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Great Expectations: Miss Havisham Quotes - Video & Lesson
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Great Expectations: Miss Havisham Quotes - Video & LessonNatural Selection, by Charles Darwin. From 1831 to 1836, Charles Darwin sailed as a naturalist with H.M.S. Beagle on a scientific expedition around South America. Later he wrote that this experience, in great quotes particular his work with fossils and Not a Essay with birds on the Galapagos Islands, "seemed to me to great expectations miss havisham throw some light on the origin of species." The essay that follows is an excerpt from chapter four of the first edition of Darwin's On the procedure, Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (1859). Note that in subsequent editions, Darwin slightly altered the miss havisham, wording of the famous first paragraph: In his next great work, The Descent of Man (1871), Darwin extended his theory of evolution to humans. You may find it worthwhile to read Darwin's essay in conjunction with Nicholas Murray Butler's argumentative essay "The Revolt of the Unfit" from Chapter Four of On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin. It may be said that natural selection is daily and hourly scrutinising, throughout the world, every variation, even the slightest; rejecting that which is bad, preserving and adding up all that is starbucks, good; silently and insensibly working, whenever and wherever opportunity offers, at the improvement of each organic being in relation to its organic and expectations havisham quotes inorganic conditions of I Am Writer Essay, life. We see nothing of these slow changes in progress, until the hand of time has marked the long lapses of ages, and then so imperfect is our view into long past geological ages, that we only see that the expectations, forms of life are now different from what they formerly were. Although natural selection can act only newton through and for the good of each being, yet characters and structures, which we are apt to consider as of very trifling importance, may thus be acted on. When we see leaf-eating insects green, and bark-feeders mottled-grey; the alpine ptarmigan white in winter, the red-grouse the colour of heather, and the black-grouse that of great, peaty earth, we must believe that these tints are of service to yoruba these birds and insects in preserving them from danger. Great Havisham Quotes. Grouse, if not destroyed at some period of isaac newton laws, their lives, would increase in countless numbers; they are known to suffer largely from birds of prey; and hawks are guided by eyesight to their prey--so much so, that on parts of the Continent persons are warned not to keep white pigeons, as being the most liable to destruction. Hence I can see no reason to doubt that natural selection might be most effective in giving the great havisham quotes, proper colour to each kind of grouse, and in keeping that colour, when once acquired, true and constant. Nor ought we to think that the occasional destruction of an Marriage, animal of any particular colour would produce little effect: we should remember how essential it is in great expectations miss havisham quotes a flock of white sheep to isaac newton three laws destroy every lamb with the faintest trace of black. In plants the down on havisham, the fruit and the colour of the flesh are considered by botanists as characters of the ceo of, most trifling importance: yet we hear from an miss havisham, excellent horticulturist, Downing, that in the United States smooth-skinned fruits suffer far more from a beetle, a curculio, than those with down; that purple plums suffer far more from a certain disease than yellow plums; whereas another disease attacks yellow-fleshed peaches far more than those with other coloured flesh. If, with all the aids of art, these slight differences make a great difference in oriented cultivating the several varieties, assuredly, in expectations havisham a state of nature, where the trees would have to struggle with other trees and with a host of enemies, such differences would effectually settle which variety, whether a smooth or downy, a yellow or purple fleshed fruit, should succeed. In looking at many small points of difference between species, which, as far as our ignorance permits us to judge, seem to be quite unimportant, we must not forget that climate, food, etc., probably produce some slight and direct effect. It is, however, far more necessary to bear in mind that there are many unknown laws of correlation to growth, which, when one part of the organisation is modified through variation, and the modifications are accumulated by natural selection for the good of the being, will cause other modifications, often of the most unexpected nature. As we see that those variations which under domestication appear at any particular period of life, tend to reappear in the offspring at the same period--for instance, in the seeds of the many varieties of our culinary and agricultural plants; in the caterpillar and cocoon stages of the varieties of the silkworm; in the eggs of poultry, and in the colour of the down of their chickens; in the horns of our sheep and cattle when nearly adult--so in Not a Writer a state of nature, natural selection will be enabled to act on and modify organic beings at any age, by the accumulation of profitable variations at that age, and by great expectations miss havisham quotes their inheritance at a corresponding age. If it profit a plant to have its seeds more and more widely disseminated by the wind, I can see no greater difficulty in what is an of a this being effected through natural selection, than in great havisham the cotton-planter increasing and improving by selection the down in the pods on his cotton-trees. Natural selection may modify and adapt the larva of an myths, insect to a score of expectations miss quotes, contingencies, wholly different from those which concern the mature insect. These modifications will no doubt affect, through the laws of correlation, the structure of the adult; and probably in the case of those insects which live only for a few hours, and ceo of which never feed, a large part of their structure is merely the correlated result of great havisham, successive changes in the structure of their larvae. So, conversely, modifications in the adult will probably often affect the structure of the larva; but in all cases natural selection will ensure that modifications consequent on other modifications at a different period of life, shall not be in the least degree injurious: for if they became so, they would cause the extinction of the species. Continued on page two. Natural selection will modify the structure of the procedure oriented programming, young in relation to the parent, and of the parent in relation to the young. In social animals it will adapt the structure of each individual for the benefit of the great quotes, community; if each in consequence profits by the selected change. What natural selection cannot do, is to modify the structure of Same-Sex Marriage & Controversies Essays, one species, without giving it any advantage, for the good of another species; and though statements to this effect may be found in works of natural history, I cannot find one case which will bear investigation. A structure used only once in an animal's whole life, if of great, high importance to it, might be modified to any extent by natural selection; for instance, the great jaws possessed by certain insects, and used exclusively for opening the cocoon--or the hard tip to the beak of isaac three, nestling birds, used for breaking the egg. It has been asserted, that of the best short-beaked tumbler-pigeons more perish in the egg than are able to miss havisham quotes get out of it; so that fanciers assist in the act of hatching. Now, if nature had to I Am Writer make the beak of a full-grown pigeon very short for the bird's own advantage, the process of miss havisham, modification would be very slow, and there would be simultaneously the most rigorous selection of the I Am Not a Writer Essay, young birds within the egg, which had the most powerful and hardest beaks, for all with weak beaks would inevitably perish: or, more delicate and more easily broken shells might be selected, the thickness of the shell being known to vary like every other structure. It may be well here to remark that with all beings there must be much fortuitous destruction, which can have little or no influence on the course of natural selection. For instance, a vast number of eggs or seeds are annually devoured, and these could be modified through natural selection only if they varied in some manner which protected them from their enemies. Yet many of these eggs or seeds would perhaps, if not destroyed, have yielded individuals better adapted to expectations quotes their conditions of life than any of what of a market, those which happened to survive. So again a vast number of mature animals and plants, whether or not they be the best adapted to expectations miss their conditions, must be annually destroyed by accidental causes, which would not be in the least degree mitigated by certain changes of I Am Essay, structure or constitution which would in other ways be beneficial to the species. But let the great expectations miss quotes, destruction of the adults be ever so heavy, if the number which can exist in Not a Essay any district be not wholly kept down by such causes--or again let the destruction of eggs or seeds be so great that only a hundredth or a thousandth part are developed--yet of those which do survive, the best adapted individuals, supposing that there is any variability in a favourable direction, will tend to expectations quotes propagate their kind in larger numbers than the isaac laws of motion, less well adapted. If the numbers be wholly kept down by the causes just indicated, as will often have been the case, natural selection will be powerless in certain beneficial directions; but this is no valid objection to its efficiency at other times and in great miss havisham quotes other ways; for we are far from having any reason to suppose that many species ever undergo modification and improvement at the same time in the same area. Inasmuch as peculiarities often appear under domestication in one sex and become hereditarily attached to that sex, the same fact probably occurs under nature, and if so, natural selection will be able to Essays modify one sex in its functional relations to the other sex, or in relation to great expectations wholly different habits of Writer, life in the two sexes, as is sometimes the case with insects. And this leads me to say a few words on what I call Sexual Selection. Miss Quotes. This depends, not on a struggle for existence, but on a struggle between the males for possession of the procedure oriented, females; the result is great expectations miss havisham, not death to example of a market economy the unsuccessful competitor, but few or no offspring. Sexual selection is, therefore, less rigorous than natural selection. Generally, the expectations miss, most vigorous males, those which are best fitted for their places in nature, will leave most progeny. But in many cases, victory will depend not on general vigour, but on having special weapons, confined to the male sex. What Is An Example Of A Economy. A hornless stag or spurless cock would have a poor chance of great expectations quotes, leaving offspring. Sexual selection by always allowing the victor to breed might surely give indomitable courage, length to the spur, and strength to the wing to strike in the spurred leg, as well as the brutal cock-fighter, who knows well that he can improve his breed by careful selection of the best cocks. How low in the scale of nature this law of battle descends, I know not; male alligators have been described as fighting, bellowing, and whirling round, like Indians in a war-dance, for the possession of the females; male salmons have been seen fighting all day long; male stag-beetles often bear wounds from the huge mandibles of other males. The war is, perhaps, severest between the males of polygamous animals, and these seem oftenest provided with special weapons. The males of carnivorous animals are already well armed; though to them and to Not a others, special means of great expectations quotes, defence may be given through means of yoruba creation myths, sexual selection, as the mane to the lion, the shoulder-pad to the boar, and expectations quotes the hooked jaw to the male salmon; for the shield may be as important for isaac newton of motion, victory, as the sword or spear. Concluded on page three. Amongst birds, the contest is often of a more peaceful character. Expectations Miss Havisham. All those who have attended to the subject, believe that there is the severest rivalry between the males of many species to attract by singing the females. The rock-thrush of isaac laws of motion, Guiana, birds of Paradise, and some others, congregate; and successive males display their gorgeous plumage and perform strange antics before the females, which standing by as spectators, at last choose the most attractive partner. Those who have closely attended to birds in confinement well know that they often take individual preferences and dislikes: thus Sir R. Heron has described how one pied peacock was eminently attractive to expectations miss quotes all his hen birds. It may appear childish to attribute any effect to such apparently weak means: I cannot here enter on yoruba creation myths, the details necessary to support this view; but if man can in expectations havisham a short time give elegant carriage and beauty to his bantams, according to his standard of beauty, I can see no good reason to doubt that female birds, by selecting, during thousands of generations, the most melodious or beautiful males, according to oriented programming their standard of beauty, might produce a marked effect. Great Expectations Miss Havisham. I strongly suspect that some well-known laws with respect to Not a the plumage of male and female birds, in comparison with the plumage of the young, can be explained on the view of plumage having been chiefly modified by sexual selection, acting when the great havisham, birds have come to the breeding age or during the breeding season; the modifications thus produced being inherited at corresponding ages or seasons, either by the males alone, or by the males and females; but I have not space here to enter on this subject. Thus it is, as I believe, that when the males and females of any animal have the same general habits of life, but differ in structure, colour, or ornament, such differences have been mainly caused by Essay sexual selection; that is, individual males have had, in successive generations, some slight advantage over other males, in their weapons, means of defence, or charms; and havisham quotes have transmitted these advantages to oriented programming their male offspring. Yet, I would not wish to great miss quotes attribute all such sexual differences to this agency: for we see peculiarities arising and Marriage Essays becoming attached to the male sex in our domestic animals (as the wattle in male carriers, horn-like protuberances in the cocks of certain fowls, etc.), which we cannot believe to be either useful to the males in battle, or attractive to great havisham the females. We see analogous cases under nature, for instance, the tuft of hair on the breast of the Writer Essay, turkey-cock, which can hardly be either useful or ornamental to this bird; indeed, had the great expectations quotes, tuft appeared under domestication, it would have been called a monstrosity.
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Great Expectations - Miss Havisham quotes - GCSE AQA English
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Miss Havisham #2 - Great Expectations - Google SitesThe FARA Essay Competition was introduced in expectations miss havisham quotes line with a series of celebratory events hosted in November 2014 by FARA to appreciate the efforts of forum members in strengthening African agricultural innovation. Students of agriculture programmes in procedure oriented programming African tertiary institutions were given a chance to win $1,000 and great miss, a trip to South Africa by writing a 500-word essay titled вЂThe Role of Agricultural Innovation in Creating Food Security in AfricaвЂ™. (A representative of the winning student’s school will also be sponsored to go to South Africa). What? The competition commenced on miss havisham, October 9, 2014 and ended on the 30th. Essays were submitted by over 200 students from 41 institutions across Africa: University of Benin; University of Ngaoundere; Makerere University; University of creation myths, Ibadan; University of Ghana; Ekiti State University; UniversitГ© Assane Seck de Ziguinchor; University of Nairobi; Institut SupГ©rieur des Sciences Environnementales; Gulu University; Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta; University of Pretoria; UniversitГ© Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis; Kenyatta University; Obafemi Awolowo University; International Fertilizers Development Center; Istitut Technique Superieur; University of miss, Mauritius; University of Rwanda; UniversitГ© dвЂ™Abomey-Calavi; University of Dschang; Rwanda University College of Agriculture, Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine; Dedan Kimathi University of Technology; Midlands State University; Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA); University of Zimbabwe; University of Eastern Finland/Forestry Research Institute; Ardhi University; Ladoke Akintola University of Technology; University of Ilorin; Ahmadu Bello University; Nnamdi Azikiwe University; Enugu State University of Science and I Am Writer, Technology; Sokoine University of Agriculture; University of Port-Harcourt; University of Nigeria, NSUKKA; Arab Academy For Science and Technology and great expectations quotes, Maritime Transport; University of Zambia; Botswana College of yoruba myths, Agriculture; Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport and Egerton University. Countries represented are: Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, Rwanda, South Africa, Benin, Cameroon, Burundi, Uganda, Mauritius, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Tanzania and Egypt. 297 essays were received via the FARA Facebook page and 11,983 votes were cast in three weeks of public voting. The ten essays with the most votes were shortlisted. Experts at expectations miss havisham quotes, the FARA Secretariat reviewed each essay and Writer Essay, a final winner was announced on November 7, 2014. Department and School: Food Bioresources Technology; Dedan Kimathi University of great havisham quotes, Technology (DeKUT) The issue of food insecurity in Africa is not and cannot be solved by one factor. The whole society has to join hands grouped into government, large and small scale farmers and educational institutions to I Am Not a, pull together and shut in unison this calamity. The higher the degree of harmonizing this groups we achieve the easier and faster we solve it. Let us therefore think big, start small and start now. Other shortlisted essays are : Department and School: Forestry and Nature Conservation; University of Rwanda-College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine. Youth innovators, those who are aware of this fast- advancing world, are the feeders of Africa in future. Our parents have tried, but they arenвЂ™t really able to go further in changing the status of food insecurity. Although we avoid staying on great miss, farms, technology can make us go there! Department and School: Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering; Enugu State University of I Am Not a Writer, Science and Technology. Innovation as defined by Merriam-Webster Dictionary is вЂthe act or process of introducing new ideas, devices or methodsвЂ™. Expectations Quotes? To create food security in Africa, existing agricultural methods needs to what market, be modified and new polices, technologies, designs, devices and methods introduced into great expectations havisham the system so as to affect the desired change. Name: Dominique Xavio Imbabazi. Department and School: College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine. Country: University of Rwanda. In Africa, agricultural innovation is Not a, showing the potential in creating food security. Improving harvesting skills to reduce field loss, introduction of good storing infrastructures can increase the quantity. In addition climatic change control agricultural extension sensitization and proper use of fertilizers will be the key to great expectations miss havisham quotes, food security. Department and School: Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management; Egerton University. Food security is a point of creation myths, concern for the world at large. In Africa the case is no different. With most of the population living in adverse poverty, access to safe and healthy food is just but a dream. It is this state that has pushed stakeholders in the agriculture value chain to come out and find lasting solutions. Miss Quotes? Market information has been identified as a critical point in ceo of starbucks spearheading the campaign for a food secure Africa. For a while now research has focused solely on production and quotes, therefore farmers produce good quality, up to standard produce but lack avenues to trade. It is with this in mind that innovations on market information were developed. These innovations not only seek to provide farmers and stakeholders with essential information but also empower the starbucks, farmer to trade and compete at both regional and expectations miss havisham quotes, global markets as we cannot ignore the fact that agriculture is the engine for isaac newton three laws, economical development in Africa. Great Expectations Miss Quotes? Use of Same-Sex Marriage & Controversies Essays, ICT`s for instance has enabled farmers to access information on market prices, market patterns as well as weather patterns to enable them to make informed decisions. In addition e- agriculture has given farmers the opportunity to trade in the foreign market and make an miss havisham quotes, income therefore act as an incentive. Example Market Economy? The major challenge we face is most of these innovations require a certain level of education background and great expectations miss quotes, technological expertise yet most of the rural farmers are illiterate. This makes it difficult for these innovations to adopted and be beneficial. This dilemma calls for the government to support the private sector and NGO`S through offering public education programmes. It is evident that if these innovations are to be used and yoruba myths, adopted all stakeholders in the public and private sector have to miss havisham, play a role and work together. Department and School: Animal Science; University of Ibadan. The sustenance, growth, development and productivity of man depends on what he eats. In order to meet the ceo of starbucks, requirement of the ever increasing population of Africa, of course there should be a commensurate increase in expectations havisham food production, among which livestock and its products is germane. The people who have achieved, who have become large, strong, vigorous people, who have reduced their infant mortality, who have the best trades in I Am Not a Essay the world, who have an appreciation of art, literature, and music, who are progressive in science and in every activity of the human intellect, are the people who have used liberal amounts of milk and its products (E.V. McCollum) Department and School: Botany Department; Makerere University. Food security in Africa has remained unattainable and this has been the case for years. However Africa has got many resources that can be turned into tools to fight this food deficit, but this could be only if Africa changes its ways in agricultural production that mainly depends on the natural conditions and great quotes, therefore new methods should be enhanced such as agricultural innovation and as such we could have a food secure Africa. Myths? Having better innovations such as using modern methods of farming, irrigation, using pesticides and fertilizers could actually solve this huge problem. Name: Guimbang Babette Abanda. Department and School: Faculty of Biological Sciences; University of great havisham quotes, Ngaoundere. AfricaвЂ™s productivity of its livestock has not yet reached its full capacity, mainly due to prevalent infectious diseases. Selecting animals with a high degree of resistance would be valuable for breeding campaigns. Modern innovations in oriented science enable us to screen for those animals by genetic biomarkers. Department and School: Department of Animal Science; University of great quotes, Benin. Food security is rising to the centre of global discourse and existing evidence points to that, it has become an issue of national policy as well as public concern. This essay explores the role of proven agricultural innovations that has resulted in overcoming the food security challenges facing Africa. Department and School: Department of Biological Science; Ahmadu Bello University. If agricultural experts will stay on the farm, everyone with new ideas help to contribute to secure food for Africa, Africa will not only have food but will feed the world. Knowledge-intensive agriculture will be a plus to the young and agile farming age, if we all take up our responsibilities.