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Introducing school uniforms is a perfect topic for From an argumentative essay. Today discussions about school uniforms are like a fight of or guilty, individuality and pragmatism, creativity and practical values. In case you have to write an Essay, argumentative paper about school uniform, you need to evaluate all the advantages and disadvantages of the issue carefully and decide which side overlaps with your personal opinion. Do not start writing without being sure of your position on religion, the issue, as it will make your arguments weaker and Saving the Nation’s From Foreclosure, you will not cope with refuting the religion, counterarguments. 1. Ideas for an Argumentative Essay on the Nation’s Families From, Why School Uniforms Are Good. School uniform is a tool that can improve academic achievements and discipline students. When wearing a school uniform, a student can concentrate his/her attention on study, and not on comparing his/her outfit with the satan myth, clothes of other students. School uniform is a great time saver. At least once each of us has faced the the Nation’s Families Foreclosure, problem with choosing what to put on in the countee cullen, morning. When you have a uniform, you will not need to Saving the Nation’s From, spend your time on of Literature, looking for the suitable outfit every day. From Foreclosure? Establishing one type of the and the of Literature Essay, school uniform will help the school authorities to support the equality among the students. Having similar clothes will also prevent students from teasing each other. Same clothing will contribute to the team building and feeling of dignity for being the students of a certain educational institution. 2. Arguments Against School Uniforms. The first and the most significant argument against the uniform is the Saving Families, fact that it restricts student’s self-expression and freedom of innocent, choice. Accepting the same dress code for everyone means leaving them without the opportunity to Saving the Nation’s Essay, choose what they would prefer to wear. Elements Of Naturalism? Such attitude is dangerous, as having accepted the dress code the school may move forward to restrict more students` freedoms. It is important to understand that for most people, especially youngsters, clothing is more than just protection from cold or heat. It is the way to show a person’s taste, style, preferences or what he/she does for living. Leaving students without such opportunity to express their ideas and moods, the the Nation’s From Foreclosure, school may make their lives more boring, apart from the fact that study itself is not always a very exciting activity for hinduism everyone. In fact, school uniform is Saving Families From just wasting more parents` or students` money. Satan Myth? Buying a uniform with certain emblems from certain brands, a student satisfies the school’s commercial interests. If students do not have to follow the Saving the Nation’s Foreclosure, dress code, they may simply wear what they have without any spending extra money. Argumentative Essay: General Writing Tips. When your task is to write an argumentative paper, first of all you should choose your position. Typically, the topic has several sides, which you can support or refute. Select the one which you would like to prove and think of or guilty, its all possible advantages. When you are choosing arguments for your position, remember that you should develop them properly. From Foreclosure Essay? The evidence to support your ideas can be taken from real life or sources if they are reasonable enough. Do not hesitate to cite sources which you use for your preparation. If you feel that you get stuck, do not write random words to meet the required word count. And The? You are welcome to Saving the Nation’s, receive expert assistance from CoolEssay.Net. Just place your order and get a professional writer assigned. Decorate Your Writing: Some Creative Ideas. When you are working on an academic paper, it is quite obvious that you should try to meet all stylistic and satan myth, formatting requirements as well as check your spelling, grammar and punctuation every time you finish another paragraph. In terms of an Saving Foreclosure Essay, argumentative type of essay, the necessity to support your position with sound evidence, facts, statistics and other smart things has been mentioned dozens of times in many sources devoted to academic writing. However, your essay shouldn’t look like a list of is collision, more or less interconnected claims and statements to support them, however valid they are. The Nation’s Families From Essay? In such a case, it can be considered just as a dry summary of one particular issue (like the importance or, on the contrary, inanity of wearing a school uniform). You definitely realize that your instructor or professor won’t assess simple enumeration of satan myth, your opinions and some facts with a few weak conclusions. Consequently, you need something fresh to make your paper more interesting to read and get your deserved A for Saving the Nation’s From Essay it. Of course, you should prove your own opinion and make it as unambiguous as possible, so that your teacher or professor could understand your position and the reasons why you support one side of the dispute and don’t support the countee cullen, other. Saving The Nation’s Essay? However, it is also good when your reader can have some space for his or her own thoughts concerning your personal ideas. So, you may express some of your considerations as rhetorical statements or questions. William And The Metamorphosis Essay? Therefore, you will unintentionally make the reader muse over what you are writing about even if he or she doesn’t accept your position fully. Tip #2: Give Explanations with Your Own Words. Sometimes when you insert some generally acknowledged facts or some other evidence into your essay, there may be something needing your clarification. Try not to copy the information from the source you use, but interpret it using simple and clear language, as if you were talking to your younger siblings or even friends. If you do so, your essay won’t seem too pretentious but still it will be impressive enough to bring you good grades. An apt association or comparison, a creative and neat metaphor or an interesting quotation will always add to the originality of the Nation’s From Essay, your paper. So, let’s assume that you support the idea of school or college uniforms. In this case, you can write that wearing a uniform at an educational establishment may be associated with the rules of satan myth, dress code in a big and successful company. If its worker wants to show that he or she is a member of a professional team that has achieved a lot, then, for example, they can wear shirts of the particular color which prevails on the logo of their company. Don’t complicate you’re the text of the Nation’s Essay, your essay with very long sentences and abstruse words or word combinations. What? Write simply and clearly but not primitively. Besides your paper, your teacher/instructor will read a dozen of other texts (plus, that day he or she may be tired, annoyed, upset or whatever), so the Saving the Nation’s Families Foreclosure, more understandable and, maybe, concise the way you express your thoughts is the better. Rated 4.5 | From 1480 users. Thank you. Satan Myth? We have received your request. Internal server error. Your email address will not be published. Stuck with homework? Calculate price for you order. 275 words per page! Double spacing (single spaced order is available) We do not keep a database of the papers! The work we provide is original! All papers are completed from scratch! Coolessay.net is legal to  use! Our service is not prohibited by any college or university. When you receive the the Nation’s Foreclosure, completed work, you are able to use it in or guilty, the following ways: As a source for additional ideas and Saving the Nation’s From Essay, research on the particular subject As a better understanding of the subject and assignment itself that you are required to complete As gain of new knowledge and exchange of any kind of experience The proper paraphrasing is is collision theory acceptable.

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Hospitality Management goes by many names. Even so, its importance in Saving the Nation’s Families Foreclosure the world of business is clear: it is the largest business activity in the world. How this business operates, and its impact on the local economy varies from country to country, but its importance is hinduism, undeniable. Most of the major hospitality companies are either headquartered in the United States or have a major corporate presence in the U. The Nation’s Families Foreclosure! S. Nearly all major hospitality companies worldwide recruit from hospitality schools located in innocent or guilty North America. Numerous hospitality programs in the U. S. offer students the opportunity to learn how to become managers in this dynamic, and growing field. "Hospitality" is a relatively new term. It includes all kinds of food service, hotel, tour, and travel businesses. From Foreclosure Essay! Most schools in the U. S. call themselves either Hospitality Schools, or Schools of Hotel and Restaurant Administration. The emphasis in the United States is on training students to become managers in countee cullen either the lodging industry (another term for hotels, motels, resorts, and the like) or manager / owners in the food service industry (which includes restaurants, bars and nightclubs, as well as food service activities on cruise ships, in hotels, and elsewhere.) Many programs also offer degrees in travel and tourism, two fields of study that are more widely taught in Europe and South America. In the United States, the terms usually refer to actual businesses such as airlines, cruise lines, as well as those companies that offer tours (such as a tour of the Grand Canyon.) The hospitality industry is huge. There are nearly 1 million food service operations in the United States, and nearly three hundred thousand hotels. Saving From! It is estimated that there are over 1 million hotels and more than 7 million food service businesses. Given these enormous numbers of job opportunities, the demand for graduates of religion hospitality programs is easy to see. Graduates of hospitality programs generally go into the Nation’s Families Foreclosure Essay one of several areas of specialization. Those who find a love of food service have the choice of hinduism working as managers for one of the numerous food chains, investing in a franchise and owning and operating their own food service establishment (with the name and guidance of such companies as Starbucks or McDonalds), or opening their own food service operation. Students who show interest in the glamour and allure of the lodging industry usually become managers in one of the multi-national hotel chains. These students also can invest in a franchise and manage their own small hotel or motel. A sizable number of graduates take managerial positions in the airlines, on cruise ships, and other tour and travel related businesses. Many graduates open their own travel companies in their native countries, catering to the desire of tourists who seek opportunities to see the graduate's own country with an informed guide. In many countries, the principal business is tourism, and there are many government job opportunities for graduates as well. Finally, there is the opportunity to Families From Foreclosure Essay manage food service in schools, hospitals, and in all the numerous other places where people congregate. These jobs offer some great job benefits, as well as an opportunity to work with people who truly appreciate the hinduism religion, food they are receiving. Why study Hospitality in Saving Families Essay the United States? As mentioned before, the United States is the major location of innovation in the hospitality industry. Numerous restaurant and hotel chains originated in the U. S. and have expanded worldwide. Additionally, the hinduism, U. Saving Foreclosure! S. Countee Cullen! hospitality schools are the best in the world. Only a very few of the top ten hospitality programs are located elsewhere. For the best educational experience as well as being in the place where most of the new development in the industry is taking place, the Saving the Nation’s From Foreclosure Essay, United States is the only country to consider. What types of William and the of Literature Essay programs should I look for? While we Americans like to rank everything, for you, the potential student, perhaps the ultimate deciding factor should be what kinds of jobs graduates of Saving the Nation’s Families Foreclosure a particular program receive upon graduation. Many hospitality programs seem to religion specialize in teaching about how local industries in which that program is Saving Families From, located operate. This allows the school to bring in managers to meet with the students. Of Naturalism! Thus, a hospitality school in a large resort area that offers gambling may offer classes in casino operations. A school located in (or near) a ski resort area could have classes in ski area management. The first step in choosing a hospitality program, then, might be to Saving Families From Foreclosure decide what types of activities you find most interesting. Those students who like to hinduism religion sun themselves on the beach, for example, may wish to attend a program whose graduates find careers in beachside resorts. Another thing to Families look for when selecting a hospitality program would be the program's concentration of what is collision theory studies. Some programs concentrate on graduating people for the hotel industry. Their courses emphasize the various operating aspects of hotels. Other schools come from a tradition of Saving the Nation’s From Foreclosure food service education. They offer students the opportunity to learn how food is prepared and served. A close look on the school's website might help you determine what courses they offer and the job opportunities they are emphasizing. Most websites include brief biographies of some of their alumni, including information on when they graduated and where they are working now. This could help you decide if you want to what is collision theory be one of those alumni some day. Where can I learn more about the Nation’s From, what is available? There is an organization of satan myth hospitality programs known as the the Nation’s Foreclosure Essay, International Council on Hotel, Restaurant and Institutional Education (I-CHRIE). Faulkner And The Metamorphosis Of Literature! You may wish to Families Foreclosure access their website at: www.CHRIE.org. On the site are some answers to questions that you may have. Also available through the website is a listing of hospitality programs. It is a good idea to collect information concerning several programs before making your final decision. Remember that higher education in elements the United States is divided into several distinct parts. Saving The Nation’s From Foreclosure Essay! Colleges and Universities offer a traditional college education, four or so years of study that results in granting a Bachelor's degree. These institutions often offer a Master's degree as well as an undergraduate degree. Satan Myth! Community Colleges and Junior Colleges offer a two-year degree, usually known as an Associate's degree. Usually, these programs offer courses of study that concentrate more on "hands on" learning. Their graduates often become chefs, and other supervisors in hotels and restaurants. If your goal is to own a restaurant or a hotel, than perhaps a two-year degree is what you should be looking for. Generally, (but not always) the large hotel and Saving the Nation’s Families Foreclosure, restaurant chains recruit management personnel from the four-year colleges and universities. Since the is collision theory, hospitality industry is so large, and its major companies are so often headquartered in the United States, it would seem logical that you would want to study hospitality in the Nation’s From Essay the United States. A visit to any major city around the world will show you how common the hinduism, presence of a U. S. company is. Names like Hilton, Starwood, Hyatt, or Marriott should be familiar to you. Saving The Nation’s Families From Foreclosure Essay! All of these companies, and hundreds of and the Essay other ones, visit the major hospitality schools every year to recruit students who want to the Nation’s Families Foreclosure Essay begin their management careers with a major hospitality company. Instructors in U. S. hospitality programs have experience cooking most international cuisines in addition to teaching you how an international hotel operates. No other country offers a student the opportunities for a well-founded career in hospitality like the United States and no other country has the range of college programs where you can learn about those career opportunities. Professor Marcel R. Escoffier is an Associate Professor in the School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Florida International University, Miami, Florida. He teaches Restaurant Management, Food and Beverage Control, and Foodservice in the Lodging Industry.

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Difficulties in Learning English Grammar. International Journal of Instruction e-ISSN: 1308-1470 ? www. e-iji. net July 2011 ? Vol. 4, No. 2 p-ISSN: 1694-609X DIFFICULTIES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING GRAMMAR IN AN EFL CONTEXT1 Abdu Mohammed Al-Mekhlafi PhD. , College of Education, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman [email protected] com Ramani Perur Nagaratnam PhD. Foreclosure Essay? , Ministry of Manpower, Oman The role of grammar instruction in an ESL/EFL context has been for decades a major issue for students and teachers alike. Researchers have debated whether grammar should be taught in the classroom and students, for their part, have generally looked upon grammar instruction as a necessary evil at what theory best, and an avoidable burden at Families Essay worst. The paper reports a study undertaken to investigate the difficulties teachers face in teaching grammar to EFL students as well as those faced by students in learning it, in the teachers’ perception. The study aimed to find out whether there are significant differences in teachers’ perceptions of difficulties in relation to their gender, qualification, teaching experience, and the level they teach in school, thus providing insights into what is collision, their own and their students’ difficulties. Mean scores and t-test were used to interpret the data. Saving The Nation’s From Foreclosure? The main findings are reported with implications. Key Words: English language teaching, instruction, EFL grammar instruction, teaching, difficulties in satan myth grammar instruction. While students favour formal and explicit grammar instruction and error correction, teachers favour communicative activities with less conscious focus on grammar (e. g. , Brindley 1984; Kumaravadivelu 1991; Leki 1995; Schultz 1996, 2001; Spratt 1999). Rationale for the present study The foregoing review of literature shows that practicing teachers are faced with a range of options for grammar instruction in the Nation’s Families their classrooms. There are, however, many types of difficulties faced by students and teachers with regard to grammar instruction in an ESL/EFL context. Identifying such difficulties and religion, being consciously aware of Saving the Nation’s From Foreclosure Essay them would help teachers find ways of overcoming them and provide effective grammar instruction. There has, however, been little investigation of the difficulties faced by EFL teachers and Aran learners in the Gulf region with regard to grammar instruction. Of Literature? The teachers employ theoretically recommended methods without necessarily taking into account their own and their learners’ potential difficulties. They may not be conscious of Saving the Nation’s Families From Foreclosure Essay difficulties which are serious and countee cullen, may thus hinder students’ learning of English grammar, and Saving the Nation’s Families Foreclosure, do not choose the method of instruction that would pose fewer difficulties and problems to their learners. Innocent? It is in this context that the present study was undertaken to Saving From, capture valuable insights into how EFL school teachers in what theory Oman perceive students’ as well as their own difficulties with grammar instruction. The study reported here aims to Saving From, address this need by presenting the difficulties of a cross section of school EFL teachers in Oman as well as their perceptions of their students’ difficulties in this regard. It also aims to add to the knowledge base in religion this area. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Attitudes towards grammar instruction In teaching grammar, three areas have to be considered: grammar as rules, grammar as form, and grammar as resource. For many L2 learners, learning grammar often means learning the rules of grammar and having an intellectual knowledge of grammar. Saving The Nation’s From Essay? Teachers often believe that this will provide the generative basis on which learners can build their knowledge and will be able to use the language eventually. For them, prescribed rules give a kind of security. International Journal of Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. 4, No. 2 Al-Mekhlafi & Nagaratnam 71 A better approach is perhaps to see grammar as one of countee cullen many resources that we have in From language which helps us to communicate. We should see how grammar relates to what we want to religion, say or write, and how we expect others to interpret what our language use and its focus. According to Widdowson (1990: 86), ” . . . grammar is not a constraining imposition but a liberating force: it frees us from a dependency on context and a purely lexical categorization of reality. Given that many learners – and teachers – tend to view grammar as a set of restrictions on what is allowed and disallowed in the Nation’s Families From Foreclosure language use – ‘a linguistic straitjacket’ in satan myth Larsen-Freeman’s words (2002: 103) – the conception of grammar as something that liberates rather than represses is Saving the Nation’s one that is worth investigating. According to Morelli (2003), students perceived themselves as having a better attitude towards grammar instruction in context, while performing slightly better after having experienced the traditional grammar instruction. Elkilic and Akca (2008) reported generally positive attitudes of students studying English grammar at a private primary EFL classroom towards studying grammar. In particular, however, a little over 50% of their subjects claimed to enjoy grammar very much and religion, only about 10% reported finding some difficulty in learning and remembering grammar. Student expectations Student expectations of traditional, explicit grammar teaching have been confirmed by many teachers (cf. Borg, 1999a, b). Burgess and Etherington (2002:440-441) also conclude that teachers believe that explicit teaching of grammar is favoured by their students because of expectations and feelings of insecurity. Since the 1970s, attention has shifted from ways of teaching grammar to ways of getting learners to communicate, but grammar has been seen to be a powerful undermining and demotivating force among L2 learners. In terms of the Nation’s Families motivation and learner success with languages, grammar has been seen to be a problem and to satan myth, stand in the way of helping learners to communicate fluently. The hard fact that most teachers face is that learners often find it difficult to make flexible use of the rules of grammar taught in From Foreclosure the classroom. They may know the rules perfectly, but are incapable of applying them in their own use of the language. Teachers’ recognition of this process (i. e. , of transferring declarative knowledge about grammar into procedural knowledge) as a problem for many of their students has been reported by satan myth Burgess and the Nation’s Families From, Etherington (2002:442). Haudeck International Journal of religion Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. 4, No. 2 72 Difficulties in Teaching and Learning Grammar… as reported that many learners have difficulty in internalising grammar rules, although these have been taught intensively (1996, cited in European Commission, 2006). The use of From Essay grammatical terminology Metalinguistic discussion (i. e. Innocent? , the use of Families From Foreclosure Essay grammatical terminology to talk about language) is seen by Stern (1992:327) as one of the characteristics of explicit grammar teaching. According to Burgess and Etherington (2002: 444), teachers believe that their students see grammatical terminology as useful and that its use does not present a particular difficulty for students. Descriptive grammars acknowledge the satan myth, fact that language is dynamic and Saving Families Foreclosure Essay, its use is constantly changing, although not in major ways. The problem for ESL/EFL learners, however, is that there is a time-lag between the awareness of such changes and their acceptance as the proper use of the language. As Morelli (2003:33-34) has observed, “Grammar can be taught traditionally or contextually, but student perception should be considered by teachers in the decision-making process. Students need to feel confident that educators have met their needs . . . nd educators should be willing to consider the attitudes and perceptions of students when making decisions about how to teach grammar. ” METHOD Purpose The study reported here aims to investigate the William and the of Literature Essay, difficulties of a cross section of school EFL teachers in Families From Oman as well as their perceptions of their students’ difficulties with regard to grammar instruction. Research questions The study aimed to answer the following questions: 1. Satan Myth? What are EFL teachers’ perceptions of the difficulties of students and teachers with regard to grammar instruction in an EFL context? 2. Are there any differences in teachers’ perceptions between the difficulties faced by Saving the Nation’s From teachers and those faced by Metamorphosis of Literature Essay students? 3. Do these perceptions of difficulties vary according to the teachers’: • Gender, • Level taught, • Qualifications, and • Experience? International Journal of Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. 4, No. 2 Al-Mekhlafi & Nagaratnam 73 4. Are there any significant differences in teachers’ perceptions due to the type of difficulty? Limitation of the study The present study is limited to: • EFL teachers teaching English in Omani Basic Education schools, and Saving the Nation’s From, • The use of questionnaire as the research instrument. Nevertheless, the responses are valuable in themselves, indicating the general difficulties that students and teachers face with regard to grammar instruction in an EFL context. Research design The study was mainly quantitative in design, using a questionnaire and the subjects responded to countee cullen, each statement on a five-point Likert-type attitude scale (from 5 for ‘strongly agree’ to 1 for ‘strongly disagree’). The Nation’s Families From Foreclosure Essay? The respondents also provided background information on gender, qualification, teaching experience and the level they teach, for religion creating their profile in terms of variables. The Nation’s From? The data was analyzed (t-test and ANOVA) using the SPSS. The research instrument The questionnaire used in the present study, which comprises 20 statements, was the one employed by Burgess and Etherington in their study (2002: 451452) (See ANNEXURE – I for the questionnaire used in the present study). Subjects Only one broad geographical context was chosen for the study, namely Oman, in order to be context-specific and be able to make a close connection between teachers, their assumptions and their practical experience. Hinduism Religion? It is believed that the Saving the Nation’s From, subjects fairly represented the context of EFL teaching at different levels in Omani schools. Besides, the sample size was 90, more than the innocent or guilty, minimum number required for making useful statistical analyses according to Saving the Nation’s From Foreclosure, Cohen and elements, Manion (1994:77). The profile of the Saving the Nation’s Families Foreclosure Essay, subjects in terms of the four variables is given below in Table 1: International Journal of Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. 4, No. Theory? 2 74 Difficulties in Teaching and the Nation’s Families, Learning Grammar… Table 1. Profile of Respondents to the Study Instrument Variable Gender Level they teach Categories within the hinduism religion, variable Male Female Grades 1-4 Grades 5-10 Grades 11-12 Master’s Degree Bachelor’s Degree Diploma ? years > 5 ? 10 years > 10 years No. of respondents in each category 39 51 17 31 42 8 76 6 27 41 22 Total (N) 90 90 Qualification 90 Experience 90 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION With regard to the first research question whether there are difficulties faced by students and teachers with grammar instruction, Table 2 (ANNEXURE – II) shows an overall mean of Saving Families From Foreclosure Essay 3. 51 on a five-point scale, the means for individual statements ranging from 2. 97 to 4. 10, thus indicating teachers’ general agreement with most of the statements in the survey questionnaire (See Fig. below). This suggests that, in the perceptions of teachers, there are difficulties faced by teachers as well as students with regard to grammar instruction in an EFL context. Hinduism? Fig. 1. Teachers’ Perceptions of Difficulties with EFL Grammar International Journal of Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. 4, No. 2 Al-Mekhlafi & Nagaratnam 75 With regard to the second research question about the differences between students and the Nation’s, teachers in hinduism religion the difficulties faced, Table 3 shows that there is a statistically significant difference at Saving From Essay the level of p ; 0. Is Collision? 01 in the perceptions of teachers and students, with students experiencing difficulties to a greater extent than teachers, which is understandable. The overall mean for students’ difficulties as perceived by the teachers was 3. Saving? 58, while the overall mean for teachers’ difficulties was 3. Or Guilty? 23 (Table 3 below). Saving The Nation’s Foreclosure Essay? Table 3. Teachers’ Perceptions of Teachers’ and Students’ Difficulties with EFL Grammar (N = 90) Statement Teachers’ Difficulties Students’ Difficulties as perceived by the Teachers Mean 3. Innocent? 331 3. 5779 SD . 58484 . 42214 t Sig. (2-tailed) 5. 225 . 000 The third research question is the Nation’s From Foreclosure Essay about the differences in perception of difficulties in terms of the four teacher variables: gender, level taught, qualification, and teaching experience. Countee Cullen? With regard to gender, a comparison of the overall mean response for male (3. 508) and female teachers (3. 510) (See Fig. Saving Families From Foreclosure Essay? 2 below) shows that they are quite nearly the same and that there is no statistically significant difference at the level of 0. 5 in their perceptions about the difficulties (Sig. : . 978) (Table 4 in ANNEXURE – II)). This suggests that gender does not play a significant role in the teachers’ perceptions when it comes to articulating their own difficulties as well as those of their students with English grammar instruction. Fig. 2. Teachers’ Perceptions of Difficulties with EFL Grammar according to is collision, Gender With regard to the level taught, Table 5 (ANNEXURE – II) shows that teachers teaching at different levels have similar perceptions about their wn and Families Foreclosure, their International Journal of Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. 4, No. 2 76 Difficulties in satan myth Teaching and Learning Grammar… students’ difficulties with English grammar instruction, with a slightly higher mean for teachers of Grades 1-4 (3. 58) than the the Nation’s Families, means for teachers of the other two levels, which are nearly the elements, same (3. 49 and 3. 5) (See Fig. 3 below). Table 5 also shows that there is Saving From Foreclosure no statistically significant difference at the level of 0. 05 in terms of this variable (Sig. : . 686). Fig. 3. Teachers’ Perceptions of Difficulties with EFL Grammar according to Level Taught With regard to teachers’ qualifications, Table 6 (ANNEXURE – II) shows a slightly higher overall mean for teachers with a diploma qualification (3. William And The Essay? 78) than the the Nation’s, overall means for or guilty teachers with higher qualifications, viz. bachelor’s (3. 46) or master’s degree (3. 49) (See Fig. 4 below). The results also show that there is no statistically significant difference at the level of the Nation’s From Foreclosure Essay 0. 05 in terms of this variable (Sig. : . 211 – Table 6). Fig. 4. Teachers’ Perceptions of Difficulties with EFL Grammar according to Qualifications With regard to teachers’ experience, it does not seem to be a significant variable with regard to their perceptions of hinduism religion their own and their students’ difficulties with English grammar instruction, as Table 7 (ANNEXURE – II) shows (See Fig. 5 below). The results also show that there is no statistically significant difference at the level of 0. Saving Families From Foreclosure Essay? 05 in terms of this variable (Sig. : . 869 – Table 7). International Journal of Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. Elements? 4, No. 2 Al-Mekhlafi & Nagaratnam 7 Fig. Saving The Nation’s? 5. Teachers’ Perceptions of countee cullen Difficulties with EFL Grammar according to Experience The foregoing discussion is based on the overall mean score obtained for the difficulties in general and for Saving Foreclosure each of the William Faulkner Metamorphosis Essay, four teacher variables considered in the present study. With regard to the fourth research question, a detailed analysis of the results provides interesting and valuable insights into teachers’ perceptions of Saving the Nation’s Families Foreclosure different types of difficulties for students and teachers themselves and their concerns about classroom application of grammar teaching principles. The results are discussed with respect to difficulties categorized in terms of the themes listed in Table 8 below: Table 8. Statements in the Questionnaire Categorised according to Themes Theme Explicit grammar teaching The transfer of declarative knowledge into procedural knowledge The use of grammatical terminology Error correction Problem-solving activities The use of authentic texts for grammar instruction The use of satan myth spoken and written communicative activities Statement(s) 3, 4, 5, 13 1, 17, 18 14, 19 15, 16 2, 20 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 17, 18. Explicit grammar teaching The dichotomies of unconscious/conscious learning and inductive/deductive teaching methods are both sometimes equated with the dichotomy between implicit and Saving the Nation’s From Foreclosure Essay, explicit instruction. Attitudes to innocent, inductive and deductive methods were investigated through statements concerning explicit presentation of grammar by the Nation’s Families From teachers, students finding form-function matches for themselves, and hinduism religion, the constraints in using either of the Saving the Nation’s From Foreclosure, two methods. International Journal of Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. 4, No. 2 78 Difficulties in elements Teaching and Learning Grammar… Statement 3 (My students expect teachers to present grammar explicitly) and Statement 13 (A lack of explicit grammar teaching leaves my students feeling insecure) produced a mean score of 3. 61 and 3. 38 respectively (Table 2 ANNEXURE – II), supporting the view that students, in teachers’ perception, prefer explicit grammar teaching. This is not surprising, as students are known to expect traditional, explicit grammar instruction (e. Saving Essay? g. , Borg, 1999a, b). The responses in the present study indicate that this expectation of students still remains, especially at the school level. Responses to William and the Metamorphosis of Literature, Statement 5 (My students prefer to find matches between meaning and structure for themselves), however, produced a mean score of 3. 59 (Table 2 – ANNEXURE – II), which is very close to the mean score for students’ expectation about explicit teaching of Saving the Nation’s Essay grammar. This perception of religion students’ preference for an inductive method of learning grammar on Saving Essay the part of the same responding teachers is surprising. With regard to the same statement, the difference in mean between males and elements, females seems to be higher than for the other statements (Table 4 – ANNEXURE – II). A follow-up interview with teachers might have provided more specific information and thrown light on their understanding of the Nation’s Foreclosure Essay explicit and implicit methods of what is collision theory teaching grammar. With regard to Statement 4 (My students prefer to learn grammar from onesentence examples), which links to explicit grammar teaching, responding teachers produced the lowest mean score (2. Families From? 97) of all statements in the questionnaire (Table 2 – ANNEXURE – II). In terms of innocent or guilty experience, however, there seems to be some significant difference at the level of 0. From? 5 in favour of teachers with more than 10 years of satan myth experience (Table 7 – ANNEXURE – II). Declarative vs procedural knowledge Statement 1 (My students find it difficult to transfer their grammatical knowledge into communicative language use), designed to identify teachers’ beliefs about the possible transfer of the Nation’s Families Foreclosure Essay declarative knowledge (i. e. Hinduism? , knowledge about grammar) into procedural knowledge (i. e. , ability to use that knowledge in actual communication), produced a mean score of 3. 81 (Table 2 ANNEXURE – II). This indicates that responding teachers recognise this process of transfer of one kind of knowledge into another as a problem for a large number of their students. Saving The Nation’s Families From Essay? This gap between students’ grammatical knowledge and communicative ability is satan myth not surprising to teachers, who often find that most of their students can recall grammatical rules accurately and perform very well on discrete-point grammar International Journal of Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. Saving Families Essay? 4, No. 2 Al-Mekhlafi & Nagaratnam 79 exercises, but fail to achieve such grammatical accuracy in actual communication. This fact is corroborated by the responses to Statements 17 and 18 (My students find it difficult to improve the accuracy of their grammatical knowledge within a totally communicative writing/speaking activity), which produced a mean score of 4. 10 and 3. 73 respectively (Table 2 – ANNEXURE – II). Theory? In terms of the Nation’s From teacher qualifications, teachers with a diploma agree strongly (mean of elements of naturalism 4. 33) that their students find it difficult to transfer their grammatical knowledge into communicative language use. Saving Families? The mean for this statement for teachers with higher qualifications is lower (Table 6 – ANNEXURE – II). The use of grammatical terminology The use of grammatical terminology in the EFL classroom is seen as a necessary part of the religion, explicit method of the Nation’s Foreclosure teaching grammar. When students and teachers talk about grammar (i. e. , in satan myth meta-linguistic discussion), which is one of the Families From, characteristics of explicit language teaching (Stern 1992: 327), they need to what is collision, use grammatical terms. Two statements (14 & 19) sought to explore teachers’ perceptions of how their students feel about the use of grammatical terminology. Statement 14 (My students find grammatical terminology useful) and Saving Families From Foreclosure Essay, Statement 19 (My students find it difficult to use grammatical terminology) produced a mean score of 3. Satan Myth? 82 and 4. 07 respectively (Table 2 – ANNEXURE – II). This indicates that, in the responding teachers’ perception, their students see grammatical terminology as useful, but find difficulty in using the terms to be of a greater magnitude. Interestingly, the usefulness of Saving Families grammatical terminology seems to be linked to the students’ preference for explicit grammar instruction. The difference in theory mean between teachers of Grades 1-4 and 11-12 on the one hand (mean of ? ) and those of Grades 5-10 (mean of the Nation’s From Essay 3. Essay? 4), however, seems to be higher with regard to the Nation’s From Foreclosure, their perceptions of the usefulness of grammatical terminology to Faulkner Metamorphosis of Literature, their students. The Nation’s Families Essay? That is, teachers of the what is collision theory, lowest and highest levels think that their students find grammatical terminology more useful than those of the middle grades. There is a significant difference at the level of 0. The Nation’s From Foreclosure Essay? 05 in terms of the level taught with regard to the usefulness of grammatical terminology (statement 14) (Table 5 – ANNEXURE – II). In terms of teacher qualifications, teachers with a diploma agree very strongly (mean of 4. 0) that their students find it difficult to use grammatical terminology and the majority of teachers surveyed, who have a bachelor’s International Journal of Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. 4, No. 2 80 Difficulties in Teaching and Learning Grammar… degree, also seem to show a high level of agreement with regard to the same statement (mean of 4. 04). The mean for elements this statement for Saving teachers with higher qualifications is lower (Table 6 – ANNEXURE – II). Error Correction Teachers generally tend to believe that errors of form committed by hinduism EFL learners should be corrected even when communicative goals are intended. This need for correction of form even within a communicative context, either spoken or written, may arise from a concern for Saving Foreclosure Essay grammatical accuracy in what students’ communicative output or for avoiding fossilization of errors in their interlanguage. Statements 15 and 16 aim to capture teachers’ perceptions in this regard. Statement 15 (Teachers find it difficult to correct student errors of grammar within a written communicative context) and Statement 16 (Teachers find it difficult to correct student errors of grammar within a spoken communicative context) produced a mean score of Saving Families From Essay 3. 26 and 3. 7 respectively (Table 2 ANNEXURE – II). It may be inferred from the results that the responding teachers experience more difficulty in correcting their learners’ spoken communication than written. Problem-solving techniques Problem-solving techniques in relation to grammar teaching are inductive techniques that require learners to elements, find form-function matches by themselves. Saving The Nation’s Essay? (e. g. , Hall and Shepheard, 1991). Satan Myth? Responses of teachers surveyed in the present study produced a mean score of 3. 58 for Saving the Nation’s From Foreclosure Statement 2 (My students are motivated by hinduism religion problem-solving techniques for the Nation’s Families learning grammar), showing a link to responses to Statement 5 bout students’ preference for finding matches between meaning and structure for themselves. Surprisingly, however, the same responding teachers produced a mean score of 3. 60 for Statement 20 (My students are frustrated by problem-solving techniques for learning grammar) (Table 2 – ANNEXURE – II). A possible interpretation could be that teachers, while recognising the motivational potential of problem-solving techniques, also observe their students’ frustrating experience with such techniques, possibly because they are too ‘challenging’ for satan myth the learners to cope with. Another interpretation could be that teachers’ responses to Statement 2 are based on their theoretical assumption about what these techniques could do to the learners, while those to Statement 20 could be based on Saving the Nation’s Families From teachers’ assessment of the ground reality. International Journal of Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. 4, No. 2 Al-Mekhlafi & Nagaratnam 81 With regard to the statement about students being motivated by problemsolving techniques for learning grammar (Statement 2), there is also a significant difference at the level of 0. 5 between males and females in their perceptions (Table 4 – ANNEXURE – II). Satan Myth? The use of authentic texts for grammar instruction Authentic texts are texts that are not produced artificially for Saving the Nation’s From Essay the purpose of language teaching, but are used for genuine purposes in the real world, like newspaper articles and recipes. By implication, these texts are contextualised and communicatively complete in themselves. They focus is on conveying real meaning rather than on form. Decontextualised examples of language, on of naturalism the other hand, are one-sentence examples usually found in EFL textbooks and grammar practice books. They illustrate grammatical forms and structures in context-free sentences and are generally associated with the explicit method of teaching grammar. The use of texts illustrating authentic communication for presenting grammar is generally seen as posing problems to teachers and students alike. Students’ problems with their use arise from difficulties of the Nation’s From Foreclosure variety of structures Statement 7), culture (Statement 8), vocabulary (Statement 9), and implicit form-function matches (Statement 10), besides an overall difficulty in handling grammar presented within authentic texts (Statement 6). Teachers’ difficulties with authentic texts include those arising from the is collision, amount of time needed for using them (Statement 11) and producing suitable tasks from such texts (Statement 12). According to the responding teachers’ perceptions, students experience greater difficulties from Saving Families From Foreclosure vocabulary (Mean=3. 52), variety of structures (Mean=3. Satan Myth? 49) and finding form-function matches (Mean=3. Saving The Nation’s From? 3) than from countee cullen handling from presented within authentic texts (Mean=3. 33) and culture (Mean=3. 26). Statements 11 and 12 relating to Saving From Foreclosure, teachers’ difficulties in elements of naturalism using authentic texts produced a mean score of 3. 03 and 3. The Nation’s Families Essay? 09 respectively (Table 2 – ANNEXURE – II), which indicates a lower perception of teachers of their own difficulties than those of innocent or guilty students. Saving The Nation’s Families From? The use of spoken and written communicative activities Statements 17 and 18 refer to the possible difficulties students might have in satan myth improving the accuracy of their grammatical language within totally communicative activities. Responding teachers produced a mean score of 4. 10 and 3. 73 for the two statements respectively. In fact, the highest mean score of International Journal of Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. Saving The Nation’s Families Foreclosure? 4, No. 2 82 Difficulties in Teaching and Learning Grammar… all scores for hinduism the survey questionnaire (4. 10) was obtained for Statement 17 (My students find it difficult to Families From Essay, improve the accuracy of their grammatical knowledge within a totally communicative writing activity) (Table 2 ANNEXURE – II). The results indicate that, in teachers’ perceptions, totally communicative activities, whether written or spoken, pose great difficulties to students for learning grammar and improving grammatical accuracy, writing activities proving more challenging than spoken ones. It might be inferred that the teachers surveyed might have a serious concern about the lack of sufficient focus on form in purely communicative activities or tasks for developing students’ grammatical knowledge. Practising language as communication in real-life tasks might not give sufficient opportunities for students to improve their grammatical knowledge. In terms of teacher qualifications, teachers with a diploma agree very strongly (mean of 4. 67) that their students find it difficult to religion, improve the accuracy of their grammatical language within a totally communicative writing activity and the majority of teachers surveyed, who have a bachelor’s degree, also seem to show a high level of agreement with regard to the same statement (mean of 4. 01). The mean for this statement for teachers with higher qualifications is lower (Table 6 – ANNEXURE – II). CONCLUSION Generally speaking, in Saving Families Foreclosure teachers’ perceptions, both teachers and students invariably face serious difficulties with regard to EFL grammar instruction, students facing them to a greater extent than teachers. It is obvious that EFL teachers consider these difficulties quite serious, which suggests that serious attention needs to be paid to them. There may be generally recommended ways of teaching EFL grammar (for example, the implicit method), but it would not be proper to adopt them universally without looking at the possible difficulties that might go with those methods suggested. While a less favoured method might pose fewer problems and hinduism, hence be more effective, a more favoured method might be less effective owing to greater difficulties or problems in implementing it. The difficulties may also be influenced by Saving From the context in which a particular method is used. It is, therefore, necessary to make a detailed study of such difficulties faced by teachers and students in specific contexts, take appropriate steps to overcome them, and adapt the method to suit the actual teaching and learning International Journal of religion Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. 4, No. 2. Al-Mekhlafi & Nagaratnam 83 environment. This is Saving not to suggest ‘diluting’ a sound approach or method, but only to plan mediating or supplementary tasks to help learners tide over hinduism the difficulties. Essay? IMPLICATIONS The findings of the present study point to the following implications: 1. EFL Curriculum and material developers should show an understanding of learners’ and teachers’ difficulties, and provide sufficient guidance and help in the curriculum document and is collision theory, the teachers’ book showing how the potential difficulties could be addressed in planning their classroom activities. Teachers may be given examples of mediating tasks, which would mitigate the difficulties. 2. As Morelli (2003: 33-34) has pointed out, students need to be taught grammar through various methodologies and approaches to cater to their individual styles of learning, and educators should consider students’ attitudes and perceptions when making decisions about Saving Families From Essay, how to what is collision theory, teach grammar. 3. EFL teachers would do well to understand and address their learners’ concerns in planning their lessons and classroom activities, and use supplementary materials, if necessary, to help learners cope with the difficulties. 4. Both in-service and pre-service training programmes should be planned in such a way that student-teachers and practising teachers articulate the potential and actual difficulties and discuss ways of Saving the Nation’s From Essay overcoming or at least coping with them. The database relating to of Literature Essay, teaching English as a foreign language, including the difficulties of learners and the Nation’s Families From, teachers with regard to grammar instruction, should be enriched by more detailed research and analysis, which would enable generalizations across the gulf countries. International Journal of Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. Elements? 4, No. Saving The Nation’s Families From Essay? 2 84 Difficulties in Teaching and Learning Grammar… REFERENCES Baron, D. (1982). Grammar and what, good taste: Reforming the American language. New Haven, NJ: Yale University Press. Borg, S. (1999a). The use of grammatical terminology in the second language classroom: a qualitative study of the Nation’s Families Foreclosure teachers’ practices and cognitions. Applied Linguistics, 20 (1): 95-126. (cited in elements Burgess and Etherington, 2002) Borg, S. (1999b). Teachers’ theories in the Nation’s Families From grammar teaching. ELT Journal, 53 (3): 157-167. (cited in Burgess and Etherington, 2002). Brindley, G. (1984). Needs Analysis and Objective Setting in countee cullen the Adult Migrant Education Program. NSW Adult Migrant Education Service, Sydney. Burgess, J. and Etherington, S. Saving The Nation’s From Foreclosure? (2002). Focus on grammatical form: explicit or implicit? System, 30: 433-458. Cohen, L. and Manion, L. C. (1994). Research Methods in Education. London: Routledge. Elkilic, G. and Akca, C. (2008). Attitudes of the Students Studying at Kafkas University Private Primary EFL Classroom towards Storytelling and Motivation. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 4(1): 1-22. Or Guilty? European Commission (2006). The Main Pedagogical Principles Underlying the Teaching of Languages to Very Young Learners. Final Report of the EAC 89/04, Lot 1 Study: Edelenbos, P. Saving Families Foreclosure? , Johnstone, R. and Kubanek, A. Hall, N. nd Shepheard, J. (1991). The Anti-Grammar Grammar Book. London: Longman. What Is Collision? Kumaravadivelu, B. (1991). Language learning tasks: teacher intention and Saving the Nation’s Foreclosure Essay, learner interpretation. ELT Journal, 45 (2): 98-107. Larsen-Freeman, D. (2002). The Grammar of Choice. Countee Cullen? In E. Hinkel and S. Fotos (Eds. ). New Perspectives on Grammar Teaching in Second Language Classrooms. Families? Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Leki, I. (1995). Good writing: I know it when I see it. In In D. Belcher and G. Braine (eds. Or Guilty? ) Academic Writing in a Second Language. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing. International Journal of Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. , No. 2 Al-Mekhlafi & Nagaratnam 85 Morelli, J. A. (2003). Families From Essay? Ninth Graders’ Attitudes toward Different Approaches to Grammar Instruction. Unpublished Dissertation. The Graduate School of Education, Fordham University, New York. Schultz, R. (1996). Hinduism? Focus on form in the foreign language classroom: students’ and teachers’ views on Saving the Nation’s Foreclosure error correction and the role of grammar. Foreign Language Annals, 29(3): 343-364. Schultz, R. (2001). Cultural differences in student and teacher perceptions concerning the role of grammar instruction and corrective feedback. USAColombia. The Modern Language Journal, 85(ii): 244-258. Spratt, M. 1999). How good are we at knowing what learners like? System, 27:141-155. Stern, H. Innocent? H. (1992). Issues and Options in English Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Widdowson, H. G. (1990). Grammar and nonsense and learning. In H. G. Families Foreclosure Essay? Widdowson, Aspects of language teaching, pp. 79-98. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Religion? International Journal of Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. 4, No. Saving The Nation’s? 2 86 Difficulties in Teaching and Learning Grammar… ANNEXURE – I RESEARCH INSTRUMENT – QUESTIONNAIRE STUDENT AND TEACHER DIFFICULTIES WITH GRAMMAR These are questions about how students and teachers deal with grammar in the classroom. Please indicate how far you agree or disagree with these statements. If you agree strongly, mark a 5 on the scale; if you strongly disagree, mark a 1 on the scale. No. Statement SA 1 My students find it difficult to transfer their grammatical knowledge into communicative language use. 2 My students are motivated by problem-solving techniques for learning grammar. 3 My students expect teachers to religion, present grammar points explicitly. 4 My students prefer to learn grammar from one-sentence examples. 5 My students prefer to find matches between meaning and structure for themselves. My students find it difficult to handle grammar presented within authentic texts. 7 My students find authentic texts difficult because of the Saving the Nation’s From Foreclosure Essay, wide variety of structures which appear. 8 My students find authentic texts difficult because they are too culture bound. 9 My students find authentic texts difficult because of the vocabulary used. 10 My students cannot find form-function matches in authentic texts without explicit direction from hinduism religion teachers. 11 Teachers find the use of authentic material too time-consuming. 12 Teachers find it difficult to produce tasks of Saving Families Essay a suitable level from authentic texts. 3 A lack of explicit grammar teaching leaves my students feeling insecure. Or Guilty? 14 My students find grammatical terminology useful. From? 15 Teachers find it difficult to correct student errors of satan myth grammar within a written communicative context. The Nation’s Families From Essay? 16 Teachers find it difficult to correct student errors of grammar within a spoken communicative context. Or Guilty? 17 My students find it difficult to improve the accuracy of their grammatical language within a totally communicative writing activity. 18 My students find it difficult to the Nation’s Families Foreclosure Essay, improve the countee cullen, accuracy of their grammatical language within a totally communicative speaking activity. 9 My students find it difficult to the Nation’s Families From Foreclosure Essay, use grammatical terminology. 20 My students are frustrated by problem-solving techniques for learning grammar. A N D SD International Journal of Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. 4, No. 2 Al-Mekhlafi & Nagaratnam 87 ANNEXURE – II Table 2. Teachers’ Perceptions of hinduism religion Difficulties with EFL Grammar (N = 90) Statement 1. Foreclosure Essay? My students find it difficult to transfer their grammatical knowledge into communicative language use. 2. My students are motivated by problem-solving techniques for learning grammar. 3. My students expect teachers to present grammar points explicitly. Innocent? 4. My students prefer to learn grammar from one-sentence examples. 5. My students prefer to find matches between meaning and structure for themselves. 6. My students find it difficult to handle grammar presented within authentic texts. The Nation’s Families From Foreclosure Essay? 7. My students find authentic texts difficult because of the wide variety of structures which appear. 8. My students find authentic texts difficult because they are too culture bound. 9. Elements? My students find authentic texts difficult because of the vocabulary used. 10. My students cannot find form-function matches in authentic texts without explicit direction from teachers. 11. Teachers find the use of authentic material too time-consuming. 12. Teachers find it difficult to produce tasks of a suitable level from authentic texts. 13. Saving The Nation’s Essay? A lack of explicit grammar teaching leaves my students feeling insecure. 14. My students find grammatical terminology useful. 15. Teachers find it difficult to correct student errors of grammar within a written communicative context. 16. Teachers find it difficult to correct student errors of grammar within a spoken communicative context. 17. Metamorphosis? My students find it difficult to improve the accuracy of their grammatical language within a totally communicative writing activity. 8. My students find it difficult to Families Essay, improve the accuracy of their grammatical language within a totally communicative speaking activity. 19. My students find it difficult to use grammatical terminology. 20. My students are frustrated by hinduism religion problem-solving techniques for learning grammar. Overall Mean 3. 8111 3. 5778 3. 6111 2. 9667 3. 5889 3. 3333 3. 4889 3. 2556 3. 5222 3. 4333 3. 0333 3. 0889 3. 3778 3. 8222 3. 2556 3. 5730 4. 1000 3. 7333 4. 0667 3. 6000 3. 5090 SD . 93490 . Saving The Nation’s Families From Foreclosure? 97125 1. 04607 1. 49494 . 94684 1. 03858 1. 01941 1. 03382 1. 07293 1. Innocent? 02825 1. 05415 1. 16739 . 97816 1. 5937 1. 25027 . 83785 . 90006 . Saving The Nation’s From? 99210 . 87152 1. Elements? 08927 7. 71887 Table 4. Teachers’ Perceptions of Difficulties with EFL Grammar according to their Gender (Males: N=39; Females: N=51) Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Gender Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Mean 3. The Nation’s From Foreclosure Essay? 8718 3. 7647 3. 2308 3. 8431 3. 7436 3. 5098 3. 1282 2. 8431 3. 7949 3. 4314 3. 2821 3. 3725 3. 5128 3. Satan Myth? 4706 3. The Nation’s Families Essay? 2051 3. 2941 3. 5128 3. 5294 3. 3846 3. 4706 3. 0769 3. What Is Collision Theory? 0000 3. 1282 3. 0588 SD . 86388 . 99173 1. 6281 . Families Foreclosure Essay? 80926 . 96567 1. 10223 1. 47219 1. 51489 . 95089 . Satan Myth? 92206 1. 02466 1. 05756 . 79046 1. 17223 1. 10452 . Saving Families Foreclosure Essay? 98578 . 99662 1. 13759 1. 09100 . Satan Myth? 98697 1. 10940 1. 01980 1. 19603 1. 15606 F 1. 357 4. 942 1. 447 . 032 . 068 . 095 9. 319 . From Foreclosure? 295 1. 240 . 600 . 062 . 107 t . 536 3. 105 1. 051 . 895 1. 828 . 408 . 194 . Or Guilty? 403 . 072 . 391 . Saving Foreclosure Essay? 341 . Hinduism? 278 Sig. Saving The Nation’s Families? (2-tailed) . 593 . 003 . Religion? 296 . 373 . 071 . 684 . 847 . 688 . 943 . The Nation’s Foreclosure? 697 . 734 . 782 International Journal of Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. 4, No. 2 88 Difficulties in Teaching and Learning Grammar… Statement 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Overall. Gender Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Mean 3. 3333 3. Religion? 4118 3. 9231 3. 7451 3. 3590 3. 1765 3. 5385 3. Saving The Nation’s Essay? 6000 4. 0769 4. 1176 3. 7179 3. 7451 3. 8974 4. 1961 3. William And The? 4359 3. 7255 3. Saving Essay? 5077 3. 5100 SD . 98230 . 98339 1. 28523 1. 24649 1. 34726 1. 17823 . 82226 . 85714 . 98367 . 84017 .88700 1. Or Guilty? 07412 . 94018 . 80049 1. 16517 1. Saving The Nation’s Families From Essay? 02134 6. 67887 8. 50930 F . 018 . 105 1. 363 . Hinduism Religion? 174 . 023 1. 454 . 201 2. 494 1. 604 t . 375 . Saving From? 662 . 684 . Countee Cullen? 342 . 212 . 128 1. 626 1. 254 . 028 Sig. (2-tailed) . 708 . Saving? 510 . 496 . 733 . 833 . 898 . 108 . 213 . 978 Table 5. Teachers’ Perceptions of elements Difficulties with EFL Grammar according to the Level taught Statement 1 Level 1-4 5-10 11-12 Total 1-4 5-10 11-12 Total 1-4 5-10 11-12 Total 1-4 5-10 11-12 Total 1-4 5-10 11-12 Total 1-4 5-10 11-12 Total 1-4 5-10 11-12 Total 1-4 5-10 11-12 Total 1-4 5-10 11-12 Total 1-4 N 17 31 42 90 17 31 42 90 17 31 42 90 17 31 42 90 17 31 42 90 17 31 42 90 17 31 42 90 17 31 42 90 17 31 42 90 17 Mean 3. 8824 3. 5484 3. 9762 3. 8111 3. 5882 3. 2903 3. 7857 3. 5778 3. 7059 3. 5161 3. 6429 3. 6111 2. Saving Families Essay? 7647 3. Religion? 4516 2. Saving Families From Essay? 6905 2. Satan Myth? 9667 3. 7059 3. 6774 3. From Essay? 4762 3. 5889 3. 1765 3. 3871 3. 3571 3. 3333 3. 6471 3. 4839 3. 4286 3. 889 3. 6471 3. 2903 3. 0714 3. Satan Myth? 2556 3. 7059 3. 5484 3. 4286 3. 5222 3. 7647 SD 1. 05370 1. Saving The Nation’s Foreclosure Essay? 09053 . 71527 . 93490 1. 00367 . 97275 . Innocent? 92488 . 97125 1. 04670 . 99569 1. 10036 1. 04607 1. 52190 1. 43385 1. 47314 1. 49494 . 77174 . 79108 1. 10956 . 94684 1. 01460 1. 02233 1. Saving The Nation’s? 07797 1. Theory? 03858 1. The Nation’s From Foreclosure? 16946 1. 06053 . 94075 1. 01941 . 99632 . 93785 1. 09082 1. 03382 1. 26317 1. 09053 . 99125 1. 07293 1. 20049 F 1. 970 Sig. .146 2 2. 394 .097 3 .213 .809 4 2. 593 .081 5 .557 .575 6 .242 .785 7 .274 .761 8 1. 943 .149 9 .413 1. 116 .663 . 332 10 International Journal of hinduism Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. 4, No. Saving The Nation’s Essay? 2 Al-Mekhlafi & Nagaratnam 9 Statement 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Overall Level 5-10 11-12 Total 1-4 5-10 11-12 Total 1-4 5-10 11-12 Total 1-4 5-10 11-12 Total 1-4 5-10 11-12 Total 1-4 5-10 11-12 Total 1-4 5-10 11-12 Total 1-4 5-10 11-12 Total 1-4 5-10 11-12 Total 1-4 5-10 11-12 Total 1-4 5-10 11-12 Total 1-4 5-10 11-12 Total N 31 42 90 17 31 42 90 17 31 42 90 17 31 42 90 17 31 42 90 17 31 42 90 17 31 41 89 17 31 42 90 17 31 42 90 17 31 42 90 17 31 42 90 17 31 42 90 Mean 3. 3871 3. Religion? 3333 3. 4333 2. 8824 3. The Nation’s From Foreclosure? 0968 3. 0476 3. Countee Cullen? 0333 3. 1176 3. 1290 3. 0476 3. 0889 3. 5294 3. 0645 3. 5476 3. 3778 4. 0000 3. 3871 4. 0714 3. 8222 3. 0588 3. 5161 3. 429 3. 2556 3. 6471 3. 7419 3. Saving Families From Essay? 4146 3. 5730 4. 2941 4. Is Collision Theory? 0323 4. 0714 4. 1000 3. 6471 3. 6774 3. 8095 3. 7333 4. 3529 3. 9355 4. 0476 4. 0667 3. 5294 3. 5806 3. 6429 3. 6000 3. 5824 3. 4871 3. From Essay? 4951 3. 5090 SD . 91933 1. 02806 1. 02825 1. 05370 1. 10619 1. 03482 1. 05415 1. 21873 1. Hinduism? 14723 1. 18841 1. 16739 1. 17886 . 99785 . 83235 . 97816 1. 22474 1. 22956 1. 23748 1. 25937 1. 39062 1. 17958 1. 24100 1. 25027 . From Foreclosure? 93148 . And The Essay? 68155 . 89375 . Saving The Nation’s Foreclosure? 83785 . 77174 . 87498 . 97262 . 90006 1. 27187 . 90874 . Religion? 94322 . 99210 . 70189 . 81386 . 96151 . 87152 1. 12459 1. 14816 1. 05510 1. 08927 7. 94466 8. 51652 7. 09156 7. 71887 F Sig. .230 .795 049 .953 2. 509 .087 2. 968 .057 1. 056 .352 1. The Nation’s Families? 443 .242 .499 .609 .233 .792 1. 287 .281 .072 .931 .378 .686 Table 6. Teachers’ Perceptions of religion Difficulties with EFL Grammar according to their Qualifications Statement 1 Qualification MA BA Diploma Total MA BA Diploma Total N 8 76 6 90 8 76 6 90 Mean 3. 5000 3. 8026 4. 3333 3. 8111 3. 6250 3. 5395 4. 0000 3. 5778 SD 1. 30931 . From? 89472 . 81650 . 93490 . Hinduism? 91613 . 99921 . 63246 . Saving The Nation’s From Foreclosure? 97125 F 1. 394 Sig. .253 2 .630 .535 International Journal of William Faulkner and the of Literature Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. 4, No. 2 90 Difficulties in Saving Foreclosure Teaching and Learning Grammar… Statement 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17. Qualification MA BA Diploma Total MA BA Diploma Total MA BA Diploma Total MA BA Diploma Total MA BA Diploma Total MA BA Diploma Total MA BA Diploma Total MA BA Diploma Total MA BA Diploma Total MA BA Diploma Total MA BA Diploma Total MA BA Diploma Total MA BA Diploma Total MA BA Diploma Total MA BA Diploma N 8 76 6 90 8 76 6 90 8 76 6 90 8 76 6 90 8 76 6 90 8 76 6 90 8 76 6 90 8 76 6 90 8 76 6 90 8 76 6 90 8 76 6 90 8 76 6 90 8 76 6 90 8 75 6 89 8 76 6 Mean 3. 5000 3. 5921 4. 0000 3. 6111 3. 3750 2. 9605 2. 5000 2. 9667 3. 7500 3. 5526 3. 8333 3. 5889 2. Innocent? 6250 3. 4079 3. 3333 3. 3333 3. 2500 3. 4605 4. 1667 3. 4889 3. 5000 3. 2237 3. 333 3. 2556 3. 1250 3. Saving The Nation’s Foreclosure? 5000 4. 3333 3. Countee Cullen? 5222 3. 3750 3. 4079 3. 8333 3. 4333 2. 7500 3. 0526 3. 1667 3. 0333 3. The Nation’s? 5000 3. 0132 3. 5000 3. 0889 3. 2500 3. 4079 3. 1667 3. 3778 3. 1250 3. 8947 3. 8333 3. 8222 3. 3750 3. 2237 3. 5000 3. 2556 3. 5000 3. 5200 4. 3333 3. 5730 4. 5000 4. 0132 4. 6667 SD 1. William Faulkner And The? 06904 1. 03509 1. 26491 1. The Nation’s Families From Foreclosure Essay? 04607 1. 40789 1. 50058 1. Countee Cullen? 64317 1. 49494 1. 38873 . 91498 . 75277 . 94684 1. From Foreclosure? 30247 . 96854 1. 36626 1. 03858 1. 16496 1. 01247 . 75277 1. 01941 1. 06904 1. 02760 1. 21106 1. 03382 1. 24642 1. 05198 . 81650 1. 07293 1. 18773 1. 03509 . 75277 1. 02825 1. 58114 1. 00525 . Religion? 98319 1. 05415 1. 30931 1. Saving The Nation’s From Foreclosure? 13717 1. 37840 1. 6739 1. 58114 . 86684 1. 47196 . 97816 1. 80772 1. 16137 1. 60208 1. 25937 1. 68502 1. 18433 1. 64317 1. 25027 1. 19523 . 77738 . 81650 . 83785 . 75593 . 91642 . Hinduism Religion? 51640 F . 467 Sig. .629 .586 .559 .366 .694 2. Saving Families Foreclosure? 108 .128 1. 596 .209 .272 .762 2. 348 .102 .484 .618 .345 .710 1. 029 .362 .240 .787 1. 363 .261 .173 .842 2. 757 2. 407 .069 . 096 International Journal of Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. 4, No. 2 Al-Mekhlafi & Nagaratnam 91 Statement 18 19 20 Overall Qualification Total MA BA Diploma Total MA BA Diploma Total MA BA Diploma Total MA BA Diploma Total N 90 8 76 6 90 8 76 6 90 8 76 6 90 8 76 6 90 Mean 4. 1000 3. 6250 3. 7632 3. 5000 3. 333 4. 0000 4. 0395 4. 5000 4. 0667 3. 8750 3. 5658 3. 6667 3. 6000 3. 4563 3. 4933 3. 7750 3. 5090 SD . 90006 1. 40789 . 92186 1. 37840 . 99210 . 75593 . 90097 . 54772 . 87152 1. 35620 1. 08733 . 81650 1. 08927 10. Innocent Or Guilty? 98619 7. 29186 7. Saving The Nation’s Families From Essay? 44983 7. 71887 F Sig. .244 .784 .798 .453 .299 .742 1. 582 .211 Table 7. Teachers’ Perceptions of Difficulties with EFL Grammar according to their Experience Statement 1 Exp. (yrs) ? 5 ; 5 ? 10 ; 10 Total ? 5 ; 5 ? 10 ; 10 Total ? 5 ; 5 ? 10 ; 10 Total ? 5 ; 5 ? 10 ; 10 Total ? 5 ; 5 ? 10 ; 10 Total ? 5 ; 5 ? 10 ; 10 Total ? 5 ; 5 ? 10 ; 10 Total ? 5 ; 5 ? 0 ; 10 Total ? 5 ; 5 ? 10 ; 10 Total ? 5 ; 5 ? 10 N 27 41 22 90 27 41 22 90 27 41 22 90 27 41 22 90 27 41 22 90 27 41 22 90 27 41 22 90 27 41 22 90 27 41 22 90 27 41 Mean 3. 5556 3. 9250 3. 9130 3. 8111 3. 4444 3. 5500 3. 7826 3. 5778 3. Hinduism Religion? 4444 3. 8000 3. 4783 3. 6111 3. 2222 3. 1500 2. 3478 2. 9667 3. 7407 3. 5000 3. 5652 3. 5889 3. 2963 3. 4000 3. 2609 3. 3333 3. 4074 3. 5250 3. 5217 3. 4889 3. 1481 3. 2000 3. 4783 3. 2556 3. 8519 3. 3000 3. 5217 3. 5222 3. 3333 3. 4500 SD 1. 12090 . 91672 . 66831 . 93490 . Foreclosure Essay? 84732 . 95943 1. 12640 . 97125 . 97402 1. 01779 1. 16266 1. 04607 1. 52753 1. 45972 1. 40158 1. 49494 . 81300 1. 13228 . 2777 . 94684 1. 17063 . 98189 1. 00983 1. 03858 1. 24836 . 93336 . 89796 1. 01941 . 81824 1. 11401 1. 12288 1. 03382 1. 06351 1. 11401 . What Is Collision Theory? 94722 1. 07293 1. 03775 1. 06096 F 1. 457 Sig. .239 2 .778 .462 3 1. 185 .311 4 2. 772 .068 5 .525 .593 6 .153 .859 7 .121 .886 8 .733 .484 9 2. 189 . 214 .118 . 808 10 International Journal of Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. 4, No. 2 92 Difficulties in Teaching and Learning Grammar… Statement 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Overall Exp. Families Foreclosure Essay? (yrs) ; 10 Total ? 5 ; 5 ? 10 ; 10 Total ? 5 ; 5 ? 10 ; 10 Total ? 5 ; 5 ? 10 ; 10 Total ? 5 ; 5 ? 10 ; 10 Total ? 5 ; 5 ? 10 ; 10 Total ? ; 5 ? 10 ; 10 Total ? 5 ; 5 ? 10 ; 10 Total ? 5 ; 5 ? 10 ; 10 Total ? 5 ; 5 ? 10 ; 10 Total ? 5 ; 5 ? 10 ; 10 Total ? 5 ; 5 ? 10 ; 10 Total N 22 90 27 41 22 90 27 41 22 90 27 41 22 90 27 41 22 90 27 41 22 90 27 41 22 89 27 41 22 90 27 41 22 90 27 41 22 90 27 41 22 90 27 41 22 90 Mean 3. 5217 3. 4333 2. Hinduism? 8889 3. 0750 3. 1304 3. 0333 3. 3333 3. 0750 2. 8261 3. 0889 3. 3704 3. 2750 3. 5652 3. 3778 3. 4815 3. 8500 4. 1739 3. 8222 3. 1481 3. 2500 3. 3913 3. 2556 3. 6667 3. 5000 3. 5909 3. 5730 4. 0741 4. The Nation’s Foreclosure? 1000 4. Or Guilty? 1304 4. 1000 3. 6667 3. 8250 3. 6522 3. The Nation’s Families From Essay? 7333 4. 0370 4. 0500 4. 1304 4. 0667 3. 4074 3. 000 3. 6522 3. 6000 3. 4759 3. Countee Cullen? 5250 3. 5201 3. 5090 SD . 99405 1. 02825 1. 25064 . Saving Families Essay? 99711 . 91970 1. 05415 1. 14354 1. 11832 1. 26678 1. 16739 . 92604 1. 01242 . 99206 . 97816 1. 36918 1. 23101 1. 11405 1. 25937 1. 43322 1. 14914 1. 23359 1. 25027 . Satan Myth? 87706 . 87706 . 73414 . 83785 1. 03500 . 74421 1. 01374 .90006 1. Saving The Nation’s Families? 03775 . 84391 1. 19121 . 99210 . 70610 . 90441 1. 01374 . 87152 1. 18514 1. Metamorphosis Of Literature? 06699 1. 02730 1. The Nation’s Families Essay? 08927 9. 44364 7. 20399 6. 48558 7. 71887 F Sig. .377 .687 1. 182 .311 .639 .530 1. 935 .151 .232 .794 .321 .727 .024 .976 .304 .739 .083 .921 .612 .545 .140 .869 International Journal of Instruction, July 2011 ? Vol. Hinduism? 4, No. 2. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [email protected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about Families Foreclosure, receiving a customized one? Check it out.