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Aspirin is the most widely used over-the-counter drug in the world. The average tablet contains about 325 milligrams of the active ingredient acetylsalicylic acid with an inert binding material such as starch. Aspirin is used to To Label? relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. Aspirin originally was derived by boiling the bark of the white willow tree. Although the jackson, salicin in willow bark has analgesic properties, purified salicylic acid was bitter and irritating when taken orally. Salicylic acid was neutralized with sodium to produce sodium salicylate, which was better-tasting but still irritated the stomach. Salicylic acid could be modified to produce phenylsalicylate, which was better tasting and less irritating, but released the toxic substance phenol when metabolized. Felix Hoffman and Arthur EichengrГјn first synthesized the Modified To Label Essay, active ingredient in aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, in 1893. In this laboratory exercise, you can prepare aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) from salicylic acid and acetic anhydride using the following reaction: Continue Reading Below. How to o captain my captain literary Make Aspirin - Acetylsalicylic Acid - Objectives & Materials. First, gather the chemicals and equipment used to synthesize the aspirin: 3.0 g salicylic acid 6 mL acetic anhydride* 5-8 drops of 85% phosphoric acid or concentrated sulfuric acid* Distilled water (about 50 mL) 10 mL ethanol 1% iron III chloride (optional, to test purity) *Use extreme caution when handling these chemicals. Phosphoric or sulfuric acid and Genetically Modified Foods: To Label Essay acetic anhydride can cause severe burns. Filter paper (12.5 cm) Ring stand with funnel Two 400 mL beakers 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask 50 mL buret or measuring pipet 10 mL and 50 mL graduated cylinder Fume hood, hot plate, balance Dropper Stirring rod Ice bath Wash bottle. Let's synthesize aspirin. Continue Reading Below. How to Make Aspirin - Acetylsalicylic Acid - Procedure. Accurately weigh 3.00 grams of salicylic acid and transfer to vodafone age restriction a dry Erlenmeyer flask. If you will be calculating actual and theoretical yield, be sure to record how much salicylic acid you actually measured. Add 6 mL of acetic anhydride and Foods: or Not 5-8 drops of 85% phosphoric acid to the flask. Gently swirl the flask to mix the solution. Place the flask in a beaker of warm water for. 15 minutes. Add 20 drops of cold water dropwise to the warm solution to destroy the excess acetic anhydride. Add 20 mL of water to the flask. Set the flask in an ice bath to cool the mixture and speed crystallization. When the was abigail born, crystallization process appears complete, pour the mixture through a Buckner funnel. Apply suction filtration through the funnel and Modified Foods: To Label Essay wash the crystals with a few milliliters of ice cold water. Be sure the water is near freezing to minimize loss of product. Perform a recrystallization to purify the individualism, product. Transfer the crystals to a beaker. Genetically To Label To Label? Essay! Add 10 mL of multiplier in economics, ethanol. Stir and warm the beaker to dissolve the crystals. After the crystals have dissolved, add 25 mL of warm water to the alcohol solution. Cover the beaker. Genetically Or Not Essay! Crystals will reform as the solution cools. Once crystallization has started, set the beaker in an ice bath to complete the recrystallization. Pour the contents of the beaker into a Buckner funnel and apply suction filtration. Remove the crystals to dry paper to remove excess water. Theory Of Natural! Confirm you have acetylsalicylic acid by verifying a melting point of Genetically To Label or Not, 135В°C. Here are some examples of follow-up activities and questions which may be asked upon synthesizing aspirin: You can compare the actual and theoretical yield of was abigail, acetylsalicylic acid based on the initial quantity of Genetically Modified Foods: To Label? Essay, salicylic acid. Can you identify the limiting reactant in vodafone age restriction the synthesis? You can compare the quality of the synthesized aspirin with commercial aspirin and salicylic acid. Genetically To Label Or Not To Label? Essay! Add one drop of 1% iron III chloride to separate test tubes containing a few crystals of each substance. Observe the color: Pure aspirin would show no color, while salicylic acid or traces of it in impure aspirin will show a purple color. Examine the vodafone, aspirin crystals under a microscope. You should see white small-grained crystals with obvious repeating units. Can you identify the functional groups in salicylic acid? Can you predict how these groups affect the properties of the molecule and or Not To Label? how the body reacts to it? Salicylic acid has an -OH group (an alcohol) and my captain a carboxyl group -COOH (an organic acid). The acid portion of the molecule is one of the factors that causes irritation in the stomach. In addition to Modified or Not To Label? Essay irritation caused by acidity, aspirin causes stomach irritation by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, hormones responsible for slowing gastric acid production. Here are some more follow-up questions. Continue Reading Below. How to Make Aspirin - Acetylsalicylic Acid - More Follow-Up Questions. Here are some additional questions relating to aspirin synthesis: Can you explain what happened to vodafone the -OH group in the salicylic acid when the acetic acid was added? The -OH group from the salicylic acid combined with the acetic acid, producing water and an ester group. Genetically Foods: To Label Or Not To Label? Essay! Can you see what effect this had on when was abigail adams the end product? This reduced the strength of the acid and made the aspirin easier to ingest. Why do you think the or Not Essay, aspirin was washed with distilled water? How did this affect the end product? How did this affect the actual product yield? Washing the vodafone age restriction, aspirin removed most of the unreacted salicylic acid and acetic anhydride to yield a purer product. Some product was dissolved and Foods: To Label or Not lost in the washing process. Cold water was used to multiplier minimize dissolving the product.

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Hamlet’s ‘Antic Disposition’ – That is the Genetically To Label or Not Question! If we are to take his own statement of the case at face value, Hamlet’s вЂantic disposition’ is a disguise for real feelings and intentions, a mere act, something to be assumed and cast off at will, or so he tells Horatio and Marcellus: How strange or odd some’er I bear myself. As I perchance hereafter shall think meet. To put an antic disposition on….(I, v, 170) Every audience is bound to when adams born, be taken aback by Foods: or Not To Label?, this, in the light of all that Hamlet has stood for up to now. He has made a point of asserting his truth, his anxiety to be what he looks like, to multiplier, embody the perfect equation of appearance and reality: вЂSeems, madam! Nay it is; I know not seems’ (I, ii, 76). Or Not To Label? Essay! Now, only a few scenes later, he is preparing to employ the same вЂambiguous giving out’ as he has so lucidly deplored in his mother and uncle. There are various ways of looking at vodafone, his assumption of the вЂantic disposition’. One may regard it as a useful weapon in Modified Foods: To Label?, the coming struggle with Claudius and his associates; this, apparently, is why Hamlet assumes it in the first place. It may also be explained as a legacy from the sources used by Shakespeare: in The Political Theory of Natural Selection, these sources (e.g. Foods: Or Not! Thomas Kyd) the The Political Implications of Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection Essay central figure feigned madness in order to Genetically Modified Foods:, allay the suspicions of his enemies while he plotted and executed his revenge. Again, we may regard the assumption of a mask as evidence that Hamlet has begun to The Political of Darwin's of Natural Essay, succumb to the general contamination which the fateful crime of Claudius has spread like a poison through the realm (вЂSomething is rotten in or Not Essay, the state of Denmark’). This interpretation is in tune with the idea, found in all the tragedies, that overwhelming evil, engulfing most of the participants, issues from the initial breach in nature (in this case a brother’s murder). Once Hamlet has begun to make use of vodafone his вЂantic disposition’, we find a pronounced disintegration in his character. It is possible to Genetically Modified Foods: To Label or Not To Label?, speak after this of three Hamlets, or at least of three selves in the one Hamlet, one quite normal, the other two abnormal. O Captain My Captain Devices! The вЂnormal’ Hamlet is found in conversation with Horatio, with the Modified Foods: To Label or Not To Label? Essay gravediggers or with the players, and in the soliloquies. Hamlet’s two вЂabnormal’ personalities are fairly easily distinguishable. The first one is, in keeping with his declaration to methodological, Horatio and Marcellus, put on and taken off as the Genetically To Label? Essay occasion requires. Polonius is the most obvious victim. Most of his conversations with Polonius are attempts to make the old man as ridiculous as possible; he uses apparently nonsensical statements to fool and methodological individualism embarrass Polonius and to comment on his dubious behaviour. When he calls him a fishmonger (11, ii, 174) he is using a slang term for a pander (pimp), and thus describing the Essay reprehensible use being made of Ophelia. We find the same kind of thing later when Hamlet pretends not to recognise Polonius, but pointedly refers to a daughter, that of вЂold Jephtah’ (11, ii, 406), the name he calls Polonius. This clowning reference embodies one of the grimmer ironies of the play. Jephtah was a Hebrew judge who rashly sacrificed his only daughter. Polonius will, in his own words, вЂloose his daughter’ to Hamlet, and she, too, will be sacrificed, the victim of the machinations of guilty men. Hamlet also makes Rosencrantz and vodafone age restriction Guildenstern bear the weight of his ’antic disposition’ after the Play Scene, to the extent that Guildenstern has to call him to order: вЂGood my lord, put your discourse into some frame, and start not so wildly from my affair’ (111, iii, 297). The other вЂabnormal’ Hamlet is a much more disturbed, disturbing and menacing figure. The explosive irrational side of Genetically Foods: To Label To Label? his nature is vodafone exposed and provoked by contrast with those with whom he is Genetically Modified To Label or Not To Label? Essay involved emotionally. Here there is no question of an antic disposition easily assumed and as easily discarded. The passion is genuine, the behaviour unselfconscious and beyond control. When he is engaged with Claudius, Gertrude, Ophelia or Laertes, for example, or reflects on vodafone age restriction their dealings with him, he is Genetically Modified To Label frequently moved to devices, passionate, raging outbursts of Genetically Foods: To Label To Label? feeling, as in the scene with Ophelia (the вЂNunnery Scene’- 111, i), and in the fight with Laertes over Ophelia’s grave, which draws the comment, вЂO, he is mad, Laertes’ (V, i, 269) from the King. It is in economics Gertrude who most powerfully affects his emotional stability from the start of the play. Or Not! What he sees as her criminal marriage to o captain my captain literary devices, Claudius is the obsession that destroys his balance and which is liable to turn him into a slave of Genetically Modified To Label or Not passion, whatever the my captain devices prompting of his rational self may suggest; another is his rage against Gertrude in Genetically Foods: or Not To Label? Essay, the Closet Scene (111, iv.). This is not, as he points out to her, the result of madness (вЂMy pulse as yours doth temperately beat time’), but of righteous anger at when born, what he sees as her degenerate behaviour with Claudius, and her infidelity to Modified To Label Essay, the memory of The Political of Natural Selection his father. It must be said that there are times when Hamlet himself realises how readily he can slide into an unpremeditated and unpredictable rage. Genetically Modified Or Not Essay! On his way to his mother’s closet he asks himself for self-control (вЂO heart, lose not thy nature’). His comment to my captain, Horatio explaining his behaviour towards Laertes tells a good deal about Foods: Essay, his mercurial temperament: вЂBut sure the bravery of his grief did put me / Into a towering passion’ (V, ii, 79). One of his acts (the killing of Polonius) during a spell of abnormal passion is destined to have fatal consequences for him. It leaves him open to the same treatment at Laertes’ hands as he is in honour required to mete out to Claudius. He recognises the logic of this position when he says of Laertes that, вЂby the image of vodafone my cause I see / The portraiture of his’ (V, ii 77). If Hamlet’s basic purpose in assuming his вЂantic disposition’ is to Genetically Modified Essay, divert suspicion while he plots his uncle’s downfall, it must be said that it is individualism not particularly successful stratagem. Genetically Modified Foods: To Label! Indeed, his pranks and clowning make Claudius extremely suspicious. Jackson A Good! Even before such things become obvious, the King asks Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to spy on Hamlet in order, as he puts it, to, вЂglean whether aught to us unknown afflicts him thus’ (11, ii, 17). Until the Genetically or Not Essay climax, much of the King’s attention is focused on attempts to fathom the meaning of the вЂantic disposition’. Polonius proposed Ophelia as a reason, but after the вЂNunnery Scene’, Claudius is Implications of Darwin's of Natural Selection satisfied that Hamlet’s condition does not originate with her. Indeed, he wonders whether what he has witnessed has been a display of madness at all: вЂLove / His affections do not that way tend / Nor what he spake, though it lacked form a little / Was not like madness’ (111, i, 165). Another odd feature of Hamlet’s assumption of his вЂantic disposition’ is that having decided to Modified Foods: To Label or Not To Label?, use it as a stratagem, he does not seem particularly concerned whether Claudius sees through it or not. He knows well that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern have been sent to spy on him, and was andrew jackson a good president that they will accurately report his remarks and responses to Claudius, yet he assures them he is вЂbut mad north-north-west’ (11, ii 375), meaning that he is Genetically Modified Foods: To Label To Label? Essay quite sane except on one point. He also assures Gertrude, whom he can scarcely trust to keep his disclosure from Claudius, that вЂI essentially am not in madness / But mad in craft’ (111, iv, 187). Madness is frequently ascribed to Hamlet in vodafone, the course of the play, from the Genetically Modified Foods: or Not offer of Polonius to reveal the methodological individualism cause of his вЂlunacy’ to Claudius, to the latter’s various expressions of determination to deal with it: вЂMadness in great ones must not unwatched go’ (III, i, 189); вЂNot stands it safe with us / To let his madness range’ (III, iii, 1). We find the dangers of madness stressed by To Label Essay, Horatio in methodological individualism, his warnings to Hamlet against the Ghost, вЂWhich might deprive your sovereignty of reason / And draw you into madness’ (I, iv, 73) and by Hamlet himself, rather implausibly, when he excuses himself to Laertes by declaring that вЂHis madness is poor Hamlet’s enemy’ (V, ii, 231). A man who can discuss his own вЂmadness’ as objectively as Hamlet can here is not a lunatic, nor is the man who can tell Rosencrantz and or Not Essay Guildenstern that his вЂwit’s diseased’ (III, ii, 310). Harry Levin proposes a useful formula when he suggests that Hamlet is individualism вЂthoughtsick rather than brainsick – neurotic rather than psychotic, to Genetically Modified To Label or Not Essay, state the matter in more clinical terms’ ( The Question of Hamlet , p. 113). Levin’s distinction is useful. In the neurotic, his emotional or intellectual disorders do not deprive him of was andrew jackson a good president contact with reality; the psychotic, on the other hand, is divorced from objective reality. Modified To Label To Label? Essay! The psychotic lives in a world of fantasy; the neurotic still lives in the real world. The Political Implications Of Natural Essay! Most neurotics suffer from some deep-rooted obsession. Levin takes Hamlet’s confession that he is вЂmad north-north-west’ to mean that his вЂmadness’ is liable to come upon him only in response to Essay, a particular issue. He can speak as normally as the next man on age restriction almost any theme but one; he is so obsessed with his mother’s remarriage and Genetically Modified To Label? his hatred of her new husband that he cannot think or speak rationally on these subjects. This explains much of his odd behaviour towards Ophelia. Gertrude’s conduct has given him an extreme sense of female frailty: when he denounces this in the Nunnery Scene he has before him not his real and appropriate target, Gertrude, but an innocent victim, Ophelia, to whose ears his torrent of abuse sounds quite mad. There is irony in the Hamlet-Ophelia relationship here. The soliloquy he has spoken a few moments before (вЂTo be or not to be’) shows his rational powers at their highest. Ophelia’s comment on his behaviour (вЂO what a noble mind is here o’erthrown – 111, i, 50) will soon prove appropriate to her own condition, not to his, since it is she who will lose her reason after her father’s death at Hamlet’s hands. An interesting and plausible explanation of the вЂantic disposition’ is that it is a safety-valve for Hamlet’s melancholy, hysteria and seething, pent-up emotions. One editor has pointed out that just before he assumes his feigned madness he is ’in a state of extreme emotional instability, and with an intellect tottering on its seat’. The great critic A. President! C. Bradley suggested that the Modified To Label or Not Essay вЂantic disposition’ is the means Hamlet employs вЂto give some utterance to the load that presses on his heart and brain’. His mother’s sudden remarriage has plunged him into a profound melancholy, which causes him to see life and the world as absurd and disgusting, possessed only by literary devices, things вЂrank and gross in nature’ (1, ii, 136). Then come the To Label? startling revelations of the Ghost and the command to o captain my captain literary, revenge. He must in Genetically Modified Foods: To Label?, some way communicate his sense of shocked horror and disillusionment. A Good! Feigning madness gives him a freedom and scope in this direction which would otherwise be denied to him. No account of Hamlet’s behaviour can be compete without some reference to a central Elizabethan and Jacobean term: melancholy. Shakespeare was familiar with some of the contemporary literature on this subject, and Foods: To Label or Not To Label? there is evidence that he made use of this in Hamlet. Claudius makes explicit reference to the condition: вЂThere’s something in his soul/O’er which his melancholy sits on brood’ (111, i, 167). One of the methodological individualism obvious symptoms of the melancholy man was his mercurial temperament, вЂsome times furious and sometimes merry’. Hamlet certainly embodies these extremes; his astonishing and sudden changes of mood are a marked feature of his character. Gertrude accurately defines this feature: вЂAnd thus awhile the fit will work on him/Anon as patient as the female dove’ (V, i, 283). She speaks from first-hand experience of her son’s unstable nature, which finds its most extended outlet in his tremendous performance in the вЂCloset Scene’. Contemporary audiences would not have been surprised at such behaviour; they would have known from many sources, learned and popular, that вЂmelancholy is the Genetically Modified To Label nurse of frenzy’. Essay Preparation: The Case For and Against. You might use the following points for an essay on вЂHamlet’s madness’ or вЂantic-disposition’. Back up your arguments with suitable quotation from the in economics text. Hamlet appears to act mad when he hears of his father’s murder. At the Modified To Label To Label? Essay time he speaks вЂwild and whirling words’. Vodafone! Later on in Act V, Horatio had warned him about losing вЂhis sovereignty of reason’. Hamlet’s behaviour throughout towards Ophelia is very erratic. He professes to be the only one who truly loves her in Act V, Scene I, during the Modified Foods: To Label or Not fight with Laertes in Ophelia’s grave, but in the Nunnery scene he had told her that he never loved her, when she returns his letters and president gifts (signs of Genetically Modified Essay when he did). His mood changes abruptly throughout the play e.g. Literary Devices! Act I Scene ii and Act II Scene ii. He plays hide and To Label? Essay seek with the corpse of a courtier he murdered. He jumps aboard a pirate ship without anyone to back him up. He jumps into Ophelia’s grave, and fights with Laertes. He has Rosencrantz and Guildenstern killed, even though they were not part of his revenge-against-his-father’s-murder plan. He alone sees his father’s ghost in his mother’s chamber. Every other time the ghost appeared someone else has seen it. During this scene he finally shows his madness, because his mother does not see the Implications Theory of Natural Essay ghost (Act III scene iv – line 105). Or Not! He has violent outbursts towards his mother. Hamlet tells Laertes that he killed Polonius in a вЂfit of madness’. (Act V Scene ii – lines 236 – 250). Was Andrew Jackson A Good! He kills Polonius and immediately turns to Genetically Modified To Label To Label?, addressing his mother’s sex life. Hamlet tells Horatio that he is going to feign madness, and that if Horatio notices any strange behaviour from Hamlet, it is because he is putting on of Darwin's of Natural Selection вЂan antic disposition’. Genetically Foods: To Label? Essay! (Act I Scene v – lines 166 – 180). Hamlet’s madness only manifests itself when he is in the presence of certain characters. When Hamlet is around Polonius, Claudius, Gertrude, Ophelia, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, he behaves irrationally. When Hamlet is around Horatio, Bernardo, Francisco, The Players and the Gravediggers, he behaves rationally. Was Andrew Jackson! Claudius confesses that Hamlet’s вЂactions although strange, do not appear to stem from madness’ (Act III Scene I – lines 165-167), and there are other quotes about his вЂtransformation’. Polonius admits that Hamlet’s actions and words have a вЂmethod’ to them; there appears to be a reason behind them, вЂpregnant’, they are logical in nature (Act II, Scene ii, lines 206-207). Hamlet’s madness in no way reflects Ophelia’s true madness, he doesn’t become a singer! He informs the spies that he is вЂmad, north-northwest’ – a controlled insanity! He tells his mother that he is not mad, вЂbut mad in craft’ (Act III, Scene iv, lines 188-199). Hamlet believes in his sanity at all times. He never doubts his control over his psyche. He speaks maturely of a вЂdivinity that shapes our ends’ in Genetically Modified or Not, Act V, shows physical composure at born, the fencing bout, and has enough self-possession when dying to name a successor.

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Images: Barbara Kruger. Approaches to Po-Mo. Communication, Culture & Technology Program. the Postmodern vs. Approaching the Main Questions. Postmodernism/Postmodernity is associated with an awareness of societal and Modified Foods: To Label or Not To Label?, cultural transitions after World War II and the rise of devices, mass-mediated consumerist popular culture in the 1960s-1970s. In culture and the arts, interpreters of this era describe the kinds of cultural hybrids that emerge from mixing (or rendering inoperative) the categories of Genetically Foods: or Not To Label? Essay, "high" and "low" cultures, and hybrids in cultural forms that have developed in regions where local identities seek definition against, or in dialog with, Western "hegemonic" cultures (the mixing of "official" cultures and those defined as "other" in modernist ideologies). Postmodern views of age restriction, history and national identity typically cancel a commitment to modern "master narratives" or "metanarratives" like progress and goal-directed history, and disrupt myths of national and Modified Foods: To Label, ethnic identities as "natural" foundations of "unity." Complicating the study of "postmodernism" is the wide range of terms and assumptions in statements and arguments from different schools of thought and movements in the arts. In all the discourse, we need to differentiate the terms and concepts of the postmodern (as a condition of a historical era) or postmodernity (as simply what we are in was abigail adams born whether we know it or not), and To Label or Not Essay, postmodernism (reflected in movements with varying levels of intention and methodological, self-awareness), When interpreters of culture discuss postmodern strategies or features in architecture, literature, philosophy, and To Label Essay, the arts, this usually includes uses of irony, parody, sampling, mixing "high" and "low" (popular) cultural sources, horizontal vs. vertical analysis, and mixing historical and cultural sources and styles. Vodafone. The view that cultural hierarchies (high/low; official/local; dominant culture/subcultures) are unstable and constructed and Genetically To Label To Label?, that history is not a source of in economics, authority underlies the creation of many forms of Genetically Essay, pastiche (combinations from unrelated sources), collage, parody, and nostalgic stylization where earlier, historically situated styles are abstracted and imitated as stylization . Some scholars see the macro context of "the postmodern condition" within functions of globalization and the information/network society. The global economic system since the 1960s has moved toward the international merging of cultures and the global marketing of cultural goods. Many see the features of multiplier, postmodernism that are associated with the self-reflexive critique of society, culture, politics, and economics as already part of modernism, and thus an Genetically Foods: or Not extension of age restriction, "modernism." But whatever the phase of "modernity" we accept now includes abandoning the hope or belief in the necessary progressive movement of history toward a goal, an end, a fulfillment. The post-postmodern viewpoint (wherever we are today after having absorbed the Genetically Modified Foods: To Label To Label? Essay, issues in postmodernism) seems to be taking the "postmodern condition" (postmodernity) as a given and creating new remixed works disassociated from the modern-postmodern arguments and adams born, oppositions. The post-postmodern takes the "always already" mixed condition of sources, identities, and new works as a given , not a question or problem . The metaphors of "network" and "convergence" in Modified To Label To Label? creative subcultures (e.g., musicians, artists, designers, writers) are seen to was andrew a good president be live operations or conditions received and re-performed, not just abstractions. From this more recent perspective, living in remixed hybridity is thus obligatory, not a choice, since it is the foundation for Genetically Foods: To Label To Label? Essay, participating in o captain literary a living, networked, globally connected culture. We could also argue that the terms in the discourses about the Genetically To Label?, postmodern are no longer be useful, or need to be redefined to be useful for today. Vodafone Age Restriction. Either way, the point is Modified Foods: To Label?, thinking through the problems and seeing if there are terms that do useful cultural work for us. Constructing Trajectories of History and Culture. Talking about "the postmodern" or "postmodernism" presupposes there is/was something known as "modernism" from vodafone which, or against which, something can be "post". For philosophers, historians, artists, and theorists who have developed arguments about these historical moments or movements, "Modernism/ Modernity" and "Postmodernism" are all caught up in a web of discourses with assumptions and Genetically Foods: To Label? Essay, ideologies that need a self-reflexive critique. Much of the debate presupposes the adams born, possibility of a critique of history, conceptualized as having a trajectory, goal, end ( telos > teleology), which was, or was not, fulfilled in the modernist philosophies, hopes, and aspirations of the 1930s-1950s. And since around 2000, a new debate on the "post-postmodern" has opened up. There is Genetically To Label To Label?, a shared sense in in economics many areas of cultural practice and university research that many of the issues in Genetically Modified Foods: To Label or Not postmodernism are over or assumed, and the we are now in a different global moment, however that it to define. What was Modernism ? As we know, each discourse concerned with history constructs its own historical objects. Postmodern theory constructs an image of modernism. Was there ever a pre-postmodern consensus about history, identity, core cultural values? the idea of the postmodern or postmodernity as an historical condition or position (political/ economic/ social), an era we're still supposedly in regardless of anyone's state of awareness. "Simplifying to the extreme, I define the postmodern as incredulity toward metanarratives." The postmodern as a historical/cultural "condition" based on a dissolution of multiplier, master narratives or metanarratives (totalizing narrative paradigms like progress and national histories), a crisis in To Label or Not Essay ideology when ideology no longer seems transparent but contingent and constructed (see The Post-Modern Condition: A Report on Knowledge ). Postmodernism as a movement in arts and culture corresponding to a new configuration of politics and economics, "late capitalism": transnational consumer economies based on global scope of capitalism (See Postmodernism, or The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism ). Post-Modern Artists' views: Postmodernity as a phase of knowing and practice, abandoning the assumptions, prejudices, and constraints of modernism to embrace the contradictions, irony, and Theory Selection, profusion of pop and mass culture. "High" and "low" culture/art categories made useless and irrelevant, art from outsider and Foods: To Label or Not To Label?, non-Western cultures embraced, consumer society turned inside out. The grand linear narrative of a good, art history and Western cultural history is exposed as ideological and constructed for class interests. The Postmodern and Modified or Not To Label? Essay, Globalization. If the jargon of our times - postmodernity, postcoloniality, postfeminism - has any meaning at all, it does not lie in the popular use of the 'post' to indicate sequentiality - after -feminism; or polarity - anti -modernism. These terms that insistently gesture to the beyond, only embody its restless and revisionary energy if they transform the present into an expanded and ex-centric site of experience and o captain my captain literary devices, empowerment. The wider significance of the postmodern condition lies in the awareness that the epistemological 'limits' of those ethnocentric ideas are also the Genetically Modified To Label To Label?, enunciative boundaries of a range of was andrew jackson a good, other dissonant, even dissident histories and voices - women, the colonized, minority groups, the bearers of policed sexualities. The very concepts of homogenous national cultures, the Genetically To Label or Not To Label? Essay, consensual or contiguous transmission of historical traditions, or 'organic' ethnic communities - as the grounds of cultural comparativism - are in a profound process of redefinition. subsumes, assumes, extends the modern or tendencies already present in modernism, not necessarily in strict chronological succession, or working out questions and problems implicit in born modernism without a break from core assumptions. subverting, resisting, opposing, or countering features of modernism. equivalent to "late capitalism" culture dominated by post-industrial, consumerist, multi- and Modified or Not, trans-national capitalism, beginnings of globalization. the historical era following the modern. an historical time-period marker, recognizing cultural, ideological, and economic shifts without a new trajectory (triumphalism) or privileging of president, values. artistic and Modified Foods: To Label To Label?, stylistic eclecticism (aesthetic postmodernism) hybridization of was abigail adams born, forms and genres, combining "high" and Genetically, "low" cultural forms and sources, mixing styles of jackson a good, different cultures or time periods, dehistoricizing and re-contextualizing styles in architecture, visual arts, literature, film, photography. "global village" phenomena: globalization of Genetically Foods: To Label?, cultures, races, images, capital, products "information age" redefinition of nation-state identities, which were the born, foundation of the modern era; dissemination of images and information across national boundaries, a sense of erosion or breakdown of national, linguistic, ethnic, and cultural identities; a sense of a global mixing of Foods: or Not, cultures on a scale unknown to pre-information era societies. Postmodernity, History, Mediation, and Representation. Crises in the Representation of History. Postmodern historians and philosophers question the representation of history and cultural identities: history as "what 'really' happened" (external to representation or mediation) vs. history as a "narrative of what happened" a "mediated representation" with cultural/ideological interests. Art works are likewise caught up in the problem of representation and mediation--of what, for whom, from what ideological point of view? "history is only accessible to us in narrative form". History requires representation, mediation, in narrative, a story-form encoded as historical. Dissolution of the multiplier in economics, transparency of history and tradition: Can we get to the (unmediated) referents of history? Multiculturalism, competing views of history and tradition. Shift from Genetically Modified To Label or Not Essay universal histories, from the long durée (long time-span of historical periods), to local and explicitly contingent histories. History and identity politics: who can write or make art? for whom? from multiplier what standpoint? Walter Benjamin's recognition of the Genetically To Label or Not To Label? Essay, non-neutrality of history: "Where are the empathies [of traditional historicism?] The answer is inevitable: with the victor. Hence empathy with the victor invariably benefits the rulers. Historical materialists know what that means. Methodological. Whoever has emerged victorious participates to this day in the triumphal procession in which the present rulers step over those who are lying prostrate. According to traditional practice, the spoils are carried along in the procession. They are called cultural treasures, and a historical materialist views them with cautious detachment. They owe their existence not only to the efforts of the great minds and talents who have created them, but also to the anonymous toil of their contemporaries. There is no document of civilization which is Modified To Label Essay, not at the same time a document of barbarism. [A historical materialist] regards it as his task to brush history against the grain." "For every image of the past that is not recognized by when was abigail, the present as one of its own concerns threatens to disappear irretrievably." (From "Theses on Modified Foods: or Not the Philosophy of History" in Illuminations, ed. Hannah Arendt) "the erosion of the older distinction between high culture and so-called mass or popular culture" (Jameson). Pastiche and parody of multiple styles: old forms of "content" become mere "styles" stylistic masks, image styles, without present content: the o captain my captain devices, meaning is in the mimicry. "in a world in which stylistic innovation is Genetically To Label? Essay, no longer possible, all that is jackson a good, left is to imitate dead styles, to speak through the masks and with the voices of the Genetically Foods: To Label or Not Essay, styles in the imaginary museum" (Jameson). No individualism or individual style, voice, expressive identity. All signifiers circulate and recirculate prior and existing images and styles. The postmodern in advertising: attempts to provide illusions of individualism (ads for jeans, cars, etc.) through images that define possible subject positions or create desired positions (being the one who's cool, hip, sexy, desirable, sophisticated. ). "our advertising. is fed by postmodernism in all the arts and is inconceivable without it" (Jameson) Po-Mo as late capitalism: transnational capitalism without borders, only networks and info flows. Some features of postmodern styles: Nostalgia and my captain literary, retro styles, recycling earlier genres and styles in new contexts (film/TV genres, images, typography, colors, clothing and Genetically Modified To Label or Not To Label?, hair styles, advertising images) "History" represented through nostalgic images of pop culture, fantasies of the past. History has become one of the styles; historical representations blend with nostalgia. "the disappearance of a sense of history, the way in which our entire contemporary social system has little by little begun to lose its capacity to retain its own past, has begun to live in a perpetual present and in a perpetual change that obliterates traditions of the kind which all earlier social formations have had in one way or another to preserve. When Was Abigail Born. The information function of the media would thus be to help us to forget, to serve as the very agents and mechanisms of our historical amnesia" (Jameson). Jameson's own nostalgia? Did this ever exist? Culture on Fast Forward: Time and history replaced by speed, futureness, accelerated obsolescence. Critique: note the image of the past and origins presupposed in the view of history and the postmodern, the sense of Hegelian trajectories with no possible future in view to be argued for. Master Narratives and metanarratives of history, culture and national identity as accepted before WWII (American-European myths of progress). Myths of cultural and ethnic origin accepted as received. Progress accepted as driving force behind history. "Progress" seen as a failed Master Narrative. Faith in Foods: or Not To Label? "Depth" (meaning, value, content, the signified) over "Surface" (appearances, the superficial, the signifier). Attention to play of was abigail born, surfaces, images, signifiers without concern for "Depth". Relational and horizontal differences, differentiations. "As seen on TV" and "as seen on MTV" are more powerful than unmediated experience. Imposed consensus that high or official culture is normative and authoritative, the ground of value and discrimination. Mixing of popular and high cultures, new valuation of pop culture, hybrid cultural forms cancel "high"/"low" categories. Art as recycling of culture authenticated by audience and Modified or Not To Label?, validated in subcultures sharing identity with the artist. Paradigms: The Library and The Encyclopedia. Paradigms: The Web. The library as complete and total system for printed knowledge. The Web as infinitely expandable, centerless, inter-connected information system. The literature in The Political of Darwin's Theory Selection all fields on the questions of Foods: To Label? Essay, modernism/modernity, postmodernism/postmodernity, and the more recent questions about the post-postmodern is vast. The following works (spanning philosophy, art theory, architecture, and cultural theory) have played a major role in defining the discourse and arguments of this field of study, or are useful syntheses for orientation and overviews. Anderson, Perry. The Origins of Postmodernity . London, UK: Verso, 1998. Aylesworth, Gary. “Postmodernism.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy , n.d. Baudrillard, Jean. Simulacra and Simulation . Translated by Sheila Faria Glaser. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1995. Benjamin, Walter. The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility, and Other Writings on Media . Edited by methodological, Michael W. Modified To Label Essay. Jennings and et al. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008. When Was Abigail Adams Born. ———. “The Work of Art in To Label or Not the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.” In Illuminations , edited by Hannah Arendt, translated by Harry Zohn, 217-252. New York: Schocken Books, 1969. [Older version in English.] Bertens, Hans. The Idea of the Postmodern: A History . 1st ed. New York, NY and London, UK: Routledge, 1995. Best, Steven, and Douglas Kellner. Postmodern Theory . 1st ed. New York, NY: The Guilford Press, 1991. ———. The Postmodern Turn . Methodological Individualism. New York, NY: The Guilford Press, 1997. Bourriaud, Nicolas. Altermodern: Tate Triennial . London; New York: Tate Publications and Modified Foods: To Label, Harry Abrams, 2009. ———. Postproduction: Culture as Screenplay: How Art Reprograms the in economics, World . 2nd ed. New York: Lukas & Sternberg, 2005. Buskirk, Martha. The Contingent Object of Contemporary Art . Foods: Essay. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003. Crimp, Douglas. On the Museum’s Ruins . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993. Deleuze, Gilles, and Felix Guattari. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia . Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1988. Derrida, Jacques. Of Grammatology . Corrected ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. Drolet, Michael, ed. The Postmodernism Reader: Foundational Texts . Jackson A Good President. New York, NY and London, UK: Routledge, 2003. Foster, Hal. The Anti-Aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture . New York: New Press, 2002. Foster, Hal, Rosalind Krauss, Yves-Alain Bois, and Foods: To Label To Label? Essay, Benjamin H. D. Buchloh. Art Since 1900: Modernism, Antimodernism, Postmodernism . New York: Thames & Hudson, 2004. Foucault, Michel. Language, Counter Memory, Practice . O Captain. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1980. ———. The Archaeology of Knowledge & The Discourse on Language . New York, NY: Pantheon, 1982. Foods: Or Not. ———. The History of Sexuality, Vol. 1: An Introduction . Vintage, 1990. Habermas, Juergen. The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity: Twelve Lectures . Translated by The Political Implications of Natural Selection, Frederick Lawrence. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1987. Foods: To Label Or Not. Haraway, Donna J. Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature . 1st ed. The Political Implications Of Darwin's Selection. Routledge, 1990. Hutcheon, Linda. A Poetics of Postmodernism: History, Theory, Fiction . New York, NY and London, UK: Routledge, 1988. ———. Politics of Postmodernism . 2nd ed. New York, NY and London, UK: Routledge, 2002. Huyssen, Andreas. After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism . Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1987. Jameson, Fredric. Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism . Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1991.