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This is an example of a first year essay which was given a distinction. Bacillus Subtilis! Click on the highlights to read the comments. Certain words may be unfamiliar to commitment pros, you. Click on bacillus subtilis catalase test, them to read their definitions in the glossary. In this essay, the Rococo and Romanticism periods have been selected to demonstrate how two art periods can have many similarities yet still hold true to their own beliefs, values and principles to create a definitive style . Antoine Watteau's painting, L'Indifferent , 1716, oil on canvas, 25cm x 18cm and Eugene Delacroix's Paganini , 1831, oil on cardboard on wood panel, approx. 43cm x 28cm have been selected to represent the Rococo and Romanticism periods respectively . Rococo was a style of art that followed on To Blackpool, from the Baroque period in the early 18th century. Bacillus Subtilis! The artists of this style typically depicted themes of "love, artfully and archly pursued through erotic frivolity and playful intrigue" . 1 Both the art and interior design of the time displayed a sense of rhythm in which "[e]verything seemed organic, growing, and in motion, an ultimate refinement of illusion". Essay! 2 The artists of this period were also starting to catalase test, express themselves and their feelings about their themes in their work. Some of the works seem to be edging toward the ideals of the Romanticism period, even though they were at opposite ends of the 18th century . Romanticism in the late 18th century was a revolt against the sober restraint of the Gender Representation Essay Enlightenment period that had preceded it. 3 This was a period encompassing the "desire for freedom - not only political freedom but also freedom of thought, of feeling, of action, of worship, of speech and of taste". 4 Artists wanted only to produce pure, truthful art that was "based on bacillus subtilis, the predominance of feeling and imagination." 5 Works in the Romantic period depict not only the Romantic ideal of love but also 'Gothic' horror, as this too could be explored to commitment, discover the 'sublime' . The works discussed in this essay share obvious similarities. They are both portraits of performers in full, in the context of their performing environment. Subtilis Catalase Test! In Watteau's L'Indifferent , there is a sense of the subject posing for Essay on Summary of Riordan the portrait in a very festive manner which is characteristic of the Rococo period. By contrast, in Delacroix's Paganini the performer seems to carry himself with a much more intrinsic purpose, perhaps enacting a more truthful value that is typical of the test Romantic ideal. There is, nevertheless, a similarity in Building: Taking Advantage Resources, the two poses that suggests motion, as both performers seem to be caught in mid movement. This dynamic quality was not typical of the other art movements prior to or during the 18th century, where portraits tended to depict people in staid, sober poses . Watteau's painting of the bacillus subtilis test dancer seems soft and flouncy, yet it is obvious that it is Building: Taking Advantage of All, a well thought out work. The writer's choice of language have indicated the bacillus subtilis test conditional nature of the Essay of Riordan observations. The colours are used to bacillus catalase, compliment and support the painting's composition, with the hue of the foliage seemingly reflected in the velvet of the dancer's clothes . For All Comparing! The colour used in the cape has also been added to the accessories on the shoe and hat. Both of these examples of the use of colour show how the clever composition of the painting successfully draws the viewer's eye around it. When expressing the difference between the Baroque and Rococo periods, one art critic noted that "[Rococo] aimed no longer at astounding the spectator with the marvellous, but rather at amusing him with the ingenious." 6 This statement demonstrates that the attention to compositional detail is both a necessary element of the Rococo period and also of this work by Watteau . Delacroix's painting Paganini also displays a strong attention to colour . However , in this case, it is bacillus subtilis test, not just a compositional element, but also contributes to Essay, the highly emotive nature of the painting. The colours could be seen to suggest the subtilis catalase test way the artist felt about the scene before him. This portrayal of the involuntary commitment pros and cons dancer's performance, using the poignant yet subtle blends of dark earthy background colours which contrast with the smooth deep black tones in the figure, enhances the feeling of balance and melody . This combination of art, music, theatre and dance was of high interest to the Romantic artists as it was a great source of the 'true' or 'pure' emotion which they sought to represent . The seemingly fast, fluent brushstrokes indicate and subtilis test, portray the motion and Gender Essay, spirit within the performer. The colour and form seem to be of utmost importance, above the need for bacillus test line. Indeed, a stronger use of Trip To Blackpool Essay line would have contained and possibly even restricted the emotive values in the artwork . This style did not go unnoticed by critics. Both Delacroix and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres were referred to as Rubenistes and Poussinistes respectively, due to their use of the 'academic' style of line or the 'romantic' truth of bacillus catalase colour as the main element in their works, although both are now recognised as Romantic artists. 7. The composition in Paganini is flowing and melodious and is greatly enhanced by the aforementioned use of colour and Experiment Alleles, the form of the performer. The posture has been exaggerated to enhance the Romantic principles within the composition by expressing the emotion roused by the scene. Although there were evident stylistic differences between Rococo and Romanticism, artists in both periods were beginning to express what they wanted to see in the scenes before them. Where Rococo was a time of idealising the bacillus test frivolity of the upper classes, Romanticism idealised the world around the upper classes, depicting the good, the bad, and the ugly equally by looking for the sublime in everything. Both paintings discussed in this essay provide great insight into their own periods but also into the foundation of the Expressionist movement of the 20th century . Brookner, A. Romanticism and its discontents , London: Penguin, 2000. Honour, H. Romanticism , London: Penguin, 1979. Kleiner, F., Mamiya C. and Tansey, R., Gardener's art through the ages , 11th ed. Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001. Minor, V. Baroque and Rococo: Art and with Essay, culture , New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999. Peckham, M. The birth of bacillus catalase test Romanticism 1790-1815 , Florida: Penkevill Publishing Company, 1986. 'Rococo', Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rococo accessed 7.8.2006. 'Romanticism', Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism, accessed 7.8.06. 1 F. Kleiner, C. For Love Essay! Mamiya and R. Bacillus Subtilis! Tansey, Gardener's art through the ages , 11th ed., (Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001), p. 785. 2 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener's art through the ages , p. 783. 3 'Romanticism', Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism, accessed 7.8.06. 4 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener's art through the ages , p. 863. 5 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener's art through the involuntary and cons ages , p. 863. 6 V. Minor, Baroque and Rococo: Art and culture, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999), p 14. 7 F. Test! Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener's art through the Arranged Marriages for Love ages , p. 870. Problems? Questions? Comments? Please provide us feedback.

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Latin American Faculty Summit 2016. Location: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Microsoft hosted the tenth annual Microsoft Research Latin American Faculty Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from May 18 to 20, 2016. Every other year, we explore with invited researchers how innovations in computing, fueled by academic and industry research, can rise to meet the bacillus regional-scale challenges of today. With every summit, the magnitude of regional-scale and the capabilities of Representation computing advance dramatically, introducing new challenges and new possibilities. This year, the summit focused on Artificial Intelligence. The need to solve real-world problems—whether they be economic, scientific, or social— has motivated and bacillus subtilis prompted technological advancement throughout history. Building: Advantage Of All Natural Resources Essay. These advancements have the power to subtilis catalase, transform our society, introducing new innovations in healthcare, education, commerce and involuntary commitment pros the environment. Over the last five years, the world of Artificial Intelligence has grown exponentially—investments have increased and new progress has been uncovered. At the summit, we examined how Artificial Intelligence can complement, match, or even surpass human intelligence. Bacillus. Additionally, we explored how the Gender Representation Essay future of Artificial Intelligence could improve both individual lives and society as a whole. Director Academic Outreach. Director, Microsoft Research Outreach. Research Showcase Chair. Paula Bellizia, General Manager, Microsoft Brazil Rico Malvar, Chief Scientist, Microsoft Research Gustavo Tutuca, State Secretary of bacillus test Science, Technology & Innovation. Speaker: Rico Malvar, Chief Scientist, Microsoft Research. Celso Massaki Hirata, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA) Roberto Boisson de Marca, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) Gustavo Tutuca, State Secretary of Science, Technology & Innovation. Speaker: Carlos Eduardo Pedreira, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) Speaker: Dan Bohus, Microsoft Research. Speaker: Judith Bishop, Microsoft Research. On the automatic detection of abandoned objects | Sergio Lima Netto, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) Hand Tracking | Jonathan Taylor, Microsoft Research Emotion Recognition from Images in Essay the Wild | Cha Zhang, Microsoft Research. Auto-Captioning and Translation in the Classroom: Breaking Down the Language and Hearing Barriers | Will Lewis, Microsoft Research Natural Language Queries and Auto-Suggest over Knowledge Graphs | Alex Wade, Microsoft Research High Performance Image Captioning | Geoffrey Zweig, Microsoft Research. The BBC micro:bit: a programming device for the new generation | Jonathan Protzeko, Microsoft Research Insight from Interaction with Data | Dave Brown, Microsoft Research Methods and Measures: Real world implications of eye-gaze communication systems | Jon Campbell, Microsoft Research. Speaker: Frank Seide, Microsoft Research. Innovation model, challenges and opportunities in a leading healthcare organization | Claudio Terra, Einstein Hospital Impact of Biomedical Imaging on Healthcare | Marcel Jackowski, University of Sao Paulo (USP) Project Premonition: Preventative Monitoring of subtilis catalase test Infectious Agents | Michael Zyskowski, Microsoft Research. Speaker: Alex Wade, Microsoft Research. Learning Reusable Skills and Eternity: Arranged Marriages to Marriages Essay Behavioral Hierarchies | Bruno Castro da Silva, Institute of subtilis catalase Informatics of the Federal University of involuntary commitment pros Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) Machine Learning made easy: Platform for bacillus catalase Interactive Concept Learning (PICL) | Carlos Garcia Jurado Suarez, Microsoft Research Tackling the next big AI challenges | Katja Hofmann, Microsoft Research. Project Torino: A physical programming language inclusive of blind children | Nicolas Villar, Microsoft Research Audio for Intelligent Devices | Ivan Tashev, Microsoft Research Personal Near-field Interaction: Across Devices and Across the Body | Christian Holz, Microsoft Research. Speakers: Quantum Machine Learning, Nathan Wiebe, Microsoft Research. Speaker: Evelyne Viegas, Microsoft Research. Jaime Puente, Microsoft Research Evelyne Viegas, Microsoft Research Roy Zimmerman, Microsoft Research. Paula Bellizia, General Manager, Microsoft Brazil. Presentation title: Opening ceremony – WATCH. Bio: Paula Bellizia has led the Microsoft Brazil subsidiary, the largest in Latin America, since July 2015. She previously worked at Microsoft from 2002-2012 in Essay on Summary of Riordan Manufacturing different roles. Her vast industry and market knowledge gives her an excellent background to lead the bacillus catalase business in Brazil, during a time of transformation for the company and the way users interact with technology in their everyday lives. Paula has over 22 years of experience in the market. Eternity: Comparing Marriages Essay. She started her career in Marketing at Whirlpool in 1992 and after 7 years joined Telefonica as Product Group Manager. She left Telefonica in 2002 to join the technology industry at Microsoft as Small and Medium Business Sales Manager. Catalase Test. During her 10 years at Microsoft Paula occupied different roles, most recently as Brazil Marketing & Operations Lead. In 2013 she spent time at Facebook as Small and Medium Business Sales Director for Latin America and Essay on Summary of Riordan most recently she was the Country Manager for Apple in bacillus Brazil leading operations for two years. Paula graduated in Computer and Information Sciences with a post-graduate degree in involuntary pros and cons Marketing, MBA by FIA/USP. She lives in bacillus subtilis catalase test SГЈo Paulo with her family. Demo presentation: Open Source Software. Presentation title: Open source software and industry: exploring the reality – WATCH. Abstract: Open Source Software (OSS) is Essay of Riordan Manufacturing, a movement that the IT industry has subscribed to with great success over many years. Subtilis Catalase Test. Adopting code that is already a standard is the Taking Advantage of All easy part. Contributing to and initiating new software requires sustained commitment and upfront scrutiny of the return on investment. On the technical side, major software companies experience an added level of complexity in OSS involvement in that the software might not match the platforms they build. Virtual machines and browsers can come to the rescue, with varying degrees of efficiency loss. Bacillus Subtilis Catalase Test. In this talk we shall survey this landscape, present statistics and examples of Trip To Blackpool some of Microsoft Research’s OSS tools, explore the challenges, and make some predictions as to where the most exciting industry OSS developments will launch in subtilis test the future. Bio: Judith Bishop is Director of Computer Science in Microsoft Research, USA. Her role is to Experiment with Essay, create strong links between Microsoft’s research groups and universities globally, through encouraging projects, supporting conferences and engaging directly in research. Recent projects have included TryF#, Touch Develop, Code Hunt and the BBC micro:bit. She now drives the Open Source Initiative. Judith’s research expertise is in programming languages and distributed systems, with a strong practical bias. After completing her degrees at Rhodes and Natal in South Africa, Judith received her PhD from the University of Southampton, UK. She then served as a professor, most recently at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. Judith is an ACM Distinguished Educator, and has received the subtilis catalase test IFIP Silver Core Award, among others. She is pros, a Fellow of the British Computer Society and the Royal Society of South Africa. Presentation title: Physically Situated Dialog: Opportunities and Challenges for Integrative Artificial Intelligence. Abstract: Most research to date on spoken language interaction has focused on supporting dialog with single users in limited domains and contexts. Significant progress in this space has enabled wide-scale deployments of voice-enabled personal assistants. At the catalase test same time, important challenges remain largely unaddressed in the realm of physically situated spoken language interaction (e.g., in-car systems, robots in public spaces, ambient assistance). In this talk, I will outline a core set of communicative competencies required for supporting dialog in physically situated settings – such as models of multiparty engagement, turn-taking and interaction planning, and I will present samples of work as part of a broader research agenda in involuntary commitment and cons this area. The proposed models and systems harness a diverse set of AI technologies, and throughout the talk I will discuss a number of important opportunities and challenges for developing such integrative AI systems. We evaluate our framework on challenging simulated decision-making problems and on a physical humanoid robot, and we demonstrate that it allows for test the efficient and active construction of reusable skills from limited data. Finally, we discuss how the acquisition of reusable skills is Representation in Advertisements Essay, key for designing intelligent agents capable of learning increasingly more abstract behaviors and models. Bio: Dan Bohus is a Senior Researcher in the Adaptive Systems and Interaction Group at Microsoft Research. His research agenda is subtilis test, focused on physically situated, open-world spoken language interaction. Before joining Microsoft Research, Dan has received his Ph.D. degree (2007) in Computer Science from Taking of All Natural Resources Carnegie Mellon University. Dr. JosГ© Roberto Boisson de Marca, Federal University of test Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) Bio: J. Roberto Boisson de Marca graduated as an Alleles Essay Electrical Engineer from PUC-Rio, Brazil and earned a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Southern California, USA. He was the 2014 IEEE President and bacillus subtilis CEO. He was also the 2000-2001 President of the IEEE Communications Society and the founding President of the Brazilian Telecommunications Society. He is an IEEE Fellow and a full member of both the Brazilian Academy of Sciences and Brazilian National Academy of Engineering. Prof. de Marca was Scientific Director of the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq) and was a member of FINEP’s Presidential Advisory Board. Gender In Advertisements. He held visiting appointments in several organizations including AT&T Bell Laboratories, NEC Research Labs Europe, and Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. Dr. de Marca was selected in 2013 by the Epoca weekly Magazine, as one of the 100 most influential persons in Brazil. In 2014 he received the bacillus subtilis test Personality of the Year in Advantage of All Resources Essay Telecommunications recognition from the bacillus subtilis test IT Industry Association of Brazil. Demo presentation: NUI Graph. Presentation title: Insight from Interaction with Data. Abstract: Data continues to grow in terms of both size and complexity. Extracting meaningful insights from data can be challenging. Our work focusses on building prototypes for Taking Advantage of All Natural Resources interactive data visualization, and combines Natural User Integration with 3D visualization and storytelling to facilitate finding and sharing insight in data. Bio: David Brown is a Senior Research Development Engineer in the NextViz team at Microsoft Research. His work focusses on prototyping data visualization software with a focus on natural user interaction. Demo presentation: Ability Eye Gaze. Presentation title: Methods and subtilis catalase Measures: Real world implications of eye-gaze communication systems. Abstract: Telemetry is the core of data driven development. As more of our insights come from data, it is important to understand how the involuntary commitment pros type of data we collect can shape what we develop. In this talk we will discuss the various methods and measures for collecting data via the example of an eye-gaze communication system designed for people with severe motor impairment. Bio: Jon Campbell is a Research Software Development Engineer at Microsoft Research in Redmond, WA, USA. Test. He received BS degrees from Washington State University in Computer Science and involuntary pros and cons Computer Engineering, with emphasis in Electrical Engineering and Mathematics. He then received a MS in bacillus subtilis Computer Science from commitment Washington State University with a focus on networking and pervasive/ubiquitous computing. After spending nearly 10 years in product groups across Microsoft, he joined MSR in 2015 to focus on using technology to enable those with disabilities. Bruno Castro da Silva, Institute of bacillus subtilis catalase Informatics of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) Presentation title: Learning Reusable Skills and with Behavioral Hierarchies. Abstract: One of the defining characteristics of human intelligence is the ability to acquire and refine skills. Skills are behaviors for solving problems that an agent encounters often—sometimes in different contexts and situations—throughout its lifetime. Identifying problems that recur and retaining their solutions as skills allows an agent to more rapidly solve novel problems by adjusting and combining its existing skills. We introduce a reinforcement learning framework for learning reusable skills. Reusable skills are parameterized procedures that produce appropriate behaviors given only a description of the task to be performed. We discuss two important challenges involved in the construction of such skills. First, an agent should be capable of solving a small number of problems and generalizing these experiences to construct a single reusable skill. We achieve this by introducing a method capable of subtilis catalase estimating properties of the lower-dimensional manifold on which problem solutions lie. Secondly, the agent should be able to actively select on which problems it wishes to Eternity: Comparing Arranged, practice in order to more rapidly become competent in a skill. Thoughtful and deliberate practice is one of the defining characteristics of human expert performance. Bacillus Subtilis Catalase. We show how non-parametric models can be used by Trip To Blackpool Essay an agent that wishes to actively decide what to learn. Bio: Bruno Castro da Silva is subtilis catalase, a professor at the Institute of Informatics of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. Prior to that he was a postdoctoral associate at the Aerospace Controls Laboratory, at MIT. He received his Ph.D. in Computer Science from the University of Massachusetts, under the supervision of Gender Representation Prof. Andrew Barto. Both his MSc. and B.S. cum laude degrees are in catalase test Computer Science from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. Bruno has worked, in several occasions, as a visiting researcher at the Laboratory of Essay of Riordan Computational Neuroscience, in Rome, Italy, developing novel control algorithms for humanoid robots. He has also worked at Adobe Research, in California, developing large-scale machine learning techniques for digital marketing optimization. Bruno’s research interests lie in the intersection of test machine learning, reinforcement learning, optimal control theory, and robotics, and Essay on Summary Manufacturing include the construction of hierarchical motor skills, active learning, neural networks, and Bayesian optimization applied to control. Celso Massaki Hirata, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA) Bio: Celso Massaki Hirata is a Professor at Computer Science Dept of Instituto TecnolГіgico de AeronГЎutica – ITA. He obtained a BEng in Mechanical Aeronautical Engineering and bacillus an MSc in For All Eternity: Arranged Marriages Operations Research from ITA. He earned a Ph.D in Computer Science from Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine. Bacillus Catalase Test. His areas of Comparing to Marriages Essay interest include Distributed Systems, Security, Software Engineering, and CSCW. He has taken part in large-scale projects from Federal Government and Private Companies in bacillus catalase test Security, Safety, and Communications based on Computational Intelligence. Demo presentation: Project Malmo. Presentation title: Tackling the next big AI challenges. Abstract: AI has seen dramatic progress in the past years. For example, advances in machine learning are rapidly opening up innovative new applications using speech or object recognition. Despite these advances, a great number of Essay on Summary fundamental open questions remain. Can we develop AI that can learn to make sense of complex environments? That continuously adapts and solves novel problems? That can learn to collaborate with human users to help them achieve their goals? This talk outlines open challenges in AI and what it will take to address them – starting from project Malmo, a new platform for AI experimentation. Bio: Katja Hofmann is a researcher at Microsoft Research Cambridge. As part of the Machine Intelligence and Perception group, she is research lead of Project Malmo. Before joining Microsoft Research, Katja received her PhD in Computer Science from the University of Amsterdam, her MSc in Computer Science from California State University, and her BSc in Computer Science from the University of Applied Sciences in Dresden, Germany. Katja’s main research goal is to develop interactive learning systems. Her dream is to develop AIs that learn to collaborate with human players in Minecraft. Christian Holz, Microsoft Research. Presentation title: Personal Near-field Interaction: Across Devices and Across the Body. Abstract: Current mobile devices pack a variety of commodity sensors that reveal the presence of surrounding devices. This commoditization of bacillus test sensors paved the way for users to effortlessly interact across multiple devices, transferring application states from laptops to phones or collaborating with other users in a common application. In this talk, I will present a seamless tracking layer for mobile devices that takes tracking to a spatial level, enabling devices to identify surrounding devices’ locations 3D space—solely by using the sensors on today’s devices without the need for user input. This tracking layer brings cross-device interaction from of Riordan Manufacturing current stationary setups to mobile scenarios, readily setting it up as a commodity interaction modality. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss how the notion of test spatial tracking changes for Eternity: Comparing Arranged Marriages Essay interaction across wearable devices and bacillus catalase switches to the user’s body as a reference system. In the Essay on Summary Manufacturing context of cross-device authentication, I will demonstrate how seamless tracking increases both, the catalase test convenience as well as the security of use for current devices, solving a long-standing challenge in human-computer interaction. I will conclude with an outlook of Manufacturing seamless spatial tracking for Internet of Things applications. Bio: Christian Holz is a researcher in the Natural Interaction Group at Microsoft Research in bacillus subtilis Redmond. His research focuses on pros and cons augmenting the capabilities of existing mobile devices and creating new devices with enriched sensing capabilities. Before joining Microsoft Research, Christian was a research scientist at Yahoo Labs in California. Christian holds a Ph.D. in Human-Computer Interaction from Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam, Germany. Marcel Jackowski, University of SГЈo Paulo (USP) Presentation title: Impact of Biomedical Imaging on Healthcare. Abstract: The development of public healthcare policies that are both effective and catalase test affordable requires governments to Representation Essay, fluidly quantify and subtilis catalase test understand health statistics of Eternity: Comparing Marriages to Marriages Essay their given populations. The analysis of medical related data has the potential to portray overall population health as well as improve healthcare policies. However, the vast spectrum of imaging modalities, sheer size, nature of the signals, and noise characteristics inherent in biomedical imaging makes it more difficult to devise generalized computational tools. On the other hand, there is an increased need for extracting quantitative information in a reliable, automated and efficient manner. In this presentation, I will share some new directions on large-scale biomedical image analysis, which, with the aid of predictive analytics will allow the detection and outpace the progression of bacillus subtilis catalase current and new pathologies. Bio: Dr. Jackowski is an Experiment Alleles Essay Assistant Professor in test the department of computer science at the University of SГЈo Paulo, and manages the medical imaging group. Prior to that, he was postdoctoral fellow and Comparing Arranged to Marriages Essay held a research scientist position at Yale University in the department of diagnostic imaging. His research is oriented towards developing scalable biomedical image analysis methods. Subtilis Catalase. He has been the principal investigator in several FAPESP and CNPq grants, and For All Eternity: Comparing Arranged to Marriages Essay collaborates actively with the catalase test Athinoula A. Martinos Center for on Summary Manufacturing Biomedical Imaging. David Johnston, Microsoft Research. Demo presentation: Spatial Audio for Augmented & Virtual Reality. Bio: David Johnston received his B.S. degree in Computer Science from the University of bacillus catalase Washington in 1992. He is a Principal Software Design Engineer with the Audio and Acoustics Research Group in Microsoft Research Labs, joining in 2011. In the early 1990’s David created Cool Edit, a stereo audio editor for Windows, while previously at Microsoft. In 1995 Mr. Johnston co-founded Syntrillium Software, and developed the multitrack studio audio editor Cool Edit Pro. He sold the company to Adobe Systems in 2003 and continued working on what became Adobe Audition until 2010. David’s current work includes spatial audio for Gender HoloLens and Windows. Demo presentation: Microsoft Translator. Presentation title: Auto-Captioning and Translation in the Classroom: Breaking Down the Language and Hearing Barriers. Abstract: The Science Fiction meme of the Universal Translator, first popularized in Star Trek 50 years ago, may become reality a lot sooner than we expected, fostered primarily by significant advancements in automated speech recognition (ASR) and machine translation (MT). MSR has been at the forefront of adapting speech translation technology to the consumer scenario, namely its integration into the Skype Translator product, enabling millions to make phone calls with other Skype users who do not speak their languages. Going a step further, MSR has exposed the same technology that powers Skype Translator in Microsoft Translator’s API. Speech Translation through a publicly accessible API opens the door to subtilis, tool developers, academics, and others to adapt speech translation to their scenarios. One of the scenarios we have been working on pros and cons is to build out the infrastructure to support speech transcription and subtilis catalase translation in the classroom. This technology can benefit students in multiple ways: Students who are deaf or hard of hearing benefit from involuntary commitment pros and cons this technology since they can participate in the “hearing” classroom. Students who are non-native speakers of the predominant language where they live benefit from the bacillus technology since they can have live transcripts of lectures, video, and other audio used in Building: Advantage Resources Essay class. I will review the catalase test technologies behind MSR’s Speech-to-Speech API, with a quick overview of the API, and on Summary of Riordan Manufacturing how we are testing the technology in the classroom. Bio: Dr. Subtilis Catalase. William Lewis is Principal Technical Program Manager with the Microsoft Translator team at Microsoft Research. He has led the involuntary commitment pros team’s efforts to bacillus test, build Machine Translation engines for on Summary of Riordan Manufacturing a variety of the world’s languages and has been working with the bacillus catalase team to build Skype Translator. For All Eternity: Arranged For Love. This work has been extended to the classroom in Seattle Public Schools, where “mainstreamed” deaf and hard of hearing children are using MSR’s speech recognition technology to participate fully in the “hearing” classroom. Before joining Microsoft, Will was Assistant Professor and founding faculty for the Computational Linguistics Master’s Program at bacillus the University of Washington. Will is on the editorial board for the Journal of Machine Translation, on the board for the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas (AMTA), served as a program chair for the National American Association for Taking of All Natural Resources Essay Computational Linguistics (NAACL) conference, and served as a program chair for the Machine Translation Summit. Lucas Maia, Serra dos Г“rgГЈos Educational Foundation (FESO) Demo presentation: Audio and Video Processing at bacillus catalase test the SMT Lab, UFRJ. Bio: Lucas Maia is a professor at the Serra dos Г“rgГЈos Educational Foundation (FESO) in TeresГіpolis, Brazil. He received a degree in Electronic and Computing Engineering as well as a Master’s degree in Electrical Engineering from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). His main research interests are algorithmic composition and music information retrieval. Rico Malvar, Chief Scientist, Microsoft Research. Presentation title: Opening ceremony – WATCH. Presentation title: Recent Advances in Information Technology – WATCH. Abstract: In this talk we present an overview of recent developments in information technology, especially in the areas of computer vision, speech and For All Eternity: Marriages for Love natural language processing, and new computer interfaces, in particular those developed at subtilis Microsoft Research. Many of involuntary commitment and cons these technologies are the result of the new developments in catalase test computer architecture, machine learning and deep neural networks, and big data. Bio: Henrique (Rico) Malvar is a Microsoft Distinguished Engineer and the Chief Scientist for Microsoft Research. He currently leads a new team at MSR developing technologies to help people with disabilities. He joined Microsoft Research in 1997, founding the signal processing group, which developed new technologies such as new media compression formats used in Windows, Xbox, and Office, and microphone array processing technologies used in Windows, Xbox Kinect, and pros and cons HoloLens. Rico was a key architect for the media compression formats WMA and JPEG XR, and made key contributions to bacillus subtilis test, the H.264 video format (used by Skype, Netflix, YouTube, etc.). Rico received a Ph.D. from MIT (1986) and is a Member of the Green Taking Advantage of All Essay US National Academy of Engineering. He has over 115 US patents and over 160 publications. He is an IEEE Fellow and has received many awards, including the Technical Achievement Award from the bacillus subtilis test IEEE Signal Processing Society in Experiment 2002. Sergio Lima Netto, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) Demo presentation: Audio and Video Processing at bacillus subtilis the SMT Lab, UFRJ. Presentation title: On the automatic detection of Essay of Riordan Manufacturing abandoned objects. Abstract: We describe two signal-processing strategies for attacking the problemof detecting abandoned objects in videos acquired with a moving camera. In the first solution, after time and geometric alignment procedures, a multiscale similarity analysis is performed between reference and target videos. Test. In the with Alleles Essay second strategy, the referencevideo is used to subtilis catalase test, generate a (bi)sparse description of the Gender Essay target video, and the abandoned objects are identified as high-energy regions on the final error image. Subtilis. We illustrate the application of both solutions in the real-time inspection of an with Essay industrial plant using a robotic system. Bio: Sergio L. Netto has received the bacillus test BSc and MSc from the Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro and the PhD from the To Blackpool Essay University of Victoria, Canada, in catalase Electrical Engineering. Trip Essay. He is the co-author of Digital Signal Processing: System Analysis and test Design, by Cambridge Univ. Press, 2nd ed., 2010. His research and teaching interests include adaptive signal processing, applied digital signal processing, information theory, applied machine learning, and computer vision. Leonardo Nunes, Microsoft Research. Demo presentation: Real-time Event Detection in Video. Bio: Leonardo Nunes is a researcher with MicrosoftВґs Advanced Technology Labs in Eternity: Comparing Arranged Essay Brazil where he develops solutions for real-time understanding of video and audio signals. He has a D.Sc. from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in Electrical Engineering and his main research interest is in the intersection between machine learning and bacillus signal processing. His previous research areas include audio analysis, music information retrieval, sound source localization, and speech quality assessment. Dr. Nunes is a member of IEEE. JosГ© F. L. de Oliveira, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) Demo presentation: Audio and Video Processing at the SMT Lab, UFRJ. Bio: JosГ© F. L. de Oliveira has graduated in Electrical Engineering (1994) from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and received M.Sc. (1997) and D.Sc. (2003) in Green Taking Advantage Essay Electrical Engineering from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. His research interests include signal processing, image compression and pattern recognition-tracking. Witallo Oliveira, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) Demo presentation: EchoSense Project. Bio: Witallo Oliveira is an undergraduate student in computer engineering at the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul. Carlos Eduardo Pedreira, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) Presentation title: Computational Modeling in bacillus subtilis test Medicine: Some Recent Results and Future Perspective. Abstract: In the last decades, there have been major technological advances in medical diagnosis and monitoring devices such as flow cytometers and magnetic resonance apparatus. These devices, now routinely used, have exponentially increased the ability to For All Eternity: Marriages for Love Essay, generate data. The resulting complexity in the datasets is challenging pre-existing data analysis and promoting the development of new algorithms and bacillus subtilis catalase test tools. A key challenge is concerned with how to intelligently process all this information. In this talk, we will expose some recent results, specially in flow cytometry generated data, and point out some of the present perspectives in medical data processing. Bio: Prof. Carlos Eduardo Pedreira is with COPPE – Systems and Computing Engineering at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Holds Bachelor (1975) and MSc degrees (1981) in electrical engineering from the Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro. Received a Ph.D. degree (1987) from Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, University of Eternity: Comparing Arranged Marriages Essay London. He is a visiting researcher at the University of Salamanca, Spain since 2002. His articles have over 1000 citations (ISI), h-index = 13. Catalase. He was the Founding President of the Brazilian Society of Neural Networks (presently Brazilian Society of Trip To Blackpool Essay Computational Intelligence). Member of the EuroFlow consortium board. Received the Santander Bank Award of test Science and Innovation in 2006, and the Nicola Albano Prize (Brazilian Society of Pediatrics) in 2010. Jonathan Protzenko, Microsoft Research. Demo presentation: Micro:bit. Presentation title: The BBC micro:bit: a programming device for and cons the new generation. Abstract: The BBC micro:bit is a small programmable device half the size of a credit card; it features 25 LEDs, buttons, an accelerometer, a compass, and Bluetooth capabilities. The device has been handed out for free to a million kids between 11 and 12 years old in the UK; Microsoft provided the programming environment, based on TouchDevelop. I will talk about the device, demo the programming environment, and discuss the global “CS literacy” trend, wherein more and more countries emphasize CS education. Bio: Jonathan Protzenko is a researcher in the RiSE group at Microsoft Research in Redmond. His research interests revolve around type systems and bacillus programming languages design and implementation. In 2015, he worked with the BBC to deliver the micro:bit, a free programming device for with Alleles a new generation of computer scientists. Bio: Jaime Puente is subtilis test, a director of academic outreach at Microsoft Research, responsible for strategic research engagements in Latin America and United States. Prior to joining Microsoft Research, Jaime spent 13 years as a professor in the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Escuela Superior PolitГ©cnica del Litoral (ESPOL) in Ecuador. Jaime Puente was a Fulbright Scholar for his early engagement with academia. His academic background includes an M.S. in Computer Engineering from Iowa State University, an MBA and an Electronics Engineering degree both from ESPOL in Ecuador, as well as an Educational Specialist post-master’s degree from NOVA Southeastern University in Florida, United States. Jaime Puente is currently a Ph.D. Gender Representation In Advertisements. candidate in the College of Engineering and Computing at NOVA Southeastern University. His main research interests concern human-computer interaction and the pervasive integration of digital technologies in subtilis education. Ricardo Sabedra, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) Demo presentation: EchoSense Project. Bio: Ricardo Stadtlober Sabedra, is an undergraduate computer engineering student at the Federal University of For All Comparing to Marriages for Love Rio Grande do Sul. Test. Worked as an intern at the High Performance Computing Lab at PUCRS and actually is an intern of the Microsoft Innovation Center – Porto Alegre, Brazil. Worked with analysis of oceanic images from Petrobras, led a research about Openstack scheduler, mounted a low cost 3D printer and participated at the A. Richard Newton Young Student Fellow Program na Design Automation Conference (DAC) 2015 in San Francisco. Essay On Summary. Currently Ricardo is developing an augmented reality application for the Science and Technology Museum – PUCRS, and also the EchoSense project, a device assist and help the development of the senses for the visually impaired. In 2016 Ricardo was one of the National Finalists of the ImagineCUP at the Innovation category. Presentation title: CNTK: Microsoft’s Open-Source Deep-Learning Toolkit. Abstract: This talk will introduce CNTK, Microsoft’s cutting-edge open-source deep-learning toolkit for Windows and Linux. Bacillus Catalase. CNTK is Arranged Marriages, a computation-graph based deep-learning toolkit for training and test evaluating deep neural networks. Microsoft product groups use CNTK, for example to create the Gender Essay Cortana speech models and web ranking. CNTK supports feed-forward, convolutional, and bacillus subtilis recurrent networks for speech, image, and text workloads, also in Green of All Natural combination. Popular network types are supported either natively (convolution) or can be described as a CNTK configuration (LSTM, sequence-to-sequence). Bacillus. CNTK scales to multiple GPU servers and is designed around efficiency. We will give an overview of CNTK’s general architecture and describe the specific methods and algorithms used for automatic differentiation, recurrent-loop inference and execution, memory sharing, on-the-fly randomization of on Summary of Riordan Manufacturing large corpora, and bacillus subtilis catalase test multi-server parallelization. We will then discuss how typical uses looks like for relevant tasks like image recognition, sequence-to-sequence modeling, and Trip To Blackpool speech recognition. Bio: Frank Seide, a native of catalase Hamburg, Germany, is a Senior Researcher at Microsoft Research. His current research focus is on deep neural networks for conversational speech recognition; together with co-author Dong Yu, he was first to Building: Taking Essay, show the effectiveness of deep neural networks for bacillus subtilis catalase recognition of conversational speech. Throughout his career, he has been interested in and worked on a broad range of topics and components of automatic speech recognition, including spoken-dialogue systems, recognition of on Summary of Riordan Mandarin Chinese, and, particularly, large-vocabulary recognition of conversational speech with application to bacillus catalase test, audio indexing, transcription, and speech-to-speech translation. His current focus is Building: Taking Resources Essay, Microsoft’s CNTK deep-learning toolkit. Sunayana Sitaram, Microsoft Research. Demo presentation: Project Melange: Translating Code-mixed Tweets. Bio: Sunayana is a Post Doc Researcher at bacillus catalase Microsoft Research India, where she works on speech technologies for code-mixed languages under Project Melange. She holds PhD and MS degrees from the Language Technologies Institute, Carnegie Mellon University. Her PhD thesis was on building speech synthesizers for low-resource languages, and she was advised by Alan W Black. In addition, she worked on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Spoken Dialog Systems and Speech Translation systems while at Experiment Alleles CMU. Carlos Garcia Jurado Suarez, Microsoft Research. Demo presentation: Machine Learning for non-experts: Platform for Interactive Concept Learning (PICL) Presentation title: Machine Learning made easy: Platform for Interactive Concept Learning (PICL) Abstract: Machine Learning models give us the ability to capture human knowledge and subtilis catalase test replicate it at Comparing to Marriages for Love scale. Subtilis. Yet, building these models remains the domain of a few experts. What if we could enable everyone, regardless of For All Comparing Marriages for Love their expertise, to create machine learning models? The focus of the Machine Teaching Group at MSR is to make the process of training a machine easy, fast and bacillus subtilis catalase universally accessible. In this talk, you’ll learn about the Trip Essay Platform for Interactive Concept Learning (PICL), an interactive environment to build classifiers and entity extractors in a very short time and subtilis catalase test with minimal expertise. Bio: Carlos Garcia Jurado Suarez is a Principal Engineering Manager at Essay Microsoft Research Redmond, where he leads the development team in the Machine Learning Group. He received his B.S. Bacillus Test. degree in Gender in Advertisements Essay Physics from ITESM in Monterrey, Mexico and his M.S. degrees in Computer Science and Applied Math from the University of Washington. Subtilis. Prior to To Blackpool Essay, MSR, he was a software engineer for the Microsoft Visual Studio modeling tools. His research focus is on catalase test building systems for interactive machine learning. Demo presentation: Spatial Audio for Augmented & Virtual Reality. Presentation title: Audio for Intelligent Devices. Abstract: Today’s intelligent devices are typically small: mobile or wearable. They usually do not have a screen, keyboard and mouse, and pros and cons count on voice and audio as a primary input/output modalities, combined with gesture and bacillus limited number of on Summary of Riordan Manufacturing buttons. Adding a microphone even to the smallest device is inexpensive and helps better to understand the environment. In addition, the modern devices are expected to work on the go, in noisier environment. In this talk we will cover recent advances and bacillus catalase applications in Experiment with Alleles Essay audio signal processing algorithms for capturing, rendering, and understanding audio signals. They will be illustrated with examples from our work on Kinect, HoloLens, Windows, Cortana. Bio: Dr. Ivan Tashev toke his Master’s degree in bacillus catalase test Electronic Engineering (1984) and PhD in Computer Science (1990) from the Technical University of Sofia, Bulgaria. Essay. He was Assistant Professor in the same university when in 1998 joined Microsoft. Currently Dr. Tashev is bacillus subtilis catalase, a Partner Architect and leads the Audio and Acoustics Research Group in Microsoft Research Labs in Redmond, USA. He has published four books, more than 70 papers, 30 US patents. Experiment. Dr. Tashev created audio processing technologies incorporated in Windows, Microsoft Auto Platform, and Round Table device. He served as the audio architect for Kinect for Xbox and Microsoft HoloLens. Ivan Tashev is also affiliated professor in bacillus subtilis test the Department of Electrical Engineering of University of Washington in Seattle, USA. Jonathan Taylor, Microsoft Research. Demo presentation: Interaction Through Hand Tracking. Presentation title: Hand Tracking. Abstract: In this talk, I will discuss a set of methods we have used recently for inferring the shape and pose of human hands from Trip To Blackpool depth images. All of bacillus these methods use a generative model of human hand shape and pose to explain the Representation data present in a set of depth images. The differences come down to subtilis, the specific parameterization of this model and how the corresponding model fitting energy is optimized. A principled approach is to simply render our hand model, given a particular setting of For All Eternity: Marriages for Love parameters, and measure the discrepancy with the input depth image. This “golden energy” is not, however, easily differentiable making optimization challenging. Another option is to bacillus catalase test, approximate this energy by instead measuring the Essay of Riordan distance from the data to the model surface in 3D. Through the use of a subdivision surface model, this energy can be made differentiable and amenable to gradient based optimization. Through various pairings of these energies with optimization strategies we are able to subtilis catalase test, 1) build a low dimensional model of hand shape variation offline, 2) quickly “personalize” this model to a new user’s hand shape and Gender Representation Essay 3) perform real time hand tracking using this “personalized” model. Bio: Jonathan Taylor received his BSc degree from the University of Toronto and bacillus catalase test his MSc degree from McGill University. Arranged Marriages For Love Essay. He completed his PhD thesis, at subtilis the University of Toronto, which presented his novel solution for recovering non-rigid structure from Trip To Blackpool Essay motion, a fundamental problem in computer vision. As first a postdoc and now a Researcher at Microsoft Research Cambridge, he has been leveraging machine learning to attack problems in deformable shape and pose inference. This work, which includes human body and hand tracking, is helping to open completely new paradigms of human computer interaction. JosГ© ClГЎudio Terra, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein. Presentation title: Innovation model, challenges and opportunities in bacillus subtilis test a leading healthcare organization. Abstract: Einstein has developed a very open and collaborative innovation model. The presentation will focus on the key milestones, lessons learned, initial results and key principles related to the transformation of EinsteinВґs innovation strategy over the last two years. Bio: Claudio Terra is director of innovation and knowledge management at Einstein. Prior to Alleles, that he held executive positions in leading organizations in Brazil, USA and Canada. He was also a successful entrepreneur for bacillus test 10 years until he sold his company to Globant, which did its IPO on Nasdad in Essay on Summary of Riordan 2014. Bacillus. He has completed his PhD in production engineering at Trip To Blackpool University of SГЈo Paulo and attended advanced degrees in the US and Spain. Claudio has written 10 books that were published in Brazil and in the USA. Gustavo Tutuca, State Secretary of Science, Technology & Innovation. Presentation title: Opening ceremony – WATCH. Bio: Gustavo Reis Ferreira is one of the youngest and most active state representatives in Rio de Janeiro, re-elected with 64,248 votes. Gustavo is the son of the former mayor of Pirai, Arthur Henrique GonГ§alves Ferreira, known as Tutuca. From his father, he inherited the nickname and a taste for public affairs. He graduated in Systems Analysis from University Estacio de SГЎ; Gustavo Tutuca practiced this profession at IBMEC and Cervejaria Cintra. He entered into politics as the Municipal Secretary of Sports and Leisure for subtilis PiraГ­, and Gender Representation Essay quickly achieved significant results. He was General Coordinator of the Digital PiraГ­ Project, a national award-winning and bacillus subtilis catalase test internationally recognized effort for pioneering digital inclusion and democratization of access to information. The initiative received the backing of UNESCO and won the Gender Representation “Top Seven Intelligent Communities” prize. Another revolutionary project coordinated by Gustavo, which was considered an unprecedented achievement, was PiraГ­ Digital Education which ensured the distribution of a notebook for each student and teacher in public schools. Evelyne Viegas, Microsoft Research. Presentation title: Artificial Intelligence perspectives at bacillus catalase test Microsoft. Abstract: Given the investment and evidence of progress in Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the last five years, some suggest that it is merely a matter of time until AI matches, complements or surpasses, human intelligence. Eternity: Comparing Arranged Marriages To Marriages Essay. Artificial Intelligence at bacillus subtilis catalase Microsoft is about augmenting human abilities and experiences and having humans and For All Marriages Essay machine collaborate as teams in a complementary and trustworthy fashion. In this talk I will expose the breadth of AI efforts at Microsoft, the need to build bridges across diverse communities to create new multimodal and catalase test interdisciplinary research efforts. Bio: Evelyne Viegas is the Director of Artificial Intelligence Outreach at Microsoft Research, based in Green Building: Taking Natural Essay Redmond, U.S.A. In her current role, Evelyne is building initiatives which focus on information seen as an subtilis enabler of innovation, working in Green Building: of All Natural Resources Essay partnership with universities and government agencies worldwide. In particular she is creating programs around computational intelligence research to drive open innovation and subtilis catalase agile experimentation via cloud-based services; and projects to advance the state-of-the-art in artificial intelligence and data-driven research including knowledge representation, machine learning and reasoning under uncertainty at scale. Nicolas Villar, Microsoft Research. Presentation title: Project Torino: A physical programming language inclusive of For All to Marriages for Love blind children. Abstract: Torino is a physical programming language for bacillus subtilis test teaching computational thinking skills and basic programming concepts to children age 7-11, regardless of level of commitment and cons vision. To this end, we followed an iterative design approach to develop and evaluate a novel hardware system that allows children to program through physical manipulation. Intended to bacillus subtilis catalase test, promote the acquisition of important computational thinking skills, the technology is designed to be inclusive of children with mixed visual abilities, and to enable learning experiences that are imaginative, engaging and Green Building: Taking Advantage of All Resources fun. Bio: Nicolas Villar is a researcher at Microsoft Research, based in Cambridge, UK, where he co-leads the Connected Play group in the Human Experience and Design research area. His work is focused on catalase test the design and development of novel technologies, devices and systems that look to improve the Experiment Alleles experience of subtilis catalase test interacting and playing with technology, with a particular interest in the use of involuntary commitment pros and cons embedded systems – programmable microcontrollers, wireless communication devices, sensors and subtilis catalase test actuators – as building blocks in on Summary the design of physical interactive objects and devices. Demo presentation: Microsoft Academic. Presentation title: Natural Language Queries and Auto-Suggest over Knowledge Graphs. Abstract: In web-scale search, prior user queries are typically used to bacillus, provide query auto-completion suggestions. This works well for the most common ‘head’ queries, but less well for ‘tail’ queries, and not at all for never before seen queries. The Dialog Engine, developed at Representation in Advertisements Microsoft Research and subtilis test now deployed as a part of Bing and available as the Knowledge Exploration Service (KES) through Microsoft Cognitive Services, provides a complementary approach. Through the use of domain-defined grammars and with Alleles efficient graph traversals, the KES system provides interpretations of natural language queries as well as the most likely query completion suggestions and refinements based on the data in the graph. Presentation title: Microsoft Academic: New applications and research opportunities – WATCH. Abstract: The creation and use of knowledge graphs for information discovery, question answering, and task completion has exploded in recent years, but their application has often been limited to the most common user scenarios. The benefits of such models of human knowledge have not yet been fully realized within the domain of test scholarship and research outputs, and involuntary pros Microsoft Research is determined to catalase, change the way that research information is discovered, analyzed, and exploited. The Microsoft Academic Graph is a new entity graph of research publications, authors, venues, organizations, and topics which is Essay on Summary of Riordan Manufacturing, now driving new features in Bing, Cortana, and Microsoft Academic. In addition, Microsoft Research has opened up this dataset to the community new APIs to support further research, experimentation, and bacillus subtilis test development. Essay Of Riordan. This talk will highlight how Microsoft is surfacing this information in novel ways, and how the subtilis test research community can take advantage of Gender Representation Essay these data and APIs to fuel new research opportunities. Bio: Alex Wade is Director of Scholarly Communications at Microsoft Research, currently focused on Microsoft Academic (involving aspects of knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation, intentionality, dialog systems, semantic search and catalase intelligent agents) and Microsoft Cognitive Services (including the Academic Knowledge API and and cons Knowledge Exploration Service). During his career at Microsoft, Alex has managed Microsoft’s corporate intranet search services, has worked on Windows Search, and subtilis has implemented an Green Building: Advantage Resources Open Access policy governing Microsoft Research’s scholarly output. Presentation title: Quantum Machine Learning. Abstract: Since Richard Feynman first sparked our imagination by bacillus subtilis catalase proposing a quantum computer people have wondered if quantum computers could change the ways that we approach learning and inference. With Alleles. In recent years considerable excitement has coalesced around quantum machine learning as a major application for quantum computers alongside quantum simulation and cryptography. In this tutorial I will address the issue of how quantum technologies promise to disrupt the ways in which we approach learning. In particular, I will discuss how it will impact training deep neural networks, regression, clustering, big data problems and bacillus subtilis catalase many other areas. This tutorial will require no previous exposure to quantum mechanics or advanced mathematics and aims to not only expose the audience to how these technologies work but also show how quantum ideas can inspire the development of new classical machine learning algorithms. Bio: Nathan Wiebe is a researcher at MSR in Advantage the Quantum Architectures and Computing (QuArC) group. He is a leading researcher in the field of quantum machine learning and has been responsible for a number of important discoveries such as quantum algorithms for subtilis catalase test deep learning, Bayesian inference, clustering and also has invented the field of quantum Hamiltonian learning. Nathan Wiebe received his PhD in 2011 from the university of commitment pros and cons Calgary before moving to the university of Waterloo for his postdoctoral work and has been at Microsoft since 2013. Since then his work has been featured at TechFest, the Microsoft Faculty summit and at the NIPS workshop on bacillus test quantum machine learning. Demo presentation: Emotion Recognition. Presentation title: Emotion Recognition from Images in involuntary pros and cons the Wild. Abstract: Recognizing people’s emotions have many potential applications including advertising, gaming, autism intervention, personal assistant, etc. Catalase Test. In this talk, I’ll present our effort in commitment and cons creating the Emotion API for images in the wild. I will discuss the challenges we faced, how we collected the data, and how to build an algorithm to estimate emotions from images. Emotion API is currently shipped as part of the Microsoft Cognitive Service. Bio: Cha Zhang is a Principal Researcher in the Multimedia, Interaction and eXperience Group at Microsoft Research. He received the B.S. and M.S. degrees from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China in 1998 and 2000, respectively, both in Electronic Engineering, and the Ph.D. degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering from bacillus subtilis catalase test Carnegie Mellon University, in 2004. His current research focuses on applying various audio/image/video processing and machine learning techniques to multimedia applications, in particular, multimedia teleconferencing. Dr. Zhang has published more than 80 technical papers and holds 20+ U.S. patents. He won the Eternity: Comparing Arranged Marriages Essay best paper award at ICME 2007, the top 10% award at MMSP 2009, and the best student paper award at ICME 2010. He currently serves as an Associate Editor for IEEE Trans. on bacillus subtilis test Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, and IEEE Trans. on Multimedia. Roy Zimmermann, Microsoft Research. Bio: Roy is a director in Microsoft Research. He leads strategic initiatives aimed at strengthening Microsoft’s institutional relationships with academia and other organizations. He has worked on education and outreach efforts anchored on state of the art hardware and software programs. Roy has 25 years’ experience working in education, international development and technology sectors and holds a PhD from UCLA. Geoffrey Zweig, Microsoft Research. Demo presentation: Microsoft Cognitive Services. Presentation title: High Performance Image Captioning. Abstract: The problem of generating text conditioned on some sort of side information arises in many areas including dialog systems, machine translation, speech recognition, and image captioning. For All Eternity: To Marriages Essay. In this talk, we present a highly effective method for generating text conditioned on a set of words that should be mentioned. We apply this to subtilis catalase test, the problem of commitment pros image captioning by linking the generation module to a convolutional neural network that predicts a set of words that are descriptive of an image. The system placed first in the 2015 MSCoco competition on the Turing Test measure, and tied for first place overall. Bio: Geoffrey Zweig is a Partner Research Manager at Microsoft Research, where he leads the Speech & Dialog Research Group. Bacillus Subtilis Catalase. His work centers on developing improved algorithms for speech and language processing. Recent work has focused on applications of side-conditioned recurrent neural network language models, such as image captioning and grapheme to For All Arranged for Love, phoneme conversion. Prior to Microsoft, Dr. Zweig managed the Advanced Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition Group at IBM Research, with a focus on the DARPA EARS and bacillus subtilis catalase test GALE programs. Trip. In the course of his career, Dr. Zweig has written several speech recognition trainers and decoders, as well as toolkits for doing speech recognition with segmental conditional random fields, and for maximum entropy language modeling. Dr. Catalase Test. Zweig received his PhD from the Essay on Summary Manufacturing University of California at Berkeley. Test. He is the author of over 80 papers, numerous patents, is an pros and cons Associate Editor of Computers Speech & Language, and is a Fellow of the IEEE. Michael Zyskowski, Microsoft Research. Demo presentation: Project Premonition. Presentation title: Project Premonition: Preventative Monitoring of bacillus test Infectious Agents. Abstract: Project Premonition seeks to detect pathogens in animals before these pathogens make people sick. It does this by treating a mosquito as a device that can find animals and sample their blood. Project Premonition uses drones and new robotic mosquito traps to capture many more mosquitoes from the environment than previously possible, and then analyzes their body contents for pathogens. Pathogens are detected by gene sequencing collected mosquitoes and computationally searching for Essay known and unknown pathogens in bacillus subtilis catalase sequenced genetic material. Bio: Mike manages a cross-discipline team of engineers in the development of research technologies into scalable, working solutions. He works with academic, industry and government/NGO collaborators to build partnerships and community ecosystems. Recently he has been focused on projects related to To Blackpool Essay, the confluence of Aerospace and bacillus subtilis Computer Science Engineering with projects like Windflow, Premonition and the Red Bull Air Races. He also leads Research News, an online news aggregation service for the Academic Research community. Booth 1: Spatial Audio for Augmented & Virtual Reality. Presenter: Ivan Tashev & David Johnston. The exhibit demonstrates the For All Eternity: Comparing Marriages to Marriages advantages that spatial audio can provide for augmented and virtual reality scenarios, such as gaming, entertainment, and virtual presence. While human vision has a limited field of view (which is further restricted by the device itself), humans can hear and bacillus subtilis locate sound sources coming from 360 degrees (actually 4 pi steradians). We will demonstrate the abilities of spatial audio to Trip To Blackpool, complement vision and enhance the overall experience for AV/VR users. Subtilis Test. During the demo, attendees can wear an For All Eternity: Arranged to Marriages Essay AR/VR device and bacillus subtilis play a short interactive game with spatial sound, vision, gesture, and voice, or look and listen around selected places where we have recorded 3D video and audio. We demonstrate a real-time system to recognize people’s emotion in a crowd. Such a system can be very useful in advertisement, education, medical applications, etc. Booth 3: Microsoft Cognitive Services. Microsoft Cognitive Services let you build apps with powerful algorithms using just a few lines of code. They work across devices and platforms such as iOS, Android, and Windows, keep improving, and are easy to with Alleles, set up. These new APIs span areas of Vision, Speech, Language, Knowledge, and Search. The APIs in the Knowledge area enable developers to build semantic search features into their applications based upon custom content and domain-specific grammars. Come learn how to leverage the Entity Linking Intelligent Service (ELIS) to catalase, recognize and Gender identify each separate entity in your text based on the context. The Knowledge Exploration Service (KES) can be used to add semantic search capabilities to your applications using data, schema, and domain-specific grammars defined by subtilis catalase you. We demonstrate a real-time system to recognize people’s emotion in a crowd. Such a system can be very useful in advertisement, education, medical applications, etc. Microsoft Translator builds on decades of natural language processing, machine learning and Green of All Essay deep learning to help break down language barriers. Its phone apps allows you to translate text, images and even full conversations. Microsoft Translator’s speech translation service enables Skype users, through Skype Translator, to catalase, converse using their native language with other Skype users speaking in theirs. Further, the Microsoft Translator API exposes the text and speech translation features to anyone interested in building tools or apps that need text and speech translation. With. Wherever you use Microsoft Translator, thanks to the power of machine learning, it will continue to bacillus test, improve over time as more people use it across apps, services and devices. NUIgraph is a prototype Windows 10 app for Eternity: Marriages Essay visually exploring data in order to catalase, discover and share insight. The app has been designed for touch interaction, however a mouse can also be used. Data can be loaded from .csv files (exported from Excel). Once loaded, each row in Advantage of All Essay the data is represented by a block on bacillus the screen. Blocks can be flexibly mapped to position, color and size using each column in the data, or arranged into stacks. In this way, multi-dimensional data can be explored to find patterns, which may lead to new insights. Project Malmo allows computer scientists to involuntary commitment, use the catalase test world of Minecraft as a testing ground for conducting research designed to Trip To Blackpool Essay, improve artificial intelligence. Project Premonition seeks to detect pathogens in animals before these pathogens make people sick. It does this by treating a mosquito as a device that can find animals and sample their blood. Project Premonition uses drones and new robotic mosquito traps to capture many more mosquitoes from the environment than previously possible, and then analyzes their body contents for pathogens. Pathogens are detected by gene sequencing collected mosquitoes and subtilis test computationally searching for known and unknown pathogens in sequenced genetic material. Booth 9: Audio and Video Processing at the SMT Lab, UFRJ. Presenters: Sergio Lima Netto with Lucas Maia and JosГ© Fernando L. de Oliveira. Two groups from the Signal, Multimedia, and Telecommunication Lab will demonstrate their most recent research. The Audio Processing Group, will demonstrate applications related to its main research interest, including: audio signal modelling; automatic audio quality assessment; automatic music transcription; music information retrieval; sound source/sensor localization; sound source separation; audio coding; audio restoration; digital audio effects; singing voice processing; algorithmic music composition; and binaural generation of 3D sound. The Image Processing Group will demonstrate a system for the detection of abandoned objects using a moving camera. To Blackpool Essay. The system operates on an industrial environment and test compares a reference signal previously validated by the system operator with the newly acquired (target) video. Anomalies (object detection) are associated with image discrepancies in consecutive video frames. Solutions are proposed/discussed for Essay on Summary the system to operate in real time. Presenter: Jonathan Protzenko. The BBC micro:bit is a small programmable device half the size of catalase test a credit card; it features 25 LEDs, buttons, an accelerometer, a compass, and Bluetooth capabilities. The device has been handed out for free to on Summary Manufacturing, a million kids between 11 and 12 years old in the UK; Microsoft provided the programming environment, based on TouchDevelop. Subtilis. I will talk about the device, demo the programming environment, and discuss the global “CS literacy” trend, wherein more and more countries emphasize CS education. Booth 11: Machine Learning for non-experts: Platform for Interactive Concept Learning (PICL) Presenter: Carlos Garcia Jurado Suarez. Building classifiers and entity extractors is not new. The efficacy of current approaches, though, is limited by the number of machine-learning experts and programmers and by the complexity of the tasks. The Platform for Interactive Concept Learning (PICL) enables interactive, iterative machine learning with big data for non-experts. PICL makes it easy to build classifiers and extractors in hours. Users can build a classifier or extractor by involuntary commitment labeling a few examples, adding features, and verifying system predictions. The ability to produce thousands of high-quality classifiers and extractors can be valuable for applications such as search, advertising, email, and mobile. Booth 12: Real-time Event Detection in Video. Real-time event detection in video streams will be shown for catalase different scenarios, including urban mobility and public safety. The demonstration will highlight the lightweight aspect of the solutions proposed as well as their capability to run as an Azure service for several video streams. Presenter: Ricardo Sabedra and Witallo Oliveira. The EchoSense project is a wearable device made to assist with mobility and sense development for people with visual impairments. This project was chosen as one of the Brazilian national finalists in the Innovation category of the Essay Microsoft ImagineCup. Subtilis. This device uses sensors and commitment vibration motors to provide tactile information to users, enabling them to perceive with precision where obstacles are, without the need to touch them. The MSR Enable group focuses on creating technologies to help restore capabilities to bacillus subtilis catalase, people living with disabilities. With a specific focus on ALS (also known as MND, or Lou Gehrig’s Disease), our team is producing advancements in the areas of natural communication and Green Resources Essay independent mobility. Open source is bacillus subtilis catalase, a powerful way of advancing software development. Microsoft has open sourced over fifty cutting-edge research projects as well as key software such as .NET, and Trip To Blackpool has classified it especially for academics. Many of the projects are cross-platform and also run in bacillus subtilis browser versions. We’ll demonstrate how to get to the software best suited for your research and on Summary of Riordan Manufacturing teaching needs. Booth 16: Project Melange: Translating Code-mixed Tweets. Presenter: Sunayana Sitaram. Code-mixing is the alteration between two or more languages at the sentence, phrase, word, or morpheme level and is prevalent in multilingual societies all over the world. We demonstrate a system for the machine translation of code-mixed text in subtilis test several languages. We п¬Ѓrst perform word-level language detection and matrix language identiп¬Ѓcation. We then use this information and an existing translator in order to translate code-mixed tweets into a language of the user’s choice. Booth 17: Interaction Through Hand Tracking. Presenter: Jonathan Taylor. How would truly robust and accurate hand-tracking technology transform the way we interact with our devices? Take a glimpse of such a future through a number of exciting new user experiences. See your hands appear as avatars, allowing you to play a virtual piano or interact with virtual objects as if they were physical. May 17, 2016 | Hilton Barra Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This hands-on lab is offered to university students who are using large data sets to conduct research. This lab will help participants acquire an with Alleles Essay understanding of cloud computing with Microsoft Azure at scale, including an bacillus subtilis catalase overview of services that enable powerful predictive analytics relevant to any research domain involving cloud-based data analytics. Trip. The one-day training will be delivered through a scenario-based program. Registration for the workshop is by invitation only. Please bring your own laptop. You will be able to access Microsoft Azure on your own laptop during the training and for evaluation purposes for up to one month after the bacillus test event. Your laptop does not need to Taking, have the Windows operating system installed—Microsoft Azure is catalase, accessed via your Internet browser so any operating system will be compatible. Essay. This course is suitable for research oriented students using any language, framework, or platform. Catalase. This includes Linux, Python, R, MATLAB, Java, Hadoop, STORM, SPARK, and Microsoft technologies such as C#, F#, Microsoft .NET, Microsoft Azure SQL Database, and various Microsoft Azure services. Some basic exposure to cloud computing is helpful, but not required. A greater understanding of cloud computing will be the pros result of subtilis catalase this one-day class. Learning outcomes include: Gaining an understanding of cloud computing and why and pros and cons when you would use it in scientific or other research Acquiring hands-on experience in the major design patterns for successful cloud applications Developing the skills to run your own application/services on Microsoft Azure. Participants will also receive information about applying for Azure for Research computing awards. Date : May 17, 2016. Time : 9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. Registration opens at 8:30, class begins at 9:00. Location : Hilton Barra Rio de Janeiro Hotel. Building/room : Nogueira I (Lower Lobby) Address : 1430 Abelardo Bueno Avenue, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Microsoft will provide lunch. You will need to make your own travel arrangements to arrive at the Hilton Barra by 8:30 am for check-in. Watch the 2016 Latin American Faculty Summit sessions on bacillus catalase demand. Latin American Faculty Summit 2016 – Perspectives on Health Intelligence. Leila Pontes, Marcel Jackowski, Michael Zyskowski. FAPERJ, University of Sao Paulo, Microsoft. Latin American Faculty Summit 2016 – Intelligent Devices. Nicolas Villar, Ivan Tashev. Latin American Faculty Summit 2016 – Machine Learning Advancing Artificial Intelligence. Bruno Castro da Silva, Carlos Garcia Jurado Suarez, Katja Hofmann. Institute of Informatics of the Green Resources Essay Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Microsoft, Microsoft. Latin American Faculty Summit 2016 – Intelligent Vision Technologies. Sergio Lima Netto, Jonathan Taylor, Cha Zhang. Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Microsoft, Microsoft.

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Effect of catalase, increased potassium intake on cardiovascular risk factors and disease: systematic review and Essay, meta-analyses. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature and meta-analyses to fill the gaps in knowledge on potassium intake and health. Data sources Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature Database, and the reference lists of bacillus subtilis catalase test, previous reviews. Study selection Randomised controlled trials and cohort studies reporting the effects of potassium intake on involuntary pros and cons blood pressure, renal function, blood lipids, catecholamine concentrations, all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and coronary heart disease were included. Data extraction and synthesis Potential studies were independently screened in duplicate, and their characteristics and outcomes were extracted. When possible, meta-analysis was done to estimate the effects (mean difference or risk ratio with 95% confidence interval) of higher potassium intake by using the inverse variance method and a random effect model. Results 22 randomised controlled trials (including 1606 participants) reporting blood pressure, blood lipids, catecholamine concentrations, and renal function and 11 cohort studies (127 038 participants) reporting all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, stroke, or coronary heart disease in adults were included in the meta-analyses. Increased potassium intake reduced systolic blood pressure by 3.49 (95% confidence interval 1.82 to 5.15) mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by 1.96 (0.86 to 3.06) mm Hg in adults, an bacillus catalase effect seen in people with hypertension but not in those without hypertension. Systolic blood pressure was reduced by 7.16 (1.91 to 12.41) mm Hg when the higher potassium intake was 90-120 mmol/day, without any dose response. Increased potassium intake had no significant adverse effect on renal function, blood lipids, or catecholamine concentrations in adults. An inverse statistically significant association was seen between potassium intake and risk of incident stroke (risk ratio 0.76, 0.66 to 0.89). Associations between potassium intake and Taking Advantage Natural Resources, incident cardiovascular disease (risk ratio 0.88, 0.70 to 1.11) or coronary heart disease (0.96, 0.78 to 1.19) were not statistically significant. In children, three controlled trials and one cohort study suggested that increased potassium intake reduced systolic blood pressure by a non-significant 0.28 (−0.49 to 1.05) mm Hg. Conclusions High quality evidence shows that increased potassium intake reduces blood pressure in people with hypertension and catalase test, has no adverse effect on blood lipid concentrations, catecholamine concentrations, or renal function in adults. Higher potassium intake was associated with a 24% lower risk of stroke (moderate quality evidence). These results suggest that increased potassium intake is Experiment Alleles Essay, potentially beneficial to most people without impaired renal handling of bacillus subtilis test, potassium for the prevention and Essay on Summary Manufacturing, control of elevated blood pressure and stroke. Non-communicable diseases are the leading cause of death globally, killing more people each year than all other causes combined.1 2 3 Elevated blood pressure and hypertension are major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure, as well as renal failure.4 Although non-communicable diseases disproportionately affect adults, they and their risk factors are becoming more prevalent in paediatric populations. Diet related non-communicable diseases may take years or decades to manifest, and delaying the onset of subtilis catalase, these diseases could improve lives and result in substantial cost savings.5 6 Much of the human and social impact caused each year by morbidity and mortality related to non-communicable diseases could be averted through interventions that are well understood, cost effective, and feasible.1. Potassium is an essential nutrient that is needed for Essay maintenance of total body fluid volume, acid and electrolyte balance, and normal cell function.7 In the pre-agricultural and bacillus catalase test, post-agricultural diets of our human ancestors, potassium intake was very high, often exceeding 200 mmol/day.8 In modern society, these levels have been markedly reduced. Food processing reduces the potassium content of food, and a diet high in processed foods and low in fresh fruits and vegetables is often lacking in potassium.8 Data from around the world suggest that the average potassium consumption in many countries is below 70-80 mmol/day,9 the value recommended by the 2002 Joint World Health Organization (WHO)/Food and Agriculture Organization Expert Consultation,10 and even fewer countries report an average consumption of 90 mmol/day as recommended by Green of All Essay, countries such as the United Kingdom, Spain, Mexico, and Belgium.11 12 13 14 No countries report an average population consumption of subtilis catalase test, 120 mmol/day as recommended by Gender, the United States, Canada, Republic of Korea, and Bulgaria.15 16 17 Lower potassium consumption has been associated with elevated blood pressure, hypertension,18 and subtilis, stroke,19 and higher levels of consumption could be protective against these conditions.10. Public health interventions aimed at increasing potassium intake from food are, therefore, potential cost effective measures for For All Eternity: Comparing Arranged for Love reducing the burden of morbidity and mortality from catalase test non-communicable diseases. However, the evidence on the potential beneficial effect of increased potassium on blood pressure and Essay on Summary of Riordan, cardiovascular disease is not entirely consistent. Three systematic reviews with meta-analyses, all published 10 or more years ago, suggest that increased potassium intake lowers blood pressure in adults with and without hypertension.20 21 22 Another systematic review without meta-analysis also concluded that increased potassium decreased blood pressure in bacillus adults.23 However, one meta-analysis of studies that included only people with hypertension reported no significant effect of increased potassium intake on To Blackpool blood pressure.24 A recent meta-analysis of 11 cohort studies reported an bacillus subtilis catalase test inverse association between potassium intake and risk of To Blackpool Essay, stroke but found no association with cardiovascular disease or coronary heart disease.19 No systematic reviews have looked at the effect of increased potassium intake on potential adverse effects such as changes in blood lipid concentrations, catecholamine concentrations, and renal function in adults or children, or of the effect of increased potassium intake on blood pressure in children. Additionally, none of the subtilis catalase test, previous reviews or meta-analyses attempted to determine the optimal level of Eternity: Comparing Arranged for Love Essay, intake of potassium for maximum health benefits. To inform the development of catalase, its guideline on potassium intake, the WHO initiated this review to systematically compile results from studies in apparently healthy adults and children without acute illnesses or renal impairment that could compromise handling of potassium and to conduct meta-analyses to answer the following questions. (1) What is the effect of increased potassium intake compared with lower intake on Experiment with Essay blood pressure, all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and coronary heart disease in catalase test apparently healthy adults? (2) What is the effect of increased potassium intake on blood pressure in To Blackpool apparently healthy children? (3) What is the effect of increased potassium intake on catalase test the potential adverse effects of changes in blood lipid concentrations, catecholamine concentrations, and renal function in apparently healthy adults and children? (4) What is the level of potassium intake that results in the maximum benefit on blood pressure and risk of mortality and cardiovascular diseases? (5) Is the effect of increased potassium differentially affected by the hypertension status of the commitment pros, population, sex, average sodium or potassium intake at baseline, type of intervention, type of device or method used to measure blood pressure, study design, or duration of intervention? We conducted this review according to the methods recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration and documented the process and results in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement for reporting systematic reviews.25 26. The primary outcomes of interest in adults were blood pressure, all cause mortality, and all incident, fatal, and catalase test, non-fatal cardiovascular disease, stroke, and coronary heart disease. We also examined potential adverse effects such as changes in with Essay blood lipid concentrations (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride concentrations), catecholamine concentrations, and renal function and any other adverse effects reported by study authors. The primary outcomes in children were blood pressure and the potential adverse effects of changes in blood lipids or catecholamine concentrations and any other adverse effects reported by study authors. We planned to include only randomised controlled trials (both individual and test, cluster randomised). Knowing that some outcomes would probably not have at least three studies meeting the inclusion criteria, we decided a priori that in the event of an insufficient number of randomised controlled trials for on Summary Manufacturing a given outcome (less than three), we would include quasi-randomised trials, non-randomised trials, and prospective observational cohort studies. Randomised and non-randomised controlled trials must have allocated at least one group of participants to increased potassium intake (intervention) and one group to lower potassium intake (control) for at least four weeks. Cohort studies must have had a prospective design that measured potassium intake as the bacillus subtilis catalase, exposure and reported at least one of the outcomes of interest after at least one year of follow-up. Randomised controlled trials (but not cohort studies) had to use urinary potassium excretion from involuntary commitment and cons 24 hour urine collections to estimate actual potassium intake. Bacillus Subtilis Test! The controlled trials could not have concomitant interventions (that is, non-drug interventions, antihypertensive drugs, or other drugs) in the intervention group unless those interventions were also applied to the control group, so the only difference between the groups was the level of For All Eternity: to Marriages for Love, potassium intake. We excluded studies targeting acutely ill or HIV positive people, people admitted to hospital, or people with impaired urinary potassium excretion due to a medical condition or drug treatment. We first searched the literature for high quality systematic reviews of bacillus subtilis test, randomised controlled trials or cohort studies on the effect of increased potassium intake relative to Representation in Advertisements, lower potassium intake on the outcomes of catalase, interest. We examined the reference lists of included studies of an Essay identified review if the inclusion criteria were in catalase agreement with, or were broader than, the inclusion criteria defined for commitment and cons the specific objectives of our review. We reviewed each original reference and compared it against the inclusion criteria for our review and subtilis test, included those that met our inclusion criteria. We did a complete search of the literature on potassium intake and the outcomes of Building: Taking Advantage Resources Essay, interest published since the subtilis catalase test, data search of the To Blackpool, identified systematic review(s). We searched the bacillus catalase test, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (6 September 2011), Medline (28 August 2011), Embase (25 August 2011), the on Summary Manufacturing, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (1 September 2011), and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature Database (LILACS) (1 September 2011). Bacillus Subtilis! Our search had no language restrictions or additional limits. We examined the of Riordan, reference lists of included studies for additional studies. Two reviewers independently screened the output of the search to identify potentially eligible studies. Bacillus Subtilis Catalase! Complete data search terms can be found in Alleles Essay the supplementary material (online supporting materials (OSM) 1). Data extraction, risk of bias, and quality assessment. Two reviewers independently extracted relevant population and intervention characteristics of subtilis catalase test, each study by using a standard data extraction form. A third reviewer checked extracted data, and Green Taking, all disagreements were resolved through consensus. We requested any relevant missing information from the original study authors. In the case of duplicate publications and companion papers of bacillus subtilis catalase test, a primary publication, we evaluated all available data to maximise the yield of information. For randomised controlled trials, we assessed the risk of Trip To Blackpool, bias associated with the method of subtilis, sequence generation (possible selection bias), allocation concealment (possible selection bias), blinding (possible performance bias), selective reporting (possible selective reporting bias), loss to follow-up (possible attrition bias), and completeness of reporting outcome data (possible attrition bias). In cohort studies, we additionally evaluated the risk of bias associated with methods of measuring exposure (possible bias due to confounding or contamination), collecting outcome data (possible bias due to inadequate duration of exposure and performance bias), and selecting study participants (possible bias due to lack of comparability between groups). We rated the risk of bias as being low, unclear, or high according to established criteria.25 27. We used funnel plots to Trip To Blackpool Essay, assess for the presence of small study bias.28 29 We generated “risk of bias graph” and “risk of bias summary” figures for each study type separately in adults and children. We used GRADEProfiler software (version 3.6) to assess the quality of the body of evidence according to the methodology of grading of bacillus catalase, recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE).30. One reviewer entered data into Review Manager software (Copenhagen, 2011), and a second reviewer checked data entry for accuracy. Essay On Summary Of Riordan Manufacturing! In cases of disagreement, a third reviewer also evaluated the data and all reviewers made a conclusion based on consensus. In the randomised controlled trials conducted in adults, we estimated potassium intake from 24 hour urinary excretion by subtilis catalase, using a conversion factor of 1.3.31. We calculated an overall effect estimate for all dichotomous data as a risk ratio with 95% confidence interval. We extracted dichotomous data in the form of a risk ratio or a hazard ratio from Building: of All Natural Essay each original cohort study by using the statistical models that controlled for bacillus subtilis test the greatest number of covariates (to reduce bias) without controlling for blood pressure, because blood pressure explains some of the Gender Representation in Advertisements, effect that potassium has on non-communicable disease related outcomes. Subtilis! We compared the risk of each outcome in the group with the To Blackpool Essay, highest potassium intake against bacillus subtilis that of the group with the lowest potassium intake (reference group) to generate an overall effect estimate. We did a subgroup analysis to test the effect of different levels of intake on outcomes and used different intake levels from the commitment, same study compared with the same reference group but did not pool the subgroups. For randomised controlled trials, we generated an overall effect estimate for all continuous variables by using the difference in means, with 95% confidence intervals, between the intervention and subtilis test, the control groups. When a trial had more than one intervention group but only Taking Advantage of All Resources Essay one control group, we used the group with the highest potassium intake in the analysis. When original study authors assessed outcomes at more than one time point, we included the data from the bacillus subtilis test, latest time point in overall analyses and Green Advantage Resources, used data from all relevant time points in the subgroup analysis based on study duration. Subtilis! We used the inverse variance method random effects meta-analysis to combine data and generate the overall effect estimate.32 For all analyses, we considered results to be statistically significant at α=0.05. We assessed heterogeneity by visual inspection of the forest plots and Experiment, with the I 2 statistic quantifying inconsistency across studies.33 34 We considered an I 2 statistic of bacillus subtilis catalase test, 75% or greater to be an important level of inconsistency. When we found heterogeneity, we combined data in a meta-analysis, noted the heterogeneity, and examined characteristics of individual studies and subgroups and attempted to explain the pros and cons, heterogeneity. We defined the following subgroups during the protocol development with input from the WHO Nutrition Guidelines Expert Advisory Group to test specific objectives: achieved potassium intake in intervention or comparison group (<90 mmol/day v 90-120 mmol/day v 120-155 mmol/day v >155 mmol/day) (note: original studies reported urinary potassium excretion; using a conversion factor of 1.3),31 70 mmol/day urinary potassium equals approximately 90 mmol/day potassium intake, 90 mmol/day urinary potassium equals 120 mmol/day intake, and 120 mmol/day urinary potassium equals 155 mmol/day intake); achieved difference in potassium intake between intervention or comparison and control (<30 mmol/day v 30-60 mmol/day v >60 mmol/day); average potassium intake at baseline (<50 mmol/day v 50-80 mmol/day v >80 mmol/day); average sodium intake at baseline (< 2 g/day v 2-4 g/day v >4 g/day); hypertensive status of participants at baseline (with hypertension v without hypertension v undetermined or mixed); and sex (male v female v mixed). Additional subgroups in randomised controlled trials only bacillus catalase test were: type of intervention (diet or feeding v supplementation v advice); type of device used to measure blood pressure (automatic v manual); method of measurement of commitment and cons, blood pressure (supine office v seated office v standing office v unspecified); study design (parallel v crossover); and duration of intervention (<2 months v 2-4 months v >4 months). We also planned to use these subgroups to examine reasons for heterogeneity. We did a sensitivity analysis to examine the effect of subtilis test, removing studies at For All Eternity: Comparing Arranged Marriages to Marriages for Love, high risk of bias from the analysis. For randomised controlled trials, we considered a study to test, be at high risk of bias if it was graded as inadequate in both the randomisation and concealment of allocation and in either blinding or loss to Eternity: Comparing, follow-up. For cohort studies, we considered a study to be at high risk of bias if the measurement method for estimating potassium intake was a single 24 hour dietary recall or if the study had high risk of confounding for both measurement method and a second reason. We identified 5310 publications reporting on blood pressure, blood lipids, or catecholamine concentrations in adults or children or on renal function, all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, stroke, or coronary heart disease in adults. Of these, we found 5250 in the electronic search and 60 in the references from bacillus subtilis catalase test published systematic reviews or other sources.19 20 21 22 23 24 After we eliminated duplicate publications, clearly irrelevant publications, and studies that did not reach basic inclusion criteria, we assessed 75 full text publications for eligibility. We excluded 31 studies on full text review. We could not determine the eligibility of seven randomised controlled trials from the published manuscripts; we requested additional information that we have not yet received.35 36 37 38 39 40 41 We could not pool data from Representation in Advertisements Essay two studies because they lacked the necessary quantitative information.42 43 Thus 37 studies identified in the original search contributed to the systematic review and 35 contributed to the meta-analyses: 22 randomised controlled trials44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 and 11 cohort studies66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 in adults and test, one randomised controlled trial77 and commitment and cons, one cohort study78 in children. Figure 1 ⇓ shows the catalase test, process of study selection. Fig 1 Flow of studies through screening, inclusion, and exclusion. RCT=randomised controlled trial. Because of the sparseness of data in children, we reassessed the 17 potentially eligible abstracts in children with broader inclusion criteria including more than three weeks’ duration and any controlled design. We excluded 11 abstracts and Gender Representation in Advertisements Essay, assessed six full text articles for eligibility. We excluded four: one was cross sectional, one did not report an bacillus subtilis catalase outcome of Marriages to Marriages for Love Essay, interest, and two did not report original data. We included two additional studies: one randomised controlled trial of subtilis catalase test, three weeks’ duration and one non-randomised controlled trial.79 80 Therefore, we included four studies in children: two randomised and one non-randomised controlled trials and one cohort study. Randomised controlled trials in adults were conducted in Australia, Chile, China, Germany, India, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, the Netherlands, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Study duration ranged from four weeks to 12 months. Pros And Cons! A total of 1606 participants were included, with individual study sizes ranging from 12 to subtilis test, 353. The intervention in one study was dietary advice or education, as well as a tablet supplement. In two studies, the pros, intervention was dietary advice or education alone. The intervention in the remaining 20 studies was the provision of potassium supplements. Subtilis! For study characteristics, see supplementary material (OSM2). The 12 cohort studies in pros and cons adults were conducted in Finland, Japan, the Netherlands, Scotland, Taiwan, and the United States; one study included participants from 40 countries. One study did not report variance estimates and was, therefore, not included in bacillus catalase the meta-analysis. In the meta-analysis, a total of Green of All, 127 038 participants were included, with sample sizes ranging from 443 to bacillus test, 38 726 in individual studies. Involuntary! All cohort studies divided the sample population on the basis of potassium intake at baseline and bacillus catalase, measured all cause mortality or incident, fatal, or non-fatal cardiovascular disease, stroke, or coronary heart disease over Gender in Advertisements Essay time. In children, the three controlled trials were conducted in the United States and the one cohort study in the Netherlands. The two randomised trials included a total of bacillus catalase test, 250 boys and girls aged 13-15 years. The non-randomised controlled trial included 76 adolescents aged 11-14 years. Gender Representation In Advertisements Essay! The cohort study measured 596 children 5-17 years of age at baseline, and bacillus catalase test, 253 were re-measured at the seven year follow-up. Twenty one randomised controlled trials contributed 21 comparisons to the meta-analyses of resting blood pressure in adults. Increased potassium intake reduced systolic blood pressure by 5.93 (95% confidence interval 1.70 to 10.15) mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by Essay, 3.78 (1.43 to 6.13) mm Hg. Heterogeneity was present in both analyses: I 2 =96% for the systolic blood pressure analysis and subtilis catalase test, I 2 =93% for Building: of All Natural Essay the diastolic blood pressure analysis. We independently removed each study from the analyses to explore the effect on the heterogeneity. Bacillus Catalase! We were able to Experiment, reduce the I 2 to 65% in the systolic blood pressure analysis by bacillus subtilis test, removing one study,52 and we reduced I 2 to 55% in commitment the diastolic analysis by removing two studies.51 52 Increased potassium intake reduced systolic blood pressure by 3.49 (1.82 to 5.15) mm Hg (fig 2 ⇓ ) and diastolic blood pressure by 1.96 (0.86 to bacillus, 3.06) mm Hg (fig 3 ⇓ ). Fig 2 Effect of increased potassium intake on resting systolic blood pressure in adults: by hypertension status and Essay, total. Fig 3 Effect of increased potassium intake on resting diastolic blood pressure in adults: by hypertension status and total. Table 1 ⇓ contains results from subgroup analyses. Subgrouping by baseline hypertension status explained most of the subtilis test, remaining heterogeneity (figures 2 ⇑ and Experiment, 3 ⇑ ). Increased potassium intake significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the 16 studies targeting people with hypertension (systolic blood pressure 5.32 (3.43 to bacillus test, 7.20) mm Hg; diastolic 3.10 (1.66 to 4.53) mm Hg) but not the Essay, three studies targeting people without hypertension (systolic 0.09 (−0.77 to 0.95) mm Hg; diastolic (0.56 (−0.42 to subtilis test, 1.55) mm Hg). When we sub-grouped studies by achieved potassium intake, we found that when the increased potassium group consumed 90-120 mmol/day, the reduction in systolic (7.16 (1.91 to 12.41) mm Hg) and diastolic (4.01 (−0.42 to 8.44) mm Hg) blood pressure was larger than in any other intake group, although the groups were not statistically different from one another and Essay on Summary Manufacturing, no clear dose response was apparent. Estimates of effect of increased potassium on systolic and bacillus subtilis test, diastolic blood pressure in adults by subgroups. Our other subgroup analyses showed that increased potassium intake decreased systolic blood pressure regardless of baseline potassium intake, blood pressure measurement device, blood pressure measurement method, the population status of use of drugs to of Riordan Manufacturing, control blood pressure, the intervention type, or the study design. When we sub-grouped studies according to the reported population sodium intake, the greatest decrease in systolic blood pressure (6.91 (2.29 to 11.53) mm Hg) was seen in the group of studies with the highest sodium consumption (>4 g sodium/day); however, this decrease was not significantly greater than the decrease in the group of studies in subtilis test which the population consumed 2-4 g sodium/day (1.97 (0.52 to 3.41) mm Hg). Increased potassium intake decreased systolic blood pressure in studies of a duration of less than two months (3.36 (1.78 to 4.94) mm Hg,) or 2-4 months (3.83 (0.95 to 6.72) mm Hg). Only three studies had a duration of more than four months,44 46 48 two of which were in people without hypertension,44 46 and increased potassium did not significantly reduce blood pressure in with Alleles this group of studies (−0.02 (−0.90 to bacillus catalase test, 0.85) mm Hg). Reductions in diastolic blood pressure in the subgroup analyses were less pronounced but similar to those of systolic blood pressure. All cause mortality and disease endpoints in adults. The meta-analysis of nine cohort studies with nine comparisons detected a protective effect of higher potassium intake on risk of incident stroke (risk ratio 0.76, 0.66 to 0.89). The risk of incident stroke was the least when the intake of potassium in the comparison group was 90-120 mmol/day (risk ratio 0.70, 0.56 to 0.88), although it was not significantly different from the result when the potassium intake was <90 mmol/day (0.82, 0.71 to 0.93). Potassium intake had a non-significant relation with incident cardiovascular disease (risk ratio 0.88, 0.70 to 1.10) and coronary heart disease (0.96, 0.78 to with Essay, 1.19) (fig 4 ⇓ ). Two cohort studies reported all cause mortality; however, the bacillus subtilis, results could not be combined in a meta-analysis because one study did not report an estimate of variance.42 That study reported a relative risk of Eternity: Arranged Marriages for Love, death of 0.58 for the 80th centile versus the 20th centile of potassium intake, but statistical significance was not reported. The second study had inconclusive results (risk ratio 1.08, 0.91 to 1.29) when calculating the catalase test, risk for every increase of one in standard deviation (45 mmol/day) in intake of potassium. Fig 4 Association between higher potassium intake and risk of incident cardiovascular disease, stroke, and pros and cons, coronary heart disease in bacillus adults. Potential adverse effects in adults. Meta-analyses of Eternity: Comparing Arranged Marriages, randomised controlled trials reporting changes in blood lipids showed no significant adverse effect of increased potassium on total cholesterol (mean difference −0.12 (−0.33 to 0.09) mmol/L), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (−0.10 (−0.38 to 0.18) mmol/L), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (−0.01 (−0.13 to 0.11) mmol/L), or triglyceride concentrations (−0.11 (−0.48 to 0.26) mmol/L) (fig 5 ⇓ ). No studies measured urinary catecholamine concentrations. Bacillus Catalase Test! The meta-analyses of three randomised controlled trials reporting plasma catecholamine concentrations detected no effect of increased potassium intake on plasma adrenaline (−3.94 (−9.22 to 1.34) pg/mL) or plasma noradrenaline (−4.32 (−23.78 to 15.13) pg/mL). Three studies measured renal function by serum creatinine, and Essay, the meta-analysis showed that increased potassium intake decreased serum creatinine by a non-significant 4.86 (−3.87 to 13.59) µmol/L. No studies reported minor side effects or other potential adverse effects from increased potassium intake. Fig 5 Effect of increased potassium intake on bacillus subtilis blood lipid concentrations, catecholamine concentrations, and renal function in adults. Blood pressure and potential adverse effects in Green Advantage of All Natural Resources children. In the meta-analyses of the three randomised controlled trials with five comparisons in children, increased potassium intake decreased systolic blood pressure by a non-significant 0.28 (−0.49 to 1.05) mm Hg (fig 6 ⇓ ) and diastolic blood pressure by 0.92 (−0.16 to 2.00) mm Hg. In the subtilis catalase, cohort study, potassium intake was inversely related to the rate of increase in blood pressure over a seven year period; the highest third of Gender Representation in Advertisements, potassium intake had a 1.00 (0.35 to 1.65) mm Hg per subtilis test, year lower increase in blood pressure than the on Summary of Riordan, lowest third.78 No studies that met the inclusion criteria reported the effect of increased potassium intake on blood lipid concentrations, catecholamine concentrations or other adverse effects in children. Fig 6 Effect of increased potassium intake on catalase resting systolic blood pressure in Experiment with Alleles Essay children. Sinaiko 1993 reported results for boys and girls separately, and Wilson 1996 reported results for two groups separately on basis of their change in blood pressure between waking and sleeping hours during pilot phase of study. The funnel plots of the set of studies in adults do not confirm small study bias; however, they also do not provide clear evidence of no small study bias in the set of studies in adults, so some small study bias may exist (see supplementary materials OSM3). In children, the number of studies was insufficient to generate meaningful funnel plots. The summary and graph of the assessment of other risk of bacillus test, bias (OSM4 and OSM5) suggest that the entire body of evidence in adults was not at high risk of bias. One randomised controlled trial in adults was at high risk of Green Building: Taking Natural, bias61; however, only five studies reported the method of random sequence generation and bacillus test, allocation concealment.46 57 58 61 64 The body of evidence in children was at high risk of bias. Of the four studies, one was a cohort study,78 and with Essay, one was not randomised.80 Only one study reported blinding of personnel and bacillus subtilis, participants,77 and two studies did not blind personnel and participants.79 80 In all studies in children, whether the Comparing Arranged Marriages for Love, outcome assessors were blinded was unclear.77 78 79 80. According to the assessment of quality of evidence by GRADE methods,30 the evidence for increased potassium reducing blood pressure in adults was of high or moderate quality (table 2 ⇓ ). The evidence of no effect of increased potassium on blood lipid concentrations, catecholamine concentrations, or renal function was of high quality. The quality of evidence was not downgraded for any reason. The direct evidence for test a protective effect of Green Building: Resources, higher potassium intake on subtilis catalase test incident stroke was low because cohort studies began on the GRADE ranking as low quality and it was not downgraded for any reason. Building: Natural Resources! The quality of the direct evidence for subtilis catalase an effect of potassium intake level on incident cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease was very low. In both cases, the Essay, quality of evidence began as low because of the subtilis test, cohort study design and was downgraded owing to imprecision (that is, the 95% confidence interval of the effect estimate crossed one). The low and very low quality of this evidence reflects that the GRADE method defines observational evidence from cohort studies as low quality. Essay! Recognising the limitations of any biomarker, we considered data on change in systolic blood pressure as indirect evidence regarding the effect of sodium intake on risk of bacillus test, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Blood pressure is recognised as a reliable biomarker for estimating risk of Green Building: Natural Essay, cardiovascular disease,81 82 because of the subtilis, well established relation between increasing blood pressure and increasing risk of cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease and stroke.4 83 We downgraded the data owing to indirectness (that is, use of Gender Representation in Advertisements Essay, a proxy indicator). GRADE summary of subtilis catalase, findings table showing quality of evidence for effect of higher potassium intake on selected health outcomes in adults. According to the GRADE assessment,30 the quality of evidence in Experiment with Alleles Essay children showing that increased potassium intake reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure was low (table 3 ⇓ ). We downgraded the controlled trials because of a high risk of bacillus catalase, bias as described previously and imprecision (95% confidence interval of Green Building: Advantage Natural Essay, effect estimate crossed zero). We did not downgrade the cohort study for any reason but assessed it as low quality because of the bacillus subtilis test, study design, as per GRADE guidance. We used the data from the systematic review conducted in adults as part of the evidence base for estimating the effect of increased potassium on blood pressure and Essay of Riordan Manufacturing, potential adverse effects in children and bacillus catalase, downgraded it from high to moderate in quality because of indirectness (that is, use of a proxy population for the target population). GRADE summary of Green Taking Advantage of All Natural Essay, findings table showing quality of evidence for effect of higher potassium intake on selected health outcomes in children. We considered the entirety of the evidence and the quality of the body of evidence in adults and catalase test, children in generating conclusions. In the meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials in adults, we removed the For All Arranged, one study at high risk of bias.61 Increased potassium intake still reduced systolic (3.50 (1.82 to bacillus catalase, 5.15) mm Hg) and Representation in Advertisements, diastolic (2.95 (1.06 to 4.84) mm Hg) blood pressure. Bacillus Test! We removed cohort studies from the meta-analyses that measured exposure to potassium intake through one 24 hour dietary recall.70 75 Increased potassium was still associated with having a protective effect on risk of stroke (risk ratio 0.79, 0.66 to 0.95) and For All Marriages Essay, had no association with risk of incident coronary heart disease (0.89, 0.53 to 1.48). We removed the study that did not have random treatment allocation from the meta-analyses in bacillus subtilis catalase test children,80 and we saw little effect on the reduction in blood pressure (0.27 (−0.62 to 1.15 mm Hg). The results from our meta-analyses of 22 randomised controlled trials in adults confirm that increased potassium intake reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Our review is the first to document through a systematic search of the literature and meta-analyses that increased potassium has no adverse effect on Trip Essay blood lipid concentrations, catecholamine concentrations, or renal function in adults. We found a beneficial effect of higher potassium intake on risk of incident stroke but not of total cardiovascular disease or coronary heart disease; however, because few studies have reported these outcomes, detecting an effect is difficult even through meta-analysis. Our results on bacillus catalase blood pressure are consistent with three previous meta-analyses, and a fourth systematic review without meta-analysis, of trials comparing higher potassium with lower potassium intake.20 21 22 23 One previous meta-analysis restricted to studies conducted in people with hypertension reported no effect of potassium supplementation on For All Eternity: Marriages blood pressure.24 The discrepancy in results could be due to that review having included only catalase six studies and 483 participants, whereas our review included 22 studies and 1892 participants, providing much more power to detect an effect. The meta-analyses of 11 cohort studies in adults suggest an Essay on Summary Manufacturing association between higher potassium intake and bacillus subtilis, reduced risk of stroke. These results are consistent with the Essay, previous meta-analysis of subtilis test, cohort studies, which reported that a 42 mmol/day higher potassium intake was associated with a 21% lower risk of stroke.19. Our review was also the commitment pros, first in children and found a non-significant reduction in blood pressure. Bacillus Subtilis Test! Importantly, we showed through a systematic search of the literature the lack of data in children. Only three controlled studies with 156 children met the inclusion criteria for commitment pros the meta-analysis, so the lack of subtilis catalase, significant effect may reflect lack of statistical power. The suggestion of a beneficial effect in Gender Representation the controlled trials was supported by the one cohort study in children, which also reported a beneficial effect of higher potassium intake on blood pressure. Bacillus Catalase! Because renal function, and with Alleles, thus the body’s main mechanism for controlling potassium balance, is fully developed early in childhood, potassium intake might be expected to have the same relation with blood pressure and the other health outcomes explored in children as in bacillus test adults. Therefore, findings in adults can provide some support for an effect of increased potassium intake on blood pressure in Experiment Alleles children. Nevertheless, high quality randomised controlled trials in catalase test children are warranted to explore this relation further. The meta analysis of 16 randomised controlled trials in adults with hypertension and in the two randomised controlled trials conducted in a mixed group of people with and without hypertension found that increased potassium intake decreased systolic blood pressure. However, potassium had no detectable effect on blood pressure in the meta-analysis of three randomised controlled trials conducted exclusively in For All Eternity: Marriages for Love Essay people without hypertension. However, the studies in people without hypertension were of bacillus test, relatively short duration and did not consider the effect that increased potassium intake may have over time on the prevention of elevated blood pressure. Given the Trip Essay, high prevalence of hypertension in adult populations,2 and bacillus subtilis test, the relatively low potassium intake globally,9 84 85 populations around the world will probably benefit from increased potassium intake. Elevated blood pressure is the leading risk factor for mortality globally, accounting for almost 13% of deaths.3 The decrease in involuntary pros blood pressure caused by increased potassium intake can have important public health benefits at subtilis test, the population level. For example a decrease of 2 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure in the population of the United States could prevent an estimated 67 000 coronary heart disease events and 34 000 stroke events every year.86 Researchers estimate that a 5 mm Hg reduction in Essay systolic blood pressure in bacillus catalase test the population of the United Kingdom could reduce the prevalence of hypertension by 50% in that country.87. Through subgroup analysis, we attempted to involuntary commitment and cons, assess if the type of intervention (supplements versus dietary changes) affected the relation between increased potassium intake and the outcomes of interest. Increasing potassium intake through dietary supplements and through dietary changes both reduced systolic blood pressure, suggesting that the vehicle of increased potassium intake can be food and does not have to be a supplement. The results from the cohort studies support this claim, as all cohort studies considered groups of varying dietary potassium intake and showed a beneficial effect of higher potassium intake from food on risk of bacillus catalase, stroke. Moreover, potassium is found in Experiment Alleles a wide variety of foods, so people can achieve a higher potassium intake through increasing consumption of foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables and pulses (legumes). We systematically searched for, compiled, and bacillus, meta-analysed all available data on the potential adverse effect of increased potassium intake on blood lipid concentrations, catecholamine concentrations, and renal function and found that increased potassium, either in supplement or dietary form, had no adverse effects on these outcomes. Other researchers have shown that in people without renal impairment caused by medical conditions or drug treatment, increasing potassium consumption from food is safe.17 48 88 89 90 People with impaired urinary potassium excretion can be at risk of hyperkalaemia, an unhealthy elevated serum potassium concentration, from increased potassium consumption.17 The risk is confined to those patients, most of whom are under medical supervision,17 and they were not included in this review. In people without renal impairment, the Green Advantage Natural Essay, body is subtilis, able to efficiently adapt and excrete excess potassium in the urine when consumption exceeds needs.7 90 Intervention trials including potassium consumption as high as 400 mmol/day from food for several weeks and 115 mmol/day for up to a year reported no adverse effects from increased potassium intake.48 90 Some isolated cases of acute toxicity from extremely high potassium intake in supplement form have been reported,91 but no cases of For All Comparing Marriages for Love Essay, toxicity from potassium intake from food have been reported. Because of the safety of consumption of bacillus subtilis, increased potassium from food, our objectives did not include testing a potential upper limit of intake. We did, however, systematically search for and record any adverse effects reported by study authors. No studies reported increased side effects, minor complaints, or major adverse effects in the increased potassium groups compared with the control groups. This review is the first to attempt to determine an Building: Taking Advantage of All optimum level of potassium intake for subtilis test affecting health outcomes. Moderate and high quality evidence showed that a higher potassium intake of 90-120 mmol/day reduced blood pressure and was associated with a lower risk of incident stroke. Intake above 120 mmol/day did not seem to Essay, have any additional benefit. However, the evidence from the randomised controlled trials and cohort studies in adults was limited in that it did not identify a precise optimal level of potassium intake for maximum health benefits. However, if a person consumes 90 mmol/day or more potassium and the WHO recommended sodium intake of less than 2 g/day,92 his or her intake would have a molar ratio of bacillus subtilis catalase, sodium to potassium of approximately one to one, a ratio considered beneficial for health.10 31 A subgroup analysis of the randomised controlled trials to explore whether different levels of sodium intake influenced the effect of potassium on blood pressure showed no statistically significant difference in the effect estimates among subgroups based on sodium intake. However, the results suggest that potassium may be more effective in reducing blood pressure at higher levels of sodium consumption, consistent with previous findings.22 The largest benefit was detected when sodium intake was more than 4 g/day, which is the intake of Building: Advantage of All Natural Essay, most populations globally,93 so increased potassium intake should benefit most people in most countries. Bacillus Catalase Test! However, we also found a statistically significant decrease in blood pressure with increased potassium when sodium intake was 2-4 g/day. Therefore, increased potassium can continue to be beneficial in terms of Trip, blood pressure even as individuals and populations decrease their sodium intake. Studies examining both nutrients simultaneously support this concept, showing an increased benefit with simultaneous reduction in sodium and increase in potassium compared with changes in one nutrient individually.94 95. Some limitations of this review should be noted. Subtilis! The funnel plots used to assess small study bias were not clear, and involuntary commitment and cons, some small study bias may be present. Baseline hypertension status accounted for bacillus test most heterogeneity in the analyses, and Trip To Blackpool, the consistency in results after subgrouping by hypertension status suggests that any such bias did not greatly affect the subtilis catalase, results or conclusions. This review did not cover the recommended period of Trip To Blackpool, exclusive breast feeding (0-6 months) or the period of complementary feeding with continued breastfeeding (6-24 months). The review did not include studies in patients with acute disease conditions such as HIV positive status, heart failure, or renal failure. Therefore, the results should not be interpreted to include those age groups or acutely ill patients, especially those with impaired renal function and defective renal potassium handling. We could not test whether the effect of increased potassium on health differed by the type of potassium provided in supplements. In supplementation studies, only one study used potassium citrate, one used potassium bicarbonate, and one used a combination of the two. All others used potassium chloride supplements. Therefore, we could not compare different supplement types. We could not compare differences by bacillus test, sex, because 20/22 randomised controlled trials and 9/12 cohort studies were in mixed populations of men and Trip To Blackpool Essay, women. Bacillus Subtilis Catalase Test! None the less, the Experiment with Alleles Essay, overall beneficial effect of increased potassium on health supports a beneficial effect in both men and women. Finally, we did not consider the mechanism by which increased potassium may affect blood pressure and bacillus, related non-communicable disease. This systematic review provides the most complete picture to To Blackpool Essay, date of epidemiological and clinical trial evidence in humans of the bacillus subtilis catalase, effect of potassium intake on blood pressure and related non-communicable diseases in apparently healthy adults and children without renal impairment that might compromise handling of potassium. It combines the data from 22 randomised controlled trials and 11 cohort studies in adults in meta-analyses and compiles and compares the data from four controlled trials and cohort studies in children. High quality evidence (based on GRADE criteria) from studies in adults shows that increased potassium intake benefits blood pressure without having an adverse effect on blood lipid concentrations, catecholamine concentrations, or renal function. Although data from studies conducted in children are limited, the available evidence suggests that increased potassium intake might reduce blood pressure, and consuming more potassium through foods high in potassium would probably be beneficial for For All Eternity: Marriages for Love most children. Low quality evidence (based on GRADE criteria) from cohort observational studies in adults shows that increased potassium intake has an bacillus inverse association with risk of Alleles Essay, incident stroke. Our results also suggest that the most benefit may occur when people consume at least 90 mmol of potassium a day. On the basis of the entirety of bacillus, this evidence and informed by Trip Essay, the expert guidance of the WHO Nutrition Guidelines Expert Advisory Group, WHO developed its first guideline on potassium intake,96 which states that adults and children without compromised renal handling of potassium should increase their potassium intake from food and that adults should consume more than 90 mmol potassium/day for beneficial effects on blood pressure and risk of related cardiovascular diseases. What is already known on this topic. Lower potassium consumption has been associated with elevated blood pressure, hypertension, and stroke, and higher consumption levels could be protective against these conditions. The evidence regarding the subtilis catalase test, potential beneficial effect of increased potassium intake on blood pressure and cardiovascular disease is not entirely consistent. Data regarding potential adverse effects on Experiment with Essay blood lipid concentrations, catecholamine concentrations, and renal function in adults and data in children are limited. This systematic review and meta-analyses provide the most comprehensive synthesis to date of the large body of bacillus catalase test, evidence that increasing potassium intake reduces blood pressure in adults and that an inverse relation exists between potassium intake and Trip, incident stroke. Increased potassium intake has no adverse effect on blood lipid concentration, catecholamine concentrations, or renal function in bacillus apparently healthy adults without impaired renal handling of potassium. Increased potassium intake may have a beneficial effect on blood pressure in Essay on Summary of Riordan Manufacturing children, but more data are needed. We gratefully acknowledge the support of bacillus test, funding bodies (see below), along with the countless hours provided by Essay of Riordan, WHO Nutrition Guidance Expert Advisory Group members in providing input and comments on the document. We are also thankful to all stakeholders who provided their feedback on scoping the review. Contributors: The WHO Nutrition Guidelines Expert Advisory Group Subgroup on Diet and Health discussed and developed the priority questions to be covered by subtilis catalase test, the review in March 2011, and subsequently developed the protocol to answer those questions. NJA, HG, and For All Eternity: Comparing to Marriages for Love, SH ran the searches. HG and SH carried out the assessment of catalase test, inclusion, data extraction, and validity assessment, with input from NJA. HG and NJA did the Essay, data analyses. NJA developed the bacillus subtilis catalase, first GRADE evidence profiles. NJA prepared the first draft of the report submitted for review by the WHO Nutrition Guidelines Expert Advisory Group Subgroup on Trip To Blackpool Diet and Health, with support from HG and bacillus catalase, SH. The WHO Nutrition Guidelines Expert Advisory Group Subgroup on Taking Advantage of All Natural Resources Diet and Health reviewed earlier drafts and contributed to the analysis and GRADE assessment. NJA wrote the first draft of the bacillus subtilis test, manuscript. Alleles! LH, PE, and FPC provided substantial intellectual input on research methods and bacillus subtilis test, interpretation of results. Green! All authors read, provided input on, and agreed the final draft of the manuscript. WHO agreed with the bacillus subtilis, publication of this systematic review in in Advertisements a scientific journal as it serves as the background evidence review for subtilis catalase test establishing the WHO guideline on potassium intake for adults and for children and should, therefore, be widely available. With! NJA is the guarantor. Funding: Funding for bacillus catalase test this review came from various sources, including WHO funds, the commitment and cons, Kidney Evaluation Association Japan, and the governments of bacillus catalase test, Japan and the Republic of Korea. PE receives support from the Green Building: Advantage Natural Resources Essay, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre based at bacillus subtilis test, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust and Imperial College London. PE is an NIHR Senior Investigator. The views expressed are those of the authors and with Essay, not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of bacillus, Health. Competing interests: All authors have completed the For All Eternity: Arranged Marriages to Marriages for Love Essay, Unified Competing Interest form at www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf (available on request from the corresponding author) and test, declare: LH, FPC, and PE received funding from WHO to attend NUGAG Subgroup of Diet and Health meetings; PE receives support from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre based at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust and Imperial College London; FPC is an unpaid member of Consensus Action on Salt and Health and World Action on Salt and Health, an unpaid advisor to WHO and the PAHO, an individual member of the National Heart Forum, and a former member of the Executive Committee and For All Eternity: Comparing to Marriages Essay, trustee of the British Hypertension Society; PE is an unpaid member of CASH and WASH and an unpaid advisor to WHO; no further financial support from any organisation for the submitted work that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous three years; no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work. NJA was a staff member of the WHO at the time this work was completed; the bacillus subtilis, author alone is responsible for the views expressed in this publication, and they do not necessarily represent the Advantage of All Essay, views, decisions, or policies of WHO. Ethical approval: Not needed. Data sharing: The datasets are available from the corresponding author at nancy.aburto wfp.org . This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and bacillus subtilis test, the use is non-commercial. For All Comparing Marriages Essay! See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Download this article to subtilis catalase test, citation manager. 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