, public advocacy and public service, analysis of crime patterns and boston massacre trends, education and training, and threat assessment and risk analysis. Criminology is categorized into three schools of thought: Classical, Positivist, and Chicago. These three schools fit into about three different theoretical developments in criminology. However, there are six categories that fit into massacre essays the theoretical developments. The first development is the Classical School which consists of classical and neoclassical criminology. The classical school of criminological thought developed as a result of the Enlightenment or Age of Reason, a highly significant social movement in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The Enlightenments encouraged people to think for themselves rather obeying orders given by the State or Church. (Williams) Thinkers such as John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Charles-Louis de Secondat Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Thomas Paine were all part of the Enlightenment. However, two famous Enlightenment theorists responsible for shaping crime and how to write descriptively control and criminological thinking were Cesare Beccaria and boston Jeremy Bentham. Cesare Beccaria believed that punishment should be deterrence rather than retribution, and punishment should be imposed to how to descriptively prevent offenders from committing additional crimes. Acts of revenge are not as important as crime prevention. According to Beccaria, punishment should be swift and certain and should only essays, be severe enough to outweigh personal benefits. Punishments should fit the crimes. Jeremy Bentham was a utilitarian idealist. His approach to classical criminology was termed hedonistic calculus or utilitarianism. This term argued that human behavior is catrin by gillian clarke led by the desire for individuals to avoid unpleasantness and boston choose a life that takes full advantage of pleasure. Catrin Clarke. According to Bentham’s approach to classical criminology, individuals were expected to weigh the consequences of their behavior before acting in order to maximize pleasure and minimize pain based on intensity, duration, certainty, and. Boston Essays. . TortureThe U.S should only use torture if they are 100% sure that the person they are torturing is the person they want. How To Write. My reasoning behind saying this is what if they get the wrong man who doesn't actually know anything. They would torture him and if he answers it would be false information and you just ruined a man's life because you cut off 3 of his fingers. It is not morally right however, it is wrong to harm another human being no matter how minimal. Boston Massacre. Even if it is to save lives you cant really justify the harm of another human being according to natural law. . The Influence Of Beccaria And Voltaire. Today in society, concepts are hardly ever in their original form. It is innovation extremely rare for anything to be in prototype form. Most ideas are based upon prior thoughts and boston massacre beliefs. Subjective Definition. Even documents that our society is based upon have been derived from the philosophies of former innovative thinkers. Through their own new and radical philosophies, philosophers such as Beccaria and massacre essays Voltaire from the Enlightenment period influenced society's and government's future ideas and principles. By writing numerous books and essays, these philosophers were able to Condition Essay become the foundation of many important freedoms and principles. . Countries which use the boston death penalty tend not to have an independent legal system, and tend to be authoritarian, with the exception of the United States. The death penalty is seen as a deterrent, a punishment and prevents murderers from committing crimes again. But there are not strong evidence to support these statements and there is also a danger that innocent people could be killed. Innovation System. There are many questions that result from the argument on capital punishment. Does this punishment really have those desirable consequences its advocates have claimed for it? Is it true that through the threat of this punishment the most serious crimes can be prevented? One thing I know for sure and that is that violent death at the hands of the executioner is the worst thing that can happen to massacre essays a human being. .