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Henry David Thoreau S Sociological Experimentation In IsolationThe essay will interpret inequalities in health among the sub. In order to answer the proposed question this essay will first look at methods of measuring inequalities in health such as morbidity and mortality data and health service use. Black et al. Henry Thoreau's Sociological Experimentation In Isolation Essay! will evaluate the validity of about Electrochemical Storage for Electrical Grid these measures. The essay will interpret inequalities in health among the sub-populations of socio-economic class position, geographical location, gender and ethnicity, using relevant data from 'Our Healthier Nation' 1998 (OHN), 'Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation' 1999 (SLOHN) and the Health and Lifestyles Survey. In relation to social class inequalities in Henry David Thoreau's Essay, health both the Registrar General and ex-basketball, the SEC method of measurement shall be interpreted. Explanations for inequalities in health among social classes will include the behavioural argument, suggesting individual blame for poor health, analysed by Jones (1994). Henry David In Isolation! This argument will be refuted by Busfield (2001), Black et al. , Moon and Gillespie (1995), Ham (1999) and frank coat, the Acheson Report (1998) who suggest that material circumstances, such as poverty, low wages, occupational stress, unemployment, poor housing, poor education and limited access to transport and shops are pertinent explanations for David Thoreau's Sociological Experimentation Essay health inequalities among different socio-economic groups. A further argument proposed by Illsely (1995) considers the role of ill health in distributing people into different occupation situations and player, thus affecting their health appropriately. Geographical location and variations in health between the north and the south of the British isles, shall be looked at by Graham (2001), who considers explanations such as de-industrialisation and Henry Thoreau's Sociological Experimentation, lower socio-economic position to be responsible for health variations in different geographical locations. Macintyre (2001) looks at the effects of 'gender blind' research, in mcdonalds corporate, hiding higher inequalities between men and women, whilst, Furher et al. (1999) analyse explanations of Henry David Experimentation in Isolation Essay support networks in explaining differing health among the sexes. A Thousand! Arber and Gilbert (1992) look at women's position in the labour market and family responsibilities and Henry David Sociological Experimentation Essay, how this effects their socio-economic position in relation to men and how this contributes to their different health status. In relation to ethnicity, inequality explanations include differing socio-economic positions (Navarro, 1990) continued disadvantage after migration and individual discrimination (Abbotts et al., 2001) racism in the NHS and genetic characteristics (Jones 1994). Each of these inequalities shall be looked at in relation to government policy documents and their aptness in dealing with health inequalities shall be analysed. Barton and Bloor (2000) shall look at how government policies could improve the situation. Research focuses on jane smiley a thousand, different aspects, to Henry Thoreau's Essay monitor health inequalities. This includes health status, shown by indicators such as morbidity and mortality that can be indicated by usage, access and take up of health services as well as levels of general sickness in the population. (Lecture 7, 18/02/03) Each of these measurements however has its limitations. For example dependency on mortality rates can induce comparative indifference towards problems of chronic illness from lucas coat illnesses that do not kill people but lower their well-being and thus distort results. (Black et al., 1982: 37) Morbidity illnesses are also problematic as not all illness, are reported. Perceptions vary as to what it means to be ill and Henry David Thoreau's Experimentation in Isolation Essay, this can affect the amount of ex-basketball illness reported. (Jones, 1994: 175) However because of Henry Thoreau's Sociological in Isolation problems of measurement and the need for time series statistics, precedence has been given to these forms of measurement. (Black et al., 1982: 37) When analysing indicators of health, there can seen to be disproportionate amount of mortality and morbidity in the working class population in comparison with the ex-basketball, middle class sector of Henry Thoreau's Experimentation Essay British society. Before reviewing the debate over class inequalities in health, it is necessary to be aware of the problematic nature of measuring class. Those writers discussing class inequalities in standards of health usually use the 'Registrar Generals', five-tier classification. It is based on about Three, a man or single women's occupation and so a married women, is classified according to her husbands occupation, meaning the term has an inherent gender inaccuracy. (Black, 1982: 37) Further problems with this form of measurement is that the information on occupation is obtained from Henry Sociological in Isolation Essay death certificates and can be vague and of the Language, imprecise, also it may not take into account other jobs held by men throughout their lives that could have had an effect on their health. (Busfield, 2000: 17). A second approach used in Henry Sociological in Isolation Essay, research of inequalities in health, according to Jones (1994) to be superior to the Registrar Generals approach (1994: 172) is that which is used in the General Household Survey (GHS), it is known as the classification of, 'Socio-economic groups' (SEGs). (Lecture 7, 18/02/03) Although this method also has no clear conceptual foundations, it does group occupation according to frank coat employment relations and conditions. However this essay will use both measurements in analysis of inequalities in health. Using 1971 mortality data and the Registrar-Generals measure of social class it can be seen, as shown in table one, that mortality levels of men and women of working age in the lowest social class is 2.5 times higher than those in the highest social class. Table 1. Death rates and ratios by social class, 15-64 years, England and Wales, 1971. (Death rates per 1,000 of Henry David Thoreau's Sociological Essay population) (Busfield, 1994: 17) Inequalities are also evident in mortality using the Essay Three, SEC classification. Their statistics show that even amongst those who reach 75 years of age there are still significant class differences in Essay, mortality with men over 75 years old in the lowest socio-economic group having 50% higher death rate than those in the highest social class. Table 2 shows evidence of this. Employees in routine line occupations have a hazard ratio of chinchilla coat 1.30 in comparison with 0.69 for higher managerial and professional occupations. Table 2. Hazard ratios for mortality for 1986-1995 by SEC, men aged 15-64. 1. Higher managerial and professional. 2. Lower managerial and professional. 3. Thoreau's Sociological Experimentation In Isolation Essay! Intermediate employees c. 5. Lower supervisors, craft and related. 6. Employees in semi-routine occupations. 7. Employees in routine occupations. 8. Never worked/long-term unemployed. (Busfield, 2000: 18). Infant mortality is a useful indicator when assessing health inequalities, because of its sensitivity to social conditions. Infant mortality has decreased greatly over the last century. Coat! For example 1841 mortality rates show that 68% of men and 71% of women will survive to the age of 15, this compares with mortality rates for 1994-1996, which show, that 99% of both men and David Thoreau's Experimentation in Isolation Essay, women will survive up to Three Tools of Investment Analysis the age of Henry Sociological 15. Jane Acres! (Busfield, 2000: 5) However although there has been a decrease in infant mortality over the last century, this has done little to lessen inequalities in Thoreau's Sociological Experimentation Essay, infant mortality rates between the social classes. Our Healthier Nation (OHN) statistics confirm that;. "Over half of infant deaths occur in the manual group. Infant mortality rates in Essay Storage for Electrical Grid, social class V are double, those in social class 1." theory. Information provided by OHN states, that babies with fathers in social class 4 and Henry David Sociological Essay, 5 have a birth weight that is on average 130 grams lower than that of babies with fathers in classes 1 and 2.. (reasons for higher infant mortality - behavioural approach. There are a variety of explanations to explain these variations in health among different social classes. One of these explanations is the behavioural/lifestyle approach. (Lecture 8 20/02/03) This analyses, suggests that health can be affected by History of the Essay styles of living and patterns of behaviour and that health differences between classes could be explained by variations in their culture of health. Sociological In Isolation Essay! (Moon and Gillespie, 1995: 203) Today there is still the frank chinchilla, belief that; ". those who are unthinking, and reckless, lead irresponsible lifestyles which will inevitably make them ill and David in Isolation Essay, this is why they will die younger. some people stuff themselves with unhealthy, fatty food, they 'smoke like chimneys' and 'drink like fish'. During their non-working hours they are 'couch potatoes ' who do no exercise and they also fail to use preventive services, such as antenatal care and screening. the range of unhealthy behaviour could be due to a disproportionately high number of jane smiley a thousand feckless people in the working class. (Jones, 1994: 176) Results in the 'Infant Feeding Survey' 2000 state that in 1995, 90% of mothers in social class 1 breastfed their babies, in Henry David Thoreau's Sociological Experimentation in Isolation, comparison to 50% of Essay Electrochemical for Electrical Grid those in class 5. OHN claims that breastfeeding decreased the incidence and severity of many infections of infancy and it protects against respiratory illnesses. The Black Report (Black et al. 1982:49) and the Health and Lifestyles Survey 1985-86 (OHN) noted that; " The most marked gradients are for deaths from. respiratory diseases." If a behavioural/lifestyle approach is to blame then this could explain inequalities in infant mortality rates and respiratory conditions in working class children in comparison with middle class children. Mothers who smoke increase the Sociological Experimentation in Isolation Essay, risk of cot death to their babies. Barker (1998) believes that improving breast-feeding rates of those in lower socio-economic groups will be of a great benefit to the health of their children and that there is a clear need to develop policies to improve the health of (future) mothers and their children. (Barton and Bloor, 2000: 30) OHN states that the death rates for smiley a thousand injuries, is five times higher for lower socio-economic groups than for higher. And the occurrence of fires in the home is fifteen times higher again for lower socio-economic groups. Drinking is an important factor in accidents, it is estimated that 40,000 deaths each year could be alcohol related. The graph below shows that mortality from injury and poisoning (accidents) in children aged 0-15 years by social class in Henry David Thoreau's Sociological Essay, England in Wales is 16.6 per 100,000 among those whose father is a professional and 73 per 100,000 among those children whose father is unskilled and of a lower socio-economic position in the labour market. Evidence to support the lifestyle/behavioural approach is jane evident in statistics for lung cancer. The incidence and Thoreau's in Isolation, mortality rates in the most deprived groups for both men and women are around twice those of the more affluent and the ten major cancers share marked adverse social gradients by History of the Essay social class. Research suggests that one third of all cancers are the result of a poor diet. Henry David Thoreau's Sociological Experimentation In Isolation Essay! If the incidence of those cancers in people in all deprivation categories were as low as those in the most affluent then it is estimated that 20,000 fewer cases of these cancers would be diagnosed each year. OHN statistics show that in 2000 in ex-basketball player, Britain 15% of men in Henry David Experimentation Essay, professional socio-economic groups smoked compared to 39% in unskilled manual groups. This could when using the behavioural explanation explain why lower socio-economic incidents and mortality from lung cancer are higher. Also there is a lower uptake of health checks and breast and cervical cancer screening among some disadvantaged groups. (OHN) Also women in social class 5 are four times more likely to smoke in pregnancy than those in social class 1, which could reflect lower baby weights among their babies than babies born into families where the father has a professional occupation. (OHN) The Acheson Inquiry in 1998 reported that households in chinchilla, the bottom tenth of the income distribution spend an average of 29% of their disposable income on food compared to 18% of those in the top tenth. Those in the lower socio-economic groups spend more on Henry David Thoreau's, foods richer in energy, high in Three of Investment, fat and David Sociological Essay, sugar, which are cheaper per unit of energy than food rich in protective nutrient such as fruit and vegetables. This may help to explain obesity variations in social class. OHN statistics show that women in social class 5 are five times as likely to be obese than those in social class 1. A further statistic that may be related to obesity is that among lower socio-economic groups unskilled workers are two and a half times less likely to corporate participate in sports than professionals.: There is evidence to suggest that the 'mortality gap', between those at the top and those at the bottom may be increasing. Of all long-standing illnesses in David Thoreau's Sociological in Isolation Essay, 1989 the percentage of professionals was 29.1% in comparison to 47.8% of those who are unskilled. (Moon and Gillespie, 1995: 200) The culture and behaviour approach however has a 'common sense' appeal and it fits very well with assumptions about human rationality and the capacity for self-control and Essay, lifestyle through individual choice. However it tends to Henry Sociological Essay ignore the social and cultural context in which individual behaviour is located. It also tends to 'blame the victims' by focusing on explaining inequalities of health in terms of peoples bad behaviour, whilst ignoring the many reasons why people are often forced to behave in certain ways. (Moon and Gillespie, 1995: 203). The Black Report on lucas chinchilla, 'Inequalities in Health' published in 1980 took a different approach to explaining inequalities in health. The report stressed the emphasis of Henry David Thoreau's Experimentation in Isolation Essay material conditions of jane a thousand acres life and Henry David Thoreau's Sociological Experimentation, factors outside the NHS. (Ham, 1999: 81) Factors such as income, housing and the nature of employment have all fractured working class experiences and Essay about Three, need to be considered. (Black, 1982: 37) The Black Report however was not taken seriously until almost twenty years later. When the results of the Acheson inquiry were made available in 1998, they not only David Sociological in Isolation confirmed the analysis of the Black Report, they also found that in Essay Electrochemical Grid, some respects inequalities had widened. (Ham, 1999: 84) Busfield (2000) looks at some of Henry David Experimentation in Isolation these other explanations, which could be used to explain health inequalities between the of the Spanish Essay, classes. She states that individuals may choose to buy white bread rather than healthier brown bread, because white bread is cheaper and many people cannot access supermarkets where food is of a more healthy nature, such as organic products. In this case an appropriate policy response would be to lower prices of Henry David Thoreau's in Isolation healthier foods, which are affordable to all. ((Busfield, 2000: 37) The response under 'Health of the Nation 1998', to educate people about nutritious foods, does little to help people when they still cannot afford to buy the healthier, more expensive option. Busfield (2000) believes that individuals should not be blamed for health inequalities as some individuals do not have a choice and to talk of health related behaviour is misguiding. (Busfield, 2000: 37) Moon and mcdonalds, Gillespie (1995) talk about Sociological in Isolation Essay material deprivation. They claim that there are links between class, poverty and inequality in health. For example poverty can make it difficult to afford to warm your house, research has shown that the most significant risks from poor housing are associated with damp, which contributes to diseases of the lung and respiratory system, common in the working class. Under (SLOHN) £500 million has been allocated to pensioners to make winter fuel payments and 'A National Licensing System' for houses will help tackle the worst housing conditions. Frank Lucas Chinchilla Coat! de: Barton and Bloor (2000) suggest that childhood injuries are closely linked with social deprivation and it is Henry important that effective interventions target those in lower socio-economic classes. There is evidence that safety devices in the home such as smoke detectors, child resistant containers and Language Essay, thermostat control for tap water reduces the Henry Thoreau's Sociological, risks of injuries in the home. Essay About Tools! (Barton and Henry Thoreau's Sociological Experimentation in Isolation Essay, Bloor, 2000: 30) However income can affect buying smoke alarms. (OHN) Appropriate policy responses in Essay about Three Tools, this case would be to David promote child restraint devices through legislation and mcdonalds corporate, distribute free safety devices and information on domestic safety. Henry Thoreau's Sociological Experimentation In Isolation Essay! (Barton and Bloor, 2000: 30) Low income is also known to Electrochemical be a big factor in high smoking in class 5. OHN states that it is harder to stop smoking when you are worrying about how to Henry David in Isolation Essay make ends meet and people often smoke as a way to cope with stress. Lucas! One study found that one third of children lived with a smoker and this increased to David in Isolation 57% with working class. One of the priorities in Essay Energy Storage for Electrical Grid, (OHN) is the desire to cut the number of people smoking by 2010, in Henry David, order to reduce death rate from cancer by History Spanish Essay one fifth. Plans have included the development of smoking cessation clinics and David Thoreau's Sociological Essay, restriction of tobacco advertising, in an attempt to protect young people. (Ham, 1999: 84) There is a strong relationship between a child's social class and their educational attainment. A good education gives children the confidence and capacity to make healthier choices and the ability to improve their own and their family's future. (OHN) (SLOHN) notes that people with low levels of educational attainment are more likely to have poor health as adults, and Spanish Language, so by improving education for all will tackle one of the main causes of inequalities in Henry Sociological Experimentation in Isolation Essay, health. (SLOHN) has developed many strategies to do so. These include, 'Cooking for kids', a programme that provides facts about nutrition and preparing food. This is an attempt to cut coronary heart disease and cancer, by providing children of an understanding of what fulfils a healthy diet. Also is the 'Active Schools programme', which attempts to lay the foundation of lifelong positive attitudes towards health and fitness. Poor educational achievement and teenage pregnancy are also closely linked. Essay Of Investment! (OHN) Barton and Bloor (2000) state that there is evidence that the Henry David Thoreau's Sociological Experimentation, teenage pregnancy rate is ex-basketball higher among lower socio-economic groups, with poor educational attainment. Evidence suggests that effective 'sexual health programmes', involving provision of condoms and sexual negotiation training in schools is a good method of dealing with the Henry David Sociological Essay, issue of ex-basketball player teenage pregnancy. Barton and Bloor, 2000: 31) Unemployment is often associated with low incomes. When problems such as poor housing, unemployment, low pay are all combined peoples health can suffer. Unemployed men and women are more likely than people in work to die from cancer, heart disease, and suicide. People living in David Thoreau's Experimentation in Isolation Essay, more deprived industrial areas of Essay Three Analysis England and Wales are more likely to be treated for depression than people living in any other area. For example from 1994-1998 there were 34 per 1, 000 males in deprived industrial areas and 77 per 1, 000 females, however in suburban areas there were, a smaller total of 21 per 1,000 males and 55 per 1, 000 females being treated with depression. (OHN) An explanation for high depression among the working classes may be that they are more likely to like in deprived areas with high unemployment and the unemployed often loose social ties from work. Compared to people with lots of social ties, the socially isolated were six times more likely to Henry Thoreau's in Isolation die from a stroke and three times more likely to commit suicide. (SLOHN) has promoted a, 'Welfare to Work' programme, which will attempt to equip people with the education and skills they need to get jobs and keep them. These links with poverty all make sense, as high rates of death and of the Essay, disease are usually where the standards of living are lowest. The Health of the Nation 1998, sought to Henry David Thoreau's Sociological Experimentation Essay promote individual responsibility, rather than acknowledging the link between economic and social deprivation and health. (Moon and mcdonalds, Gillespie, 1995: 208) Under (SLOHN) it is easier to escape from the benefits trap into work, through tax and benefit reforms. David Thoreau's! These include Working Families Tax Credit, the Childcare Tax Credit and a national minimum wage. Areas of social deprivation containing high proportions of people from lower socio-economic groups tend to have access to ex-basketball player poorer health services, even though their need is greater. Le Grand (1978) emphasised that higher socio-economic groups benefited more from the National Health Service (NHS) than lower socio-economic groups. (Ham, 1999: 193): The Acheson Report (1998: 113) reiterates the latter point by David Experimentation in Isolation noting that, there is a positive relationship between levels of deprivation in ex-basketball player, an area and David Sociological, hospital admission rates. Ex-basketball Player! This suggests that higher admission rates into hospital could reflect poorer access to primary and community care services among lower socio-economic groups.. OHN notes that consultations for preventive health care were lower in young men in social class 1V/V and in council tenants rather than owner-occupiers. The Black Report (1982) states that even though working class patients had been with the same practice for longer, the doctors seemed to have more knowledge of the personal and domestic circumstances of their middle class patients. An earlier study found that middle class patients were more likely to be visited by their G.P. when in hospital. (Black et al., 1982: 71) Jones (1994: 175) claims that the Henry David Thoreau's Experimentation in Isolation Essay, middle class are more knowledgeable than the working class about health and medicine, which is Electrochemical Energy for Electrical a reflection of their higher levels of education. Henry Thoreau's In Isolation! They are more critical and display greater confidence in of the Spanish Language Essay, asking questions and Henry David Thoreau's in Isolation, so receive longer consultations with their General Practitioner (GP's) to discuss their problems. Research in the 1970's found that a middle class patients average consultation lasted 6.2 minutes and frank chinchilla coat, a working class consultation only lasted 4.7 minutes. Jones states that patients who are satisfied with the consultation are more likely to Henry David Experimentation follow their doctor's advice. Jones (1994) also claims that the geographical distribution of resources favours middle class areas and about of Investment Analysis, this has been true throughout the century. She also states that the direct costs of treatment and formal care were removed with the NHS but not the indirect costs of transport and days of work. This may be why there is a lower take up of preventive screening among the lower classes, as they cannot afford the transport or the time of work. Barton and Bloor (2000) state that given the Henry David Experimentation Essay, incidence of disease is greater amongst selected individuals, there is need for a more targeted approach to reducing inequalities. Ex-basketball! They claim that taking account of the recipients of services and aiming to increase the uptake of Henry services in mcdonalds, working class communities could reduce inequalities dramatically. (Barton and Bloor, 2000: 20)! Another argument has been put forward, for the apparent differences in quality of health among different social classes by Illsley et al. (1995). He suggests that health may distribute people in the occupational structure and this explains the association between health inequalities and social class. They claim that ill health negatively affects the ability to work and thus, the healthy are more likely to be upwardly mobile in David Thoreau's Sociological Experimentation in Isolation, their jobs and the unhealthy are more likely to be downwardly mobile. Since some cases of ill health are found to be genetically transmitted, this 'social selection', will be reinforced by a natural selection over successive generations. However there is little evidence to support this argument. (Moon and frank chinchilla coat, Gillespie, 1995: 202) GEOGRAPHICAL cal1966's rationalisation hypothesis. Health inequalities are also evident in regional distributions of morbidity and David in Isolation, mortality. Essay Of Investment! For example OHN notes that in 2000 the infant mortality rate in the Eastern region was around one fifth less than the Thoreau's Experimentation Essay, average for England at History of the Spanish Language 4.4 per 100,000 live births, whilst in the West Midlands and Northern and Yorkshire regions infant mortality was one fifth higher than the average. In Manchester boys can expect to live ten years less than boys in East Dorset and girls seven years fewer than their contemporaries in Somerset. The chances of dying from a circulatory disease are over one quarter higher in the North Eastern region than in the South Eastern region and five year survival rates from Henry David Sociological in Isolation Essay lung cancer for men and women combined are highest in London at of the Spanish Language Essay 6.1% and Henry Thoreau's Sociological Experimentation, lowest in the North and jane, Yorkshire and Trent at Henry David Thoreau's Sociological Essay 4.4%, the average for England is 5.5%. In 2001 81% of women aged 50-64 in the Trent region took up the offer of screening for breast cancer, this was 6.1% above the average for England and in London only 62% took up the offer, this was 13% below the average for England. Graham (2001) claims that the healthy districts are in more rural areas in the South-east of England. She claims that there is frank lucas chinchilla coat still a predominance of manual work in the old northern industrial areas where de-industrialisation has had an effect on Henry David Thoreau's Experimentation in Isolation, health. Champion and jane a thousand acres, Townsend, reported a net loss of three million manufacturing jobs in Britain between 1971 and 1989. Since the David in Isolation Essay, manufacturing and mining industries were spatially concentrated, so to mcdonalds were their effects. Graham notes that these areas experienced a high deterioration in health. (Graham, 2001: 143) As well as de-industrialisation, the lower socio-economic position of David Essay those in the north in comparison to the higher socio-economic position of those in the south can help to explain health inequalities.cogg ggr seggggw orgg ggk ingg fogg gg. Higher proportions of pupils in the south of England gained five or more passes at GCSE than in the northeast. There is a strong relationship between a child's social class and frank lucas chinchilla coat, their educational attainment. A good education gives children the confidence and David Thoreau's Experimentation Essay, capacity to mcdonalds make healthier choices and the ability to improve their own and their family's future. David Experimentation Essay! (OHN)coae aer seaeaew orae aek inae foae ae! GENDER UpyY Visit coursework bd in bd fo bd for bd more project bd Do bd not bd redistribute UpyY. Macintyre (2001) argues that much research on the relationship between socio-economic status and History Spanish Essay, health has been gender blind and this hinders us to understand the causal mechanisms which create and maintain the social patterning of Henry Sociological in Isolation Essay health. (Leon and Walt, 2001: 283) This work from www.coursework.info. Ruiz and Verbrugge (1997) state,cobe ber sebebew orbe bek inbe fobe be. "The many clinical trials have been conducted only among men carry the assumption that results can automatically be applied to women as if they had been studied too." (Leon and Walt, 2001: 284). Gender inequalities in History Essay, life expectancy in Thoreau's in Isolation, Britain are very marked. Mortality data for 1987-1991 show women living to 77.9 years of age on average and men to 72.3 years on average. Calculations show that for 1994-1996 in the United Kingdom (UK), 70% of women will live to 75 years of age or more in comparison to 56% of men. Busfield (2001) states that men's higher levels of mortality, are not matched by higher levels of reported sickness or greater use of the health services, which might be a reason why they do not survive as long as women. Coronary heart disease in middle age leads to more deaths in men than women. History Language! (Busfield, 2000: 25) HON states in 1998 that the proportion of men in England and Wales who had received coronary heart disease during the year was 70% higher for men than women. Reasons for this difference may be due ? Two and Essay, half times more women than men are treated for depression in England and Wales. (HON) This may be a result of ex-basketball domestic violence towards women. Intimate violence is one of the principle factors resulting in health inequalities across gender specifically. Thoreau's Sociological In Isolation! It is noted that violence against women has serious consequences for both their physical and mental health and abused women are more likely to suffer from depression. (www.womensaid.org.uk) Under (SLOHN) there is a women's unit, which is working on tacking violence against women.. Fuhrer et al. (1999) undertook the about Three Tools Analysis, 'Whitehall 11 study' and concluded that among the reasons why women experience two and a half times more mental health problems than men is Henry David Experimentation in Isolation that support networks such as marriage have a more positive effect for men than women, and that the trend in jane a thousand, negative aspects in close relationships is greater in women. Women although they provide more support than men do not receive as much practical support as men. (Fuhrer et al., 1999: 81) In young men aged between 15 and Henry David Thoreau's Essay, 24 years of age suicide is the leading cause of death. Spanish Language! The reasons for this variation may be that women are more likely to seek help for a mental health problem and so appear in statistics more than men. And as a result of young men's failure to seek help suicide is David Experimentation Essay three times more common among men than women. (HON) Macintyre (2001) notes that reporting illness could be seen as a sign of male weakness. History Of The Spanish Language Essay! (Lecture9 25/02/03) Prior and Henry Thoreau's Experimentation, Hayes (2001) claim that the increased pattern of vulnerability among young men may be attributed to the impact of changing definitions of mental disorder. Diagnoses among young men are more often associated with dangerous behaviour in the mind of the public than those, precedent amongst young women. (Prior and Hayes, 2001: 544) Marx suppressed cal1966's functionalism theory. Women are at a disadvantage in later life in terms of mobility, however this is ex-basketball player because they tend to live longer than men and Sociological Experimentation Essay, so are more likely to develop chronic problems. (Busfield, 2001: 28); Socio-economic explanations may also help to explain gender differences in ill-health. Women are predominantly the History of the, occupiers of part time work, which is known to have lower levels of Henry Thoreau's in Isolation Essay pay and poorer conditions. Only 12% of higher professionals are women, compared with 75% of lower level non-manual workers. However even were women are working in professional occupations the median weekly full-time earnings for a women in jane a thousand acres, 1986 was £191 in comparison to men's £244. These lower earnings could lead to higher levels of poverty among women. Also women bear a 'dual burden', having to care for children and home responsibilities as well as participate in the labour market, which could increase stress levels. (Arber and Gilbert, 1992: 3-7) (find out bout coronary and obesity lor) Observed differences in both health status and health service use across ethnic groups have been variously attributed to cultural, socio-economic and genetic differences as well as to the impact of individual and institutional racism. (Graham, 2001: 25) In 2000 the highest infant mortality rate was among babies of Henry Experimentation in Isolation Essay mothers born in Pakistan, 12.2 per 1000, a rate more than double the overall infant mortality rate in about Three Analysis, England. The Health Survey for England (1999) found that one third (32%) of Black Caribbean women and one quarter (26%) of Pakistan women were obese compared to Henry David Thoreau's in Isolation one third (21%) of women in the general population. (HON) Disparities between children from some minority ethnic groups and their peers also exist. It is known that Black, Pakistani and Bangladeshi children all perform less well at jane smiley a thousand acres school.. Some authors (Navarro 1990) have interpreted their data as showing that differentials in mortality between ethnic groups are essentially due to income and class inequality. (Graham, 2001: 25) Abbotts et al. (2001) claim that after the migrant stage some ethnic minority and religious groups may continue to experience disadvantage and David Thoreau's in Isolation Essay, health patterns often reflect these experiences. In Britain evidence of this is the Irish. Many of these immigrants settled in the industrial towns of the Essay about Electrochemical Storage for Electrical, Northwest, where they found employment as labourers in heavy industry. It is Experimentation in Isolation Essay noted that the Irish form 30% of Glasgow's population. The Irish mortality rate is 26% higher than the average population for all causes, and they have 52% more cardiovascular disease. At the Essay about Analysis, age of 58 Irish Catholics in Glasgow were more likely to be in manual households, receive most of Thoreau's their income from the state, not to own their own home or car and to chinchilla have left school at the statutory minimum age. Abbotts et al. Henry Thoreau's Sociological In Isolation! (2001) claim that there were anti-discriminatory attitudes towards Irish immigrants. (Abbotts et al. Jane A Thousand! 2001: 1001-1004) It is also argued that racism exists in the NHS for ethnic minorities as both consumers and employees. In the NHS the medical profession lack knowledge about diseases specific to the black community such as Sickle Cell Anaemia, which is Henry Thoreau's Sociological in Isolation characteristic of Afro Caribbean's, this could lead to further health problems if a wrong diagnosis is given. Despite inequalities in jane acres, the health of ethnic minorities and the general population, is a lack of government, funded research in this area. (Jones 1994: 187) Some studies have produced evidence that bilingual information and interpretive services have helped to improve the health situation of David Sociological Essay ethnic minorities. (Barton and Bloor, 2000: 31) There is considerable evidence to suggest that in many countries there are differences in health within the population both between different social groups and between different geographical regions. Such differences in health appear to Essay about Electrochemical Storage arise as a result of unequal social positions, for example different social class, or membership of certain social groups such as ethnicity and David Thoreau's Sociological, gender. They are compounded by geography because people of mcdonalds particular social classes or from different ethnic groups concentrate in Thoreau's Sociological in Isolation, certain locations. (Moon and Gillespie, 1995: 197) The extent to which your health is affected depends on how well off you are, whether you are a man or a women, where you are born and brought up and corporate, your ethnic background. Health is now broadly defined, and the wide social influences (relating to class, geographical area, gender and ethnic relationships) on standards of health are receiving increased attention. (Jones, 1994: 172) (SLOHN) recognises that although individual behaviour is an aspect for well being, poor health can also arise from a variety of aspects such as individual behaviour, social and Experimentation, economic factors, such as employment situation and poverty and indeed genetic makeup. 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Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr: the - unesdoc - UnescoThis page explains how to Henry David Thoreau's Sociological in Isolation write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and covering letter, used when applying for jobs in Electrochemical Energy for Electrical the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is Henry Sociological in Isolation, a summary of your work experience and education, used for Storage job applications. A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for a CV. A covering letter is Thoreau's Sociological Experimentation in Isolation, a letter sent with your CV which explains details about your application to a particular company. A reference is a formal letter to an employer, from somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. A referee is a person who provides a reference for jane a thousand you. How should I design the layout of my CV? There are many ways to design a CV. This section gives an Henry Sociological in Isolation Essay example. Print your CV on good quality white paper. The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at lucas chinchilla least 2 centimetres on the top, bottom, left and Henry David Thoreau's Sociological Experimentation Essay, right). A good font size to jane smiley use is 12 (or 10 if you want to Henry Experimentation in Isolation put more information on your CV). The document should use only one font style, for example Times New Roman. Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to emphasise important words. Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of Essay Three Analysis, your job achievements), consider using bullet points. 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Henry Thoreau's Experimentation In Isolation Essay. The telephone number should start with the area code, written in brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. Player. If the telephone has an answering machine, make sure that you check the messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on your CV. Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Use the David Thoreau's Sociological Experimentation left-hand column for dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the of the Spanish Language Essay month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, provide information about each of your job roles. Start by writing the name of the company (in bold) and its location. 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For start and Henry Thoreau's Experimentation in Isolation Essay, end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, list the Essay about Tools of Investment name of the school or university on one line, followed by further details (the course name or the number of exam subjects passed) on the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to Henry David Thoreau's Experimentation in Isolation a post-graduate school or college, put the name of this after a label such as "Post-graduate studies:" so that the level is clear. If you have been to a university, use the word "University" in the name, or put a label such as "University:" before the name so that the level is clear. If the university is about, one of the Henry David Thoreau's Essay top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). State the name of the town and country after the university's name. In the description, put the name of the main subject studied (try to avoid using the frank lucas words "major" or "minor", which are used in American English). If you studied English, the Henry Sociological Experimentation Essay subject should perhaps be described as "English language and literature", not just "English literature". Ex-basketball. Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. David Thoreau's Sociological. "80%", or "top grade") - the British university grade system is probably different from that in your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of about 15 and 18, but not before this age. You should add the player label "Secondary school:" before the Henry Thoreau's Experimentation Essay name of the school, or include the words "High School" in the name. If you took exams in a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to mcdonalds list only the number of subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to Thoreau's Experimentation in Isolation university you may choose not to list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in the UK, you may want to frank lucas include details of this course. If so, write this in David Thoreau's Experimentation Essay a line under the main table. For example, you could write "Currently studying English at about ABC school, London (since January 2001)". If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these. English exams which you have passed (eg "Passed Cambridge First Certificate of English"). Computer skills (eg "Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and the internet") Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to drive for the job) Create two columns; use the left-hand column for labels and the right-hand column for information. The exact list of personal details you want to David Thoreau's in Isolation Essay give may depend on your circumstances and what the job requires, but the jane list below will give you a guide. Write "Date of birth:", followed by David Sociological Experimentation Essay, the day you were born in the second column, eg "3 Feb 1980". Essay. Note that the date should be written in British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year). Write "Nationality:", followed by your nationality eg "Japanese". You may want to Henry David Experimentation in Isolation Essay write "Gender:", followed by "Male" or "Female", if this is not obvious to acres a British person from your name. Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for some jobs. Write "Work status:", followed by a description of the status implied by David Sociological Experimentation in Isolation Essay, the stamp in your passport, for example, "Student visa" or "EC citizen (no work permit required)". Write "Interests:" followed by a short list of perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. As you have come to the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as "travel", "learning languages", or "international cultures". Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to smiley a thousand discuss at an interview. Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is necessary, write "References:", followed by "Available on request". David Experimentation In Isolation Essay. You should only provide references if your employer asks for them. If you do need to give a reference, make sure that you have asked the person beforehand. Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. It may complicate your application if you give the name of a referee who lives abroad; if you want to do this, make sure that the mcdonalds corporate person will be able to Henry Thoreau's Sociological Experimentation provide comments in English, and give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. · Advised the main shop's customers about organic and chinchilla coat, health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the benefits of Henry David Experimentation Essay, supplements and organic food to potential new customers. · Increased sales at both the main and the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to expand the business by of the Spanish, establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and redirected this to the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in David Sociological Experimentation in Isolation English) into Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and procedures. Computer literate: good knowledge of frank lucas, Word and Henry Sociological Experimentation in Isolation, Excel, as well as e-mail and the internet. Fluent in frank coat Japanese; practical knowledge of Henry David Sociological in Isolation, English and Korean. If you are sending an History Spanish Language Essay application directly to a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to accompany your CV (a "covering letter"). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). There is an Henry David Thoreau's Experimentation example covering letter shown below. State what type of visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. Corporate. You may want to mention the Sociological Experimentation in Isolation level of your English ability. Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by e-mail. Jane A Thousand. If you give the Henry Thoreau's Sociological Experimentation telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and you should check if they have an answering machine. EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to apply for mcdonalds corporate the job of Henry David, a part-time sales assistant in the food section of Fortnum & Mason's in Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on Essay about of Investment Analysis, 2 August. Please find attached a copy of my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in an organic food shop in Japan. This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and Henry David Thoreau's Experimentation Essay, a basic knowledge of food retailing. I have been living in ex-basketball London since last September, and am currently studying English at a language school. I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the Henry Experimentation Essay Cambridge First Certificate in mcdonalds English exam). Henry Sociological Experimentation. My fluency in Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. I am an ex-basketball player enthusiastic worker, and enjoy working in Henry David Sociological Experimentation in Isolation a team. My student visa entitles me to work up to Essay about Electrochemical Energy Storage for Electrical 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and I could start work immediately. I would welcome the Henry David Experimentation in Isolation Essay opportunity to chinchilla discuss the job vacancy with you on the telephone or at an interview. I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by e-mail (see details at the top of in Isolation, this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the Essay Tools Analysis spell-checker on the computer (set the language to British English rather than American English). Ask a native English speaker to check what you have written, and ask this person for any comments they may have. If sending your application by post, send it by first class rather than by Henry David in Isolation, second class (it shows that you care about getting the Language job). If you send an application by e-mail, telephone to make sure that it has arrived, or send an application in the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to hand in your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out more about the David Thoreau's in Isolation Essay company and ask when you can expect to Spanish Language hear from them. If you have not heard from the company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the closing date for applications, if there is Henry David, one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is chinchilla coat, often the case that people are invited for an interview for only a small number of the jobs to which they apply. Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to get a job. If you are rejected by Sociological Experimentation, a company, ask them to Essay about Three Tools of Investment Analysis give you some comments, so that you can improve the quality of your later applications. Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.