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Inhibitors of how the electric works ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts. Inhibitors of Ruthenium Olefin Metathesis Catalysts. Field of the Invention. The present invention relates to a catalytic system comprising a precatalyst, a precatalyst activator and an inhibitor. Further, the invention relates to the use of this catalytic system in ring-opening metathesis polymerisation reactions. Background of the Essay Invention. Polydicyclopentadiene (poly-DCPD) is obtained through Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerisation (ROMP) of electric dicyclopentadiene (DCPD). 'ROMP reaction' is a metal carbene catalysed reaction using strained cyclic olefins to produce a wide range of a title in an polymers. Poly-DCPD has excellent impact performance, superior chemical resistance, very low water absorption, very low dielectric constant and a high electrical strength. Today's commercial DCPD formulations system based on molybdenum and tungsten are processed using Reaction Injection Moulding (RIM). The tremendous development of stable well-defined ruthenium catalysts opens new possibility for poly-DCPD applications. How The Electric Chair Works? The formulations based on ruthenium catalysts are no longer limited to RIM but can be potentially used in a variety of thermoset process such as filament winding, pultrusion, roto-moulding, casting, resin infusion. The robust nature of the ruthenium catalysts allows using reinforcements such as glass fibre, mineral fibre, foaming agents and how to write in an essay, many types of how the electric works fillers. The ideal catalyst for ROMP reactions should exhibit decreased activity in the presence of monomer at room temperature, so called latency. The main advantage of latent olefin metathesis catalysts is that it can be mixed with the monomers without concomitant polymerization, which allows for longer handling of the edgar allan poe biography catalyst/monomer mixtures or even storage for longer periods (S. Electric Works? Monsaert, A. M. Lozano Vila, R. Drozdzak, P. Van Der Voort, F. Verpoort, Chemical Society Reviews, 2009, 38, 3360-3372). Schiff base bearing ruthenium catalysts 1, 2a (Scheme 1 ), 2d (Scheme 2) have been found to be extremely latent in Airlines the presence of DCPD monomer and can be stored in DCPD based formulations for months without significant increase in viscosity. Scheme 1: Ru-salicylaldimine type of metathesis catalysts. They also showed a high activity in ROMP of DCPD after chemical activation by Lewis or Br0nsted acids such as: chlorosilanes or HCI. (N.Ledoux, B. Allaert, D..Schaubroeck, S. Works? Monsaert, R. Drozdzak, P.Van Der Voort, F. Verpoort Journal of Organometallic Chem istry 2006, 691 , 5482-5486. S. Monsaert, N. Le- doux, R. Drozdzak, F. Verpoort, Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry, EP Patent Application No 092905785). Recently we reported that the presence of the substituents in ortho position in N-aryl ring of salicylaldimine ligand is the main factor determining the Heartfield catalyst latency of 2a-c in DCPD monomer. Scheme 2. Ru-bissalicylaldimine phenylindenylidene catalyst. The best of the studied precatalysts 2a after chemical activation by trichlorosi- lanes offers activity comparable to that of the dichloride systems 4 in electric chair works ROMP of DCPD, while maintaining very high stability in the monomer solution. Thus, new DCPD formulations based on Airlines the precatalysts 2a have been designed as two component systems, where the precatalysts and co-catalyst are dissolved into how the electric chair, separated components. The polymerization reaction starts when two components are brought together. Typical working life time of precatalyst 2a/trichlorophenylsilane/DCPD monomer mixture is around 60 seconds at 20°C. The fast polymerization reaction is desirable for casting or RIM process, where short cycle time is usually economically favoured. However the ability to extend the working life becomes very important in the moulding of Airlines large parts, where the polymerization reaction should not start before mould is completely filled. The same holds for other processes such us RTM, filament-winding or resin infusion, in which low viscosity of monomer/ catalysts mixture is needed in order to allow good penetration of the monomer through fibbers structures. In such cases the suitable working life is between 30 minutes to several hours depending on process and size of moulded parts. The present invention relates to a method for works, controlling the initiation rate of the catalytic systems based on the ruthenium salicylaldimine precatalysts in ROMP of DCPD without compromising on thermal and Essay on United, physical properties of the polymer. Several methods to electric decrease the initiation efficiency of a metathesis catalyst have been already reported. Allan Poe Biography? Significant reduction of the catalyst activity of the how the works first generation catalyst type 3 (Scheme 3) in on United Airlines ROMP reactions was achieved when a gel modification additive such as: electron donors, Lewis bases and electric, nu- cleophiles were added to Essay Airlines the reaction mixture. The gel modification additive was assumed to how the electric works modify the ligand environment of the catalyst. The amount of the additive used depended on the catalytic activity of the resulting catalyst formed in the reaction with the gel modification additive. Human On Prisoners? In the Table 1 some examples of reported gel modification additives are presented. Scheme 3: Grubbs type metathesis catalysts. Table 1: Effect of addition of the gel modification additives on working life time of the works catalysts 3 (Scheme 3) (EP Patent No 0865449) Entry Gel modification addiAdditive content Working life Temp. °C tive (w/w %) time (min) 1 tricyclopentylphosphine 0.1 1 21 160. 2 tricyclohexylphosphine 0.23 1 1 184. 3 pyridine 0.095 10 145. 3 triphenylphosphite 0.13 no reaction. 4 benzonitrile 0.23 to greek definition fast to how the electric measure. 5 furan 0.23 to fast to measure The Lewis bases such as phosphites completely suppress the polymerization reaction while other additives such us ethers did not show any significant effect on John Heartfield the polymerization rate. However the complete deactivation of the catalyst is not useful, the ideal retardant should decrease the initiation rate without decreasing physical and thermal properties of the how the electric chair works polymer. How To A Title In An Essay? Only the phosphines and pyridine were found to be the how the electric chair most effective in how to in an essay extending working life times (Woodson Ch. Chair Works? S, Grubbs R.H. EP Patent No 0865449). Significant reduction of the catalyst activity in ROMP reactions by Essay addition of phosphine to the reaction mixture was reported by Stanford et al. This resulted in the decrease in phosphine ligand dissociation from the electric chair works catalyst precursor and in how to write essay lower concentrations of the active species, which cause slower polymerization rates (Stanford, M.S., Love, J.L.; Grubbs, R.H. J. Am . How The Electric Works? Chem. Soc. Of The Essay? 2001 , 123, 6543-6554). It has been shown, that one equivalent of PCy3 slows down drastically RCM reaction of diethyl diallylmalonate catalyzed by first generation of Grubbs catalysts 3 to 5% of the initial activity (Dias, E.L.; Nguyen, S. T.; Grubbs, R. H. J. How The? Am. Chem. Soc. Of The Amazon Rainforest Examples? 1997, 1 19, 3887-3897). Strak and co-workers reported that low amounts of 1 -methylimidazole significantly slow down the cross metathesis reaction of 1 -octene in how the works ionic liquids. Schanz and co-workers published a procedure that reversibly inhibits the ROMP of cyclooctene (COE) and norbornadiene with catalyst 3 in solution or in bulk with 2 or more equivalents of basic N-donor-ligands such as 1 - methylimidazole (MIM)or 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) (S.J. P'Pool, H-J. Schanz, J. Am. Poe Biography? Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 14200-14212) This complete inhibition was attributed to how the electric chair the formation of a low-active hexacoordinate (N-donor) 2 Ru- alkylidene species 5 (Scheme 3). Hero Definition? It has been also demonstrated that the how the electric chair second generation Grubbs catalyst 4 can be strongly, but not completely, inhibited by 1 -methylimidazole (MIM) even when a large excess is used. To the best of our knowledge, all literature method describing the use of different additives to control the rate of ROMP reactions lead to modifications of the ligand environment of the catalysts. The influence of type of carbene moiety, nature of donor and how to a title in an, anionic ligands, on chair works catalyst performance and thermal stability has been investigated extensively, for the Grubbs first and experimentation on prisoners, second generation catalysts 3, 4 (Sanford, M. S.; Love, J. L; Grubbs, R. H. Works? J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001 , 123,6543-6554; Dias, E. Essay On United Airlines? L; Nguyen, S. T.; Grubbs, R. H. J. Am. Electric Works? Chem. Soc. Hero Definition? 1997, 779,3887-3897.; Ritter, T.; Hejl, A.; Wenzel, A. G.; Funk, T. W.; Grubbs, R. H.Organometallics 2006, 25, 5740-5745). A different concept has been described for the catalytic systems used in Reaction Injection Moulding (RIM) processes (U.S. Patents No 4,400,340 and 4,943,621 ). In such a case a molybdenum or tungsten containing catalyst precursor and an alkyl aluminium compound are in separated monomer streams and works, after mixing the active catalyst is formed. The stream containing the alkyl aluminium can include a compound such as: ester, ether, ketone, alcohols or phenols which inhibit the formation of the on prisoners active catalyst. However, once the catalyst is formed the initiation is very fast and the polymerization reaction rate cannot be controlled. All attempts to decrease the how the DCPD polymerization rates by adding different types previously described inhibitors in definition the presence ruthenium salicylaldimine / chlorosilane systems failed. How The Electric Works? This is attributed to strong N-donor character of the additives like 1 -methylimidazole, which act as acid scavengers completely blocking the active catalyst formation. Other Lewis bases like triphenyl- phosphine, isochinoline, pyrazine gave the retardation of maximum 13 minutes (at 1 w/w %), however only polymers with decreased physical and Deforestation Amazon Rainforest examples, thermal properties were obtained. Addition of ether, phenol, alcohol, keton or ester did show any influence on the polymerization rate. To date no inhibitor for electric, the ROMP of DCPD catalysed by ruthenium salicylaldi- mine/chlorosilane catalytic system has been reported. Thus, there is allan, a need for an efficient retardant that can allow controlling the polymerization rate and how the works, mak- ing these catalytic systems suitable for edgar allan poe biography, the processes where extended working life of monomer/catalyst mixture is required. Summary of the Invention. The invention provides a catalytic system comprising: (a) a precatalyst comprising: (i) a ruthenium metal, (ii) at least one multidentate Schiff base ligand comprising an how the imino group and being coordinated to the metal, in addition to how to a title the nitrogen atom of said imino group, through at least one further heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, sulphur and selenium ligated to how the electric works said metal, (iii) a nucleophilic carbene ligand ligated to said metal, (iv) a carbon-containing ligand ligated to John Essay said metal, wherein said carbon- containing ligand is a substituted or unsubstituted alkylidene, vi- nylidene or indenylidene ligand; (v) optionally, an how the anionic ligand different from the Schiff base ligand (ii), (b) a precatalyst activator, and. (c) an inhibitor, wherein the inhibitor is selected from the group consisting of phosphites having formula P(ORi)(OR2)(OR3) where R-i , R 2 , R3 may be the greek hero same or different and are each selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1-C20 alkyl, C1-C20 heteroalkyl, C1-C20 alkoxy and aryl optionally substituted with one or more moieties selected from the group consisting of C1-C20 alkyl, C1-C20 heteroalkyl, C-i- C20 alkoxy, aryl, aryloxy, heteroaryl, heterocycloalkyi, heterocycloalkyi, disulfide, carbonate, isocyanate, carbodiimide, carboalkoxy, carbamate, halogen, thio- ether, ketone, aldehyde, ester, ether, amine, amide, nitro and carboxylic acid, the non-hydrogen groups being optionally substituted with one or more moieties selected from the group consisting of C1-C20 alkyl, C1-C20 alkoxy and aryl. Further, the invention provides a process for the preparation of polyolefins by olefin metathesis comprising the how the electric chair step of Essay on United Airlines reacting olefins at a suitable temperature optionally in a suitable solvent, wherein the reaction is carried out in how the chair works the presence of a catalytic system as defined above. Detailed Description of the Invention. As mentioned above, the precatalyst used in the catalytic system according to the present invention comprises a ruthenium metal, a specific multidentate Schiff base ligand, a nucleophilic carbene ligand, a carbon-containing ligand wherein said carbon-containing ligand is edgar, a substituted or unsubstituted alky- lidene, vinylidene or indenylidene ligand;and, optionally, an anionic ligand which is different from the Schiff base ligand. The nucleophilic carbene ligand is not subject to any limitations and suitable nucleophilic carbene ligands are known to how the electric chair works the skilled person. Preferably, the nucleophilic carbene ligand is selected from the group consisting of substituted or unsubstituted, saturated or unsaturated 1 ,3 diheteroatomic cyclic compounds, wherein the heteroatoms are nitrogen atoms, such as, for example, IMES and SIMES. Suitable Schiff base ligands comprising an greek hero imino group and being coordinated to the ruthenium metal, in addition to the nitrogen atom of said imino group, through at least one further heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, sulfur and selenium ligated to electric chair said metal, are also known to the skilled person and described, for example, in of The Essay examples EP 1 577 282 and EP 1 757 613. Most preferably the works carbon-containing ligand is a phenylindenylidene ligand Preferably, the Schiff base ligand is a salicylaldimine ligand. ln one embodiment of the invention, the multidentate Schiff base ligand has the formula: B is hydrogen, C1-C20 alkyl, C1-C20 heteroalkyl aryl or heteroaryl, wherein each non-hydrogen group may be optionally substituted with one or more moieties selected from the group consisting of d-C-10 alkyl and how to write essay, aryl; R 0 1 , Ro2, Rm-i , Rm2 and R p are each selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1-C20 alkyl, C1-C20 heteroalkyl C1-C20 alkoxy, aryl, aryloxy, heteroaryl, heterocyclolalkyl, disulfide, carbonate, isocyanate, carbodiimide, carboalkoxy, carbamate and halogen, thioether, ketone, aldehyde, ester, ether, amine, amide, nitro, carboxylic acid, the non-hydrogen groups optionally substituted with one or more moieties selected from the group consisting of C1-C20 alkyl, C1-C20 alkoxy and how the electric chair works, aryl, wherein R 0 i , R 0 2, Rm-i , Rm2 and R p can be joined to form a fused cyclic aliphatic or aromatic ring optionally substituted with one or more moieties selected from the group consisting of C1-C20 alkyl, C1-C20 heteroalkyl, C1-C20 alkoxy, aryl, aryloxy, heteroaryl, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, disulfide, carbonate, isocyanate, carbodiimide, carboalkoxy, carbamate, halogen, thioether, ketone, aldehyde, ester, ether, amine, amide, nitro and carboxylic acid, the non-hydrogen groups being optionally substituted with one or more moieties selected from the group consisting of C1-C20 alkyl, C1-C20 alkoxy and aryl. Preferably, the above mentioned substituents Si to John Heartfield Essay S 4 of the how the electric chair works multidentate Schiff base ligand of formula (I) include hydrogen, nitro, amino, substituted or unsub- stituted mono- and dialkylamino, C1-C20 alkyl, thioalkyl, aryl and aryloxy. Preferred examples of substituents Si to S 4 are selected from the experimentation on prisoners group consisting of hydrogen, nitro, methoxy, methylthio, amino, dimethylamino, trifluoro- methyl, trifluoromethoxy, t-butyl, phenyl, phenoxy, chloro, bromo, piperidinyl, 1 -pyrrolidino, 4-tert-buty I phenoxy and chair, 2-pyridyl. Suitable anionic ligands are also known to the skilled person and include anionic ligands selected from the group consisting of halide, carboxylate, alkyl sulfonate, alkoxy and aryloxy. Preferably, the write in an anionic ligand is chloride. The anionic ligand is an optional ligand which may be replaced by a multidentate Schiff base ligand so that the chair precatalyst comprises, for human experimentation on prisoners, example, two multidentate Schiff base ligands as shown in Scheme 2 above relating to Ru- bis(salicylaldimine) type of metathesis catalysts. A preferred precatalyst for use in the catalytic system according to the present invention has the formula: Roi , Ro2, Rmi , Rm2 and R p are each selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1-C20 alkyl, C1-C20 heteroalkyl C1-C20 alkoxy, aryl, aryloxy, heteroaryl, heterocyclolalkyl, disulfide, carbonate, isocyanate, carbodiimide, carboalkoxy, carbamate and halogen, thioether, ketone, aldehyde, ester, ether, amine, amide, nitro and electric, carboxylic acid, the non-hydrogen groups being optionally substituted with one or more moieties selected from the group consisting of C1-C20 alkyl, C1-C20 alkoxy and aryl, wherein R 0 i , R 0 2, Rm-i , Rm2 and on United Airlines, R p can be joined to form a fused cyclic aliphatic or aromatic ring optionally substituted with one or more moieties selected from the group consisting of C1-C20 alkyl, C1-C20 heteroalkyl, C1-C20 alkoxy, aryl, aryloxy, heteroaryl, heterocycloalkyl, hetero- cycloalkyl, disulfide, carbonate, isocyanate, carbodiimide, carboalkoxy, carbamate, halogen, thioether, ketone, aldehyde, ester, ether, amine, amide, nitro and carboxylic acid, the non-hydrogen groups being optionally substituted with one or more moieties selected from the group consisting of C1-C20 alkyl, C1-C20 alkoxy and aryl, wherein X is selected from the how the works group consisting of halide, carboxylate, alkyl sulfonate, alkoxy and aryloxy; and wherein L is a nucleophilic carbene ligand as defined above. Another preferred precatalyst for use in the catalytic system according to the present invention has the definition formula. wherein Ri and how the electric chair works, R 2 is. R 0 1 , Ro2, Rmi , Rm2 and R p are each selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1 -C20 alkyl, C1 -C20 heteroalkyl C1 -C20 alkoxy, aryl, aryloxy, heteroaryl, heterocyclolalkyl, disulfide, carbonate, isocyanate, carbodiimide, carboalkoxy, carbamate and halogen, thioether, ketone, aldehyde, ester, ether, amine, amide, nitro and carboxylic acid, the non-hydrogen groups being optionally substituted with one or more moieties selected from the Deforestation of The Essay examples group consisting of C1 -C20 alkyl, C1 -C20 alkoxy and works, aryl, wherein R 0 i , R 0 2, Rm-i , Rm2 and R p can be joined to form a fused cyclic aliphatic or aromatic ring optionally substituted with one or more moieties selected from the how to write a title in an group consisting of C1 -C20 alkyl, C1 -C20 heteroalkyl, C1 -C20 alkoxy, aryl, aryloxy, heteroaryl, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, disulfide, carbonate, isocyanate, carbodiimide, carboalkoxy, carbamate, halogen, thioether, ke- tone, aldehyde, ester, ether, amine, amide, nitro and carboxylic acid, the non-hydrogen groups being optionally substituted with one or more moieties selected from the group consisting of C1-C20 alkyl, C1-C20 alkoxy and aryl. Examples of the above mentioned precatalysts comprising two Schiff base ligands are disclosed in European patent application 09 290 578 which is hereby incorporated by reference and include the following compounds of formulae 6 to chair works 10: As mentioned above, the concept of activating precatalysts with a precatalyst activator is known in the state of the art. These activators include Lewis and Br0nsted acids such as chlorosilanes or HCI. These compounds can also be used as precatalyst activator in definition the catalytic system according to the present invention. How The Chair Works? Preferably, the precatalyst activator is a chlorosilane having the formula S1CI3R, wherein R is selected from the greek hero definition group consisting of hydrogen, C1-C20 alkyl, C-i- C20 heteroalkyl C1-C20 alkoxy, aryl, aryloxy and heteroaryl. The inhibitor for use in the catalytic system according to the present invention is selected from the group consisting of phosphites having formula P(ORi)(OR2)(OR3) where R-i , R 2 , R3 may be the same or different and chair works, are each selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1-C20 alkyl, C1-C20 heteroalkyl, C1-C20 alkoxy and aryl optionally substituted with one or more moieties selected from the group consisting of C1-C20 alkyl, C1-C20 heteroalkyl, C1-C20 alkoxy, aryl, aryloxy, heteroaryl, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, disulfide, carbonate, iso- cyanate, carbodiimide, carboalkoxy, carbamate, halogen, thioether, ketone, aldehyde, ester, ether, amine, amide, nitro and carboxylic acid, the experimentation on prisoners non-hydrogen groups being optionally substituted with one or more moieties selected from the how the electric chair works group consisting of C1-C20 alkyl, C1-C20 alkoxy and aryl. Preferably, the inhibitor is a trialkyl phosphite compound such as trimethyl- phosphite or triethylphosphite. The molar ratio of phosphite/ruthenium is preferably in human the range of how the works 0.01 to John 300. The molar ratio of how the works phosphite/ruthenium is write a title in an, most preferably in the range of 0.1 to 160. Further, it is preferred that the works molar ratio of phosphite/activator is 0.007 to 1000. Further, it is most preferred that the Amazon Essay molar ratio of phosphite/activator is 0.01 to 200. In a preferred catalytic system according to the present invention the precatalst activator is electric chair works, trichlorophenylsilane and the phosphite inhibitor is write, trimethyl- phosphite or triethylphosphite. According to a preferred embodiment, the molar ratio methylphosphite (trimethylphosphite/ trichlorophenylsilane is from 0.03 to 45. The use of the catalytic system according to the present invention provides a straight-forward method to control the activity of acid activated ruthenium Schiff base complexes, based on a reversible inhibition of the precatalyst activator such as chlorosilane co-catalysts. The present invention is based on the unexpected finding that phosphite compounds as defined hereinabove including alkyl phosphites, such as trimethylphosphite, unexpectedly exhibit a strong inhibiting effect on the rate of DCPD polymerisation but do not result in a complete suppression of the polymerisation reaction and do not decrease the physical and thermal properties of the obtained polymers as shown in Table 3 below: Table 3. Works? Effect of trimethylphosphite (TMP), triethylhosphite (TEP), tributylphosphite (TBP) and triisodecylphosphite (TIDP) on ROMP of on United DCPD catalysed by 2a/PhSiCI 3 system. Conditions: 100g of DCPD monomer, room temperature, [Ru]/[PhSiCl 3 ]=15. Addition of very low amounts of trimethylphosphit (TMP) (0.01 w/w %) caused already a significant shift of reactivity up to 15 min in typical conditions (Table 3). The inhibiting ability of how the chair works TMP is a function of the Essay on United TMP/chlorosilane ratio, and the longer inhibition periods were achieved by how the chair decreasing chlorosilane co-catalyst concentration (cf. Table 3). Surprisingly when a lower concentration of write in an essay co- catalyst was applied, polymers with improved thermal and physical properties were obtained compared to those obtained by the uninhibited catalytic system (cf. Table 4) The reduction of the how the chair works chlorosilane concentration is also very desirable to edgar allan eliminate problems of electric chair corrosion, toxicity, as well as many difficulties in processing. Table 4. Inhibiting capability of TMP in definition the ROMP of how the electric chair DCPD catalysed by how to write a title in an 2a/PhSiCI 3 system. Conditions: 100g of DCPD monomer, room temperature, [RuJ/fPhSiCI^I 5.7. We also assessed the inhibiting ability of TMP with catalysts 4 in the ROMP of DCPD in comparison with the uninhibited catalyst 4 and electric chair works, inhibited 2a/PhSiCl 3 system (Table 5). In contrast to the 2a/TMP/PhSiCI 3 , the addition of 0.05 % of TMP to the reaction mixture containing catalyst 4 is sufficient to completely suppress the ROMP of DCPD at normal conditions. Significantly better results have been observed, by using 2a-d/TMP/PhSiCl 3 systems, where the experimentation on prisoners working life time has been extended 136 times compared to the uninhibited 2a/ PhSiC system but the electric chair works catalytic activity was not completely suppressed and after the inhibition period the hero definition polymerization reaction occurs at room temperature resulting in the polymers with enhanced physical and thermal properties. The effect of the how the electric chair phopshite addition to 2a-d/PhSiCI3 systems is experimentation on prisoners, highly superior to that of the conventional retardants and provides a very useful way to sufficiently modify the polymerization rates. This experimental evidence demonstrates that phosphite compounds can be successfully used in catalytic systems comprising Schiff base ligands to allow inhibition of electric works DCPD polymerisation. These inhibitors are substances that inhibit ROMP of DCPD in a reversible manner without decreasing the thermal and physical properties of the polymer obtained. Further, the inhibitor does not change the ligand environment in the precatalyst structure. Table 5. Inhibiting capability of TMP in on United Airlines the ROMP of how the electric works DCPD catalysed by the catalyst 4 and 2/PhSiCI 3 system. Conditions: 100g of DCPD monomer, room temperature,

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The fear of the powerful forces of nature was embodied by ancient people in mythological images of giant or vile monsters. Created by a rich imagination of the antiquity, they combined parts of the bodies of known animals, such as, for example, a lion’s head or a tail of a serpent, and human bodies. The body composed of heterogeneous parts was to emphasize the enormity of these disgusting creatures. Many of how the electric works them were considered inhabitants of the depths of the sea symbolizing the hostile power of water. In ancient mythology, monsters were represented by a wide variety of shapes, colours and how to a title in an essay sizes. Often, they were ugly, and sometimes – magically beautiful. Some of them were half-animal and half-human, and others were depicted as absolutely fantastic creatures. These myths included all the wisdom of the ancient people, all what they thought about the good and the evil, cowardice and heroism. Thus, sometimes, these mythical creatures were not merely evil, but some of them seemed to be good. For example, the Centaurs living high in the mountains covered with dense forest were endowed with animal features and cruelty. However, some of the Centaurs were good to people who helped them although they didn’t want to share their knowledge and secrets with humans. Thus, as it is proved in this paper, by combining the animal and electric works human parts, the Greeks stressed the negative (and sometimes good) sides of human nature. The first type of monsters important for experimentation the above mentioned assumption is the Centaurs. Centaur is rather a harmonious creation of electric works fantastic zoology. In his Metamorphosis, Ovid calls them “cloud-born” and “half-human”. The epithets given by him to Centaurs include “savage” and “furious”. In fact, the discovery of this archetype has required many centuries. The primitive and archaic images represent a naked man to whom a clumsy horse croup is attached. At the west pediment of the temple of Zeus in Olympia, a Centaur already has horse legs, and a human torso is portrayed in the place where a horse neck should be. The image of the centaur supposedly originated as a fantasy of representatives of the civilized people who were not familiar with horse riding and confronted with horse riders of Deforestation of The Amazon examples some nomadic tribes (for example, the Scythians) for the first time. This explains both a ferocious temper of Centaurs and their connection with bulls since the basis of the nomadic economy was herding. In ancient Greek culture, the image and symbolism of Centaurs has undergone significant changes. Centaur Chiron (and, to a lesser extent, centaur Pholus) were considered as wise protectors of humanity. Chiron was usually depicted with branches of laurel in both hands. In Homer’s Iliad, Chiron is a doctor, a friend and teacher of heroes, the creator of ingenious devices for warfare, and, finally, the most righteous of Centaurs. In general, however, Centaurs remained a symbol of drunkenness and violence. Describing the fourth labour of chair works Hercules, Appolodorus tells about the meeting of Hercules and centaur Pholus, a son of Silenus by a Melian nymph. Deforestation Of The Examples? Hercules decided to open the electric chair works jar which belonged to the centaurs in John, common “and not long afterwards, scenting the smell, the centaurs arrived at the cave of Pholus, armed with rocks and firs” (Appolodorus 2.5.4). Maybe because of this myth, Centaurs became to be associated with wine. The most popular of the electric works legends that feature Centaurs is the Heartfield legend of the how the works battle between Centaurs and Lapiths who invited them to the wedding. Wine was a new experience for the guests, and at the feast, a drunken Centaur insulted the bride and, overturning tables, started the famous “Centauromachy” that was described by Ovid in Book XII of The Metamorphosis : “For your heart, Eurytus, you most savage of the savage centaurs, was hot with wine, as well as from the sight of that young girl, and you were ruled by drunkenness and lust” (Ovid XII, 343-347). The history of another Centaur, Nessus was described in the tragedies by Sophocles and in Book IX of Ovid’s Metamorphosis . Poe Biography? Hercules and his bride Deianeira were going to his house. Centaur Nessus was a ferryman on the river Euenos. Deianeira sat down on his back in order to be transported to the other side, but at the middle of the works river, Nessus grabbed her and tried to dishonour her. Hercules saved his bride from Centaur by piercing his chest with a spear. While dying, Nessus advised Deianeira to collect his blood and use it as a love potion if Hercules would ever love another woman. Later, it caused the death of on prisoners Hercules because this blood appeared to be poison. The Greeks who loved horses are bred them were familiar with their nature. There is no coincidence in how the electric, the fact that the John Heartfield nature of the horse was associated with unpredictable manifestations of violence in a generally positive creature. How The Electric? A Greek centaur is a practical man, but his behaviour is strikingly altered under the influence of edgar wine. While in how the electric chair works, Greece a Centaur was the Essay embodiment of rather animal qualities incompatible with human nature, unbridled passions and intemperate sexuality, in ancient Rome, it became a peace-loving companion of Dionysus and electric chair works Eros. The largest contribution to the formation of the John Essay Roman version of the image of a Centaur was made, of course, by Ovid in The Metamorphosis . The poet created a lot of chair detail in the history of the famous marriage of Pirithous and the ensuing battle. The battle involved not only known Centaurs, such as Nessus, but other Centaurs, which were the fruit of Ovid’s imagination. Among them, the most interesting are Cyllarus and Hylonome. Cyllarus is a young blond centaur, and Hylonome is his beloved one, with long hair decorated with roses, violets and white lilies: “Among those hybrid beasts in the deep woods, there was no female lovelier than her” (Ovid XII, 630-631). After Cyllarus had been killed in battle, Hylonome “threw herself onto the spear which had killed her husband, and as she died, embraced him” (Ovid XII, 663-664). John Heartfield Essay? This scene demonstrates the positive human features – love and how the electric chair devotion. Here, it is possible to make an important assumption – in Centaurs who possessed a human head the human traits prevailed, and Minotaur, with a head of a bull, was more an animal than a human being. If we consider this fact, the explanation of the essence of other monsters becomes obvious. The example of allan this approach is the image of Minotaur. In Greek mythology, Minotaur was a monster with a human body and the head of a bull, which lived in the labyrinth on how the chair works, Crete. The history of the Minotaur was described by Heartfield Essay, Apollodorus in chair, his Library . Experimentation On Prisoners? Asterius, the how the electric chair works king of Crete married Europe, the daughter of the Phoenician king and fathered her sons including Minos, son of Heartfield Essay Zeus. Grown up brothers had a conflict about love for the young Miletus, son of Apollo and Aria. The war began, which resulted in the victory of Minos who managed to drive the brothers away and take over the whole Crete. In order to consolidate his victory, Minos tried to how the works, win the favour of the gods. He asked Poseidon to send a bull from the sea depths promising to sacrifice him to the gods. Poseidon fulfilled his request, but Minos sacrificed another bull. Angered by this breach of promise, Poseidon gave the bull a fierce temper and human experimentation inspired Minos’ wife Pasiphae with amorous passion to the bull. Pasiphae asked Daedalus, the Athenian exiled to Crete for murder to find a way to satisfy her passion. Daedalus carved a hollow wooden figure of cow covered by the skin of sacrificial animal and put Pasiphae into the figure. How The? After the intercourse with the bull, Pasiphae gave birth to Essay, Asterius who was called the how the electric works Minotaur. “He had the face of a bull, but the rest of hero definition him was human; and Minos, in compliance with certain oracles, shut him up and guarded him in the Labyrinth” (Appolodorus,3.1.4). This labyrinth was built by Daedalus, and it was so complex that no man who descended there could find the exit: “the Minotaur was confined in a labyrinth, in which he who entered could not find his way out; for many, a winding turn shut off the secret outward way” (Appolodorus 3.15.8). Minos suspected the chair works king of Athens Aegeus of killing one of poe biography his sons, and to take revenge, he asked Jupiter to corrupt Athens with plague. Athenians sought advice from the how the oracle who told them that the epidemic will stop only if every year they send to Crete “seven youths and the same number of a title in an essay damsels without weapons to be fodder for the Minotaur” (Appolodorus 3.15.8). Prince Theseus decided to save the Athenians from the terrible sacrifice and destroy Minotaur. He exchanged places with one of the young men sent to Crete. The hero was in love with Ariadne, daughter of Minos who decided to help him. She gave Theseus the thread that was supposed to chair works, lead him out of the labyrinth. Theseus entered the labyrinth, defeated Minotaur and went out. Like the other characters combining human and animal features, Minotaur represents the predominance of the animal spirit over the human one. The fact that the animal part of the body is represented by the head (the image of the greek hero definition dominant aspect of the individual usually associated with reason and spirit) emphasizes the basic symbolism. In addition, the Minotaur is the guardian of the labyrinth (which is the universal symbol of the obstacles) embodying fear, terror, danger and chair works obstacles mainly coming from the adherence of men to sensual and material things standing in John Essay, the way of the hero trying to reach the highest spiritual values. The fact that Minotaur was defeated symbolizes the ability of man to overcome his desires. A more complex example of animal-human combination is Sphinx. Electric Chair? The homeland of Sphinx is Egypt where it was a symbol of wisdom, dignity, strength and power of the royal authority of Pharaoh in whose honour grandiose stone sphinxes guarding the entrances to the pyramids—tombs of royalty—were erected. The most famous of them is the Sphinx of Giza. Having migrated to the ancient world, Sphinx changed his sex. The Greek Sphinx appeared in greek, the form of half-woman and half-lion under the how the works name “Sfingo” (which means “to squeeze”). In Greek mythology, it was a child of chthonic monsters Typhon and Echidna, an evil demon of destruction. It was a monster with “the face of a woman, the breast and feet and tail of a lion, and the wings of a bird” (Appolodorus 3.5.8). Thus, the classical Sphinx is a fabulous creature consisting of several parts of the human body and four different animals. At different periods of history, Sphinx was associated with different phenomena. This creature appeared both as a defender and as a destroyer. However, above all, Sphinx is a symbol of the mysterious and ineffable. In Greek tradition, Sphinx appears as a symbol of oblivion, the enemy of truth and memory. Also, it has a value of wanton destruction and can be considered the enemy of Essay Airlines every person and all humanity in general. The most famous of electric works this kind was the legendary Sphinx, which settled down near Thebes in how to, Boeotia where it came all the how the electric works way from Ethiopia by the order of the goddess Hera who was insulted by the Thebans and avenged them by sending a monster. Lying in a careless cat pose at a roadside rock, the Sphinx asked passers-by riddles and greek charades: those who were able to electric chair, solve them could proceed, but those who failed were killed and write in an essay devoured. How The Electric? Finally, it came up with a riddle which no one could answer, and he became a true scourge of the neighbourhood, which is how to essay, a bit surprising since the electric chair riddle was not that difficult: “And having learned a riddle from the Muses, she sat on on United Airlines, Mount Phicium, and electric chair propounded it to the Thebans. And the riddle was this: -- What is that which has one voice and yet becomes four-footed and two-footed and three-footed?” (Appolodorus 3.5.8). Oedipus who arrived in Thebes from Corinth easily guessed that the riddle referred to man “for as a babe he is human experimentation, four-footed, going on four limbs, as an adult he is two-footed, and as an old man he gets besides a third support in a staff” (Appolodorus 3.5.8). Having heard the answer of chair Oedipus, Sphinx threw himself into the abyss angry of his own stupidity and unoriginality. Edgar Allan Poe Biography? Thus, human mind triumphed over foolishness and mystery. The essence of how the chair works Greek mythology is determined by the features of primitive society of the Greeks who saw the world as one big family life of the community and summarized in Deforestation of The Amazon Rainforest Essay examples, myths the diversity of human relationships and the natural phenomena. The mythology often describes the heroes who defeat monsters, which once scared the human imagination. Mythical monsters in ancient Greek mythology are usually a combination of several animals and human parts, which allowed the human imagination to give them extraordinary abilities including freedom from the usual principles of the how the world. Monsters combining the look of Heartfield Essay several different animals are a symbol of the how the electric initial chaos and terrifying forces of nature, and they represent the forces of evil in the nature of man himself. Fabulous animals are also often depicted guarding treasures or hidden, secret knowledge. The Greeks whose gods possessed purely human qualities considered vile monsters as carriers of certain negative traits of human nature, which, however, can be overcome by men. Ultimately, all the monsters are defeated symbolizing the Essay on United triumph of humanity over nature. Thus, Centaurs were savage and furious wine-loving creatures who embodied the ancient representations of drunkenness and violence. Minotaur embodied fear, terror, danger and obstacles at the path of human development. Sphinx was the enemy of truth and memory and the symbol of human foolishness. How The? Understanding the reason of why the Greeks portrayed a certain monster in a certain way helps to understand the other interpretations of the traits of human nature.

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The Craziest Black Market in Russia Isn’t for Oil or Guns. Electric? It’s for Heartfield Essay Dissertations. The Craziest Black Market in Russia. Photo illustration by Lisa Larson-Walker. Late last year, Russian newspapers reported what would have qualified as a stunning piece of news almost anywhere else: The chairman of the country’s largest parliamentary body had been exposed as a plagiarist. Sergei Naryshkin, the former chief of staff in Vladimir Putin’s administration and a prominent member of his United Russia party, stood accused of receiving the Russian equivalent of chair a doctoral degree on the strength of a dissertation in which more than half of the John Heartfield, pages contained material lifted from works, other sources. Leon Neyfakh is a Slate staff writer. In a satisfying twist, one of the uncredited guests in Naryshkin’s thesis—a 196-page paper titled “Foreign Investment in Russia as a Factor in Deforestation of The Amazon Essay examples, Economic Development”—was an unabashedly liberal economist named Vladislav Inozemtsev. “It’s quite amusing that a prominent member of United Russia decided to turn to my article,” Inozemtsev said at the time. “It seems he found it to be of good quality.” Of course, no one really believed that Naryshkin had read Inozemtsev’s article or that he was guilty of copying it himself. Rather, he was suspected of how the electric paying a ghostwriter to produce a thesis in his name, then bribing academic officials to secure its certification. Naryshkin probably never even read the dissertation that had earned him his degree. In the United States, the exposure of a government official of Naryshkin’s stature as a plagiarist would likely set off a major scandal. (Imagine if Paul Ryan was found to have written an economics paper in which he had borrowed liberally from Airlines, Paul Krugman.) Naryshkin’s fate hasn’t been so dire. After giving a half-hearted statement in his own defense—“I was told that some website published some information. But I trust the judgment of chair real scientists”—he continued doing his job as though nothing out of the ordinary had happened. To be fair, nothing much had. As Naryshkin himself surely knew when the accusations against him were leveled, he is just one of edgar more than 1,000 high-achieving, well-heeled Russians who have recently been caught plagiarizing large parts of their dissertations. Mikhail Svetlov/Getty Images. Many of the alleged fraudsters are politicians. Some are judges. Others are prosecutors, police officials, and heads of universities; one was a bureaucrat in charge of overseeing Russia’s circus industry. In the past few years alone, there have been credible allegations of electric works dissertation plagiarism made against Russia’s minister of culture, the governor of St. Petersburg, and the head of the country’s top federal investigating authority. Just in Essay, the past month, copy-and-pasting has been discovered in chair, the dissertations of the experimentation on prisoners, deputy finance minister of the Russian republic of Mordovia and a government adviser on electric works, justice who is the putative author of a thesis comparing legal principles in Essay on United Airlines, Russia and the West. While the problem of academic fraud exists all over electric chair works the world, the pervasiveness of the in an essay, deception in Russia is unparalleled. In all these cases, the alleged fraud was exposed by members of a volunteer organization that calls itself “Dissernet”—the “website” Naryshkin referred to so dismissively. Started in early 2013 by a handful of scientists and how the electric chair, journalists, the group has undertaken the task of identifying and publicly shaming government functionaries, academic administrators, and definition, members of Russia’s so-called elite who allegedly hold advanced degrees they did not earn through legitimate means. Using software that looks for sections of text that resemble previously published work, Dissernet has, to date, identified roughly 5,600 suspected plagiarists and published damning reports on about 1,300 of how the electric chair works them. In an exposé posted earlier this year, Dissernet showed that 1 in human experimentation, 9 members of the Russian State Duma—the parliamentary body that Naryshkin presides over—had received their diplomas using dissertations that contained large portions of other people’s work and that had, most likely, been purchased from ghostwriters. Andrei Rostovtsev, a physicist who co-founded Dissernet and developed its plagiarism-detection software, explained to me how the group catches its quarry. “Currently we’re doing doctors,” he said. “The machine is electric constantly working, and how to essay, it chooses suspicious cases. Electric Chair? So, we see from the state library that roughly 100,000 doctors have defended theses in the last 15 years. The machine chooses a paper from this digital bank, analyzes it for overlaps, and if there are too many matches, it flags it for us. Then our volunteers examine it by hand. Edgar Allan? And this process is running 24 hours a day, seven days a week.” Dissernet is best understood as a diffuse network of anonymous activists, described by one of the group’s leaders in a recent article as being motivated by a concern that Russian science “has become a breeding ground for the development of low and shameful human vices—vanity, hypocrisy, and how the works, the will to how to a title in an essay, achieve professional success through dishonest methods.” Rostovtsev estimates that there are several dozen people around the world contributing to the effort on a regular basis while he and a few other core members serve as its public face. The organization’s informal structure—it has no physical headquarters or central bank account—is essential to how the electric chair works, its survival. Human Experimentation? Serguei Parkhomenko, a prominent liberal journalist who joined Dissernet after writing extensively about its early disclosures, explained recently that “when there is electric works no head, there is nothing to tear off.” Still, the allan poe biography, group’s leaders have faced occasional bursts of hostility from the powerful individuals that Dissernet targets. One of the chair works, founders was accused of tax evasion earlier this year, and just last week, Parkhomenko was called in for questioning by investigators from the Ministry of Internal Affairs. “A Russian Donald Trump would certainly have a dissertation—maybe two or three.” Andrei Zayakin, co-founder of Dissernet. Some of the greek hero, intellectual theft Dissernet has identified is comic in electric chair works, its brazenness and Airlines, absurdity. Duma member Igor Igoshin allegedly earned his economics degree by how the electric works, turning someone else’s paper on the Russian chocolate industry into a thesis on meat; the dissertation replaced every mention of “chocolate” with “beef,” “dark chocolate” with “home-grown beef,” and “white chocolate” with “imported beef.” All numbers, charts, and how to essay, analysis were preserved in how the chair works, their original form. More recently, Dissernet revealed that an oncologist named Yuri Tsarapkin had handed in a medical article about breast cancer that was adapted—data and all—from someone else’s paper on stomach cancer. That paper, which was presented as a study of human subjects, turned out to have been plagiarized from yet another source: a study of cancer in dogs and rats. While academic fraud exists all over the world, the pervasiveness of the Airlines, deception in Russia is unparalleled, as is the extent to which it is tolerated. As MIT historian Loren Graham points out, even Vladimir Putin has been accused, in a 2006 investigation by the Brookings Institution, of works plagiarizing parts of on United his Ph.D. How The Electric? thesis in economics. Edgar? It has not had much effect on electric chair, the Russian president’s career. “The fact that that had no resonance—doesn’t that sort of tell you what’s going on?” said Graham, who specializes in the history of Russian science. Greek Hero Definition? “If Putin can get away with it, it’s a blessing for others to do the how the chair, same thing.” Quantifying the scale of Russia’s plagiarism problem is difficult, but based on the data it has collected so far, Dissernet estimates that improper borrowing can be found in about 4 percent of all dissertations defended in the country. That doesn’t include ghostwritten work that is plagiarism-free: According to human experimentation, Ararat Osipian, who completed a Ph.D. on academic corruption at Vanderbilt University and is now doing field work on the subject in Ukraine, between 20 percent and 30 percent of all dissertations that have been completed at Russian universities since the fall of the Soviet Union were purchased on the black market. This market feeds on the Russian elite’s surprisingly intense yearning for the markers of academic status. According to how the works, Parkhomenko, Russian bureaucrats, lawmakers, doctors, and businesspeople regard advanced degrees as part of the same “package of success” as expensive jewelry, fancy cars, and giant homes. “If a person has achieved this—if he could get himself this title, it is supposed to mean he is capable of something in life,” Parkhomenko said. “It means he’s worthy of edgar allan respect.” Andrei Zayakin, another Dissernet co-founder, summed it up this way: “A Russian Donald Trump would certainly have a dissertation—maybe two or three.” The purpose of how the chair Dissernet is edgar allan poe biography not merely to discredit these individuals. Its greater mission, its leaders told me, is to restore the very concept of works “reputation” in Russian society. “We want to show that reputation matters—that it means something,” said Parkhomenko. “The fake dissertations are just part of what we call the reputational catastrophe in Russia—an anti-meritocracy in which people who have the most success and on United Airlines, who can achieve the most influence are not those who deserve it, but those who do not present themselves as who they really are.” The prevalence of academic fraud in Russia is fueled in part by how the electric chair, the structure of the country’s higher education system. Unlike their American counterparts, would-be academics in Russia can receive doctoral degrees without doing any substantial coursework, as long as they convince a “dissertation board” to Deforestation examples, approve their theses. These dissertation boards exist inside universities, where they are organized by discipline and electric works, staffed by faculty members; there are several thousand of them throughout the country. “If it’s a big university, they might have 10 of these boards, each one devoted to a different academic field—one for European history, one for Russian history, one for philology, one for French language, one for philosophy, and so on,” said Parkhomenko. Over the allan poe biography, past 25 years many of these boards have become corrupt, with faculty members and academic advisers taking bribes in exchange for rubber-stamping obviously shoddy, or stolen, work, according to Osipian, who is not a member of Dissernet. “Everyone wants to get his cut,” he said. “You bought a dissertation, fine, but you still have to pay the people on the board to let this dissertation go through. Works? At these universities, everyone needs money—they are all overworked and underpaid.” “You can just pay the money and forget about it, and then they’ll bring you your diploma at home.” Serguei Parkhomenko, a Dissernet member. Corrupt dissertation boards, according to Zayakin, are the “core” of the supply chain for academic fraud, and some of them “have effectively become places where fake degrees are manufactured.” But what really makes the system hum is the thriving marketplace of dissertation-writing firms, which often masquerade as mere academic consultancies, that broker deals for Essay Airlines buyers. For the most part, these firms do their business out in the open and are easy to find by looking up “dissertation for order” on Google or the Russian search engine Yandex. One representative outfit sports a user-friendly website featuring a picture of a smart-looking man in glasses and offering dissertations for the bargain price of 100,000 rubles (about $1,500). Your order can be ready in as little as 30 days. Customer reviews promise excellent outcomes: “Oleg” reports that the dissertation he received from the company was “perfectly done” and electric chair, was approved by every expert who examined it. “I couldn’t have done it this well myself,” he avows. Who is responsible for Deforestation of The Essay examples actually producing the text these companies supply to their clients remains something of a mystery, said Zayakin, though most likely it varies: “We have no access to the internal structure of these mills, so we don’t know who the people are who fabricate the papers,” the physicist told me. “Are they junior faculty members on electric chair works, the board? Are they employees at the university where the thesis board is located? Or are they employees of the front-end firm that sets it up?” What’s certain is that the firms providing these services tend to be aggressive and entrepreneurial, seeking out potential clients in sectors of the economy where advanced degrees are common. “This industry is set up like any other industry—they don’t wait for hero clients to come to them, they go out and find them,” said Parkhomenko. “If there’s a person who is the owner of a clothing store, or a chain of stores, at some point he’ll get a visit from how the, a respectable-looking gentleman who comes to his office, and says, ‘It’s time you became a doctor of economics. It’ll be good for Deforestation of The Amazon Rainforest examples your business.’ And he makes the pitch—he has his own marketing materials, he lays out all the how the works, options, the different prices, the discounts. It’s no different from an insurance salesman.” The companies typically offer a range of services, said Osipian, with the median price for a made-to-order paper somewhere in the neighborhood of John Heartfield $3,000 and how the works, more elaborate packages—which can include a book-length monograph and the creation of an entire bibliography of hero definition fake journal articles—running closer to $25,000 or more. “If you’re buying the top-of-the-line services, they will themselves make a deal with the right dissertation council,” said Parkhomenko. How The Electric Chair Works? “Ideally, you can just pay the greek, money and forget about it, and then they’ll bring you your diploma at home.” It didn’t used to be this way. How The Electric Chair? Though it wasn’t unheard of to find Communist Party bosses with ill-gotten diplomas in the Soviet era, academic fraud was not perpetrated as brazenly, or at such an enormous scale, until the 1990s. According to Osipian, the number of dissertations defended in Russia each year jumped from about 15,000 in 1993 to greek hero definition, 30,000 in 2005. The most straightforward reason that advanced degrees are in how the electric chair, such high demand in Russia is that they can bring tangible—that is, monetary—benefits to those who acquire them. In some sectors of the economy, only those with doctorates can be promoted to the highest ranks; in others, including medicine, an advanced degree allows a practitioner to charge more for his services. In politics, the incentives are particularly perverse: Not only do Ph.D.s allow officials who have lost their hold on power to get highly paid jobs as the edgar, heads of works universities (“where the John Heartfield Essay, unlucky or the failed or the stupid can land,” said Zayakin), they also make it easier to profit from other forms of corruption. Chair? “Teaching work is one of the few legal spheres of work that active politicians are allowed to do,” said Parkhomenko. Essay? “A politician isn’t allowed to do business. But he can be a professor, and how the electric chair, he can write books. That’s a great way to launder money. Where did you get this money? Well, I gave lectures. I did consulting. I’m a respected person; I have this income from my scientific teaching work.” But the value that Russia’s elites place on academic status is not entirely economic. Osipian argues that the country’s past and human experimentation, the proud tradition of scholarly excellence it established during the how the electric works, Soviet era is key to understanding today’s demand for Ph.D.s. “In the Soviet Union, there was enormous prestige around math and science—physics, chemistry, biochemistry, biology—because there was real research being done, and the people doing it were honest and honorable,” he said. That prestige has survived, even as funding for academic work has declined under Putin and many scientists have left for jobs abroad. For those who can afford it, an experimentation advanced degree is still a tool for how the works social advancement. According to Gregory Simons, a senior researcher at the Uppsala Centre for experimentation on prisoners Russian and Eurasian Studies in Sweden and the co-author of a recent article on corruption in Russian higher education, the explosion in how the electric chair, academic fraud in Russia has been fueled by human, the combination of actual scholars and scientists being underpaid and of socially ambitious professionals having disposable income to spend on status symbols. One perverse incentive to how the chair, acquire a doctorate is that it makes it easier to Deforestation of The Rainforest Essay, launder money obtained through other forms of corruption. “The business developed because the electric chair, system was made highly bureaucratic … and at how to a title in an essay, the same time the status and electric chair works, pay for academics decreased significantly,” Simons said in an email. “The push and pull factors come together, especially as these new classes—lawyers, politicians and businessmen—were among the new winners in the emerging Russia, accumulating massive wealth in record time but also needing some kind of John Heartfield sense or perception of legitimacy.” It makes sense that these newly minted strivers would grasp for an old-fashioned marker of accomplishment. How The Electric Chair Works? At the Essay Airlines, same time, if everyone who can afford a Ph.D. knows the degrees are manufactured, why do they retain their value? As Loren Graham, the MIT historian, put it, “It’s kind of strange to how the chair, think about these people who don’t much care that an Heartfield Essay advanced degree is electric chair falsified while at the same time believing that it adds prestige. It seems contradictory. Heartfield? But I’m afraid that’s how it is.” The Russian government and its educational institutions have not been entirely indifferent to the country’s plague of academic fraud. In 2012, when it was discovered that the how the electric, head of a prestigious mathematics academy in Moscow, Andrei Andrianov, had faked multiple publications—and later printed up copies of nonexistent academic journals to try to prove his innocence—the Russian Ministry of Education and hero, Science formed a commission to study the problem. Ultimately, the government disbanded the dissertation board at the Moscow State Pedagogical University that had approved Andrianov’s degree, shut down or “froze” some 800 others around the country, and implemented anti-corruption reforms within the central government agency responsible for certifying dissertations. Those reforms have probably made it marginally harder to buy degrees, and according to electric chair, the historian who led the commission, Igor Fedyukin, the state deserves credit for its efforts. But it is the activity of Dissernet, which gets regular attention in the Russian press and publishes dossiers on one or two plagiarists a day, that has pushed the issue of academic fraud into the public consciousness. Human Experimentation? “There’s a difference between an open secret and an exposed secret,” said biologist Mikhail Gelfand, another of Dissernet’s founders. “It’s one thing to say that it’s common knowledge that everyone fools around with women. It’s another to show a specific person doing so in a photograph.” Though only a handful of officials have resigned or been fired over Dissernet’s allegations, the organization’s founders believe their work is making a difference. If nothing else, they say, Russia’s ambitious pseudo-scholars now know that the dissertations being offered to them on how the electric works, the black market are likely to be plagiarized and that buying them carries a certain amount of risk. Perhaps for this reason, said Zayakin, the number of dissertations being defended each year has dropped to where it was in the early ’90s, from approximately 30,000 in 2012 to 16,500 in Deforestation of The Amazon examples, 2014. Scaring members of the Russian elite into being less corrupt is undoubtedly a victory. How The Chair? But, as Parkhomenko concedes, it is experimentation not the same as making regular people care about academic fraud or convincing them to stop thinking of works it as a normal part of life. That is the Essay on United, ultimate goal of how the Dissernet, he said: “to get people to start caring.” “A lot of people are ‘exposed’ in Russia,” Parkhomenko said, noting that Sergei Naryshkin has comfortably held onto John Essay his position in parliament and within his political party. How The Works? “The Russian public says, ‘So what? So he stole. Experimentation? Everyone steals. Works? In the end, why would someone be a boss, if he is not stealing?’ So reputation means nothing. The threat—we will ruin your reputation, we will tell everyone you stole—does not produce any effect.’” If this is true—if the how to a title in an essay, Russian people’s fatalism about corruption really runs so deep—how will Dissernet ever achieve its goal of “restoring the value of reputation”? “Gradually, gradually,” said Parkhomenko. “Sometimes we do get a reaction—sometimes quite a loud and fervent one. Electric Chair Works? And sometimes we are able to attach this label to people. Human? Everyone knows, for example, that the chair, minister of culture in Russia is a person with two stolen dissertations. Essay? It is written in Wikipedia. It comes up as the first result in Google. This is very important, to attach this label to someone, so that it drags behind him. Sooner or later it will mean something.” Slate is published by The Slate Group, a Graham Holdings Company. All contents © 2017 The Slate Group LLC. All rights reserved.