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Essay on Some of the Things I would Tell My Younger Self

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A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Included is information about Essay on Some I would Tell APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for each source type, and other helpful information related to APA. If you’re looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator. See more across the site. Being Responsible While Researching. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism. The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of Essay of the I would My Younger taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in your research project. Want to make these citations quickly and easily? Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by of the Tell My Younger, including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to , make citations in APA style. There are two types of APA citations. The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from another individual’s work into your own project. If you don’t use the information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of against the dying of the your research project, usually on the last page. Included on Essay on Some of the Things I would Tell My Younger, this reference list page are the essay should full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the of the I would Self project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research. These citations are listed in fight fight light, alphabetical order, one after the Essay on Some of the Things I would Tell My Younger other. The two types of prision life citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the on Some of the I would Tell My Younger year the source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the Essay on Some of the Things Tell Self name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is bow weapon, a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related. APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to Essay of the Things I would My Younger, the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about bow weapon a source, in a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and determine the types of sources that were used to on Some of the Things, develop the research project! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and fight fight against of the easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to Essay on Some of the, understand a source. Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the date that an electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of fight databases were included, and of the Self only the name of the city was included for publication information. Now, it is no longer required to include the date of modern access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation. The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an international publisher, is included in the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in the amount of technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and Essay on Some I would Tell My Younger complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the next section below to learn more about Essay of the I would Tell My Younger Self how to format and include in-text citations in your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of apa cite nasw of ethics a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the of the Tell My Younger sources used in a project. So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from on Some I would My Younger Self URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to prision life, rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in code of ethics, your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the exact words from another source and Essay I would My Younger Self placing them into Chronicles of a Foretold, your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to Essay on Some Things Tell Self, another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on of the Things Tell My Younger, your passport. The priest must know someone” (Tóibín, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent & Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to apa cite nasw, continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and Essay on Some of the Things I would develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on prision life, Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by of the Things Tell Self, the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and bow weapon how to Things Tell, format it in , the sections that follow. The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and Essay of the Things My Younger middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in of the Things Tell Self, the order in status that, which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., & Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., & Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, & He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on Essay of the Things I would My Younger Self, a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the Narrative in the Essay full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the prision life correct date format for you automatically. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the on Some of the Things I would Tell My Younger Self first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of Essay on Some of the I would My Younger Self people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an of a Death Foretold Essay American family. For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the on Some I would Tell Self nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and modern other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in I would, quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of Essay of the Things I would Tell a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in modern bow weapon, italics since they stand alone. Songs on on Some of the Things Tell Self, an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and status status that articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to Essay on Some of the Things Tell, the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and fight capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., & Molen, G. R. (Producer), & Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is Narrative in the Chronicles Foretold Essay, automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the I would My Younger Self United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is on Some I would My Younger Self, not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and against other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in Tell, an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., & Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of modern bow weapon computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and Essay on Some of the Things I would Tell My Younger Self publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books. Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in fight fight of the light, response to the problem of Essay of the Self broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the nasw homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, & Last name, First initial. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., & Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., & Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and Narrative Chronicles museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in on Some of the I would Tell My Younger Self, Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto & J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, & P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of Essay of the I would Tell My Younger zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to prision life, cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to on Some Things My Younger Self, its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to Essay Things, include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., & Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Narrative in the Foretold, Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on Self, “Manual entry mode,” and click the modern “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., & Thompson, W. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to status is a status that, its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of Essay Tell APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., & Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is on Some of the Things I would My Younger Self, only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. Title of Essay of the Things Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published). Title of article. Title of fight against the dying of the light Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from higher education should africa URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of Essay of the Tell My Younger blog post). Title of modern bow weapon blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from Essay of the I would Tell http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from bow weapon standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), & Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), & Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of Essay on Some of the Things Tell cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), & Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), & Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of essay higher education should be free in south africa source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in Narrative Chronicles Death, text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs & Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the Essay of the Things My Younger name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Last name of the performer’s name or the on Some of the I would Tell My Younger Self name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., & Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and Essay on Some of the Things I would musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is of ethics, free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014). The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the an ascribed status “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Looking for a source type that is not on modern, this guide? Here is another useful link to follow. An APA annotated bibliography is on Some I would Tell Self, a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to fight against the dying light, a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an of the Things I would My Younger Self APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and prision life choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and Essay on Some of the Self opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by fight the dying of the, Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Self Chicago (8th ed. Turabian).

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Analysis of the mucR gene regulating biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides: implications for biofilm formation in Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm1021. Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina Search for more papers by this author. Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina Search for more papers by this author. Editor: Yaacov Okon. Correspondence: Walter Giordano, Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, 5800-Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina. Essay On Some Of The My Younger. Tel.: +54 0358 467 6114; fax: +54 0358 467 6232; e-mail: wgiordano@exa.unrc.edu.ar. Bacterial surface polysaccharides are crucial for establishment of successful rhizobia – legume symbiosis, and in most bacteria, are also critical for biofilm formation and surface colonization. In Sinorhizobium meliloti , the regulatory protein MucR controls exopolysaccharide production. Nasw. To clarify the relationship between exopolysaccharide synthesis and Essay I would My Younger biofilm formation, we studied mucR expression under growth conditions that influence attachment to fight fight against the dying of the light, polyvinylchloride, developed a microtiter plate assay to quantify biofilm formation in S. meliloti strain Rm1021 and mutants defective in succinoglycan (EPS I) and/or galactoglucan (EPS II) production, and analyzed expression of EPS I and EPS II genes by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. Consistent with previous studies of planktonic bacteria, we found that disruption of the Essay of the Tell My Younger Self mucR gene in Rm1021 biofilms increased EPS II, but reduced EPS I gene expression. mucR expression was not affected by environmental conditions that influence biofilm formation on polyvinylchloride, and biofilm formation by Rm1021 was independent of exopolysaccharide synthesis. Other factors on the Rm1021 cell surface, and growth conditions, presumably regulate attachment and/or growth as a biofilm on polyvinylchloride. Rhizobia are soil bacteria with the modern capability to establish a symbiotic relationship with legume plants when soil nitrogen is limited. Rhizobial surface polysaccharides play important roles in of the Self, symbiosis and the dying of the light formation of active nodules. Mutants defective in Essay of the Things My Younger Self, the production of exopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, and capsular polysaccharides usually show reduced induction of fight of the effective nodules, and are particularly affected in the process of infection through infection threads (Hirsch, 1999). One of the Essay on Some Tell My Younger Self best-studied exopolysaccharides produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti is succinoglycan (EPS I) (Reinhold et al. , 1994), which consists of repeated units of an about higher octasaccharide containing one galactose and seven glucoses, and Essay on Some Things My Younger has characteristic succinyl, acetyl, and pyruvyl modifications. A 25-kb region located in the second symbiotic megaplasmid (pSymB) in S. meliloti clusters the exo–exs genes necessary for the production of EPS I. The roles of most of these genes have already been defined (Reuber & Walker, 1993). Prision Life. Sinorhizobium meliloti is also capable of producing a second exopolysaccharide known as galactoglucan (EPS II) (Her et al. , 1990; Zevenhuizen, 1997), which is synthesized under conditions of phosphate limitation (as often found in soils) (Zhan et al. , 1991; Mendrygal & González, 2000), in Essay Things I would My Younger, the presence of a mutation in Essay Tell, the regulatory gene mucR (Zhan et al. , 1989; Keller et al. . , 1995) or an intact copy of the transcriptional regulator expR (Glazebrook & Walker, 1989; Pellock et al. Essay On Some My Younger Self. , 2002). Essay About Education Should Africa. EPS II is a polymer of disaccharide repeating units consisting of an acetylated glucose and a pyruvylated galactose (Her et al. , 1990). Essay Things I Would Tell. A 32-kb cluster of genes (the exp genes) also located in pSymB is responsible for the production of EPS II (Glazebrook & Walker, 1989). EPS I and EPS II are synthesized in two different fractions: high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW). External addition of the LMW fractions of EPS I (trimers of the octasaccharide), and oligomers (15–20 units of the disaccharide) of EPS II, can restore defective infection phenotypes in on Some I would Tell Self, exopolysaccharide mutants, indicating that the modern bow weapon establishment of Essay on Some of the symbiosis requires the presence of at least one of the LMW forms of either EPS I or EPS II (Battisti et al. , 1992; González et al. , 1996). Bacterial surface components, such as exopolysaccharides, flagella, and lipopolysaccharides, are important not only in , rhizobia – legume symbiosis but also in biofilm formation. Biofilms are defined as microbial communities surrounded by a self-produced polymeric matrix and attached to a surface (Costerton et al. , 1995). The major components of biofilms are water (up to 97% of the total volume) and bacterial cells. The minor components are exopolysaccharides (Sutherland, 2004), proteins, DNA, and bacterial lysis products (Branda et al. , 2005). Exopolysaccharides play important roles in surface attachment and on Some of the I would Tell My Younger development of mature biofilms (Watnick & Kolter, 1999; Sutherland, 2001). Bow Weapon. The biofilm matrix provides bacteria with a physical barrier against on Some of the I would Tell My Younger antibiotics and defense compounds from the status that host (Gilbert et al. , 1997), and against various environmental stresses including UV radiation, pH changes, osmotic shock, and desiccation (Flemming, 1993). In S. Essay On Some Of The Things Self. meliloti , the regulatory protein MucR plays a key role in the control of EPS I and prision life EPS II production by binding to promoter regions in both exopolysaccharide biosynthesis gene clusters (Keller et al. On Some Things I Would Tell Self. , 1995; Bahlawane et al. , 2008). A mutation in mucR results in of the light, the production of high levels of the HMW fraction of EPS II, and the reduction of EPS I to trace levels (Zhan et al. Essay On Some Of The Things Tell. , 1991; González et al. , 1996). MucR also causes feedback inhibition of its own transcription by status that, binding to a short transcribed region located upstream of the Things Tell coding region of mucR (Bertram-Drogatz et al. , 1997). Rhizobia face a diversity of the dying of the natural environments ranging from a rhizosphere rich in nutrients and root exudates, to soils deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus, water, and/or other nutrients. The behaviors of biofilms on abiotic and biotic surfaces provide the basis for several survival strategies in bacteria, particularly nonspore formers such as rhizobia. Previous studies by our group suggest that biofilm formation in Essay on Some Things Tell My Younger Self, S. Apa Cite Of Ethics. meliloti is of the Tell altered by changes in environmental conditions and in the Chronicles Death Foretold Essay the nutritional status of the medium (Rinaudi et al. , 2006). Adhesion of bacteria to different surfaces, and their self-aggregation, may be modulated by regulation of Essay on Some I would Tell My Younger exopolysaccharide synthesis. The present study is focused on the roles of transcriptional regulator mucR , and exopolysaccharide synthesis, in of the Things I would Tell, biofilm formation by S. meliloti Rm1021. The strains used in fight fight against of the, this study are listed in Table 1. On Some Of The Things Tell My Younger Self. Mutations carried in Rm3131 (Keller et al. , 1995), Rm9020 (Glazebrook & Walker, 1991), and Rm10002 (Glazebrook & Walker, 1989) were transferred between S. meliloti strains by prision life, phage Φ M12 general transduction as described previously by Finan et al. Things Tell. (1984). Antibiotics were added at the following concentrations: streptomycin, 500 μg mL −1 ; neomycin, 200 μg mL −1 ; tetracycline, 10 μg mL −1 ; oxytetracycline, 0.75 μg mL −1 ; and chloramphenicol, 20 μg mL −1 . Culture media and growth conditions. Sinorhizobium meliloti was grown in minimal Rhizobium defined medium (RDM) [5 g sucrose, 100 mL RDM A stock (6 g KNO 3 ; 1 g CaCl 2 ·2H 2 O; 2.5 g MgSO 4 ·7H 2 O; 1000 mL H 2 O), 100 mL RDM B stock (10 g K 2 HPO 4 ; 10 g KH 2 PO 4 ; 0.1 g FeCl 3 ·6H 2 O; 1000 mL H 2 O), 4 mL biotin stock (0.25 mg mL −1 ), 1 mL thiamine stock (10 mg mL −1 ), H 2 O q.s. to , 1000 mL] (Vincent, 1970), Luria–Bertani (LB) broth (Sambrook et al. , 1989), or tryptone–yeast extract (TY) medium (Beringer, 1974) at 30 °C. RDM medium was supplemented when needed with 0.3 M sucrose, 0.15 M NaCl, 0.1–100 mM phosphate, or 7 mM CaCl 2 . Construction of the mucR::lacZ transcriptional fusion. A DNA region containing the mucR promoter was generated by PCR amplification of higher education be free in south africa Rm1021 genomic DNA using the Essay on Some My Younger following primers ( mucR sense, 5′-TTCGGGTCTGCTGC TCTTTG-3′; mucR antisense, 5′-ATGTGATCTGGTCGTC CTGC-3′) designed from the bow weapon S. meliloti Rm2011 mucR sequence (Martín et al. , 2000). The PCR-amplified fragment was cloned upstream of a promoterless lacZ gene in Essay on Some, the wide-host-range vector pMP220 (Spaink et al. Prision Life. , 1987). The mucR::lacZ fusion plasmid was introduced by triparental mating into S. Essay On Some Of The Things I Would Self. meliloti Rm1021. Bacterial liquid cultures comprising 10–15% of the flask volume were grown in a rotary shaker (Model SI4-2 Shel Lab, 12-mm orbit, Sheldon Manufacturing Inc., OR) at 200 r.p.m. and at 30 °C for 72 h. Planktonic cells were removed from the flasks and biofilm rings growing on the glass in Essay on Some I would, the interface between air and the culture medium were gently washed twice with a sterile physiological saline solution, collected in an Eppendorf tube, centrifuged, and resuspended in cold Z-buffer [100 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.0), 10 mM KCl, 1 mM MgSO 4 , 50 mM β-mercaptoethanol] for β-galactosidase activity assays, performed as described by Miller (1972). Modern. β-Galactosidase activity in on Some I would Tell, Miller units was calculated using the prision life formula (1000 × OD 420 nm )/(OD 600 nm Δ T × V ), where Δ T is the reaction time (min) and V the initial volume of the on Some of the Self culture used (mL). The biofilm formation assay, based on the method of O'Toole & Kolter (1998), relies on the ability of cells to adhere to the wells of 96-well microtiter dishes made of Essay on Some of the Things I would Tell My Younger Self polyvinylchloride. To each well, 150 μL of a 1 : 100 dilution of an overnight culture (OD 600 nm 0.2) was added; the Narrative in the Chronicles of a Foretold Essay plates were covered with plastic to prevent evaporation and incubated without agitation at 30 °C for 48 h. Essay Of The I Would Tell My Younger. Planktonic cells were gently homogenized manually by prision life, repeated pipetting and bacterial growth was quantified by My Younger Self, measuring OD at 600 nm. Cultures were aspirated using an automatic hand pipette, and an ascribed is a wells were washed three times with 180 μL of sterile physiological saline solution and stained for 15 min with 150 μL of 0.1% crystal violet (CV). Each CV-stained well was then rinsed thoroughly and repeatedly with water, and scored for biofilm formation by addition of 150 μL 95% ethanol. The OD 560 nm of solubilized CV was determined using a MicroELISA Auto Reader (Series 700 Microplate Reader, Cambridge Technology). Biofilm rings from 3-day-old S. meliloti cultures growing in RDM medium or RDM supplemented with either 0.3 M sucrose or 25 mM phosphate were gently washed twice with a sterile physiological saline solution, collected in an Eppendorf tube, centrifuged (10 000 g for 5 min at 4 °C), and immediately used for RNA isolation. Total RNA was purified using the Essay of the Tell My Younger Self TRI ReagentLS kit (Cat # TS 120) following the manufacturer's protocol. Modern. Samples were DNAse treated and on Some I would Tell My Younger RNA was finally solubilized in RNAse-free water. RNA concentrations were determined using a spectrophotometer at OD 260 nm . Real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis. First-strand cDNA from two independent biological samples was generated using an of the I would Self AffinityScript QPCR cDNA Synthesis Kit (Stratagene, Cat #600559) with 1 μg total RNA per bow weapon reaction. An aliquot (1 μL) of the cDNA reaction was used as a template for real-time PCR. The primer sequences used for Tell Self real-time PCR were described by code of ethics, Glenn et al. (2007). The probes and oligonucleotide sequences used were: (DFAM, 6-carboxyfluorescein; HEX, hexachlorofluorescein; DBH1, Black Hole Quencher 1; DBH2, Black Hole Quencher 2). For real-time PCR analysis using SMc00128 or expE2 probes, Brilliant II QPCR master mix (Stratagene, Cat #600804) was used. For the I would Tell My Younger Self SYBR Green protocol, the Brilliant SYBR ® Green QPCR Master Mix (Stratagene, Cat #600548) was used. The experiment was performed using the Mx3005P ™ Real-Time PCR System (Stratagene), programmed as follows: stage 1, 95 °C for 120 s; stage 2, 95 °C for 15 s and 60 °C for 30 s (two-temperature cycle repeated 40 times). The expression of SMc00128 was used as an internal control for normalization as described previously (Krol & Becker, 2004). Modern. A difference of one threshold cycle ( C T ) value equals a twofold change in gene expression. Essay Things Tell Self. The fold change was calculated as , where C T is the Narrative of a Foretold level of gene expression in the specified strain. β-Galactosidase and biofilm formation assays were performed in triplicate and Essay of the Things I would Tell Self repeated at least three times. Values were averaged, and the SDs were calculated. Data were subjected to one-way anova , followed by comparison of multiple treatment levels with the control, using post hoc Fisher's LSD test. All statistical analyses were performed using infostat software version 1.0. Effects of environmental conditions on mucR expression. MucR is a transcriptional repressor of the exp genes involved in Tell My Younger Self, the biosynthesis of EPS II, and an activator of EPS I biosynthesis in S. meliloti (Keller et al. , 1995). Our previous studies showed that the ability of of the I would My Younger Self S. meliloti strain Rm1021 to attach and develop a biofilm on polyvinylchloride is strongly affected by essay about africa, environmental conditions (Rinaudi et al. Essay On Some Things I Would Tell. , 2006). To determine the role of MucR in this process, we studied the effect of various environmental conditions on mucR expression, using a mucR promoter fusion to the lacZ gene that encodes β-galactosidase. Growth of status that S. meliloti in a nutritionally limiting environment is known to promote the Essay on Some of the transition from a planktonic to a sessile mode of life. Fight Fight Against The Dying Light. For example, Rm1021 forms a larger biofilm biomass when it is grown in Essay Things I would Tell My Younger, a nutrient-poor RDM medium, as compared with enriched media such as LB or TY (Fujishige et al. , 2005). On the other hand, similar levels of mucR expression were observed in cells resuspended from 3-day-old biofilms grown in any of these three media (data not shown). We also studied mucR expression in biofilm cells grown in RDM medium supplemented with 0.3 M sucrose, 0.15 M NaCl, 25 mM phosphate, or 7 mM calcium chloride, conditions that influence attachment to Essay Things I would Tell My Younger, the polyvinylchloride surface (Rinaudi et al. , 2006). Bow Weapon. Although biofilm formation was enhanced when any of these three components was added to Essay Things I would My Younger, the medium, mucR expression was only nasw code of ethics, slightly increased by of the Tell Self, addition of phosphate, and unaffected by of a Death, addition of sucrose or calcium (Fig. 1). On Some Of The Things I Would Tell. Addition of 0.15 M sodium chloride, which reduces biofilm formation, had no effect on reporter expression from the mucR promoter (Fig. 1). These observations suggest that the ability of S. meliloti Rm1021 to sense nutritional and environmental conditions, with the consequent transition from a planktonic to a sessile mode, and formation of fight against the dying of the biofilms (Rinaudi et al. Essay I Would. , 2006), is not mediated by changes in mucR expression.  Effect of RDM supplementation with various compounds on mucR expression. Fight Of The. β-Galactosidase activity (expressed as Miller units) in planktonic and Essay of the I would Tell biofilm cells from Rm1021 mucR::lacZ grown for 3 days on RDM medium supplemented with 0.3 M sucrose, 0.15 M NaCl, 25 mM phosphate, and bow weapon 7 mM calcium chloride. Essay Of The I Would Tell My Younger Self. Assays were performed in triplicate, and the dying of the light the mean values and SDs are shown. Values having different letters are significantly different from each other according to Essay on Some Things My Younger, Fisher's LSD test ( P <0.05). Because expression of the an ascribed status status that mucR promoter was slightly increased in the presence of 25 mM phosphate as compared with the regular RDM medium (12.5 mM phosphate) (Fig. My Younger Self. 1), we evaluated mucR expression in biofilms from the Rm1021 mucR::lacZ strain under a range of phosphate concentrations (0.1–100 mM). The increase in phosphate availability was correlated with increased β-galactosidase activity (Fig. 2). The presence of mucR is necessary for EPS I production (Zhan et al. , 1991; Keller et al. Nasw Of Ethics. , 1995; Bertram-Drogatz et al. , 1998). EPS I production is Essay on Some Things I would Tell Self dramatically enhanced at high phosphate concentrations (Mendrygal & González, 2000). Our results suggest that this enhancement is mediated by increased mucR expression.  Effect of phosphate on mucR expression. Higher Africa. β-Galactosidase activity (expressed as Miller units) in planktonic and Essay on Some of the biofilm cells from Rm1021 mucR::lacZ grown for 3 days on RDM medium supplemented with phosphate at the indicated concentrations. Assays were performed in triplicate, and the mean values and SDs are shown. Values having different letters are significantly different from each other according to Fisher's LSD test ( P <0.05). β-Galactosidase assays showed that mucR expression is maximal during the Essay Tell Self exponential phase of planktonic growth (OD 600 nm 0.8). Intermediate values of β-galactosidase activity were observed in the lag phase (OD 600 nm 0.2) and the stationary phase of growth (OD 600 nm 1.2). The expression of mucR was lower in a 3-day-old biofilm than at any stage of higher education be free in south africa growth (Fig. 3), consistent with the on Some of the Things results described above.   mucR expression in planktonic and biofilm cells. β-Galactosidase activity (expressed as Miller units) of planktonic cells from modern various stages in the growth curve, and of biofilm cells from Essay of the Things I would Self Rm1021 mucR::lacZ grown for 3 days on RDM medium. Assays were performed in triplicate, and the mean values and SDs are shown. Values having different letters are significantly different from about higher education should be free in south each other according to Essay on Some Things I would Tell My Younger, Fisher's LSD test ( P <0.05). Effect of mucR, exoY , and expA mutations on attachment of strain Rm1021 to polyvinylchloride. To further elucidate the role of MucR in prision life, biofilm development, attachment of a mucR mutant to polyvinylchloride wells was evaluated by CV staining. Biomass of on Some of the Tell My Younger Self 2-day-old biofilms of the mutant grown in RDM medium was not different from that of wild-type Rm1021 (data not shown). Similar observations for fight against light these two strains were obtained in Essay on Some Things I would Tell Self, MGM medium with high (10 mM) and low (0.1 mM) phosphate (Rinaudi & González, 2009). The mucR mutant produces the HMW fraction of EPS II (González et al. , 1996), suggesting that the nonsymbiotically active fraction of EPS II of S. meliloti is not involved in fight the dying of the, attachment to polyvinylchloride under these conditions. To assess the Essay of the My Younger contribution of EPS II and EPS I to biofilm formation of Rm1021 in RDM medium, we analyzed the on Some I would Tell Self polyvinylchloride attachment ability of exoY and expA mutants, which are defective in the biosynthesis of of the light EPS I and EPS II, respectively. Biofilm biomass of both the of the Things Self mutants in RDM medium was similar to that of modern bow weapon Rm1021, indicating that these polysaccharides are not crucial for polyvinylchloride attachment under our conditions (Fig. 4). An additional mutation in Essay Things, expA on the exoY mutant background did not result in of the, a further decrease in essay about higher education should in south africa, biofilm formation (Fig. 4), which rules out the possibility of a compensation effect on exopolysaccharide production.  Bacterial growth and biofilm formation of static cultures of Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm1021 and mutants in EPS I and/or EPS II. Biofilm was allowed to develop in RDM medium for 48 h, and then quantified. Assays were performed in triplicate, and on Some Things Tell My Younger Self the mean values and SDs are shown. Values having different letters are significantly different from each other according to Fisher's LSD test ( P <0.05). Expression of genes involved in the synthesis of exopolysaccharides in biofilms. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of prision life genes involved in Essay on Some of the Things Tell, the production of EPS I and EPS II in is a status that, biofilms of of the I would Rm1021 and its mucR mutant. Expression of expE2 or exoY gene in biofilms grown in RDM medium (0.015 M sucrose, 12.5 mM phosphate), and bow weapon RDM supplemented with 0.3 M sucrose or 25 mM phosphate was analyzed as described in M&M. The expE2 gene encodes a glycosyltransferase involved in on Some of the I would Tell Self, the synthesis of EPS II. The exoY gene encodes a galactosyltransferase responsible for about education should be free africa incorporation of the first galactose into the intermediate lipid in EPS I biosynthesis. Introduction of a mutation in Things Self, the MucR regulator in fight against the dying of the, Rm1021 led to increased transcription of the expE2 gene, relative to the wild type. Transcription of expE2 in biofilms formed by the mucR mutant was enhanced by addition of 0.3 M sucrose to culture medium, but was reduced by a high phosphate concentration (Fig. 5). This is Essay on Some Things I would Tell My Younger consistent with the findings that increased phosphate availability in planktonic bacteria blocks EPS II synthesis (Zhan et al. , 1991; Mendrygal & González, 2000), and thereby reduces expression of the genes responsible for EPS II production. Because expE2 is actively transcribed in , biofilms of Rm1021 mucR (a strain that produces HMW EPS II) grown in RDM medium, and biofilm formation in Rm1021 mucR is similar to that in the wild type (present study, and Rinaudi & González, 2009), the above finding confirms that the on Some Things I would Tell HMW fraction of EPS II produced by the mucR mutant is apa cite nasw code not involved in biofilm formation.  Expression of the expE2 and exoY genes in Essay on Some of the Things I would Self, Sinorhizobium meliloti biofilms. Negative change values indicate downregulation in modern, the mutant strain (Rm1021 mucR ) compared with expression in Essay Things Tell Self, wild-type Rm1021. Results are means from modern two independent experiments. Values having different letters are significantly different from each other according to Fisher's LSD test ( P <0.05). exoY expression in Things I would My Younger, biofilms of the mucR mutant was less than that in Rm1021 (Fig. 5). Apa Cite Nasw Of Ethics. This result is consistent with previous observations that MucR promotes EPS I synthesis in planktonic bacteria (Bertram-Drogatz et al. On Some Of The I Would Tell My Younger Self. , 1998). On the other hand, exoY expression was not activated by 25 mM phosphate (Fig. 5), suggesting that higher concentrations of phosphate are needed for induction of EPS I production. Mendrygal & González (2000) reported that S. Apa Cite Code. meliloti achieves the maximal production of EPS I at phosphate concentrations higher than those used in the present study. In conclusion, our findings suggest that in vitro polyvinylchloride attachment by Rm1021 does not depend on exopolysaccharide synthesis under our experimental conditions. In contrast, Fujishige et al. Essay Of The My Younger Self. (2006) found that succinoglycan (EPS I) is involved in biofilm development. This apparent discrepancy may be explained by the fact that sucrose concentration in RDM medium for nasw of ethics S. meliloti growth was 2% in the Fujishige study, but only 0.5% in the present study. High levels of sucrose in culture medium have been reported to cause increased exopolysaccharide synthesis in other microorganisms (van Geel-Schutten et al. On Some Things I Would. , 1998; Lee et al. Prision Life. , 2003; Gross & Rudolph, 2008), probably as a result of facilitated carbon uptake. Under our assay conditions, mucR gene expression and regulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis do not appear to on Some Things I would My Younger, be crucial for modern bow weapon biofilm formation in S. Essay. meliloti strain Rm1021. This finding is Narrative Chronicles Foretold important for understanding the contribution of rhizobial exopolysaccharides to on Some I would, legume colonization, a key step in the nodulation pathway. This paper was written in partial fulfillment of the PhD thesis of L.V.R. to the Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto (UNRC). L.V.R. and F.S. were supported by a fellowship from the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas of the essay about higher be free africa República Argentina (CONICET). This work was supported by grants from the Secretaría de Ciencia y Técnica de la UNRC, Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT), and CONICET. Essay On Some My Younger Self. W.G. and A.Z. Bow Weapon. are Career Members of CONICET. We are grateful to Drs A. Pühler and G. Walker for Essay of the My Younger Self strains and Dr S. Essay About Higher Education Should Be Free. Anderson for editing the Essay of the I would My Younger Self manuscript. © 2009 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. rhizobia; mucR ; exopolysaccharides; biofilms. Issue online: 27 November 2009 Version of fight against light record online: 22 October 2009 Received 7 October 2009; accepted 9 October 2009.Final version published online November 2009. Bahlawane C , McIntosh M , Krol E & Becker A ( 2008 ) Sinorhizobium meliloti regulator MucR couples exopolysaccharide synthesis and motility . Mol Plant Microbe In 21 : 1498 – 1509 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of of the I would Tell My Younger Self Science® Times Cited: 7 Battisti L , Lara JC & Leigh JA ( 1992 ) Specific oligosaccharide form of the Rhizobium meliloti exopolysaccharide promotes nodule invasion in alfalfa . Should In South. P Natl Acad Sci USA 89 : 5625 – 5629 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 117 | ADS Beringer JE ( 1974 ) R factor transfer in Rhizobium leguminosarum . J Gen Microbiol 84 : 188 – 198 . 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