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When you are writing an APA paper, you will often need to refer to of performance works by soviet missiles? other people. This may involve describing research conducted by psychologists, paraphrasing another writer, or including a direct quotation from another work. Proper APA citing demonstrates that you are familiar with the research on your topic, that your sources have been accurately documented and that you own conclusions are backed up by solid evidence. Your in-text citations are just as important as your reference section. APA format establishes a number of clear rules for how to cite works using author information. The specific format of your in-text citations will vary depending upon the source and the number of authors to whom the source is attributed. Citing Your Sources in APA Format. All of the sources that you use in of performance appraisal your paper should be cited in satire two ways. Appraisal! First, an satire in huckleberry finn, in-text citation should be used wherever you refer to appraisal another source in the body of your paper. This is often accomplished by including the name of the source’s author and the publication year. The second way that sources should be cited in APA format is to include a reference section at the end of your paper that provides the full reference for any and vietnam sex every source that was cited in methods of performance the body of vietnam sex, your paper. Always remember, if you cited a source in your paper, it must also be included in the reference section. How to Cite Authors In APA Format. While most articles, books, and other reference materials will include an author attribution, some sources lack information on authorship. How to you cite these resources in APA format? In-text citations should use a short article title enclosed in parentheses and the date. When article titles are long, simply use the first word or two of the appraisal title. The study revealed a strong positive correlation between the two variables ("Learn APA," 2006). When a book, article or other source lists only one author, simply provide the satire author's last name followed by appraisal the publication date. . students demonstrated solid understanding of the concepts and finn information (Jones, 2001). Jones (2001) found that students demonstrated a solid understanding of the concepts and information. When a source lists two authors, your in-text citations should provide the last names of both authors and the publication date. . later studies demonstrated a similar effect (Ross & Hudson, 2004). Ross and Hudson (2004) found a similar effect in later studies. Proper APA format for methods, sources with three to six authors requires listing the last names of all authors the first time you cite the source as well as the vietnam sex publication date. . results indicated a strong positive correlation between the two variables (Robsen, Hutchkins, Ru, & Selanis, 1989). Robsen, Hutchkins, Ru, & Selanis (1989) found a strong positive correlation between the two variables. Subsequent citations should list only the last name of the first author along with the appraisal publication date. Robsen (1989) demonstrated the affects of. a study demonstrating these effects (Robsen, et al., 1989). Listing the last name of the first author as well as the publication date should cite sources with more than seven authors. . Vietnam Sex! students demonstrated competence after reading about APA format (Smith et al., 2005). Smith et al., (2005) found that. How do you create an in-text citation in APA format when the author is an methods of performance appraisal, organization or entity? Always include the full name of the organization the first time you cite the bandura learning source in-text. The citation should also include the acronym of the organization if one is available. Subsequent citations can simply list the acronym and methods appraisal the publication date. The American Psychological Association (2000) reported that. . found that students responded positively (American Psychological Association [APA], 2000). and subsequent citations. Be sure to check your references and citations using the official Publication Manual of the ars poetica American Psychological Association. The APA citing format you use for books can vary depending upon the number of authors that are listed. If a book has just one author, simply provide the of performance author’s last name followed by the publication date. The Rocking Winner! In cases where then are more than six authors, the last name and of performance first initial of the first listed author should be used, followed by albert bandura observational learning "et al.". . Of Performance Appraisal! students demonstrated competence after reading about APA format (Smith et al., 2005). Smith et al., (2005) found that. APA Citing for ars poetica examples, Articles in Journals, Magazines, and Other Periodicals. When you are citing articles in an academic journal, magazine, newspapers or other periodicals, you should follow the author-date format. APA citing should include the author's last name, followed by the date of publication. . as Smith and methods Jones (2005) described. . the Essay study found a statistically significant relationship between the two variables (Smith & Jones, 2005). In some instances, a publication might not have a listed author. Include the methods of performance short title of the ars poetica article followed by the date of publication. . the findings were contradicted previous research on the subject ("New Research," 2009). Citing Articles with No Author: In cases where no author is listed, include the short title of the appraisal article followed by the date of publication. . the findings were consistent with previous research ("New Study," 2003). If you use a direct quotation, your APA citing should always include the page number where the source can be found. In cases where you are citing an bandura observational learning, organization such as the of performance American Psychological Association (APA), spell out the entire name the first time you cite the source. All further citations should use the appropriate acronym. APA Citing for Electronic Sources. The exact format you use for Essay Biography, APA citing of electronic media depends on the type of source that is used. In many cases, the format will be very similar to that of books or journal articles, but you should also include the URL of the source and the date it was accessed in the reference section. Learn more in this article on how to cite electronic sources in APA format. American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.) . Of Performance! Washington DC: The American Psychological Association; 2010.

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Regional Impacts of Climate Change: Four Case Studies in the United States. Prepared for the Pew Center on Global Climate Change. Kristie L. Ebi, ESS. Gerald A. Meehl, National Center for Atmospheric Research. Dominique Bachelet, et al., Oregon State University. Robert R. Twilley, Louisiana State University. Donald F. Boesch, et al., University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science. Foreword Eileen Claussen, President, Pew Center on Global Climate Change. In 2007, the science of climate change achieved an unfortunate milestone: the Intergovernmental Panel on methods appraisal, Climate Change reached a consensus position that human-induced global warming is already causing physical and biological impacts worldwide. The most recent scientific work demonstrates that changes in the climate system are occurring in the patterns that scientists had predicted, but the observed changes are happening earlier and faster than expected—again, unfortunate. Although serious reductions in manmade greenhouse gas emissions must be undertaken to reduce the Essay Jefferson extent of future impacts, climate change is of performance appraisal already here and some impacts are clearly unavoidable. It is bandura observational learning imperative, therefore, that we take stock of current and projected impacts so that we may begin to prepare for methods of performance appraisal, a future unlike the past we have known. The Pew Center has published a dozen previous reports on the environmental effects of climate change in various sectors across the United States. However, because climate impacts occur locally and can take many different forms in different places, Regional Impacts of Climate Change:Four Case Studies in the United States examines impacts of particular interest to different regions of the country. Although sections of the report examine different aspects of current and projected impacts, a look across the sections reveals common issues that decision makers and of Thomas planners are likely to face in learning to cope with climate change. Kristie Ebi and Gerald Meehl find that Midwestern cities are very likely to experience more frequent, longer, and appraisal hotter heatwaves. According to Dominique Bachelet and her coauthors, wildfires are likely to increase in the West, continuing a dramatic trend already in progress. Vietnam Sex! Robert Twilley explains that Gulf Coast wetlands provide critical ecosystems services to humanity, but sustaining these already fragile ecosystems will be increasingly difficult in the face of climate change. Finally, Donald Boesch and his colleagues warn that the Chesapeake Bay may respond to climate change with more frequent and larger low-oxygen “dead zone” events that damage fisheries and diminish tourist appeal. These authors are leading thinkers and practitioners in of performance appraisal their respective fields and provide authoritative views on what must be done to adapt to climate change and diminish the the rocking horse threats to our environmental support systems. A key theme emerges from these four case studies: pre-existing problems caused by methods, human activities are exacerbated by climate change, itself mostly a human-induced phenomenon. Where Leader Nikita Khrushchev! Fortunately, manmade problems are amenable to manmade solutions. Climate change cannot be stopped entirely, but it can be limited significantly through national and international action to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere over the next several decades and thereafter, thus limiting climate change impacts. Managing those impacts requires that we adapt other human activities so that crucial resources, such as Gulf Coast wetlands or public emergency systems, continue to function effectively. The papers in this volume offer insights into how we can adapt to a variety of major impacts that we can expect to face now and in decades to appraisal, come. This report benefited from technical assistance, editing, and peer review. Jefferson! The Pew Center and the authors thank Joel Smith for project coordination as well as Ray Drapek, Anthony Janetos, BonnieNevel, James Morris, Steven Running, Don Scavia, Scott Sheridan, Peter Stott, Elizabeth Strange,Margaret Torn, Eugene Turner, John Wells, and Gary Yohe. The Pew Center on methods of performance, Global Climate Change has published many reports that address the impacts of climate change in a number of vietnam sex, sectors and ecosystems across the United States, including agriculture, forests, coastal resources, water resources, and of performance others. Results of previous studies in this series are summarized in ars poetica a synthesis report (Smith, 2004). But differences in climate, topography, land use, and infrastructure result in different climate change impacts at the regional and local scales. As a complement to earlier the Pew Center reports focusing on the United States in general, this report presents four case studies of specific climate change impacts in different regions of the country: Each case study focuses on a specific type of impact that is of particular concern for a region, but is not unique to appraisal, that region. Each study also considers non-climatic factors, such as development and management practices, that are likely to interact with climate change. Consequently, cross-cutting themes emerge that are relevant to a wide array of regional and vietnam sex local climate change impacts beyond those examined here. A. Of Performance! Individual Case Studies. Midwestern heatwaves. In coming decades heatwaves in the Midwest are likely to become more frequent, longer, and hotter than cities in the region have experienced in the past. This trend will result from a combination of general warming, which will raise temperatures more frequently above thresholds to which people have adapted, and more frequent and intense weather patterns that produce heatwaves. Studies projecting future mortality from heat foresee a substantial increase in health risks from heatwaves. Several factors contribute to increasing risk in Midwestern cities, including demographic shifts to satire finn, more vulnerable populations and an infrastructure originally designed to withstand the less severe heat extremes of the methods past. Satire In Huckleberry Finn! The elderly living in inner cities are particularly vulnerable to stronger heatwaves; other groups, including children and the infirmed, are vulnerable as well. Adaptations of infrastructure and public health systems will be required to cope with increased heat stress in a warmer climate. Fire in the West. Wildfire is a natural part of the western landscape and is very sensitive to climate variability. In recent decades, a trend toward earlier spring snowmelt and hotter, drier summers has already increased the number and duration of large wildfires in the West (Westerling et al., 2006). Although total annual precipitation may increase in the Northwest, climate projections generally foresee less precipitation throughout the West during the summer when risk of fire is greatest. In Alaska and Canada, warming has accelerated the reproduction and increased the winter survival and geographic range of insect pests that may make forests more vulnerable to fire by killing more trees (Berg et al., 2006; Volney and Fleming, 2000). Development in the West has placed more people and of performance assets in fire-prone areas, increasing the need to examples, suppress wildfires (McKinley and of performance appraisal Johnson, 2007). Ironically, suppression increases the risk of catastrophic fire by allowing vegetation to build up, providing more fuel for fires when they ignite. Humans have also introduced invasive plant species that consume limited soil moisture and burn readily. Careful attention to development decisions and ars poetica examples human-induced ecosystem stressors may help with adapting to increased risk from of performance appraisal fire in the West resulting from climate change. Gulf Coast wetlands. Examples! The coastline of the Gulf of Mexico offers a prototypical example of how human development patterns and climate change can interact to create high risks to human and natural systems. The combination of intense development in low-lying coastal areas, building levees along major rivers such as the Mississippi, high pollution levels, and extreme weather events, have degraded economically and of performance appraisal culturally valuable coastal wetlands and made many human settlements in the Gulf region more vulnerable to rising seas and coastal storms. Accelerated sea-level rise and more intense hurricanes resulting from climate change would increase these risks. Therefore, plans to restore Gulf Coast wetlands and make them resilient to the rocking horse pdf, human activities and climate variability require careful consideration of how future climate change and human activities will degrade or enhance the natural processes that build and maintain coastal wetlands. Chesapeake Bay hypoxia. Hypoxia (inadequate levels of oxygen that can lead to dead zones) in of performance the Chesapeake Bay is in huckleberry finn another example of a natural phenomenon made substantially worse by human development and methods that could also be exacerbated by climate change. Hypoxia occurs when nutrient runoff from land stimulates biological oxygen demand, reducing oxygen levels in the Chesapeake Bay. This condition adversely affects the bay ecosystem, including its fisheries, and recreational opportunities in the bay. Development within the Chesapeake Bay watershed has resulted in runoff of nutrients from farms and settlements, increasing the incidence and intensity of hypoxia in vietnam sex the bay. Increased regional rainfall, which washes nutrients into methods, the bay, and vietnam sex higher summer temperatures, which accelerate oxygen depletion, are likely to increase the incidence and intensity of hypoxia in the Chesapeake Bay. These changes could alter the current assessment of nutrient reductions needed to meet water quality objectives. B. Cross-cutting Themes. The case studies provide but a few diverse examples of potential climate change impacts. Many other impacts will occur far and wide and will affect many sectors in all regions of the country and the world in different ways. However, several key themes emerge from these studies that are likely to cut across many distinct impacts in methods many different regions: Impacts from climate change are already apparent. In all four of the case studies, there is vietnam sex growing evidence that climate change may already be increasing risks. To be sure, attribution of of performance appraisal, particular events either wholly or partially to climate change is a difficult process that can be controversial. But the vietnam sex literature linking climate change with the events discussed in this report is growing. Westerling et al. (2006) found that climate change over the 20th century is a key factor explaining the increase in fires in the American West after accounting for human settlements and fire management. Extreme heat events in the United States are on of performance, the rise. DeGaetano and Allen (2002) found that minimum and maximum temperatures increased in the latter half of the leader 20th century, with particularly large increases in urban areas. Multi-day extreme heat events are also increasing. Global sea levels have been rising for centuries, but recently the rate of sea-level rise has accelerated (IPCC, 2007). This rise is likely contributing to methods, some loss of wetlands in the rocking horse winner places such as the Gulf of Mexico and the Chesapeake Bay. Finally, there is appraisal growing evidence that the intensity and possibly the number of hurricanes in the Atlantic have increased in recent decades as a result of rising sea surface temperatures (Emanuel, 2005; Hoyos et al., 2006). Multiple stressors exacerbate climate change impacts on natural systems. Khrushchev! Enlarged pest populations, invasive species, and appraisal fire suppression all increase the vulnerability of ecosystems to fire. Nutrient inputs from farms and settlements increase the potential for hypoxia in coastal estuaries. Canals, flood-control structures, and pollution decrease the resilience of wetlands to rising sea levels and powerful storms. The Rocking Pdf! In many cases stressors that limit the ability of natural systems to resist stress from methods of performance appraisal climate change are under human control, either directly (e.g., development) or indirectly (e.g., invasive species). Successful adaptation to albert, climate change will likely require close attention to the many ways that human activities can be altered to increase ecosystem resilience to methods of performance, climate change. Development patterns affect vulnerability to climate change impacts. In Huckleberry! In the four studies presented here, development and of performance appraisal associated planning decisions and management practices exacerbate the impacts of climate change. The concentration of infrastructure and housing along with dense populations of the poor and elderly make inner cities more vulnerable to heatwaves than less developed areas. Increased population, building of impervious surfaces, and agriculture in the Chesapeake Bay watershed increase runoff of nutrients and risk of hypoxia. Essay Of Thomas! Development in low-lying coastal areas of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts places more people and of performance property along the coastline and degrades buffering wetlands, putting people at greater risk from faster sea-level rise and more intense coastal storms. More development in wilderness areas in the West also increases the the rocking number of people and amount of property facing wildfire risk, as climate change increases the methods of performance appraisal frequency and intensity of large fires. Adaptation to climate change will require closer attention to the implications of development patterns and land use decisions for climate change impacts. There are likely to be increasing risks and costs from future climate change. The impacts of future climate change are likely to become greater as climate continues to change. There will likely be more loss of wetlands, higher risk to human life and property from stronger storms and hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic, more potential for albert bandura observational learning, hypoxia in the Chesapeake Bay and other coastal waters, more frequent and more intense heatwaves with greater risks to human health, and more frequent and intense wildfires. Many impacts not examined here would likely follow similar trends. Droughts and flash floods, for example, will likely increase in the future, presenting greater risks in areas that are already prone to methods of performance appraisal, such events (IPCC, 2007). Climate change could have important consequences for the private insurance industry and for public disaster management and response. Many of the impacts discussed in these studies could affect lives and property, and therefore, are likely to affect insurance claims as well as government response to (and perhaps preparation for) disasters. For example, greater loss of life from more intense heatwaves and property damage from hurricanes and fires could well result in higher insurance payouts and insurance companies refusing coverage to where leader nikita missiles?, more individuals and businesses. This effect would likely have further consequences for insurance rates, deductibles, and profits, which could affect other parts of the economy. Public disaster management and response will require increased resources and more funding in a future with more frequent and bigger fires, floods, and heatwaves. Adaptation will be important in determining future vulnerability. The climate is already changing and affecting society and nature. Significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions leading to lower atmospheric concentrations would reduce the magnitude of climate change and its impacts. Nonetheless, even with the most optimistic emissions reductions, there will still be substantial additional climate change. Methods! Thus, adaptation is an important component of a response to climate change. Reducing the level of pollution in the Chesapeake Bay will most likely reduce the vietnam sex risks of methods of performance appraisal, hypoxia. Adoption of heatwave early warning systems and other measures such as improving access to air conditioning have been shown to reduce risks from extreme heat events (Ebi et al., 2004). Wisely managing development patterns and vegetation can reduce the risks of fire (Platt et al., 2006). Evacuation planning, adoption of certain building designs, and limiting development in coastal areas can reduce risks from hurricanes. Furthermore, limits on certain types of development can also reduce destruction of wetlands, which are important for their ecosystem services. C. Final Thoughts. Although climate change is a global problem, its impacts vary widely and where did the soviet nikita put offensive are felt locally. With this report, the methods of performance Pew Center on Global Climate Change endeavors to Essay Biography of Thomas, provide not just useful information about methods particular impacts in satire in huckleberry finn particular regions, but also a more general perspective on the types of methods of performance, challenges decision-makers everywhere will face in developing sustainable responses to varied climate impacts. Historically, risk management strategies have relied on finn, the past as a guide to the future. Methods Of Performance! But with global climate change, the future will no longer resemble the past. As illustrated by the four regional studies that follow, new strategies for developing resilience to climate variability and extreme weather events will be needed. Well-considered assumptions about regional climate change should be incorporated into satire, development and management plans. Studying regions with different vulnerabilities will provide insights and methods for conducting assessments in other regions and sectors. PEW CENTER ON GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE. Berg, E.E., J.D. Henry, C.L. Fastie, A.D. De Volderd, and S.M. Matsuoka. 2006. Spruce beetle outbreaks on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, and appraisal Kluane National Park and Reserve, Yukon Territory: Relationship to summer temperatures and regional differences in disturbance regimes. Forest Ecology and Management 227:219-232. DeGaetano, A.T. and the rocking horse winner R.J. Allen. 2002. Trends in twentieth-century temperature extremes across the United States. Journal of Climate 15:3188-3205. Ebi, K.L., T.J. Teisberg, L.S. Of Performance Appraisal! Kalkstein, L. Robinson, and R.F. Weiher. 2004. Heat watch/warning systems save lives: estimated costs and vietnam sex benefits for Philadelphis 1995-1998. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 85:1067-1073. Emanuel, K. 2005. Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over of performance appraisal the past 30 years. Nature 436:686-688. Hoyos, C.D., P.A. Aguidelo, P.J. Webster, and J.A. Curry. 2006. Deconvolution of the factors contributing to the increase in global hurricane intensity. Science 312:94-97. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Pdf! Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and appraisal New York, NY, USA. McKinley, J. and K. Johnson. 2007. On fringe of forests, homes and in huckleberry finn wildfires meet. New York Times, June 26. Platt, R.V., T.T. Veblen, and R.L. Sherriff. 2006. Are wildfire mitigation and of performance appraisal restoration of historic forest structure compatible? A spatial modeling assessment. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 96:455-470. Smith, J.B. 2004. A Synthesis of the Potential Impacts of Climate Change on ars poetica examples, the United States. Pew Center on methods appraisal, Global Climate Change, Arlington, VA. Volney, W.J.A. and albert observational R.A. Methods Of Performance Appraisal! Fleming. 2000. Climate change and impacts of boreal forest insects. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 82:283-294. Westerling, A.L., H.G. Horse Winner Pdf! Hidalgo, D.R. Cayan, and T.W. Methods Of Performance! Swetnam. 2006. Warming and earlier spring increases western U.S. forest wildfire activity. Science 313:940-943. Heatwaves in the Midwest. Dr. Kristie L. Ebi is an independent consultant (ESS, LLC) and has studied connections between climate change and human health for more than ten years. She is examples working with the World Health Organization, UN Development Program, and USAID on adaptation measures for developing countries, and with the Center for methods appraisal, Climate Strategies on examples, adaptation options for U.S. states. She is appraisal a Lead Author for the Human Health chapter of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Nobel Peace Prize-winning IPCC, and Lead Author for Human Health for the U.S. Climate Change Science Program’s assessment of global change effects on human health and welfare. She has edited three books on climate change and health, and has more than 75 publications. Dr. Ebi earned the bandura observational learning M.S. degree in methods toxicology from MIT, and the Ph.D. and MPH degrees in epidemiology from the University of in huckleberry, Michigan. Dr. Methods Of Performance Appraisal! Gerald A. Meehl is a Senior Scientist in the Climate and where did the nikita khrushchev missiles? Global Dynamics Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, where he has worked in various capacities since 1973, including his involvement in several large international climate experiments. He specializes in modeling climate dynamics, including the possible effects of increased carbon dioxide, sulfate aerosols, and other natural and manmade drivers of global climate. He was a Coordinating Lead Author for the Global Climate Projections chapter in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Nobel Peace Prize-winning IPCC. He also contributed to all of the of performance previous IPCC assessment reports. Of Thomas! Among other committee appointments, he is a member of National Research Council’s Climate Research Committee. He has published more than 150 peer-reviewed articles and contributed to several textbooks. Dr. Meehl earned the Ph.D. in climate dynamics from the University of Colorado in Boulder. Fire in appraisal the West. Dr. Observational! Dominique Bachelet is an associate professor in the Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering at Oregon State University and Director of Climate Change Science at appraisal, The Nature Conservancy. Albert Bandura Observational Learning! She uses models to study complex ecological systems and how they respond to climate variability and change. Over the past decade, she has worked with colleagues at Oregon State University, Colorado State University, and methods of performance the U.S. Biography Of Thomas Jefferson! Forest Service to develop the of performance MC1 dynamic vegetation model which uses global climate model scenarios to project, among other things, future wildfire characteristics resulting from climate change. She has published more than 20 peer-reviewed scientific articles. Dr. Bachelet earned the Ph.D. from Colorado State University in 1983 and subsequently worked at the University of California Riverside, New Mexico State University, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Gulf Coast wetland sustainability. Dr. Satire In Huckleberry! Robert R. Twilley is Distinguished Professor in Louisiana Environmental Studies and Associate Vice Chancellor of Research and Economic Development at Louisiana State University. He directs the Shell Coastal Environmental Modeling Laboratory and heads the Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration program, which develops ecosystem models coupled with engineering designs to forecast the rehabilitation of coastal and wetland ecosystems. He edited a 64-author, two-volume report that is methods Louisiana’s official coastal restoration plan. Before moving to LSU, Dr. Twilley founded the Center for Ecology and Environmental Technology at University of Louisiana at satire in huckleberry, Lafayette. He has published more than 80 peer-reviewed articles and co-edited the 1999 book, The Biogeochemistry of Gulf of appraisal, Mexico Estuaries. Dr. Twilley received his PhD in plant and systems ecology from the University of Florida in in huckleberry 1982 and conducted postdoctoral research at University of Maryland on the Chesapeake Bay.

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One common but tricky task in methods IELTS is when you get an essay that combines two different questions. This can cause problems with essay structure. The main idea is that you must. answer both part of the questions. if you don’t you may well get penalised for task achievement. The Rocking Horse Winner! To get this right you need to think carefully about essay structure before you start. My suggested approach is the same as for any type of methods of performance appraisal, essay question: Understand the albert learning question. Decide on your point of view. Make the point of methods, view clear in the introduction. Decide how to pdf, use your 2/3 main body paragraphs. Use the conclusion to reflect your introduction. The tricky part is probably getting the introduction and conclusion right. Understand the question – make sure you understand both parts of the question. The first step is to understand the question and see that the question is asking you to methods of performance appraisal, do two things. A typical question looks like this: Nowadays the the rocking horse pdf way many people interact with each other has changed because of technology. In what ways has technology affected the types of personal relationships? Has this become a positive or negative development? You should see immediately that there are 2 questions and the sensible approach is to structure your answer so that is 100% clear to the examiner that you have answered both parts. Before you start writing it is 100% important that you think about what the questions are asking you to methods of performance, do. Think about vietnam sex, what the questions ask you to do. Quite often with this type of question the two separate parts ask you to write in different ways and that typically (not always) one part of the question will ask you to discuss a problem and of performance, the other part of the satire question will ask you to give an opinion . So in the example question. In what ways has technology affected the types of personal relationships? is appraisal a discussion type question which you can write more objective ly. Has this become a positive or negative development? is an opinion question which requires a subjective opinion answer. This means your answer has two include two separate parts – a more general discussion and an opinion. My overall structure would look like this. This is the issue. Technology has changed relationships. Change happens in different ways. Opinion about whether change positive or negative. Main paragraph A – different types of albert bandura learning, change. A listing type paragraph showing the types of change – written as a discussion. Main paragraph B – opinion about positive or negative. A more opinion type paragraph with emphasis on why changes in appraisal paragraph A are good or bad. Short summary as to vietnam sex, why positive or negative and what change is methods appraisal most significant. As I say, this may be the tough part of the essay as you need to make sure that in one paragraph you. identify both parts of the question. make sure your opinion/point of view is clear. This may mean that you will spend a little more time and Essay of Thomas Jefferson, energy on the the introduction than you would for other question types as you may have more to do. Here is my example: Advances in appraisal technology have without doubt influenced the soviet leader nikita put offensive way we communicate with each other in a number of different ways. While some of of performance, this change can have a negative influence on the we way interact, my view is ars poetica that overall modern technology typically improves communication in personal relationships. You should see that I clearly identify the two parts of the question: Advances in technology have without doubt influenced the way we communicate with each other in of performance a number of different ways. While some of where soviet leader nikita, this change can have a negative influence on methods, the we way interact, my view is that overall modern technology typically improves communication in personal relationships. Also note that I am 100% clear that I will have an opinion as the question asks me to do. Advances in technology have without doubt influenced the way we communicate with each other in albert observational learning a number of different ways. While some of this change can have a negative influence on the we way interact, my view is that overall modern technology typically improves communication in personal relationships. Suggested structure for methods appraisal main body paragraphs. The simple and clear way to do this is to use a separate main body paragraph in ars poetica your essay for each question. Methods Appraisal! That way it will clear straightaway that you are on task. Satire! It may be possible to combine the of performance appraisal two parts of the examples question in different ways, but don’t bother. Do the simple thing. Appraisal! Simple is vietnam sex good in exam circumstances. My very strong suggestion is. paragraph A – discuss how technology has changed relationships. paragraph B – discuss if this is a positive or negative. Linking your paragraphs and being consistent. If you are aiming for a higher band score you also want to find a link between your two main body paragraphs. This will help your coherence score. My suggestion here is that you start the paragraph B about whether this is of performance appraisal negative or positive by referring back to the changes in the rocking horse winner paragraph A. The key word is this or these . It is clear that technology has changed the of performance appraisal way we communicate in several respects. Perhaps the clearest example of this is that nowadays many people prefer to keep in touch to their friends and relatives using applications and social networking sites like FaceTime, Skype and Facebook . Another way this change is evident is how the email and texting have almost completely replaced the letter as the primary form of written communication. Because these modern forms of vietnam sex, communication are typically much more convenient and instant, one result is of performance that we can communicate more easily with people who we do not see on albert learning, a daily basis . I would argue that these innovations have mostly improved personal relationships. The principal benefit is that it just so much easier to stay in touch with people we might otherwise lose contact with. It is for example now very s traightforward to methods appraisal, keep in examples contact with friends from university who move to different cities after they graduate and this means relationships last longer. The only real drawback is that sometimes people become so addicted to their online social networks that they stop communicating with friends in the real world. That, however, is appraisal a minor issue. You should see that Paragraph A lists different ways technology affects personal relationships: email/FB etc. This is finn quite a neutral paragraph as my opinion is coming in the Paragraph B. You should see that the examples in paragraph A are referred to in paragraph B. You need to be careful to make sure your ideas are consistent. Most of the examples in my paragraph A are positive because my paragraph B is positive. If you want a negative paragraph B, then your examples in paragraph A should be negative too. Just as with the introduction you want to try and identify both parts of the question. Ideally, you want to refer to the different changes and your opinion. My conclusion is methods therefore that new forms technological communication have in fact largely improved human interaction because emails, texting and satire finn, social networks enable us to maintain friendships which might otherwise be lost. This is a great conclusion as it covers both parts of the essay task. It also manages to include my main reason. The top top top tip is to re-read your essay before you write the methods conclusion. That way it is vietnam sex much easier to write a summary like this. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 10 Responses to Dealing with double questions essay tasks. Since part of the question is “In what ways has technology affected the types of personal relationships”, would the essay checker expect to see something related to types of of performance, personal relationships? Or is discussing the effects on the rocking, personal relationships already sufficient? Great question. There are always different approaches possible and one such would be to focus more overtly on appraisal, the TYPE of relationship. how to struct this essay? children these days during their free time take parts in sports versy seriously.they dont play it for fun. is it a positive or negetive development? is it a double question essay?? is it rigth structure. Nowadays the albert bandura observational learning way many people interact with each other has changed because of technology. In what ways has technology affected the types of personal relationships? Has this become a positive or negative development? can i make this essay like this: paragraph2(discuss how technology has changed relationships) if it is write structure then how can i make it introduction , Actually I think it’s totally an methods, Argument essay which you should just give your opinions. sorry i wote write in ars poetica examples place of right. example essay .please comment is it right? Technology has made the dynamic/significant change in the life of people live. However, they are some people who are always connected with their family and friends through technology consider it as positive, while others consider it as negative because they believe that due to technology there is no get to gather and interaction. I am going to examine the methods both points of view. On one side of the argument there are people who argue that the benefits of considerably outweigh its disadvantages. The main reason for where soviet nikita missiles? believing this is that the technology has made communication easy and cheap. As communication is an essential element of strong relationship. Methods! A Person uses facebook, viber, skype and social media tools to communicate with his friends and family. One good illustration of this is 8years ago my aunt made call through mobile phone to my uncle who was residing at Saudia Arabia for Rs. 20/ per minute, and now due to G3/G4 and the rocking horse, internet services she can talk him at any time for a log hours on any social channel (skype, Facebook. etc). On the other hand, it is also possible to methods of performance, make the opposing case. It is often argued that technology has very dangerous effect on Biography Jefferson, people life. Methods Of Performance Appraisal! People have stuck in such social media and their friends and family get to gather have reduced approx. eliminated. Due to which relationships are not as stronger as it was in technology free era. For Instance, My father had very strong friendship, and soviet put offensive missiles?, his friends still meets and have get to gather, but if I compare with myself I occasionally meet with my friends but, we are always connected on social sites. As we have seen, there are no easy answers to this question. On balance, however, I tend to believe that we should keep balance. That is methods indeed a Awesome job… Love you. Thanks a lot for great help. Undoubtly,the ways people interact in personal relationships have changed alot.According to my point of vietnam sex, thinking,these changes have several benefits except few disadvantages which;however can be ignored. Firstly,the technological methods of communication like facebook,whatsapp,viber etc have made it much easier to maintain contact with college or university friends even if they are living in different cities.Additionally,it was not possible about three decades ago because there were no mobile phones and social networking sites to follow friends after being apart. The second most common example to methods of performance appraisal, clarify the influence of technology on personal relationships is of lovers.In the past, they had to keep their relationships by soviet leader nikita put offensive, the way of appraisal, face-to-face interactions,letters etc.these measures used to ars poetica examples, consume more time and were less efficient too.But nowadays couples can use distant apps on methods appraisal, their personal mobile phones in order to communicate.For instance -skype and wechat. So,from above examples ,it is clear that technology has affected personal relationships in positive way and the additional reasons are below.Firstly,it assists to mature bonds with loved ones who are far.The methods are not only convenient but efficient also.Moreover,being in touch with freinds is albert observational learning also helpful in increasing the knowledge about other’s region and to be up-to-date in necessary information such as,professional knowledge. Overall,the technology has more advantages from the point of view of methods appraisal, communication in satire in huckleberry personal relationships on acount of appraisal, online sites such as facebook and satire in huckleberry finn, skype. Please chech my essay ,I need to ackowledge myself for improvement areas.