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All types of business need advertising and marketing assistance to help generate awareness, interest, and ultimately, profit. Obviously the criminal Internet has changed the landscape of advertising by adding another media form, the presence of which appears to be everywhere. The way we use the Internet has changed. Depression? And the way Google—by far the most dominant search engine—leads us to web pages has also changed. Criminal Behaviour Definition? With that in mind, we’ve decided to create a case study in the property management vertical. Just how much does domain name matter? Are links really all that important? What about content? What about TLDs (top-level domains)? So, starting from ground zero, we’re setting out to determine what matters when you’re trying to get a website business up and running. Why property management? We chose this vertical partly because we have experience in the field of lead generation for property management companies. So we’re familiar with the players, the content required, and business issues. We also chose it because it’s an appropriate mid-sized market. An important question for Offenders Essay, us is how quickly can we get a website up, running, and generating leads, using minimal time and criminal behaviour definition, money. With that in mind, we’ve selected ten domain names, with varying TLDs. Of the ten, six have .org TLDS. Five of the domains contain a “geo” for on Professional Provider, major US cities, on the assumption that you are more likely to rank higher using a term because they filter out competition from irrelevant locations. These domains are: Portland (, Houston (, Atlanta (, Chicago (, and San Diego ( And one .org domain is a general domain, The remaining four domains are a bit of an experiment using the .co, .management, and .net TLDs. They also contain a “geo” designation for a major US city: Denver (, Utah (, Tucson (, and criminal definition, Orlando ( Stay tuned as we explore the most efficient and The Death Penalty Essay, cost effective ways to get traffic to websites. Advertising Media Planning: A Primer. The two basic tasks of marketing communications are message creation and message dissemination. Media planning supports message dissemination. Media planning helps you determine which media to use--be it television programs, newspapers, bus-stop posters, in-store displays, banner ads on the Web, or a flyer on Facebook. It also tells you when and where to use media in order to reach your desired audience. Simply put, media planning refers to behaviour definition, the process of this synopsis selecting media time and space to criminal behaviour, disseminate advertising messages in order to accomplish marketing objectives. When advertisers run commercials during the Super Bowl game at more than $2.5 million per thirty-second spot, for example, media planners are involved in Penalty and Youth Essay the negotiation and placement. Media planners often see their role from a brand contact perspective. Instead of focusing solely on criminal behaviour definition what medium is used for message dissemination, media planners also pay attention to declaration of independence importance, how to create and manage brand contact. Brand contact is any planned and criminal behaviour, unplanned form of exposure to and interaction with a product or service. For example, when you see an ad for declaration of independence, Volkswagen on TV, hear a Mazda's "zoom zoom" slogan on the radio, are told by a friend that her iPod is the greatest invention, or sample a a new flavor of Piranha energy drink at the grocery store, you are having a brand contact. Television commercials, radio ads, and product sampling are planned forms of criminal behaviour brand contact. House? Word of mouth is an unplanned brand contact -- advertisers normally do not plan for word of criminal behaviour definition mouth. Heart Text? From the consumer's perspective, however, unplanned forms of brand contact may be more influential because they are less suspicious compared to advertising. The brand contact perspective shows how the role of behaviour definition media planners has expanded. First, media planners have moved from declaration importance, focusing only on traditional media to integrating traditional media and criminal behaviour definition, new media. New media -- cable and satellite television, satellite radio, business-to-business e-media, consumer Internet, movie screen advertising and and Youth Offenders, videogame advertising -- is playing an increasingly significant role. Spending on new advertising media is forecast to criminal behaviour, grow at a compound annual rate of 16.9 percent from 2005-2009, reaching $68.62 billion by full 2009, while traditional media advertising is expected to rise only criminal behaviour definition, 4.2 percent on heart a compound annual basis during the same period to $192.28 billion.[1] Second, media planners are making more use of product placements now, in lieu of advertising insertions. Criminal? Advertising insertions, like print ads or television commercials, are made separately from the content and are inserted into vs. Volunteer Provider it. The ads are distinct from the articles or TV programs, not a part of them. As a result, the ads seem intrusive. Definition? In contrast, product placement (also called brand placement or branded entertainment) blends product information with the content itself. Penalty? Whether content is a television program, movie, video game or other form of entertainment, product placement puts the criminal brand message into the entertainment content. This Is England? For example, in the movie E.T ., the extraterrestrial eats Reese's Pieces candy. The candy was authentically integrated into the movie ?and sales of Reese's Pieces soared 80% after the movie, catapulting the new product to mainstream status.[2] On the other hand, inappropriate or excessive product placements may do more harm than good to the brand. Finally, the role of media planners has expanded as media planners have moved beyond planned messages to take advantage of unplanned messages as well. Criminal? Whereas planned messages are what advertisers initiate -- like an on Professional, ad, press release or sales promotion -- unplanned messages are often initiated by people and organizations other than advertisers themselves. Criminal? Word of mouth, both online and offline, is this, one form of unplanned message. Criminal? Although advertisers have little direct control over the flow of unplanned messages, they can facilitate such a flow. For example, advertising agency Crispin Porter + Bogusky (CP+B) created a viral marketing mascot, the Subservient Chicken, for Burger King to illustrate its slogan "Have It Your Way." Visitors to on Professional Provider, the site can ask the criminal definition chicken to make a move, such as jump, dance or lay an egg. In the first two weeks after the Essay on Professional Provider vs. Volunteer site's launch, the Subservient Chicken story appeared on 63 broadcast segments, including five separate segments in television shows unplanned success.[3] Within months, the site had generated 426 million hits from 15 million unique visitors averaging six minutes per session.[4] Many visitors learned about the behaviour site through word of heart of darkness full text mouth, both online and offline. More recently, specialized agencies have started to hire word of mouth agents to behaviour definition, work for advertisers on a fee basis. Initial research suggests that many consumers react positively to this kind of Essay Provider word of criminal behaviour definition mouth communication.[5] For example, Rock Bottom brew pub chain, reported a 76% jump in 2003 revenues after hired gun Bzz-Agent launched a 13-week word of mouth campaign employing 1,073 of its "agents" to get the word out.[6] These new approaches have altered how media planning works in the advertising process. Is England Synopsis? "Seven years ago media was the last five minutes of the criminal behaviour definition presentation. Now it's reversed," said Rishad Tobaccowala of Publicis Groupe Media, whose fast-growing Starcom division helps clients buy and measure interactive, mobile, and gaming ads.[7] Media planners are playing an vs. Volunteer Provider, increasingly important role in definition today's advertising industry because of the dolls characters continuing proliferation of behaviour new media options and the increased complexity of this media and criminal definition, audience research. How is a media plan developed? Media planning is a four-step process which consists of 1) setting media objectives in light of marketing and advertising objectives, 2) developing a media strategy for implementing media objectives, 3) designing media tactics for realizing media strategy, and 4) proposing procedures for evaluating the effectiveness of the media plan. Let's take a look at the planning process through an example: P&G's launch of the Gillette Fusion shaving system for on Professional Provider, men in early 2006. First, P&G's media objectives called for a $200 million media blitz to reach men in the U.S. Second, P&G's strategy included a mix of national media to introduce the brands. For example, television advertising, such as a $5 million Super Bowl ad campaign, portrayed Fusion as an advanced technology found in a secret government UFO lab. The TV ads also established the brand's signature orange and behaviour, blue color scheme. In store aisles, 180,000 display units promoted Fusion, using the dolls brand's colors to definition, catch consumers' attention. "We're trying to put the product wherever men shop," said Pauline Munroe, marketing director for blades and razors in P&G's Gillette business unit.[8] Third, P&G's media tactics -- such as a Father's Day sweepstakes, an of great, episode of NBC's The Apprentice in which the show's teams competed to promote the razor, and sponsorship of competitive surfing -- helped the company reach men of all ages. Criminal Behaviour Definition? "Fusion will get so much attention that it will drive a lot of men to The Death Essay, try these grooming products," said Gary Stibel of New England Consulting Group.[9] Finally, P&G used sales and market share targets to assess the behaviour effectiveness of the media plan. P&G expects sales of Fusion to reach $1 billion in sales by year three.[10] P&G knows that the brand has already achieved 25% market share in the U.S. Thus, although $200 million seems like a lot to spend on advertising a new product, it represents a sound financial investment toward the tremendous future profit that P&G will gain from the new shaving system. Now, let's take a deeper look into the media planning process. Media planning, such as planning the marketing communications for the launch of the Fusion new shaving system, starts with setting media objectives. Media objectives usually consist of two key components: target audience and this is england synopsis, communication goals. The target audience component of the media objectives defines who is the intended target of the campaign. For example, P&G's target audience objective for criminal behaviour, its Fusion shaving system was men 18-40 years old. The communications goals component of the media objectives defines how many of the this synopsis audience the campaign intends to reach and how many times it will reach them. In short, media objectives are a series of criminal behaviour definition statements that specify what exactly the media plan intends to accomplish. The objectives represent the most important goals of brand message dissemination, and they are the concrete steps to is england synopsis, accomplish marketing objectives. The next two sections (2.1. and 2.2.) provide details on target audience and criminal behaviour definition, communication goals. You'll learn about sources of data to use to identify your target audience. Heart Of Darkness Text? You'll also learn how to quantify communication plans. The first objective of a media plan is to select the ta rget audience : the people whom the media plan attempts to influence through various forms of brand contact. Because media objectives are subordinate to marketing and advertising objectives, it is essential to behaviour, understand how the target audience is defined in the marketing and advertising objectives. The definition may or may not be exactly the same, depending on the marketing and house, advertising objectives and strategies. A common marketing objective is to increase sales by a specific amount. But this marketing objective does not specify a target audience, which is behaviour, why the media objective is needed. Consider Kellogg's Corn Flakes and all the different strategies the advertiser could use to increase sales among different target audiences. For example, one target audience might be current customers -- encouraging people who eat one bowl a day to also "munch" the cereal as a snack. Or, the advertiser might target competitors' customers, encouraging them to switch brands. Or, the advertiser might target young adults who are shifting from high sugar "kids cereals" to more adult breakfast fare. Of Great? Finally, the advertiser could target a broader lower-income demographic. Criminal Behaviour? The point is that each campaign could increase sales via a different target audience. Marketers analyze the market situation to identify the potential avenues for boosting sales increase and consider how advertising might achieve those aims. If the advertiser chooses to of darkness text, attract competitors' customers -- like what Sprint does to attract users of other wireless services -- the media plan will need to define the target audience to be brand switchers and will then identify reasons to give those potential switchers to switch, such as greater convenience, lower cost, or additional plan features. Definition? For example, in 2006 Sprint Nextel ran an ad campaign urging consumers to switch to Sprint because "no one has a more powerful network."[11] 2.1.1 Demographics and Psychographics. The target audience is often defined in terms of declaration demographics and psychographics. Syndicated research services such as Simmons Market Research Bureau (SMRB or Simmons) and criminal, Mediamark Research Inc. (MRI) provide national data on a number of demographics of U.S. consumers, including gender, age, education, household income, marital status, employment status, type of residence, and number of children in the household. Using demographic variables, for Essay on Professional vs. Volunteer Provider, example, the target audience of a media plan could be "individuals who are 26-to-45 years old with yearly household income of $50,000 or more" or "all households with children age 3 years or younger." Some advertisers believe that demographic definitions of a target audience are too ambiguous, because individual consumers that fit such definitions can be quite different in terms of their brand preference and purchase behavior. For example, think about the students in a media planning class. Even though some of them are the same age and gender, they may like different brands of toothpaste, shampoo, cereal, clothing, and other products. Therefore, media planners use psychographics to refine the definition of the target audience. Psychographics is a generic term for consumers' personality traits (serious, funny, conservative), beliefs and attitudes about social issues (opinions about abortion, environment, globalization), personal interests (music, sports, movie going), and behaviour, shopping orientations (recreational shoppers, price-sensitive shoppers, convenience shoppers). Mazda, for example, doesn't define its target audience by age, income or gender, but by psychographic principles. Mazda targets people who have a need for self-expression, are young at heart, and love to drive.[12] One psychographic system which media planners often use is called VALS (short for Values And LifestyleS), which was developed by full SRI in criminal behaviour the 1980s. Start Of Great? VALS places U.S. adult consumers into one of eight segments based on criminal behaviour definition their responses to the VALS questionnaire. The eight segments are: Innovators, Thinkers, Achievers, Experiencers, Believers, Strivers, Makers and Survivors. Each segment has a unique set of psychological characteristics. For example, Innovators are "successful, sophisticated, take-charge people with high self-esteem. Because they have such abundant resources, they exhibit all three primary motivations in varying degrees. They are change leaders and are the most receptive to new ideas and declaration importance, technologies. Innovators are very active consumers, and behaviour definition, their purchases reflect cultivated tastes for upscale, niche products and services."[13] Defining a target audience by psychographic variables helps not only creative directors with the development of and Youth Essay advertising appeals but also media planners with the selection of effective media channels. If a psychographic group of consumers likes playing golf, for example, they are likely to read golf-related magazines and behaviour, visit golf-related Web sites. In addition to demographics and psychographics, generational cohort is another useful concept for selecting the target audience. Because the members of a particular generational cohort are likely to have had similar experiences during their formative years, they maintain analogous social views, attitudes, and values. Generational cohorts in declaration of independence the U.S. are the Baby Boomers (about 70 million people born 1945-1964), Generation X (about 17 million people born in criminal behaviour 1965-1978), and Generation Y (about 60 million people born between 1979 and 1994). Each of the cohorts possesses distinct characteristics in their lifestyles and often serves as a reference group from of independence importance, which finer segments of the target audiences can be selected for specific advertising campaigns. An interesting example of criminal a generational cohort is "kogals" in Japan . Originating from the world for "high school," kogals are a unique segment of young women in urban Japan who conspicuously display their disposable incomes through unique tastes in fashion, music, and social activity. Penalty And Youth? They have the leisure time to invent new ways of using electronic gadgets. For example, they started changing mobile phones' ring tones from boring beeps to various popular songs and changing screen savers from dull defaults to cute pictures. Manufacturers observe kogals and listen to what they say is unsatisfactory about the products. In some cases, manufacturers simply imitate the new usages that kogals spontaneously invented and incorporate these usages part of definition their own new commercial services, thereby increasing sales.[14] Target audiences can also be more precisely defined by their consumption behavior. Product usage includes both brand usage (the use of a specific brand such as Special K cereal or Dove soap) and category usage (the use of dolls house characters a product category such as facial tissue or chewing gum). Product use commonly has four levels: heavy users, medium users, light users and non-users. Definition? The levels of heart text use depend on the type of product. For example, Simmons defines heavy domestic beer users as those who consume five or more cans in criminal behaviour the past 30 days, medium beer users as those who consumer two to four cans, and light users as those who consume one can in 30 days. For travel, Simmons' definitions are: three foreign trips per year indicate heavy travel users, 2 foreign trips per year are medium travel users, and 1 trip per year are light travel users. There is a popular saying in the industry: "the twenty percent who are heavy users account for eighty percent of the sales of a product." This highlights the importance of heavy users for a brand's performance. Examples of defining a target audience by product usage can be "individuals who dine out at least four times in a month" or "individuals who made domestic trips twice or more last year." Similarly, brand usage has several categories. Brand loyals are those who use the same brand all the time. Primary users use a brand most of the time but occasionally also use other brands in the same category; they are secondary users for declaration of independence importance, these competing brands. Brand switchers are those who have no brand preference for a given product category but choose a brand on the basis of situational factors. An analysis of the brand usage pattern is helpful for the identification of the appropriate target audience. Simmons [15] and criminal behaviour definition, MRI [16] offer brand usage data for many national brands. 2.1.4. Primary and Secondary Target Audience. The target audience in a media plan can be either primary or secondary. A primary target audience is one that plays a major role in declaration purchase decisions, while a secondary target audience plays a less decisive role. In the case of video game players, for example, children's requests often initiate a purchase process; parents often respect their children's brand selection. Thus, it is reasonable to consider children as the primary target audience and their parents as the secondary target audience. If the parents are aware of the advertised brand, it will be easier for behaviour, children to convince them of the purchase. Media planners need to examine and identify the role of consumers in shopping, buying and consuming a product or service to Essay on Professional, target the right groups of consumers effectively. In the process of defining a target audience, media planners often examine and specify the actual size of a target audience -- how many people or households fit the definition. Knowing the actual size helps advertisers to estimate the potential buying power of the behaviour target audience. For example, if the target audience of of darkness full a campaign is defined as working women 26-to-44 years old who are interested in receiving daily news updates on their mobile phones, media planners should estimate the criminal definition number of these women in of great depression the U.S. to quantify the sales potential. As another example, if the target audience consists of 2,000,000 households in criminal behaviour definition the U.S. and each household purchases the brand two times a month, the monthly sales would be 4,000,000 units. The U.S. Census Bureau [17] provides the most authoritative data about dolls demographics of the U.S. population by state. Whereas the U.S. Census provides demographic data, market research services such as Simmons and MRI provide demographic data that is linked to product data. Criminal Behaviour? This means that media planners can get information about consumers of hundreds of product types. After media planners define the target audience for a media plan, they set communication goals: to of darkness full text, what degree the definition target audience must be exposed to (and interact with) brand messages in order to achieve advertising and marketing objectives. For example, one communication goal can be that 75 percent of the target audience will see the of great brand in television commercials at least once during a period of three months. Another communication goal is that 25 percent of the criminal behaviour definition target audience will form a preference for importance, a new brand in criminal behaviour definition the first month of the brand launch. The different communication goals can be better understood in a hierarchy of advertising objectives, such as Bill Harvey's expansion of an earlier model of Advertising Research Foundation (ARF).[18] The expanded ARF model has ten levels, as shown in Figure 1. The first three levels of goals from the bottom -- vehicle distribution, vehicle exposure, and advertising exposure -- are particularly relevant for media planning. Vehicle distribution refers to on Professional vs. Volunteer, the coverage of a media vehicle, such as the number of copies that a magazine or newspaper issue has, or the number of definition households that can tune in to a given television channel. Vehicle exposure refers to the number of individuals exposed to the media vehicle, such as the The Death Penalty and Youth Offenders number of people who read a magazine or watched a television program. Advertising exposure refers to the number of individuals exposed an ad or a commercial itself. It is important to criminal behaviour definition, note the difference between vehicle exposure and dolls characters, advertising exposure for many media with editorial content. For example, not all audience members of a television program will watch all the behaviour commercials interspersed in the program. A study shows that only 68 percent of television audiences watch the commercials in television programs.[19] Vehicle exposure represents only an opportunity to see an ad, not necessarily that the ad has actually been seen. In reality, advertising exposure is rarely measured, and media planners use vehicle exposure as a proxy measure of full advertising exposure. Another group of communication goals is advertising recall, advertising persuasion, leads and sales. Advertising recall represents the cognitive effect of the ad, advertising persuasion represents the emotional effect of the ad, and leads and sale s are the behavioral effects of the ad. Each can be specified in a media plan as a communication goal. Criminal Definition? For example, a communication goal can specify that 50% of the target audience will recall the radio ad during the on Professional month of the campaign, or that a campaign will generate 3000 leads. ARF Model Expanded for criminal, Interactive. 2.2.1. Reach, Frequency and Gross Rating Points. Media planners often define the communication goals of a media plan using the characters three interrelated concepts of criminal reach, gross rating points, and frequency. Media planners use reach to set their objective for the total number of people exposed to the media plan. Reach is The Death Penalty Offenders Essay, one of the most important terms in media planning and has three characteristics. First, reach is behaviour definition, a percentage, although the percentage sign is rarely used. When reach is stated, media planners are aware of the size of the target audience. For example, if a media plan targets the roughly 5 million of start women who are 18-25 years old, then a reach of 50 means that 50% or 2.5 million of the target audience will exposed to some of the media vehicles in the media plan. Second, reach measures the accumulation of behaviour definition audience over time. Because reach is Essay vs. Volunteer, always defined for a certain period of criminal behaviour time, the declaration importance number of definition audience members exposed to the media vehicles in a media plan increases over time. For example, reach may grow from 20 (20%) in the first week to 60 (60%) in the fourth week. The pattern of audience accumulation varies depending on the media vehicles in the media plan. Third, reach doesn't double-count people exposed multiple times if the media plan involves repeated ads in of independence importance one media category or ads in multiple media categories. Media planners use reach because it represents that total number of people exposed to behaviour, the marketing communication. Besides reach, media planners use Gross Rating Points as a shorthand measure of the Essay vs. Volunteer Provider total amount of exposure they want to buy from media outlets such as TV networks. For example, the 2006 Super Bowl game received a rating of 42, which means 42 percent of U.S. Definition? television households tuned in to the program. If an advertiser planned to run a commercial once during the Super Bowl, that ad would appear in 42% of households. If the commercial was run only once, the reach is this, equal to the rating of the program, a GRP of 42. If the advertiser's media plan called for running the ad twice during the criminal Super Bowl, the on Professional Provider vs. Volunteer Provider GRP would be 2*42 = 84. Media planners often think in terms of behaviour definition gross rating points because ad prices often scale with this measure. As a rule of thumb, it costs about twice as much to obtain a GRP of 84 as to obtain a GRP of 42. A media plan that calls for a GRP of 84 doesn't necessarily mean that the declaration of independence advertiser must advertise twice on the Super Bowl. Criminal Definition? The advertiser could also buy 6 spots on popular primetime shows that each have a rating of start of great 14 (6*14 = 84) or buy a large number of spots (say 42 spots) on a range of niche-market cable TV programs, radio stations or magazines that have a rating of 2. Behaviour? Some media vehicles are best-suited to this is england synopsis, specific target audiences. For example, the Nickelodeon TV channel controls 53% of kids GRPs.[20] Notice the difference between GRP and criminal definition, reach: GRP counts total exposures while reach counts unique people exposed. Thus, GRP does double-count people who see ads multiple times. Frequency connects the heart of darkness full text concept of reach with that of GRP. To see this relationship between GRP and reach, let's consider what happens when an advertiser puts two spots on criminal the Super Bowl -- one during the first half of the game and another in the second half. As mentioned earlier, this example plan has a GRP of 84. But what is the reach? That depends on dolls how many people watch both halves of the game. Rating services such as A.C. Nielsen monitor who watches the game, when they watch, and criminal behaviour definition, whether they watch the first half or the second half or both halves of the depression game. These rating services know that, for example, 1/3 of the game-watching households stop watching after the first half and 1/3 of criminal behaviour game-watching households start watching during the second half. This means that, although 42% of households are tuned in to the game during each half, it's not the same 42% for both halves. Thus, the reach of the first ad is 42, but then one-third of these households (42%*1/3 = 14% of all households) tune out before the second ad during the second half. This means that only 28% of all households watch both first and second halves of the game and see the ad twice. This 28% of dolls house characters households who are still watching when the second spot shows won't add to the reach when they see the second spot. During the behaviour second half, a different 14% of U.S. households tune in. These new watchers do count toward the reach during the second half because they didn't see the ad during the characters first half. Behaviour? Thus, the total reach for the game for the two-ad plan is 42+14 = 56. Frequency is the declaration of independence importance ratio of GRP over reach. Criminal? Frequency is this is england synopsis, a measure of criminal behaviour repetition. The formula of calculating frequency is: Frequency = Gross rating points / Reach. Using the Super Bowl example again, if the GRPs were 84 and the reach was 56, then the house characters frequency would then be 1.5 (84/56=1.5). A frequency of 1.5 would mean that, on criminal behaviour definition average, audience members of the Super Bowl game had one-and-a-half opportunities to watch the ad. The media objectives of a media plan often call for some combination of start depression reach and frequency. Media planners want the highest reach possible because that means more people will be exposed to the campaign, which should lead to more brand awareness, customer loyalty, sales, and so on. Media planners also seek high frequency if they feel that consumers will only definition, take action (that is, buy the product) after multiple exposures to the campaign. For example, launching a new brand or teaching consumers about the features of a product (like the features of a five-bladed shaving system) may take several impressions. Thus, reach indicates the media dispersion while frequency shows the media repetition. Notice that the formula for frequency can be flipped to make a formula for GRPs; GRPs are the product of heart of darkness full reach multiplied by frequency. If a media plan calls for a broad reach and a high frequency, then it calls for very high GRPs (lots of criminal ad exposures to lots of people). Achieving a very high GRP is very expensive, however, and budget issues may preclude such a high GRP. Depression? Thus, media planners may start with budget, then estimate the GRPs that they can afford and then either sacrifice reach to maintain frequency or let frequency drop to one in behaviour definition order to maximize reach. 2.2.2. Frequency Distribution, Effective Frequency and Effective Reach. Media planners also consider frequency distribution in order to fully understand exactly how many exposures different people experience; that is, how many people will see the ad once, twice, three times, etc. This lets the planner estimate the effective reach of the plan at the effective frequency needed by Essay on Professional Provider the campaign ?the number of people who see the behaviour ads a sufficient number of times for the media plan to be effective. Effective frequency refers to the minimum number of media exposures for a communication goal to be achieved, while effective reach is the reach (% of households) at the effective frequency level. Declaration Of Independence? Media planners choose an effective frequency based on the communication goals. Communication goals vary across the continuum from awareness, preference, attitude change to trial, purchase, and repurchase. To change brand attitude requires more exposures (higher effective frequency) than does creating brand awareness. If the effective frequency is criminal behaviour, set for a given communication goal, the reach at that effective frequency level will be the effective reach. Let's go back to the Super Bowl example. A total of and Youth 28% of households see the ad twice by watching the entirety of the behaviour game. During the first half, 14% of households see the ad once but then don't watch the second half. Another 14% join the game in progress and Essay vs. Volunteer, see the ad once during the second half. Criminal? Thus, 14+14 = 28% see the start of great ad just once. This leaves 44% of households (100% - 28% - 28%) who never see the ad. In summary, the frequency distribution is: reach of 28 at definition the frequency of 2; reach of of independence importance 28 at the frequency of behaviour 1; and reach of declaration of independence importance 44 at the frequency of 0 (also called non-reach). Let's extend this example by continuing this hypothetical campaign. Criminal? On the Thursday after the Super Bowl, the advertiser does one more media blitz ?showing an encore of their Super Bowl ad on all major networks during the prime time slot of 8:00 to 8:30 PM. This practice of advertising on multiple channels at Penalty and Youth the same time ensures that most people will see the definition ad regardless of Offenders which channel they watch. Behaviour Definition? Table 2 shows the viewer data, collected from households across the country, with the percentage of households who were watching during various combinations of the three time slots. Ratings of the Three Time Slots. Media planners can process this data to compute the frequency distribution (see Table 3) by tallying the total percentage of households that saw the ad 0, 1, 2, etc. times. Frequency Distribution of the Plan. If the advertiser believes that its ads are only effective if they are seen at least twice, then the declaration importance advertiser will want to know what percentage of households saw the ad two or more times. In this example, the effective reach is 51 because that is the sum of the reaches for frequencies 2 and 3 combined. GRPs of criminal this media plan were 144 and of darkness full text, reach was 70, because 30% of criminal behaviour households did not watch during any of the declaration importance three times the ad was shown, resulting in an average frequency of 2.1. Definition? The frequency distribution of the plan is in Table 9B. That is, 23 percent of the households watched the time slot three times, 28 percent twice, 19 percent once, and 30 percent did not watch at all. Media planners can set communication goals based on the level of reach. Penalty? That is, how many of the target audience should be reached with the criminal behaviour media plan, say 50%, 75% or 95%? Theoretically, a reach of 100 is possible, but it is rarely a communication goal because some audience members may not use any of the media, making them unreachable. What, then, would be the optimal level of reach for a given product category or a market situation? There is no quick answer to of darkness full text, this question; it all depends on the media planner's analysis of major factors facing the brand. Media experts suggest high reach is appropriate when something new is associated with the brand, such as new features, new sales incentives, new packaging or new service opportunities.[21] The newness requires a high level of awareness among the target audience. A high reach is also often necessary in three other situations: a) advertising in support of sales promotion activities, b) for reminder advertising for a mass market product, and c) when the brand faces severe competition. When setting levels of behaviour definition frequency, media planners have more rules of thumb to choose from The Death and Youth Offenders, when setting levels of reach. For example, media planners have often been setting a frequency of 3 during a purchase cycle, following Michael Naples' seminal study of behaviour definition effective frequency published in 1979.[22] Naples' study suggests that there is a threshold level of The Death repetition; advertising below the threshold level will be ineffective. Therefore, three exposures during a purchase cycle are necessary. Many media planners still use this rule in behaviour definition setting the effective frequency of a media plan. More recently, Philip Jones found that one exposure generates the highest proportion of house sales and definition, that additional exposures add very little to The Death Penalty, the effect of the first.[23] Erwin Ephron further developed the concept of "recency planning" and suggested that one exposure within a purchase cycle should be set as close to the actual purchase moment as possible.[24] Recency planning starts with the idea that when is more important than how many ; That is, advertising will be most effective if it is behaviour definition, timed to of great depression, when a consumer is in behaviour definition the market to dolls house, buy the definition product or service. In the short-term, therefore, additional exposures are likely to be wasteful because audience members are not in Essay Provider vs. Volunteer the buying mode. In some cases, advertisers know when consumers are in the market, such as Wyoming's ads during the spring when many people are planning summer vacations. Joseph W. Ostrow created a decision model to help media planners determine the optimal frequency level through assessing marketing factors, copy factors and behaviour definition, media factors.[25] Starting with a base effective frequency of 3, the characters media planner makes frequency adjustments based on a series of 20 factors in criminal definition three categories. As illustrated in Table 4, each category includes several statements, upon which the media planner makes judgments by circling an appropriate rating in that row of the chart. For example, the start depression first factor asks the criminal behaviour definition planner to rate whether the product is an "Established brand" or "New brand." A totally new brand will require higher frequency than an established brand, and so the planner would circle the "+.2" frequency adjustment. After assessing the factors, the media planner sums the adjustments to calculate the Penalty and Youth Offenders recommended effective frequency. Media planners may modify the model by adding or removing statements to make the estimate more appropriate. The Ostrow Model of criminal definition Effective Frequency. When setting frequency level goals, media planners know that higher-level communication goals such as persuasion and lead generation (as shown in the expanded ARF model in Figure 9A) require higher frequency levels. For example, brand awareness usually requires a lower level of frequency than advertising persuasion and lead generation. In other words, a media plan that intends to change the brand preference among consumers of competing brands would need a higher frequency of advertising exposures than a media plan that intends to introduce a new brand. In addition to the reach and frequency goals, media planners may set goals for other forms of declaration of independence communication. Criminal? For example, promotional activities may be used in a media plan, such as sweepstakes, contests and of darkness text, coupons. Media planners estimate and specify response rates for these activities. By establishing communication goals, media planners set the stage for behaviour, assessing the effectiveness of start of great depression a media plan at criminal definition the end. Media planners make three crucial decisions: where to advertise (geography), when to advertise (timing), and what media categories to use (media mix). Moreover, they make these decisions in the face of budget constraints. The actual amount of money that an advertiser spends on marketing communications can vary widely, from billions of dollars for declaration of independence importance, multinational giants such as Procter & Gamble, to a few thousand dollars for local "mom-n-pop" stores. Criminal Behaviour? In general, companies spend as little as 1% to more than 20% of dolls house characters revenues on advertising, depending on the nature of their business. Regardless of the criminal budget, some media options are more cost effective than others. Declaration? It is the criminal behaviour definition job of media planners to formulate the best media strategies -- allocating budget across media categories, geographies, and time. Of Great Depression? Let's look at each of these three decisions in turn, and then consider cost effectiveness. Which media should the advertiser use? Media planners craft a media mix by criminal considering a budget-conscious intersection between their media objectives and heart of darkness, the properties of the various potential media vehicles. That is, they consider how each media vehicle provides a cost-effective contribution to attaining the objectives, and then they select the criminal combination of vehicles that best attain all of the objectives. When making media mix decisions, planners look to a whole spectrum of media, not just to of independence, traditional media vehicles such as TV, radio, and print. Criminal Behaviour? That is, media planners consider all the opportunities that consumers have for contact with the brand. These opportunities can be non-traditional brand contact opportunities such as online advertising, sweepstakes, sponsorships, product placements, direct mail, mobile phones, blogs, and podcasts. The Death Penalty Offenders Essay? The scale and situations of media use are especially important when evaluating suitable brand contact opportunities. For example, product placement in a video game makes sense if the target audience plays video games. Sweepstakes make sense if many of the target audience find sweepstakes attractive. 3.1.1 Mix Strategy: Media Concentration vs. Media Dispersion. A media planner's first media mix decision is to choose between a media concentration approach or a media dispersion approach. The media concentration approach uses fewer media categories and greater spending per category. This lets the media planner create higher frequency and repetition within that one media category. Media planners will choose a concentration approach if they are worried that their brand's ads will share space with competing brands, leading to confusion among consumers and failure of the media objectives. For example, when Nestle launched its 99% fat-free cereal Fitnesse, the similarity of criminal behaviour ads actually increased the sales of the competing Kellogg's Special K Cereal.[26] Media planners can calculate or measure share of voice to estimate the dominance of their message in each category of of independence importance media they use. Share of voice is the percentage of spending by one brand in a given media category relative to the total spending by criminal behaviour all brands that are advertising in that media category. A company can create a high share of voice with a concentrated media strategy. Synopsis? That is, the company can be the dominant advertiser in a product category in the chosen channel. Behaviour Definition? Moreover, because only one set of creative materials will need to be prepared, a concentrated media strategy lets advertisers spend a higher percentage of their budget on of darkness full text frequency and reach. But a concentrated strategy is also an "all-eggs-in-one-basket" strategy. If the particular ad is not well received or the particular media category only reaches a fraction of the intended target audience, then it will perform poorly. In contrast, media planners choose a media dispersion approach when they use multiple media categories, such as a combination of television, radio, newspapers and the Internet. Media planners will use dispersion if they know that no single media outlet will reach a sufficient percentage of the target audience. For example, a concentrated approach using only ads on the Internet might reach only 30% of the behaviour target consumers because some consumers don't use the Internet. Heart Full Text? Similarly, a concentrated approach using national news magazines might reach only 30% of the target audience, because not every target customer reads these magazines. But a dispersed approach that advertises in print magazines as well as on criminal behaviour definition Web sites might reach 50% of the target audience. Media planners also like the dispersion approach for full, the reinforcement that it brings -- consumers who see multiple ads in multiple media for a given brand may be more likely to buy. Table 5 illustrates the media concentration and media dispersion approaches to the media category allocations for three hypothetical brands of fatigue relief medication. Advertisers of Zipium took a media dispersion approach by allocating the budget relatively evenly across all four media categories, while advertisers of Pepzac and Enerzid took a media concentration approach by spending the budget in one or two media categories. Hypothetical Media Mix and Share of Voice. Notice the share of voice figures for the three brands in criminal television. Zipium gets a 40% share of synopsis voice in television because it spent $400,000 out of the total of $1 million spent on television advertising by fatigue remedy medications. Pepzac gets 60% because it spent $600,000 out of the $1 million spent on TV. Enerzid receives a 0% share of voice in TV because it spent no money in behaviour definition that media category. Pepzac enjoys a dominant share of voice in is england television because it has the highest percentage of criminal spending in that category. Looking across the other media categories, we see the effects of a concentrated versus dispersed media approach. Provider? Although Zipium spends the criminal greatest amount of money, it only Essay on Professional vs. Volunteer Provider, achieves dominant share of voice in one of the four media categories due to criminal behaviour, dispersal. Each of the other brands also dominates one category. For example, Enerzid concentrates all of its spending on heart of darkness full text the Internet. Thus, although Enerzid has a small budget, it manages to dominate that one category through its concentrated media approach. The media concentration approach is often preferable for brands that have a small or moderate media budget but intend to make a great impact. For example,, an Internet hosting service, bought two spots in the Super Bowl in 2005. Because of the controversial nature of the ad, Fox Networks canceled the second run of the criminal ad. The controversy over the pulled ad resulted in more than $11 million of free publicity.[ 27] The single paid ad plus heavy media coverage of the incident greatly increased the awareness of this synopsis GoDaddy.[28] The spot also earned GoDaddy a 51% share of voice, a percentage which some say is the largest share of voice attributed to criminal definition, any Super Bowl advertiser ever.[ 29] Whether media planners select media concentration or media dispersion, they still must pick the media category(ies) for the media plan. Different media categories suit different media objectives. Most media options can be classified into three broad categories: mass media, direct response media, and point-of-purchase media. A media planner's choice will depend on the media objectives. If the media planner wants to create broad awareness or to remind the largest possible number of consumers about a brand, then he or she will pick mass media such as television, radio, newspaper and magazine. If the media planner wants to build a relationship with a customer or encourage an immediate sales response, then direct response media such as direct mail, the Essay on Professional vs. Volunteer Internet and mobile phone are good choices. For example, online ads for car insurance such as link directly to the application process to capture the customers right at the time they are interested in criminal behaviour the service. Finally, if media planners want to convert shoppers into buyers, then they might use point-of-purchase media such as sampling, coupons and price-off promotions. In short, each of these three categories of media serve a different role in moving the customer from brand awareness to brand interest to purchase intent to actual purchase and then to re-purchase. An integrated campaign, such as the one described for start depression, P&G's Fusion shaving system, might use multiple categories -- combining national TV ads to introduce the product, Internet media to provide one-to-one information, and in-store displays to drive sales. The creative requirements of a media category also affect media planners' decisions. Each media category has unique characteristics. For example, television offers visual impact that interweaves sight and sound, often within a narrative storyline. Magazines offer high reproduction quality but must grab the consumer with a single static image. Direct mail can carry free samples but can require compelling ad copy in the letter and back-end infrastructure for definition, some form of of darkness text consumer response by criminal behaviour return mail, telephone or Internet. Rich media ads on the Internet can combine the best of this synopsis TV-style ads with interactive response via a clickthrough to the brand's own Web site. Media planners need to consider which media categories provide the most impact for behaviour definition, their particular brand. And Youth Essay? The costs of developing creative materials specific to each media category can also limit media planners' use of the media dispersion approach. 3.2. Criminal Behaviour Definition? Geographic Allocation Decisions. In addition to allocating advertising by full text media category, media planners must allocate advertising by criminal behaviour definition geography. In general, a company that sells nationally can take one of three approaches to geographic spending allocation: a national approach (advertise in all markets), a spot approach (advertise only in selected markets), or a combined national plus spot approach (advertise in all markets with additional spending in selected markets). Media planners will choose a national approach if sales are relatively uniform across the country, such as for Tide laundry detergent or Toyota automobiles . The Death Penalty Offenders? A national approach will reach a national customer base with a national advertising program. Criminal Behaviour? For many other products, however, a company's customers are concentrated in a limited subset of Provider geographic areas, which makes a spot approach more efficient. For example, the sales of leisure boats are much higher in markets such as Florida, California and Michigan due to criminal definition, the large water areas in these markets. A spot approach will target these states. For example, a leisure boat manufacturer such as Sea Ray might use a spot approach to target Florida, California and Michigan while not advertising in other states like Iowa or Nebraska. Media planners perform geographic analyses by of great assessing the geographic concentration of sales in behaviour two ways. The first method is called the Brand Development Index (BDI) of a geographic region. BDI measures the this is england concentration of sales of a company's brand in that region. The second method is called the Category Development Index (CDI) and measures the concentration of sales of the product category (across all brands) in that region. Media planners use BDI to measure a brand's performance in a given market in criminal behaviour comparison with its average performance in all markets where the brand is sold. Mathematically, BDI is of great depression, a ratio of a brand's sales in a given geographic market divided by the average of its sales in all markets. BDI is calculated for each geographic area (Market X) using the following formula: Market X's Share of U.S. Population. Consider the criminal BDI for visitors to the state of Louisiana -- the geographic concentration of people who travel to Louisiana for business or pleasure. The BDI for Houston is this, 658 because Houston is 1.8% of the U.S. population, but Houstonians make up 11.8% of visitors to criminal, Louisiana (100 * (11.8%/1.8%) = 658). Because Houston's BDI is Penalty Offenders Essay, higher than 100, it means that many more Houstonians come to Louisiana than the average from other cities. In contrast, the New York City area has a very low BDI of only 10 because even though New York City has 7.2% of the U.S. population, this city contributes only 0.7% of visitors to Louisiana.[ 30] This disparity in BDI influences Louisiana's advertising strategy. Media planners will tend to allocate more resources to high BDI markets (greater than 100) than to low BDI markets. The point is that even though New York City has a much larger population, it has a much lower concentration of travelers to Louisiana. Given that the definition cost of advertising is often proportional to The Death Penalty and Youth Offenders, the population it reaches, advertising in New York City will be far more expensive than advertising in Houston. Because such a low percentage of New Yorkers travel to Louisiana, advertising to New Yorkers will be less effective than advertising to Houstonians. BDI doesn't tell the whole story, however, because BDI only measures the concentration of current sales. BDI doesn't reflect the concentration of potential sales as measured by sales of the definition entire product category. So, media planners use another number, CDI, in addition to BDI when allocating resources for spot advertising. CDI is a measure of a product category's performance in a given geographic market in comparison to its average performance in all markets in the country. The sales of a product category include the sales of all the brands (the company's and competitors' brands) or at least all major brands that fall in the category. The CDI formula is: Market X's Share of U.S. Population. Notice the similarities and differences of the vs. Volunteer Provider CDI formula compared to the BDI formula. The denominator of the CDI formula is the same as that of the criminal BDI formula, but the numerator for CDI is the share of the house product category in a given market. For example, if the sales of the product category in Market X account for criminal, 2 percent of its total sales in this the U.S. and the population in that market is 3 percent of the U.S. population, then the CDI for that market will be 67, which is 33 percent below the average of 100. That means a poorer-than-average consumption of the product category, which means that Market X may be less promising for spot market advertising. On the other hand, markets with a high CDI (higher than 100) may be a better market for that product category. Because BDI and CDI can vary independently, media planners use both numbers to guide allocation decisions. Criminal Definition? In general, BDI reflects the concentration of existing sales while CDI reflects the concentration of potential sales in a geographic region. Returning to the example of leisure boats, we find that states such as California, Florida, and Michigan have high CDIs. Yet the maker of a line of small boats that aren't suitable for the ocean may have very high BDI in Michigan but a very low BDI in California and declaration importance, Florida. Because a BDI or a CDI for a given market can each be either above or below the behaviour average, there will be four possible combinations, as shown in Table 6. Heart Of Darkness Full? The four combinations represent two extreme cases and two mixed cases. At the one extreme, in a market with both a high CDI and a high BDI (both above 100), media planners will seek to maintain high market share (implied by high BDI) and might even consider more advertising to gain market share because of the good category potential (implied by high CDI) of the market. At the criminal behaviour other extreme, in a market with both a low CDI and a low BDI, media planners may eschew spending their advertising dollars there due to the low concentration of potential consumption -- the small boat maker may ignore New Mexico. Four Scenarios of BDI and CDI. The mixed cases represent situations in which the percentage of brand sales in a region differs significantly from the percentage of category sales. A market with a high CDI and a low BDI deserves serious consideration because it suggests a large opportunity for full text, increased sales. Before devoting advertising dollars, the criminal company will want to understand why it has such poor sales of its brand (low BDI) in heart of darkness text an area with high category sales. For example, the maker of small boats may learn that Californians don't buy the brand's boats because the behaviour boats are unsuitable for the ocean. Provider? If the causes of the poor brand performance can be identified and behaviour definition, solved (such as by changing the declaration of independence importance product or finding better distribution ), then more advertising should be worthwhile. A low CDI and high BDI represents the enviable position of selling well in a market that does not otherwise buy products in that category. A market with low CDI and a high BDI requires continued advertising support to maintain the superior brand performance. One approach to resource allocation uses a weighted sum of criminal BDI and CDI -- spending money in each geography in proportion to a combined BDI plus CDI score. Start Of Great? With this approach, media planners need to first assign a weight to the BDI and to the CDI. These two weights represent the relative importance of the BDI and criminal behaviour definition, CDI, and Essay vs. Volunteer, the sum of two weights should equal 1. On the one hand, media planners might choose a high weight on CDI if they feel their brand is representative of the broader category and they expect their brand to attain a geographic pattern of sales that matches that of the criminal behaviour definition category. On the other hand, they might place a high weight on BDI if their brand is text, unique, the criminal behaviour definition category is Essay Provider, very diverse, or the company wants to grow sales among current customers. Consider a hypothetical example in which a media planner thinks the BDI is behaviour, three times more important than the CDI in allocating spending. He or she would use a weight of .75 with the BDI values and .25 with the CDI values of each geography to heart, calculate a weighted sum and a percentage for behaviour definition, each of the markets. Then, she can use the percentage as a base for depression, spending allocation in criminal each market, as show in this Table 7. That is, Market A will receive 16 percent of the media spending, Market B will receive 22 percent, and so on. All the behaviour definition percentages added together will equal 100 percent. Hypothetical Spending Allocation in Markets with 75% BDI and 25% CDI. Media planners can use another index -- growth potential index (GPI) -- to assess growth opportunities in geographic markets. GPI is simply the ratio of the synopsis CDI over the BDI and is one way of quantifying the discrepancy between category sales (the potential sales for the market) and brand sales (current sales) to measure of the behaviour growth potential of a brand in a market. The formula of the GPI is dolls characters, as follows: For example, if Market X has a CDI of 120 and a BDI of 80, then the GPI will be 150. This high value of GPI suggests a growth potential of 50% in this market -- that if the brand sold as well in criminal behaviour definition that market as it does nationwide, sales would grow 50%. Of course, media planners should examine the specific conditions of a high GPI market before allocating resources to assess the true possibilities for growth. When a brand sells in many markets, the The Death Penalty and Youth Offenders GPI can facilitate the selection of markets for additional spot advertising spending. Having decided how to criminal definition, advertise (the media mix) and where to advertise (allocation across geography), media planners need to consider when to advertise. Given a fixed annual budget, should all months receive equal amounts of money or should some months receive more of the budget while other months receive less or nothing? Media planners can choose among three methods of scheduling: continuity, flight, and pulse. Continuity scheduling spreads media spending evenly across months. For example, with an annual budget of $1,200,000 a year, continuity scheduling would allocate exactly $100,000 per start, month. This method ensures steady brand exposure over each purchase cycle for individual consumers. It also takes advantage of volume discounts in media buying. Criminal Definition? However, because continuity scheduling usually requires a large budget, it may not be practical for small advertisers. The flight scheduling approach alternates advertising across months, with heavy advertising in certain months and no advertising at all in this is england synopsis other months. For example, a board game maker like Parker Brothers might concentrate its advertising in the fall when it knows that many people buy board games as gifts for the holidays. Behaviour? Or, with the on Professional Provider vs. Volunteer same budget of $1,200,000, for example, a different brand could spend $200,000 per month during each of six months -- January, March, May, July, September and definition, December -- and of great, spend nothing during the criminal behaviour definition other months, in hopes that the impact of advertising in the previous month can last into declaration of independence the following month. Pulse scheduling combines the first two scheduling methods, so that the brand maintains a low level of advertising across all months but spends more in selected months. For example, an definition, airline like United Airlines might use a low level of continuous advertising to maintain brand awareness among business travelers. United Airlines might also have seasonal pulses to entice winter-weary consumers to fly to sunny climes. In budget allocation terms, a consumer goods brand may spend $5,000 in each of the twelve months to maintain the brand awareness and spend an additional $10,000 in synopsis January, March, May, July, September and December to criminal, attract brand switchers from competing brands. The pulse scheduling method takes advantage of both the is england synopsis continuity and flight scheduling methods and mitigates their weaknesses. However, this does not mean it is good for criminal definition, all products and services. On Professional Provider Vs. Volunteer? Which method is the most appropriate for a given campaign depends on several important factors. How do media planners select among continuity, flight, and pulse scheduling approaches? The timing of advertising depends on behaviour definition three factors: seasonality, consumers' product purchase cycle, and consumers' interval between decision-making and of great depression, consumption. The first, and criminal, most important, factor is dolls, sales seasonality. Companies don't advertise fur coats in summer and suntan lotions in winter. Likewise, some products sell faster around specific holidays, such as flowers on Mother's Day, candy on Halloween, and ornaments around Christmas. Definition? Companies with seasonal products are more likely to The Death Penalty Essay, choose flight scheduling to concentrate their advertising for the peak sales season. Criminal Behaviour Definition? Other goods, however, such as everyday products like milk and toothpaste, may lack a seasonal pattern. Everyday goods may be better served by of independence importance a continuity approach. Media planners can use a breakdown of sales by behaviour definition month to identify if their brand has seasonal fluctuations, which can serve as a guide for depression, the allocation. Criminal Behaviour Definition? They can allocate more money to high-sales months and less to low-sales months. The second factor that affects when advertising is scheduled is the product purchase cycle: the interval between two purchases. Fast-moving consumer goods such as bread, soft drinks and toilet paper probably require continuous weekly advertising in a competitive market to constantly reinforce brand awareness and influence frequently-made purchase decisions. In contrast, less-frequently purchased products such as carpet cleaner or floor polisher may only need advertising a few times a year. A third factor that affects media scheduling is the time interval between when the purchase decision is made and when a product or service is actually bought and consumed. For example, many families who take summer vacations may plan their trips months before the actual trips. That is, they make purchase decision in advance. And Youth Offenders Essay? Thus, travel industry advertisers will schedule their ads months before the summer, as we saw in the Wyoming example. Behaviour Definition? Destination advertising has to house, be in sync with the time of decision making, instead of the actual consumption time. New product launches usually require initial heavy advertising to create brand awareness and interest. Criminal Behaviour Definition? The launch period may last from on Professional, a few months to a year. Definition? As mentioned earlier, P&G launched its Gillette six-bladed Fusion shaving system with advertising on Super Bowl XL, the most expensive form of advertising in the world. If consumers like the heart text product, then personal influence in the form of word-of-mouth or market force (brand visibility in life and media coverage) will play a role in accelerating the adoption of a new brand. Behaviour? Personal influence and market force are "unplanned" messages, which often play an of darkness text, important role in new product launches. Media planners should take advance of these "unplanned" messages in a new product launch campaign. Establishing media objectives and developing media strategies are the primary tasks of media planners. Designing media tactics is largely carried out by media buyers. Media buyers select media vehicles to implement established media strategies. Among the behaviour definition major factors that affect media vehicle selection are reach and vs. Volunteer, frequency considerations. As a major component of media objectives, the criminal planned level of dolls characters reach affects not only media mix decisions but also what media vehicles are used in each media category. High levels of reach will require a different set of media vehicles than low levels of reach. That is, high levels of criminal definition reach can be better served with a mix that includes multiple media vehicles with different audiences so that cross-media duplication of heart full audience is minimal. For example, if there are three magazines that each reach a portion of the target audience but that have few readers who read more than one magazine, advertising in these three magazines would reach the widest target audience possible because of the low overlap of the readers of the these magazines. What are some ways to behaviour definition, maximize the levels of reach? One way is to analyze the audience composition of media vehicles by using syndicated media research. For example, cross-tabulations of start of great depression Simmons data can be conducted to behaviour definition, identify several magazines that reach the target audience of women aged 35 to 55, with little cross-title duplication -- few readers of start depression one magazine also read other the magazines. These magazines can be used to criminal behaviour, implement high levels of reach in the media plan. When audience data are not available for cross-vehicle comparisons, you can select competing media vehicles in the same media category, because there is usually less duplication among the competing media vehicles. For example, most people who are interested in news may read one of the three major news weeklies: Newsweek , Time , and heart full text, U.S. News and World Report ; few people read all three of them. Therefore, running a print ad in all the behaviour three news magazines can reach a wide audience. In television, media buyers sometimes use roadblocking , which means the placement of commercials in all major television networks in the same period of declaration of independence time. No matter which television channel an audience member tunes in at that time, they have the opportunity to watch the commercial. Criminal Behaviour Definition? The roadblocking approach has become more expensive and heart full, less effective recently because of increasing fragmentation of criminal definition television audience. The term has been extended to the online world, however, where it has been very effective. To roadblock in synopsis the online world, a media planner can buy all the advertising on a Web site for a 24-hour period, such as Coke did for its launch of C2 and Ford did for behaviour definition, its launch the F-150. Each company bought all the ad space on the front page of Yahoo for a 24-hour period. The Yahoo front page draws 25 million visitors a day. Of Independence Importance? Alternatively, media planners can roadblock Yahoo, MSN, and AOL all on the same day, as Coke and Pepsi have both done. The results can produce "an astonishing, astronomical amount of reach," said Mohan Renganathan of MediaVest Worldwide, one of the biggest services for buying ad space.[31] In contrast to high levels of reach, high levels of frequency can be effectively achieved through advertising in criminal a smaller number of media vehicles to house, elevate audience duplications within these media vehicles. A commercial that runs three times during a 30-minute television program will result in higher message repetition than the same commercial that runs once in criminal definition three different programs. Broadcast media are often used when high levels of text frequency are desired in criminal behaviour a relatively short period of time. Broadcast media usually enjoy a "vertical" audience, who tune in to a channel for dolls, more than one program over definition, hours. Another phenomenon in broadcast media is audience turnover, which refers to the percentage of audience members who tune out during a program. Programs with low audience turnover are more effective for start of great, high levels of definition frequency. With reach and frequency considerations in mind, media buyers will compare media vehicles in terms of both quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Quantitative characteristics are those that can be measured and estimated numerically, such as vehicle ratings, audience duplication with other vehicles, geographic coverage, and costs. Media buyers will choose vehicles with high ratings and less cross-vehicle audience duplication when they need high levels of reach. Media buyers also evaluate the geographic coverage of media vehicles when implementing spot advertising such as heavy advertising in certain geographic regions. Finally, media buyers pay attention to the costs of each media vehicle. When two media vehicles are similar in major aspects, media buyers choose the less expensive media vehicle. There are two basic calculations of media vehicle cost. The first one, cost per rating point (CPP) , is of independence importance, used primarily for broadcast media vehicles. Definition? To derive the CPP, divide the of great cost of a 30-second commercial by the ratings of the vehicle in which the advertisement is placed.[SIDEBAR DEFINITION: CPP : The cost of a broadcast ad per rating point (1% of the population) provided by the media vehicle that shows the ad.] The formula for calculating CPP is criminal definition, as follows: Cost Per Rating Point = Cost of the Penalty Essay Ad / Rating of the criminal Vehicle. For example, if the cost for a 30-second commercial ABC's "Grey's Anatomy" television program is $440,000[32] and Provider, the rating of the criminal behaviour definition program is 9.7, then CPP for this buy will be $25,360. Another media cost term is cost per declaration, thousand impressions (CPM) , which is the cost to have 1000 members of the target audience exposed to criminal behaviour definition, an ad.[[SIDEBAR DEFINITION for CPM : Cost Per Thousand (M is the Latin abbreviation for Penalty, 1000): the cost per 1000 impressions for an ad]] As you recall, the impressions are simply opportunities to behaviour, see the Essay Provider vs. Volunteer ad. one difference between CPP and CPM is behaviour definition, that CPM also contains the size of a vehicle audience. CPM is calculated in two steps. First, the gross impressions that an ad may get is calculated using the text rating of the program and the size of the behaviour definition market population. Second, CPM is calculated using the cost and gross impressions. The two formulas are as follows: Gross Impressions = Audience size * Rating / 100. CPM = Cost / Gross Impressions * 1000. Using the previous example, the rating of a television program is of darkness full, 10 and the cost for a 30-second commercial is $25,000. If there are 5,000,000 adults in the market, then CPM for the buy will be as follows: Gross Impressions = 5,000,000 * 10 / 100 = 500,000. CPM = $25,000 / 500,000 * 1000 = $50. Thus, CPM for this media buy is $50. CPM can be calculated for criminal behaviour definition, different media, including online media. For example, an informal consensus of online media buyers agreed that a $10 CPM asking price seemed about average to pay for advertising on social-networking like Friendster, Yahoo 360 and Britain 's FaceParty.[33] In contrast to these quantitative characteristics, qualitative characteristics of media vehicles are those that are primarily judgmental, such as vehicle reputation, editorial environment, reproduction quality, and added values. For example, media vehicles vary in reputation; newspapers such as The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal generally enjoy high reputation. Furthermore, the editorial environment can be more or less favorable for of great, advertisers. The impact of definition food ads, for heart full text, instance, can be enhanced when they appear around articles about behaviour definition health or nutrition. Likewise, some magazines are better in reproduction quality than others, which enhance the impact of the ads. Finally, some media vehicles offer added values. Added values take various forms, and they benefit advertisers without additional cost. For example, a newspaper may publish a special page whose editorial context fits an advertiser's products, or a television channel may host a local event in association with a car dealership. Media buyers can work with the media to invent creative forms of added values for advertisers. Media buyers can use tools, like the one shown below, to make the process of selecting a media vehicle easier. To use the selection tool shown in Figure 9I, develop a list of the potential vehicle candidates you are considering. Then, select several quantitative and qualitative characteristics that are relevant to reach and frequency considerations, such as quantitative characteristics like CPM or GRP, and qualitative characteristics like reputation and added value. Next, make a table that lists the declaration importance vehicle candidates in rows and the characteristics in columns. Now you can rate each of the characteristics of each vehicle on a scale of 1 to 3. Then add all the criminal numbers in this is england each row, dividing by the total number of behaviour definition characteristics (columns) to arrive at the rating for each vehicle. The best media vehicles to choose are those with the highest index numbers. Offenders Essay? In Figure 8, Vehicle 2 and Vehicle 3 are the best ways to reach the target audience. Figure 8: Selection of Media Vehicle Based on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics. 5. Evaluating Media Plan Effectiveness. Accountability is increasingly important in media planning, as more advertisers expect to behaviour, see returns on their investments in advertising. Because media spending usually accounts for 80 percent or more of the budget for typical advertising campaigns, the effectiveness of media plans is Essay vs. Volunteer Provider, of particular importance. Criminal Behaviour Definition? As a result, media planners often make measures of the effectiveness of a media plan an integral part of the media plan. The Death Offenders Essay? Although sales results are the ultimate measure of the effectiveness of an advertising campaign, the sales result is criminal behaviour, affected by Offenders many factors, such as price, distribution and competition, which are often out of the scope of the advertising campaign.[34] It is criminal definition, important, therefore, to identify what measures are most relevant to the effectiveness of media planning and buying. We will examine the topic of measurement in more detail in The Death Penalty Offenders chapters 21 and 22, but here is an introduction to measurement that is specific to media plans. 5.1. What to Measure. Because of the criminal behaviour definition hierarchical nature of the media effects, the effectiveness of text media planning should be measured with multiple indictors. The first measure is the actual execution of scheduled media placements. Did the criminal behaviour ads appear in the media vehicles in agreed-upon terms? Media buyers look at "tear-sheets" -- copies of the ads as they have appeared in print media -- for verification purposes. For electronic media, media buyers examine the synopsis ratings of the criminal programs in which commercials were inserted to make sure the dolls programs delivered the promised ratings. If the criminal behaviour actual program ratings are significantly lower than what the advertiser paid for, the media usually "make good" for the difference in declaration of independence ratings by running additional commercials without charge. The most direct measure of the behaviour effectiveness of media planning is the media vehicle exposure. Media planners ask: How many of the target audience were exposed to the media vehicles and to ads in those vehicles during a given period of time? This question is related to the communication goals in the media objectives. If the characters measured level of exposure is criminal definition, near to or exceeds the planned reach and frequency, then the media plan is considered to be effective. Several additional measures can be made of the target audience, such as: Brand awareness -- how many of the target audience are aware of the advertised brand? Comprehension -- does the target audience understand the Essay Provider advertised brand? Is there any miscomprehension? Conviction -- is the target audience convinced by definition ads? How do they like the advertised brands? Action -- how many of the target audience have purchased the advertised brand as a result of the media campaign? The measured results of brand awareness, comprehension, conviction and dolls, action are often a function of both advertising creative and media planning. Even effective media planning may not generate anticipated cognitive, affective and conative responses if the ads are poorly created and not appealing to the target audience. Criminal Definition? On the other hand, ineffective media planning may be disguised when the ads are highly creative and brilliant. Thus, these measures should be reviewed by this is england synopsis both creative directors and media planners to make accurate assessments of the effectiveness of the criminal behaviour definition media plan. The measurement of the effectiveness of characters a media plan can be conducted by the advertising agency or by independent research services, using methods such as surveys, feedback, tracking, and observation. Each method has its strengths and weaknesses. For example, surveys can be conducted among a sampling of the target audience in the different periods of a media campaign, such as in the beginning, the middle and the end of the campaign. Behaviour Definition? Surveys can ask questions about the target audience's media behavior, advertising recall, brand attitudes and actual purchase. Radiowatch, for instance, conducts monthly surveys on advertising recall of radio commercials in England . Radiowatch surveys 1000 adults age 16-64 and asks them which radio commercials they remember hearing. In the April 2006 survey, the most-recalled ad was for The Death Penalty Offenders Essay, T-Mobile, with 46% of criminal definition respondents recalling the ad. An ad for McDonald's had 36% recall, while the ad for Peugeot received 18%. Besides surveys, feedback can be collected to measure the importance media and ad exposure of the target audience. Feedback devices such as reply cards, toll-free numbers, coupons and Web addresses can be provided in ads so that tallies of the responses or redemptions can be made to behaviour, estimate the impact of advertising media. Advertisers often use a different code in direct response ads to identify different media vehicles. Of Great? For example, in the April 3 2006 issue of BusinessWeek , the reply card for subscribing to the magazine had a code of JS6D1, whereas the criminal behaviour reply card bound into the May 29, 2006 issue of the magazine had a code of Penalty Essay JS6E2. Similarly, when the definition Garden of Eatin' gives coupons for its tortilla chips, the UPC code on house characters the coupon indicates which media vehicle the coupon was in, such as whether the behaviour coupon came from the 2006 Bolder Boulder promotional calendar or from the Organic and Natural Experience (ONE) 2006 Tour book of coupons. In short, by reviewing the different codes recorded, media buyers can assess the declaration of independence response rate of each media vehicle. As you can see from the Radiowatch and criminal behaviour, Garden of Eatin' examples, one advantage of surveys over feedback devices is that surveys reach people who have taken no action on the product, whereas feedback devices require the consumer to mail back, click or call a toll-free number. In this way, surveys can help media buyers evaluate the characters effectiveness of an behaviour definition, ad in relation to other ads, whereas feedback devices help them evaluate the of great depression effectiveness of one media vehicle over another. Tracking is measurement method that media buyers use to track the effectiveness of online ads. When a user visits a Web site or clicks on a banner ad, Web servers automatically log that action in real time. The logs of these visits and actions are very useful for media buyers, because the definition buyers can use them to estimate the actual interaction of audience members with the interactive media. For example, a banner ad may have a code for each Web site where the ad is placed. Media buyers can compare the click-through rates of the banner ad across all Web sites daily, to estimate the effectiveness of each Web site. Declaration Of Independence Importance? Media buyers are making more use of the tracking method given the behaviour increasing use of interactive media. Finally, in the physical world, media buyers can use observation to collect audience reaction information at the points of purchase or during marketing events. Penalty? For example, researchers can be stationed in grocery stores to observe how consumers react to in-store advertising or how they select an advertised brand in criminal behaviour comparison of other brands. The advantage of observation is that it provides rich, detailed data on synopsis how consumers behave in real situations in response to the marketing communication. The downside is behaviour definition, that direct observation is more costly to conduct and tabulate. This article described the media planning process, starting from establishing media objectives through to developing media strategies and tactics and finally evaluating the effectiveness of the media plan. You've learned how to identify your target audience; evaluate different media vehicles on the basis of reach, frequency and GRPs; make prudent media mix decisions using tools like BDI and CDI and scheduling concepts like continuity, flight and pulse scheduling; make sound budget decisions using tools like CPP and CPM; and, finally, evaluate the effectiveness of your media plan through surveys, feedback devices, tracking and observation. In the next four chapters, we'll delve more deeply into the different types of heart text media ?print media, broadcast media, out-of-home media and interactive media ?to help you understand the ad formats, strengths/weakness and cost structures of each of these advertising media. [1] Veronis Suhler Stevenson (2005), " Communications Industry Forecast 2005-2009 ," New York. [2] Susan Spillman (1985), "Marketers Race to Leave Their Brand on Films," Advertising Age, July 1, 56 (51): 3-4 and as retrieved on May 5, 2006. [4] Wilcha, Kristin. Behaviour? (2005) "Winning Ways," Shoot June 10, p15(3) [5] Creamer, Matthew (2006), "Disclosure doesn't Hamper Word of Mouth Marketing," Advertising Age, January 19, [6] Wasserman, Todd (2006) "Word Games," Brandweek , April 24, 2006 p24(4) [7] Daniel Gross (2005), "The Scramble on Mad. Ave.," Fortune , August 8, 63-64. [8] Cliff Peale (2006), "P&G Angles for Fusion Razor," The Cincinnati Enquirer , February 8, 2006. [9] William C. Symonds ( 2005) "Gillette's Five-Blade Wonder," BusinessWeek , September 15, 2005. [10] Jack Neff (2005), "Gillette to launch Fusion Shaver with Super Bowl Ad," Advertising Age, December 21 ( [11] Justin Rubner (2006) "Telecom giants square off in ad spat," Atlanta Business Chronicle , May 19, 2006. [12] Solman, Gregory (2005). "Mazda Is Fine-tuning Media Mix With Less TV." ADWEEK Western Edition , December 21, 2005. [14] Yuichi Washida (2005), "Collaborative Structure between Japanese High-tech Manufacturers and Consumers," Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(1), 25-34. [18] Bill Harvey (1997), "The Expanded ARF Model: Bridge to the Advertising Accountability Future," Journal of Advertising Research , March/April: 11-20. [19] Avery M. Abernethy (1990), "Television Exposure: Programs vs. Advertising," Current Issues and Research in Penalty and Youth Essay Advertising, 13, 61-78. [20] Reynolds, Mike (2006) "Nick bullish on behaviour definition kids' market." Multichannel News , March 13, 2006 p25. [21] Jack Z. Declaration? Sissors and Roger B. Baron (2002), "Advertising Media Planning," Sixth Edition, McGraw-Hill. [22] Michael J. Naples (1979), "Effective Frequency: The relationship between Frequency and criminal definition, Advertising Awareness," Association of National Advertisers, New York. [23] John P. Jones (1995a), When Ads Work: New Proof that Advertising Triggers Sales. New York: Lexington Books. [24] Erwin Ephron (1997), "Recency Planning," Journal of Penalty and Youth Offenders Advertising Research , 37(4), 61-65. [25] Joseph W. Ostrow (1984), "Setting Frequency Levels: An Art or a Science?" Journal of Advertising Research , 24(4), I-9 to I-11. [26] "Biggest brands: Top 10 by category." Marketing , August 24, 2005. [27] " Go Daddy's Super Bowl Ad Receives Unprecedented Publicity." (2005) PR Newswire , March 3, 2005. [28] George Raine (2005), "The Super Bowl: Malfunction Junction / Fox Scrambles to Explain Why It Pulled Racy TV Ad," San Francisco Chronicle (Feb 9):A1. [29] " Go Daddy's Super Bowl Ad Receives Unprecedented Publicity." (2005) PR Newswire , March 3, 2005. [30] TravelScope Profile of behaviour definition U.S. Essay Vs. Volunteer Provider? Travelers to Louisiana (2002) prepared by The Research Department of the Travel Industry Association of behaviour America, Washington, D.C., August 2002. [31] Alan Deutschman (2005) "Commercial Success," Fast Company , January 2005 p74. [32] Steve McClellan (2005) "Fox Breaks Prime-Time Pricing Record," Adweek , September 12, 2005 [33] Snyder Bulik, Beth. (2006) "How to make the heart full connection." Advertising Age , May 1, 2006 p85. [34] Solomon Dutka (1995), Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results," second edition, NTC Business Books.

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Frost expresses some very through themes in behaviour definition this poem. By the this, taking the road less traveled and making the decision to go the way he wants, he demonstrates an act of the theme of individualism. The Traveler is criminal interested in what is best for his self. He does not care what others are doing or what they have chosen. By choosing this path, the traveler shows that he is aware of the situation but understands what he must do, which another theme is shown in this poem. Taking the Essay on Professional, road he chose seems to criminal behaviour definition be very risky, but this does not detour him from making the decision. This seems increase his likeliness of choosing this road. Essay Vs. Volunteer Provider! After he has made his decision, he is committed to his choice and confident it is correct, which another theme. The traveler feels that. The Road Not TakenI found the criminal behaviour, poem, "The Road Not Taken" very interesting. The poet constantly refers to symbolism in the poem. Robert Frost talks about "Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry i could not travel both" meaning two different roads one harder then the other. He leaves himself with two choices, the easy road which is Provider vs. Volunteer Provider taken by many other people and is aware what is ahead, and the road less taken by that is behaviour definition unpredictable. Frost states that ". looked down as far as I. The Road Less Traveled | College Essays | Teen Ink. Frost, in this lyrical poem introduces the central theme, the this is england synopsis, dilemma man faces when forced to make a difficult choice and the related consequences of the action. Symbolically, man's choices are reflected in the poem's reference to a fork in criminal behaviour definition the road. In addition, it raises the declaration of independence, question of whether it is better to choose a road in which many travel, or to choose the road less traveled and criminal behaviour explore on your own. In "The Road Not Taken," the speakers' tone and setting help illustrate the struggle a person goes through in their lives to of darkness full pick the right road to travel. Frost, when he wrote his poem, appears to struggle with a major decision. While the world was uneasy, it sounds as if his personal world was also in unrest. In addition, Frost, at about 40 years old was approaching his mid-life – a time for many, especially men, to contemplate life, decision, choices made and the future. The Road essays are academic essays for citation. Walking on the road less traveled takes extreme courage and I refuse to go the opposite way. Sadly, in order to learn I had to lose many who were close to behaviour me, causing me to realize I will never be another person and will never figure out who I am by the influence of someone else. I am my own character; I have my own thoughts and dreams and I will reach them by steering my own wheel on a road driven by few. By staying true to myself I am comfortable in my own skin and know I will go far in life. I am a winding highway with countless speed bumps, skids, and curves of setbacks and defeat. I wouldn’t have it any other way because I know that being myself will always bring me back to the top; I can never lose. The road taken by many may seem clearer and easier, but I have found that it is heart of darkness full the opposite behaviour definition path that holds these traits. While millions may choose the dull, simple, and mindless road, I choose the swampy yet remarkable, dangerous yet liberating, road less traveled. While some are misleading themselves by traveling on roads that have been walked before, others are paving their own paths. It is dolls characters said that people can be in search for who they are their entire lives. It is a choice whether to take the easier route; falsely finding what is in your heart, or to take the more rigorous one; slowly and criminal behaviour carefully deciphering every inch of who you are until you feel completely whole. Offenders! In actuality, I believe this choice may be much quicker and truer to one’s self, and will be done without getting lost on criminal behaviour definition the way. Without being where others have been before, and without feeling the need to be another person, I have seen the puzzle of myself come together in dolls characters a catastrophic yet flawless way. Criminal Definition! This realization of myself has allowed me to declaration of independence importance have an undeniable belief in the road less traveled. 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This paper will be an explanation of Peck's beliefs about love, a contrasting view on love, and definition my personal knowledge of Peck's beliefs. Peck had a very pessimistic and, at times, a contradicting view of this is england synopsis, what is believed to be "love" and introduced that in his section on the definition of love. Peck (1978) believed "Love is too large, too de.

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Author: Reframing A Portrait of the Artist: Joyce and the phenomenological imagination, Western Sydney University. SF McLaren does not work for, consult, own shares in behaviour, or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond the academic appointment above. Western Sydney University provides funding as a member of Essay on Professional Provider, The Conversation AU. The Conversation UK receives funding from Hefce, Hefcw, SAGE, SFC, RCUK, The Nuffield Foundation, The Ogden Trust, The Royal Society, The Wellcome Trust, Esmée Fairbairn Foundation and The Alliance for criminal Useful Evidence, as well as sixty five university members. Republish our articles for free, online or in print, under Creative Commons licence. James Joyce once said to The Death Penalty Offenders Essay his friend Frank Budgen: If there is any difficulty in reading what I write it is because of the material I use. In my case the thought is always simple. “Difficulty” is an understatement for the reader’s experience of the bewildering Ulysses, with its notoriously experimental styles and form, extravagantly wrought language, and approach, in which nothing is “stupidly explained” – a stance that the young Joyce had praised in his idol, Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. A 1922 portrait of James Joyce. shutterstock. Declan Kiberd’s book Ulysses and us: The art of everyday living explores the somewhat generous proposition that Ulysses is a “book of wisdom” about the everyday world. The key to understanding the genius and richness of Ulysses, I suggest, is Joyce’s inspired “simple” thought of interjecting into this “one day in the life” of a city — its smells and sounds, its sandwichboard men, jingling brass bed quoits, gorgonzola cheese and burgundy, its trams and criminal definition pubs — an epic apparatus of start of great depression, correspondence that draws us to explore the vast canvas of the work. By “correspondence”, I mean where one element – say an object, sensation, or cognition – resonates with another, forging a meaningful connection. The most overt form of this is the referencing of Homer’s Odyssey throughout the novel’s 18 episodes. Homer tells the story of Odysseus (the Roman form of this name being “Ulysses”), a guileful Greek warrior, and his epic adventures throughout the Mediterranean region on his way home to Ithaca, to be reunited with his kingdom, his constant wife Penelope (whose virtue is besieged by suitors), and his son Telemachus. The correspondences between this story and a rather uneventful day in criminal definition, Dublin are by no means self-evident. Odysseus’ counterpart in Ulysses, Leopold (Poldy) Bloom is an advertising salesman who leaves home to go to a funeral, and to work, in start of great, the knowledge that his wife Molly (Penelope) intends to have an affair that day with Blazes Boylan. Meanwhile, the young poet and intellectual Stephen Dedalus is living a somewhat bohemian life in criminal behaviour, the Martello Tower with the blasphemous, garrulous, amusing Buck Mulligan. Depression! The paths of Dedalus and Bloom cross during the day and night until they meet and have a wide-ranging conversation. Bloom takes care of a now drunken Stephen, and invites him home to stay the night. The correspondences then, do not necessarily entail finding similarities between everyday life and the epic, but they can evoke connections and comparisons that lead us to criminal definition reflect. The effect is often comic (Odysseus, participant in the great siege of Troy is Essay on Professional Provider, reduced to Bloom besieging potential advertisers), in a book of which Joyce said “there is not one single serious line in it”, but some correspondences resonate deeply. For instance, Poldy misses his natural son Rudy, whose death has badly affected his marriage. Stephen (corresponding to the son Telemachus) resembles his literal father rather too much: the verbally inventive, intemperately drinking Simon Dedalus. Criminal Behaviour! He could perhaps use the tempering touch of caring, practical-minded Bloom. And even a marriage marred by infidelity is, in dolls, Ulysses, something to celebrate. Learning how to read Ulysses also leads us to definition read human experience in ways that defy conventional expectations. Dirt for art’s sake: Ulysses’ reception. Ulysses’ electrifying novelty polarised opinion from the outset. After it was published by synopsis, Sylvia Beach in criminal, Paris in 1922, T.S. Eliot called it the. most important expression which the Essay, present age has found; it is a book to which we are all indebted, and from which none of criminal definition, us can escape. Many readers were unprepared for the strong language, detailed attention to this is england bodily functions, including female orgasm, and Molly Bloom’s uninhibited discourse. Not only behaviour does this modern-day Penelope defy the Homeric virtue of constancy, but she revels in her transgression: (“yes and damn well fucked too up to is england my neck nearly”). For many, including those who had read the behaviour, book only partly or not at all, it was chaotic, formless, or as Joseph Brooker notes, a latrine, a “phone book”, a desert “as dry as it is stinking”. First published by The Little Review, in serial form, it was the subject of an obscenity trial and was banned in of darkness full, the USA, then the UK. In 1933, however, Justice Woolsey’s decision in the US District Court observed that Ulysses was not “dirt for dirt’s sake”. In Australia, the news that it was obscene, and the news that it was not, took longer to break. Behaviour Definition! The Brisbane Courier Mail of 19 September 1941 claimed that “after being freely available to the public of Australia for heart the last 20 years”, Ulysses had been “banned by the Minister for Customs”. The ban was not overturned until Gough Whitlam’s 1972 accession to power. (Gough once gave a copy of the criminal, banned book to heart his wife.) One of criminal, Joyce’s enduring creations is that of a community of people worldwide who meet to read, discuss or dramatise Ulysses each June 16. Ulysses is not only Joyce’s time capsule of Essay on Professional Provider, Dublin on that day in criminal behaviour, 1904, but a monument to his beloved partner Nora Barnacle. It was on June 16 1904 that Nora first “walked out” with Joyce, and administered what he described to her in a letter as a sexual “sacrament”. Later that year they eloped in self-proclaimed exile to the Continent. However, on a rare return trip to Dublin five years later, Joyce’s friend Vincent Cosgrave hinted that he had enjoyed Nora’s favours before Joyce did. Joyce, agonised with doubt, was shattered. Ultimately a good friend, J.F. Byrne, reassured him that the story was untrue. Years later, Joyce assigned Byrne’s address to Bloom: 7 Eccles Street. Joyce’s crisis of faith over Nora’s fidelity had, somewhat masochistically, inspired the central event of declaration, Ulysses. And indeed, Peter Costello’s thoughtful biography of Joyce suggests that Cosgrave’s boast was not necessarily empty. A Dublin Martello tower. David Jones/shutterstock. The “plot” of Joyce’s epic is otherwise just two cartographer’s lines, the intersecting paths of Bloom and Joyce’s alter ego Stephen Dedalus. Dedalus believes himself cast out of the Martello tower by flatmate Buck Mulligan, and surrenders the criminal behaviour, key to him. Bloom forgets his key. Both are symbolically usurped; Dedalus does not know where he will spend the night. The first six episodes of Ulysses follow firstly Dedalus’ and then Bloom’s mornings, using internal monologue to reveal the Penalty Essay, protagonists’ thoughts. Behaviour! In later episodes, the structure, language and logic of the writing itself undergo a dizzying series of experiments. These developments constitute Joyce’s own “Odyssey of Style”, which takes the reader on a wild ride. The seventh, breakout chapter for instance, “Aeolus”, is centred on the offices of the Freeman’s Journal and Evening Telegraph. Start Depression! Aeolus is criminal, associated with the Greek god of the winds, whom Joyce mischievously associates with the art of rhetoric. This was set out in a table of correspondences for each episode that he used to explain his design to a mystified public. Aside from the preponderant gossip and banter, in of darkness text, this episode both great oratory and nauseatingly flowery writing receive extended attention — the latter to hilarious effect, as Simon Dedalus and other layabouts damn the criminal behaviour definition, purple prose splenitively before, parched by their exertions, inevitably adjourning to the pub. A panoply of rhetorical devices is employed in Essay, the episode, which is punctuated by a series of newspaper-style captions or sub-heads, and incorporates multiple references to air flow, as various blowhards in the offices shoot the breeze or, in the case of declining lawyer J.J. O’Molloy, seek to “raise the definition, wind”: ie, borrow some cash. But what is most impressive in this episode is how Joyce extracts meaning through adroitly signalled chains of correspondence that, in the political climate of 1904, make pointed connections between Ireland’s history of subjection (symbolised in Nelson’s Pillar and the GPO, from of darkness, which “His Majesty’s vermilion mailcars” circulate), and behaviour her nationalistic aspirations. Chillingly, the episode is set at the time (12 noon) and place of the 1916 Easter Uprising. A gloomy proclamation by editor Myles Crawford, “We’re the start of great depression, fat in behaviour, the fire” proves prophetic. Indeed, these offices did burn in 1916. Joyce had begun planning this episode in 1917. Following episodes include a parodic history of English literature (“Oxen of the Sun”) and a phantasmagorical absurdist drama set in seedy Night-Town (“Circe”) where even objects such as gongs, soap and gas jets get speaking parts. Impressively, Joyce even wrings poetry and beauty out of an apparently technical and scientific mock catechism (“Ithaca”), which includes an importance inventory of seemingly every Bloom possession. The last line of Molly’s famous monologue. Behaviour Definition! greg/flickr , CC BY. Lastly, there is the justly famous tour de force of Molly’s unpunctuated stream of on Professional, conscious monologue (“Penelope”), the subject of behaviour, countless memorable rehearsed readings in Penalty Offenders Essay, Bloomsday activities. “Penelope” is an epic in behaviour definition, its own right, in which Molly reviews her day, past lovers, Poldy himself. Molly is accorded the this synopsis, last word. Joyce likely derived his principle of criminal behaviour, correspondence from multiple sources, although he adapted it to his own purposes. His early interest in mystical and hermetic philosophy followed the loss of his fervent Catholic faith. Two early influences on Joyce were the start of great depression, poet William Blake and the Swedish philosopher and criminal behaviour theologian Swedenborg. Text! Both were interested in the idea of correspondence between the material and divine realms, and the spiritual principle that earthly conditions reflect higher realms. Bloom expresses a parallel idea in a passage from the “Calypso” episode, where he visits the pork butcher to buy a kidney for behaviour breakfast. Leaving the shop, Bloom responds to an everyday object: Watering cart. This Synopsis! To provoke the rain. On earth as it is in heaven. Mysteriously, the very next line records that. A cloud began to cover the sun slowly, wholly. Grey. Far. Even mundane experience need not be meaningless. Take for criminal behaviour example, the references to meat in “Calypso”. In Homer, Calypso is the goddess who detained Odysseus on her island for years for her carnal pleasure. For Bloom, the sight of sausages in The Death and Youth Essay, the butcher’s window is answered by behaviour definition, his desire to Penalty and Youth perv on the “hams” of the next door girl, whom he in turn associates with a tattered religious garment, a scapular, “defending her both ways”. Definition! For Joyce, church and policing are closely linked; both are in the confession business. Bloom now indulges in a memory, or fantasy, of the girl enjoying a cuddle with a policeman in Eccles Lane: “They like them sizeable. Prime sausage.” Later, his disparate musings on meat link us to universal themes of sex, death and advertising. Sausages invoke a reverie on sex, religion and death. Shutterstock. As a young man, Joyce had read Lamb’s The Adventures of Ulysses and was attracted to declaration of independence importance its supernatural elements. Ulysses is punctuated by curious parallels between Bloom and Dedalus, and various synchronicities: Poldy thinks about Blazes Boylan, who immediately appears; Stephen, who has complained about Ireland’s three masters, in definition, a later scene turns his head back suddenly to see a three-master ship. These are not the contrived coincidences of Dickens but realistic experience, attended to in the spirit of wonder. Ulysses is a feast of a book. The walls and the streets echo with laughter, song and banter. The life lived in start depression, the shops and definition pubs and vs. Volunteer workplaces, the décor, the definition, clothes, the advertising signs and appliances, is brought back to life in these pages, filtered through the minds of artistic Stephen and scientific but “wonderstruck” Bloom. “Wonder” is this is england synopsis, one of Bloom’s favourite words; there is much to wonder at. Ulysses captures the life of a city. Jaclin/flickr , CC BY-NC. In the first episode, Stephen stands at the stairhead on the tower, haunted by visions of his dead mother: Buck Mulligan’s voice sang from within the tower. It came nearer up the staircase, calling again. Stephen, still trembling at his soul’s cry, heard warm running sunlight and in the air behind him friendly words. Is this mere hallucination, the product of a stressful night, or the continuance of unresolved grief at his mother’s death? And what can we make of Bloom’s parallel experience that same morning? Quick warm sunlight came running from Berkeley road, swiftly, in slim sandals, along the brightening footpath. Runs, she runs to meet me, a girl with gold hair on the wind. Since a cloud has just begun to criminal behaviour cover the sun, it seems likely that Stephen’s vision occurs at a similar time to Bloom’s. Kiberd’s beautiful suggestion that this is of great depression, Bloom’s “Homeric vision”, is appealing. Criminal Behaviour Definition! Equally, he could be hallucinating his absent daughter Milly, but then how do we explain Stephen’s similar vision? A definitive answer is not necessarily achievable. Whatever we make of it, Joyce’s epic resembles the “open work” spoken of by Umberto Eco: one that invites us to The Death Penalty Essay explore it for ourselves. The supreme virtue of Ulysses is that it so richly rewards the definition, considerable exertions required of us. Some relevant resources: Which edition of Ulysses? Choosing the preferred edition of Ulysses is not a transparent choice, given the vexed publishing history of this book, and the so-called Joyce Wars. Provider! Many critics prefer Hans Walter Gabler’s corrected text (1986). Danis Rose’s attempt to find a more definitive text has met with mixed reviews. Jeri Johnson’s introductory essay to the book in the Oxford World’s Classics series is excellent, and this edition also has some very useful notes on each chapter at the back. Take note however that this is criminal, a reprint of the original typesetting of 1922 and so is prone to of independence some possible textual errors. An excellent audio recording from an criminal definition ensemble cast that really brings the book alive. Declaration Importance! In my view, the best way to criminal approach Ulysses: Free downloadable files at: Guides and The Death Penalty and Youth Essay commentary. It has been said that one does not read Joyce, one studies Joyce. Certainly there is criminal definition, no shame in taking a guide book with one, when embarking on a reading odyssey. Bear in mind however that guides can be a mixed blessing: they can over-explain and Essay on Professional Provider over-interpret, or present us with an overwhelm of information. A popular, updated guide to Ulysses: Blamires, Harry. The New Bloomsday Book: A Guide through Ulysses 3rd ed. London: Routledge, 1996 . A reasonably demanding guide to behaviour definition and interpretation of Ulysses, from an influential Joyce critic: Ellmann, Richard. Ulysses on the Liffey. London: Faber and Faber, 1972.