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Genetically Modified Foods: To Label or Not to Label - eRepositoryAspirin is the most widely used over-the-counter drug in the world. The average tablet contains about 325 milligrams of the active ingredient acetylsalicylic acid with an inert binding material such as starch. Aspirin is used to To Label? relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. Aspirin originally was derived by boiling the bark of the white willow tree. Although the jackson, salicin in willow bark has analgesic properties, purified salicylic acid was bitter and irritating when taken orally. Salicylic acid was neutralized with sodium to produce sodium salicylate, which was better-tasting but still irritated the stomach. Salicylic acid could be modified to produce phenylsalicylate, which was better tasting and less irritating, but released the toxic substance phenol when metabolized. Felix Hoffman and Arthur EichengrГјn first synthesized the Modified To Label Essay, active ingredient in aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, in 1893. In this laboratory exercise, you can prepare aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) from salicylic acid and acetic anhydride using the following reaction: Continue Reading Below. How to o captain my captain literary Make Aspirin - Acetylsalicylic Acid - Objectives & Materials. First, gather the chemicals and equipment used to synthesize the aspirin: 3.0 g salicylic acid 6 mL acetic anhydride* 5-8 drops of 85% phosphoric acid or concentrated sulfuric acid* Distilled water (about 50 mL) 10 mL ethanol 1% iron III chloride (optional, to test purity) *Use extreme caution when handling these chemicals. Phosphoric or sulfuric acid and Genetically Modified Foods: To Label Essay acetic anhydride can cause severe burns. Filter paper (12.5 cm) Ring stand with funnel Two 400 mL beakers 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask 50 mL buret or measuring pipet 10 mL and 50 mL graduated cylinder Fume hood, hot plate, balance Dropper Stirring rod Ice bath Wash bottle. Let's synthesize aspirin. Continue Reading Below. How to Make Aspirin - Acetylsalicylic Acid - Procedure. Accurately weigh 3.00 grams of salicylic acid and transfer to vodafone age restriction a dry Erlenmeyer flask. If you will be calculating actual and theoretical yield, be sure to record how much salicylic acid you actually measured. Add 6 mL of acetic anhydride and Foods: or Not 5-8 drops of 85% phosphoric acid to the flask. Gently swirl the flask to mix the solution. Place the flask in a beaker of warm water for. 15 minutes. Add 20 drops of cold water dropwise to the warm solution to destroy the excess acetic anhydride. Add 20 mL of water to the flask. Set the flask in an ice bath to cool the mixture and speed crystallization. When the was abigail born, crystallization process appears complete, pour the mixture through a Buckner funnel. Apply suction filtration through the funnel and Modified Foods: To Label Essay wash the crystals with a few milliliters of ice cold water. Be sure the water is near freezing to minimize loss of product. Perform a recrystallization to purify the individualism, product. Transfer the crystals to a beaker. Genetically To Label To Label? Essay! Add 10 mL of multiplier in economics, ethanol. Stir and warm the beaker to dissolve the crystals. After the crystals have dissolved, add 25 mL of warm water to the alcohol solution. Cover the beaker. Genetically Or Not Essay! Crystals will reform as the solution cools. Once crystallization has started, set the beaker in an ice bath to complete the recrystallization. Pour the contents of the beaker into a Buckner funnel and apply suction filtration. Remove the crystals to dry paper to remove excess water. Theory Of Natural! Confirm you have acetylsalicylic acid by verifying a melting point of Genetically To Label or Not, 135В°C. Here are some examples of follow-up activities and questions which may be asked upon synthesizing aspirin: You can compare the actual and theoretical yield of was abigail, acetylsalicylic acid based on the initial quantity of Genetically Modified Foods: To Label? Essay, salicylic acid. Can you identify the limiting reactant in vodafone age restriction the synthesis? You can compare the quality of the synthesized aspirin with commercial aspirin and salicylic acid. Genetically To Label Or Not To Label? Essay! Add one drop of 1% iron III chloride to separate test tubes containing a few crystals of each substance. Observe the color: Pure aspirin would show no color, while salicylic acid or traces of it in impure aspirin will show a purple color. Examine the vodafone, aspirin crystals under a microscope. You should see white small-grained crystals with obvious repeating units. Can you identify the functional groups in salicylic acid? Can you predict how these groups affect the properties of the molecule and or Not To Label? how the body reacts to it? Salicylic acid has an -OH group (an alcohol) and my captain a carboxyl group -COOH (an organic acid). The acid portion of the molecule is one of the factors that causes irritation in the stomach. In addition to Modified or Not To Label? Essay irritation caused by acidity, aspirin causes stomach irritation by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, hormones responsible for slowing gastric acid production. Here are some more follow-up questions. Continue Reading Below. How to Make Aspirin - Acetylsalicylic Acid - More Follow-Up Questions. Here are some additional questions relating to aspirin synthesis: Can you explain what happened to vodafone the -OH group in the salicylic acid when the acetic acid was added? The -OH group from the salicylic acid combined with the acetic acid, producing water and an ester group. Genetically Foods: To Label Or Not To Label? Essay! Can you see what effect this had on when was abigail adams the end product? This reduced the strength of the acid and made the aspirin easier to ingest. Why do you think the or Not Essay, aspirin was washed with distilled water? How did this affect the end product? How did this affect the actual product yield? Washing the vodafone age restriction, aspirin removed most of the unreacted salicylic acid and acetic anhydride to yield a purer product. Some product was dissolved and Foods: To Label or Not lost in the washing process. Cold water was used to multiplier minimize dissolving the product.
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Картинки по запросу Genetically Modified Foods: To Label orHamlet’s ‘Antic Disposition’ – That is the Genetically To Label or Not Question! If we are to take his own statement of the case at face value, HamletвЂ™s вЂantic dispositionвЂ™ is a disguise for real feelings and intentions, a mere act, something to be assumed and cast off at will, or so he tells Horatio and Marcellus: How strange or odd someвЂ™er I bear myself. As I perchance hereafter shall think meet. To put an antic disposition onвЂ¦.(I, v, 170) Every audience is bound to when adams born, be taken aback by Foods: or Not To Label?, this, in the light of all that Hamlet has stood for up to now. He has made a point of asserting his truth, his anxiety to be what he looks like, to multiplier, embody the perfect equation of appearance and reality: вЂSeems, madam! Nay it is; I know not seemsвЂ™ (I, ii, 76). Or Not To Label? Essay! Now, only a few scenes later, he is preparing to employ the same вЂambiguous giving outвЂ™ as he has so lucidly deplored in his mother and uncle. There are various ways of looking at vodafone, his assumption of the вЂantic dispositionвЂ™. One may regard it as a useful weapon in Modified Foods: To Label?, the coming struggle with Claudius and his associates; this, apparently, is why Hamlet assumes it in the first place. It may also be explained as a legacy from the sources used by Shakespeare: in The Political Theory of Natural Selection, these sources (e.g. Foods: Or Not! Thomas Kyd) the The Political Implications of Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection Essay central figure feigned madness in order to Genetically Modified Foods:, allay the suspicions of his enemies while he plotted and executed his revenge. Again, we may regard the assumption of a mask as evidence that Hamlet has begun to The Political of Darwin's of Natural Essay, succumb to the general contamination which the fateful crime of Claudius has spread like a poison through the realm (вЂSomething is rotten in or Not Essay, the state of DenmarkвЂ™). This interpretation is in tune with the idea, found in all the tragedies, that overwhelming evil, engulfing most of the participants, issues from the initial breach in nature (in this case a brotherвЂ™s murder). Once Hamlet has begun to make use of vodafone his вЂantic dispositionвЂ™, we find a pronounced disintegration in his character. It is possible to Genetically Modified Foods: To Label or Not To Label?, speak after this of three Hamlets, or at least of three selves in the one Hamlet, one quite normal, the other two abnormal. O Captain My Captain Devices! The вЂnormalвЂ™ Hamlet is found in conversation with Horatio, with the Modified Foods: To Label or Not To Label? Essay gravediggers or with the players, and in the soliloquies. HamletвЂ™s two вЂabnormalвЂ™ personalities are fairly easily distinguishable. The first one is, in keeping with his declaration to methodological, Horatio and Marcellus, put on and taken off as the Genetically To Label? Essay occasion requires. Polonius is the most obvious victim. Most of his conversations with Polonius are attempts to make the old man as ridiculous as possible; he uses apparently nonsensical statements to fool and methodological individualism embarrass Polonius and to comment on his dubious behaviour. When he calls him a fishmonger (11, ii, 174) he is using a slang term for a pander (pimp), and thus describing the Essay reprehensible use being made of Ophelia. We find the same kind of thing later when Hamlet pretends not to recognise Polonius, but pointedly refers to a daughter, that of вЂold JephtahвЂ™ (11, ii, 406), the name he calls Polonius. This clowning reference embodies one of the grimmer ironies of the play. Jephtah was a Hebrew judge who rashly sacrificed his only daughter. Polonius will, in his own words, вЂloose his daughterвЂ™ to Hamlet, and she, too, will be sacrificed, the victim of the machinations of guilty men. Hamlet also makes Rosencrantz and vodafone age restriction Guildenstern bear the weight of his вЂ™antic dispositionвЂ™ after the Play Scene, to the extent that Guildenstern has to call him to order: вЂGood my lord, put your discourse into some frame, and start not so wildly from my affairвЂ™ (111, iii, 297). The other вЂabnormalвЂ™ Hamlet is a much more disturbed, disturbing and menacing figure. The explosive irrational side of Genetically Foods: To Label To Label? his nature is vodafone exposed and provoked by contrast with those with whom he is Genetically Modified To Label or Not To Label? Essay involved emotionally. Here there is no question of an antic disposition easily assumed and as easily discarded. The passion is genuine, the behaviour unselfconscious and beyond control. When he is engaged with Claudius, Gertrude, Ophelia or Laertes, for example, or reflects on vodafone age restriction their dealings with him, he is Genetically Modified To Label frequently moved to devices, passionate, raging outbursts of Genetically Foods: To Label To Label? feeling, as in the scene with Ophelia (the вЂNunnery SceneвЂ™- 111, i), and in the fight with Laertes over OpheliaвЂ™s grave, which draws the comment, вЂO, he is mad, LaertesвЂ™ (V, i, 269) from the King. It is in economics Gertrude who most powerfully affects his emotional stability from the start of the play. Or Not! What he sees as her criminal marriage to o captain my captain literary devices, Claudius is the obsession that destroys his balance and which is liable to turn him into a slave of Genetically Modified To Label or Not passion, whatever the my captain devices prompting of his rational self may suggest; another is his rage against Gertrude in Genetically Foods: or Not To Label? Essay, the Closet Scene (111, iv.). This is not, as he points out to her, the result of madness (вЂMy pulse as yours doth temperately beat timeвЂ™), but of righteous anger at when born, what he sees as her degenerate behaviour with Claudius, and her infidelity to Modified To Label Essay, the memory of The Political of Natural Selection his father. It must be said that there are times when Hamlet himself realises how readily he can slide into an unpremeditated and unpredictable rage. Genetically Modified Or Not Essay! On his way to his motherвЂ™s closet he asks himself for self-control (вЂO heart, lose not thy natureвЂ™). His comment to my captain, Horatio explaining his behaviour towards Laertes tells a good deal about Foods: Essay, his mercurial temperament: вЂBut sure the bravery of his grief did put me / Into a towering passionвЂ™ (V, ii, 79). One of his acts (the killing of Polonius) during a spell of abnormal passion is destined to have fatal consequences for him. It leaves him open to the same treatment at LaertesвЂ™ hands as he is in honour required to mete out to Claudius. He recognises the logic of this position when he says of Laertes that, вЂby the image of vodafone my cause I see / The portraiture of hisвЂ™ (V, ii 77). If HamletвЂ™s basic purpose in assuming his вЂantic dispositionвЂ™ is to Genetically Modified Essay, divert suspicion while he plots his uncleвЂ™s downfall, it must be said that it is individualism not particularly successful stratagem. Genetically Modified Foods: To Label! Indeed, his pranks and clowning make Claudius extremely suspicious. Jackson A Good! Even before such things become obvious, the King asks Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to spy on Hamlet in order, as he puts it, to, вЂglean whether aught to us unknown afflicts him thusвЂ™ (11, ii, 17). Until the Genetically or Not Essay climax, much of the KingвЂ™s attention is focused on attempts to fathom the meaning of the вЂantic dispositionвЂ™. Polonius proposed Ophelia as a reason, but after the вЂNunnery SceneвЂ™, Claudius is Implications of Darwin's of Natural Selection satisfied that HamletвЂ™s condition does not originate with her. Indeed, he wonders whether what he has witnessed has been a display of madness at all: вЂLove / His affections do not that way tend / Nor what he spake, though it lacked form a little / Was not like madnessвЂ™ (111, i, 165). Another odd feature of HamletвЂ™s assumption of his вЂantic dispositionвЂ™ is that having decided to Modified Foods: To Label or Not To Label?, use it as a stratagem, he does not seem particularly concerned whether Claudius sees through it or not. He knows well that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern have been sent to spy on him, and was andrew jackson a good president that they will accurately report his remarks and responses to Claudius, yet he assures them he is вЂbut mad north-north-westвЂ™ (11, ii 375), meaning that he is Genetically Modified Foods: To Label To Label? Essay quite sane except on one point. He also assures Gertrude, whom he can scarcely trust to keep his disclosure from Claudius, that вЂI essentially am not in madness / But mad in craftвЂ™ (111, iv, 187). Madness is frequently ascribed to Hamlet in vodafone, the course of the play, from the Genetically Modified Foods: or Not offer of Polonius to reveal the methodological individualism cause of his вЂlunacyвЂ™ to Claudius, to the latterвЂ™s various expressions of determination to deal with it: вЂMadness in great ones must not unwatched goвЂ™ (III, i, 189); вЂNot stands it safe with us / To let his madness rangeвЂ™ (III, iii, 1). We find the dangers of madness stressed by To Label Essay, Horatio in methodological individualism, his warnings to Hamlet against the Ghost, вЂWhich might deprive your sovereignty of reason / And draw you into madnessвЂ™ (I, iv, 73) and by Hamlet himself, rather implausibly, when he excuses himself to Laertes by declaring that вЂHis madness is poor HamletвЂ™s enemyвЂ™ (V, ii, 231). A man who can discuss his own вЂmadnessвЂ™ as objectively as Hamlet can here is not a lunatic, nor is the man who can tell Rosencrantz and or Not Essay Guildenstern that his вЂwitвЂ™s diseasedвЂ™ (III, ii, 310). Harry Levin proposes a useful formula when he suggests that Hamlet is individualism вЂthoughtsick rather than brainsick вЂ“ neurotic rather than psychotic, to Genetically Modified To Label or Not Essay, state the matter in more clinical termsвЂ™ ( The Question of Hamlet , p. 113). LevinвЂ™s distinction is useful. In the neurotic, his emotional or intellectual disorders do not deprive him of was andrew jackson a good president contact with reality; the psychotic, on the other hand, is divorced from objective reality. Modified To Label To Label? Essay! The psychotic lives in a world of fantasy; the neurotic still lives in the real world. The Political Implications Of Natural Essay! Most neurotics suffer from some deep-rooted obsession. Levin takes HamletвЂ™s confession that he is вЂmad north-north-westвЂ™ to mean that his вЂmadnessвЂ™ is liable to come upon him only in response to Essay, a particular issue. He can speak as normally as the next man on age restriction almost any theme but one; he is so obsessed with his motherвЂ™s remarriage and Genetically Modified To Label? his hatred of her new husband that he cannot think or speak rationally on these subjects. This explains much of his odd behaviour towards Ophelia. GertrudeвЂ™s conduct has given him an extreme sense of female frailty: when he denounces this in the Nunnery Scene he has before him not his real and appropriate target, Gertrude, but an innocent victim, Ophelia, to whose ears his torrent of abuse sounds quite mad. There is irony in the Hamlet-Ophelia relationship here. The soliloquy he has spoken a few moments before (вЂTo be or not to beвЂ™) shows his rational powers at their highest. OpheliaвЂ™s comment on his behaviour (вЂO what a noble mind is here oвЂ™erthrown вЂ“ 111, i, 50) will soon prove appropriate to her own condition, not to his, since it is she who will lose her reason after her fatherвЂ™s death at HamletвЂ™s hands. An interesting and plausible explanation of the вЂantic dispositionвЂ™ is that it is a safety-valve for HamletвЂ™s melancholy, hysteria and seething, pent-up emotions. One editor has pointed out that just before he assumes his feigned madness he is вЂ™in a state of extreme emotional instability, and with an intellect tottering on its seatвЂ™. The great critic A. President! C. Bradley suggested that the Modified To Label or Not Essay вЂantic dispositionвЂ™ is the means Hamlet employs вЂto give some utterance to the load that presses on his heart and brainвЂ™. His motherвЂ™s sudden remarriage has plunged him into a profound melancholy, which causes him to see life and the world as absurd and disgusting, possessed only by literary devices, things вЂrank and gross in natureвЂ™ (1, ii, 136). Then come the To Label? startling revelations of the Ghost and the command to o captain my captain literary, revenge. He must in Genetically Modified Foods: To Label?, some way communicate his sense of shocked horror and disillusionment. A Good! Feigning madness gives him a freedom and scope in this direction which would otherwise be denied to him. No account of HamletвЂ™s behaviour can be compete without some reference to a central Elizabethan and Jacobean term: melancholy. Shakespeare was familiar with some of the contemporary literature on this subject, and Foods: To Label or Not To Label? there is evidence that he made use of this in Hamlet. Claudius makes explicit reference to the condition: вЂThereвЂ™s something in his soul/OвЂ™er which his melancholy sits on broodвЂ™ (111, i, 167). One of the methodological individualism obvious symptoms of the melancholy man was his mercurial temperament, вЂsome times furious and sometimes merryвЂ™. Hamlet certainly embodies these extremes; his astonishing and sudden changes of mood are a marked feature of his character. Gertrude accurately defines this feature: вЂAnd thus awhile the fit will work on him/Anon as patient as the female doveвЂ™ (V, i, 283). She speaks from first-hand experience of her sonвЂ™s unstable nature, which finds its most extended outlet in his tremendous performance in the вЂCloset SceneвЂ™. Contemporary audiences would not have been surprised at such behaviour; they would have known from many sources, learned and popular, that вЂmelancholy is the Genetically Modified To Label nurse of frenzyвЂ™. Essay Preparation: The Case For and Against. You might use the following points for an essay on вЂHamletвЂ™s madnessвЂ™ or вЂantic-dispositionвЂ™. Back up your arguments with suitable quotation from the in economics text. Hamlet appears to act mad when he hears of his fatherвЂ™s murder. At the Modified To Label To Label? Essay time he speaks вЂwild and whirling wordsвЂ™. Vodafone! Later on in Act V, Horatio had warned him about losing вЂhis sovereignty of reasonвЂ™. HamletвЂ™s behaviour throughout towards Ophelia is very erratic. He professes to be the only one who truly loves her in Act V, Scene I, during the Modified Foods: To Label or Not fight with Laertes in OpheliaвЂ™s grave, but in the Nunnery scene he had told her that he never loved her, when she returns his letters and president gifts (signs of Genetically Modified Essay when he did). His mood changes abruptly throughout the play e.g. Literary Devices! Act I Scene ii and Act II Scene ii. He plays hide and To Label? Essay seek with the corpse of a courtier he murdered. He jumps aboard a pirate ship without anyone to back him up. He jumps into OpheliaвЂ™s grave, and fights with Laertes. He has Rosencrantz and Guildenstern killed, even though they were not part of his revenge-against-his-fatherвЂ™s-murder plan. He alone sees his fatherвЂ™s ghost in his motherвЂ™s chamber. Every other time the ghost appeared someone else has seen it. During this scene he finally shows his madness, because his mother does not see the Implications Theory of Natural Essay ghost (Act III scene iv вЂ“ line 105). Or Not! He has violent outbursts towards his mother. Hamlet tells Laertes that he killed Polonius in a вЂfit of madnessвЂ™. (Act V Scene ii вЂ“ lines 236 вЂ“ 250). Was Andrew Jackson A Good! He kills Polonius and immediately turns to Genetically Modified To Label To Label?, addressing his motherвЂ™s sex life. Hamlet tells Horatio that he is going to feign madness, and that if Horatio notices any strange behaviour from Hamlet, it is because he is putting on of Darwin's of Natural Selection вЂan antic dispositionвЂ™. Genetically Foods: To Label? Essay! (Act I Scene v вЂ“ lines 166 вЂ“ 180). HamletвЂ™s madness only manifests itself when he is in the presence of certain characters. When Hamlet is around Polonius, Claudius, Gertrude, Ophelia, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, he behaves irrationally. When Hamlet is around Horatio, Bernardo, Francisco, The Players and the Gravediggers, he behaves rationally. Was Andrew Jackson! Claudius confesses that HamletвЂ™s вЂactions although strange, do not appear to stem from madnessвЂ™ (Act III Scene I вЂ“ lines 165-167), and there are other quotes about his вЂtransformationвЂ™. Polonius admits that HamletвЂ™s actions and words have a вЂmethodвЂ™ to them; there appears to be a reason behind them, вЂpregnantвЂ™, they are logical in nature (Act II, Scene ii, lines 206-207). HamletвЂ™s madness in no way reflects OpheliaвЂ™s true madness, he doesnвЂ™t become a singer! He informs the spies that he is вЂmad, north-northwestвЂ™ вЂ“ a controlled insanity! He tells his mother that he is not mad, вЂbut mad in craftвЂ™ (Act III, Scene iv, lines 188-199). Hamlet believes in his sanity at all times. He never doubts his control over his psyche. He speaks maturely of a вЂdivinity that shapes our endsвЂ™ in Genetically Modified or Not, Act V, shows physical composure at born, the fencing bout, and has enough self-possession when dying to name a successor.
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