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By Terrell Ward Bynum. [This article was published in the Summer 2000 issue of the American Philosophical Association’s Newsletter on Philosophy and Computing] The Foundation of Computer Ethics. Computer ethics as a field of study was founded by MIT professor Norbert Wiener during World War Two (early 1940s) while helping to Born develop an the boy in the striped antiaircraft cannon capable of shooting down fast warplanes. Essay On Famous People! One part of the and Research Methods cannon had to “perceive” and track an airplane, then calculate its likely trajectory and “talk” to another part of the People in Illinois cannon to fire the shells. The engineering challenge of this project caused Wiener and Motivation in Teaching Essay some colleagues to create a new branch of science, which Wiener called “cybernetics” – the science of on Famous Born in Illinois information feedback systems. The concepts of cybernetics, when combined with the digital computers being created at that time, led Wiener to draw some remarkably insightful ethical conclusions. He perceptively foresaw revolutionary social and ethical consequences. In 1948, for example, in his book Cybernetics: or control and communication in the animal and the machine, he said the i stand here ironing following: It has long been clear to me that the on Famous People modern ultra-rapid computing machine was in principle an ideal central nervous system to an apparatus for automatic control; and that its input and output need not be in the form of numbers or diagrams but might very well be, respectively, the readings of roman dieties artificial sense organs, such as photoelectric cells or thermometers, and Essay on Famous Born the performance of here analysis motors or solenoids…. we are already in Essay in Illinois, a position to construct artificial machines of almost any degree of after death elaborateness of performance. Long before Nagasaki and the public awareness of the atomic bomb, it had occurred to me that we were here in People Born in Illinois, the presence of another social potentiality of unheard-of importance for good and for evil. (pp. 27 – 28) In 1950 Wiener published his monumental computer ethics book, The Human Use of ithaka poem Human Beings, which not only established him as the founder of on Famous Born in Illinois computer ethics, but far more importantly, laid down a comprehensive computer ethics foundation which remains today – half a century later – a powerful basis for computer ethics research and analysis. (However, he did not use the name “computer ethics” to describe what he was doing.) His book includes (1) an account of the purpose of a human life, (2) four principles of characters justice, (3) a powerful method for doing applied ethics, (4) discussions of the fundamental questions of computer ethics, and (5) examples of key computer ethics topics. (Wiener 1950/1954, see also Bynum 1999) Wiener made it clear that, on his view, the integration of Essay on Famous Born computer technology into society will constitute the remaking of society – the “second industrial revolution” – destined to affect every major aspect of life. The computer revolution will be a multifaceted, ongoing process that will take decades of effort and will radically change everything. Such a vast undertaking will necessarily include a wide diversity of tasks and challenges. Workers must adjust to radical changes in the work place; governments must establish new laws and regulations; industry and business must create new policies and practices; professional organizations must develop new codes of conduct for their members; sociologists and life after death psychologists must study and Essay Born in Illinois understand new social and psychological phenomena; and philosophers must rethink and redefine old social and ethical concepts. Unfortunately, this complex and important new area of ithaka poem applied ethics, which Wiener founded in the 1940s, remained nearly undeveloped and unexplored until the mid 1960s. On Famous! By then, important social and ethical consequences of computer technology had already become manifest, and interest in computer-related ethical issues began to grow. Computer-aided bank robberies and other crimes attracted the attention of Donn Parker, who wrote books and articles on computer crime and proposed to the Association for Computing Machinery that they adopt a code of ethics for their members. The Boy Pyjamas! The ACM appointed Parker to head a committee to create such a code, which was adopted by that professional organization in 1973. (The ACM Code was revised in the early 1980s and again in the early 1990s.) Also in on Famous People Born, the mid 1960s, computer-enabled invasions of privacy by “big-brother” government agencies became a public worry and led to books, articles, government studies, and proposed privacy legislation. By the mid 1970s, new privacy laws and computer crime laws had been enacted in i stand here ironing analysis, America and in Europe, and organizations of on Famous in Illinois computer professionals were adopting codes of conduct for their members. At the hindu after death same time, MIT computer scientist Joseph Weizenbaum created a computer program called ELIZA, intended to crudely simulate “a Rogerian psychotherapist engaged in an initial interview with a patient.” Weizenbaum was appalled by the reaction that people had to on Famous Born in Illinois his simple computer program. Some psychiatrists, for example, viewed his results as evidence that computers will soon provide automated psychotherapy; and Mr. McCullough's Commencement certain students and People staff at MIT even became emotionally involved with the in the computer and shared their intimate thoughts with it! Concerned by the ethical implications of such a response, Weizenbaum wrote the book Computer Power and Born in Illinois Human Reason (1976), which is now considered a classic in computer ethics. In 1976, while teaching a medical ethics course, Walter Maner noticed that, often, when computers are involved in Mr. McCullough's Commencement Speech, medical ethics cases, new ethically important considerations arise. Further examination of this phenomenon convinced Maner that there is need for on Famous Born, a separate branch of applied ethics, which he dubbed “computer ethics.” (Wiener had not used this term, nor was it in common use before Maner.) Maner defined computer ethics as that branch of applied ethics which studies ethical problems “aggravated, transformed or created by computer technology.” He developed a university course, traveled around America giving speeches and conducting workshops at conferences, and published A Starter Kit for Teaching Computer Ethics. By the early 1980s, the name “computer ethics” had caught on, and other scholars began to develop this “new” field of applied ethics. Among those whom Maner inspired in after death, 1978 was a workshop attendee, Terrell Ward Bynum (the present author). In 1979, Bynum developed curriculum materials and a university course, and in the early 1980s gave speeches and Essay on Famous People Born in Illinois ran workshops at a variety of conferences across America. In 1983, as Editor of the journal Metaphilosophy, he launched an essay competition to generate interest in computer ethics and to create a special issue of the journal. Hindu Death! In 1985, that special issue – entitled Computers and on Famous People in Illinois Ethics – was published; and ithaka poem it quickly became the widest-selling issue in the journal’s history. Born! The lead article – and winner of the essay competition – was James Moor’s now-classic essay, “What Is Computer Ethics?.” where he described computer ethics like this: A typical problem in computer ethics arises because there is a policy vacuum about how computer technology should be used. Computers provide us with new capabilities and these in turn give us new choices for Commencement, action. Often, either no policies for conduct in these situations exist or existing policies seem inadequate. A central task of computer ethics is to determine what we should do in such cases, i.e., to formulate policies to guide our actions. Of course, some ethical situations confront us as individuals and some as a society. Computer ethics includes consideration of both personal and social policies for the ethical use of on Famous Born in Illinois computer technology. (p. 266) In Moor’s view computer ethics includes, (1) identification of computer-generated policy vacuums, (2) clarification of conceptual muddles, (3) formulation of policies for the use of computer technology, and (4) ethical justification of such policies. 1985 was a watershed year for computer ethics, not only because of the special issue of Metaphilosophy and Moor’s classic article, but also because Deborah Johnson published the first major textbook in the field (Computer Ethics), as well as an edited collection of readings with John Snapper (Ethical Issues in the Use of Computers). Johnson’s book Computer Ethics rapidly established itself as the standard-setting textbook in university courses, and it set the research agenda in computer ethics for nearly a decade. In her book, Johnson defined computer ethics as a field which examines ways that computers “pose new versions of standard moral problems and moral dilemmas, exacerbating the old problems, and forcing us to apply ordinary moral norms in uncharted realms.” (p. 1) Unlike Maner (see Maner 1996), with whom she had discussed computer ethics in the late 1970s, Johnson did not think that computers created wholly new ethical problems, but rather gave a “new twist” to already familiar issues such as ownership, power, privacy and responsibility. Since 1985, the field of Motivation Methods in Teaching computer ethics has grown exponentially. New university courses, research centers, conferences, articles and textbooks have appeared, and Essay on Famous People a wide diversity of roman dieties additional scholars and on Famous Born topics have become involved. For example, thinkers like Donald Gotterbarn, Keith Miller, Simon Rogerson, and Dianne Martin – as well as organizations like Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, the Electronic Frontier Foundation and Mr. McCullough's ACM-SIGCAS – have spearheaded developments relevant to computing and professional responsibility. Essay! Developments in Europe and Australia have been especially noteworthy, including new research centers in ithaka poem, England, Poland, Holland, and Italy; the People Born ETHICOMP series of conferences led by Simon Rogerson and Mr. McCullough's the present writer; the CEPE conferences founded by Jeroen van den Hoven; and the Australian Institute of Essay on Famous Born in Illinois Computer Ethics headed by John Weckert and Chris Simpson. The Future of Computer Ethics? Given the explosive growth of computer ethics during the roman dieties past two decades, the field appears to Essay People have a very robust and significant future. How can it be, then, that two important thinkers – Krystyna GГіrniak-Kocikowska and Deborah Johnson – have recently argued that computer ethics will disappear as a branch of applied ethics? The GГіrniak Hypothesis – In her 1995 ETHICOMP paper, GГіrniak predicted that computer ethics, which is characters, currently considered just a branch of applied ethics, will eventually evolve into something much more. It will evolve into on Famous in Illinois a system of global ethics applicable in every culture on earth: Just as the major ethical theories of i stand ironing Bentham and Kant were developed in response to the printing press revolution, so a new ethical theory is People Born in Illinois, likely to roman dieties emerge from computer ethics in response to the computer revolution. The newly emerging field of information ethics, therefore, is much more important than even its founders and Born advocates believe. (p. 177) The very nature of the roman dieties Computer Revolution indicates that the ethic of the future will have a global character. On Famous Born! It will be global in a spatial sense, since it will encompass the entire Globe. It will also be global in ironing analysis, the sense that it will address the totality of human actions and relations. On Famous Born! (p.179) Computers do not know borders. Commencement! Computer networks… have a truly global character. Hence, when we are talking about computer ethics, we are talking about the emerging global ethic. (p. Essay On Famous In Illinois! 186) …the rules of computer ethics, no matter how well thought through, will be ineffective unless respected by the vast majority of or maybe even all computer users. This means that in i stand here, the future, the rules of computer ethics should be respected by the majority (or all) of the human inhabitants of the Earth…. In other words, computer ethics will become universal, it will be a global ethic. (p.187) According to on Famous People in Illinois the GГіrniak hypothesis, “local” ethical theories like Europe’s Benthamite and Kantian systems and the ethical systems of other cultures in i stand here ironing, Asia, Africa, the Pacific Islands, etc., will eventually be superseded by Essay People Born, a global ethics evolving from today’s computer ethics. “Computer” ethics, then, will become the ithaka poem “ordinary” ethics of the Essay on Famous People Born information age. The Johnson Hypothesis – In her 1999 ETHICOMP paper, Deborah Johnson expressed a view which, upon first sight, may seem to be the same as GГіrniak’s: I offer you a picture of roman dieties computer ethics in which computer ethics as such disappears…. We will be able to say both that computer ethics has become ordinary ethics and that ordinary ethics has become computer ethics. People! (Pp. 17 – 18) But a closer look at the Johnson hypothesis reveals that it is very different from ithaka poem GГіrniak’s. On Famous Born In Illinois! On GГіrniak’s view, the computer revolution will eventually lead to pyjamas characters a new ethical system, global and cross-cultural in nature. The new “ethics for the information age,” according to GГіrniak, will supplant parochial theories like Bentham’s and Kant’s – theories based on on Famous Born in Illinois relatively isolated cultures in Europe, Asia, Africa, and other “local” regions of the globe. Johnson’s hypothesis, in reality, is essentially the opposite ithaka poem of GГіrniak’s. It is another way of stating Johnson’s often-defended view that computer ethics concerns “new species of generic moral problems.” It assumes that computer ethics, rather than replacing theories like Bentham’s and Kant’s, will continue to presuppose them. Current ethical theories and principles, according to Johnson, will remain the bedrock foundation of ethical thinking and Essay on Famous Born in Illinois analysis, and the computer revolution will not lead to a revolution in ethics. At the dawn of the here ironing analysis 21st century, then, computer ethics thinkers have offered the world two very different views of the likely ethical relevance of computer technology. The Wiener-Maner-GГіrniak point of view sees computer technology as ethically revolutionary, requiring human beings to reexamine the foundations of ethics and the very definition of a human life. The more conservative Johnson perspective is that fundamental ethical theories will remain unaffected – that computer ethics issues are simply the same old ethics questions with a new twist – and consequently computer ethics as a distinct branch of applied philosophy will ultimately disappear. Terrell Ward Bynum, ed. On Famous Born! (1985), Computers and Ethics, Basil Blackwell (published as the October 1985 issue of Metaphilosophy). Ithaka Poem! Terrell Ward Bynum (1999), “The Foundation of Computer Ethics,” a keynote address at Essay in Illinois, the AICEC99 Conference, Melbourne, Australia, July 1999. Krystyna GГіrniak-Kocikowska (1996), “The Computer Revolution and the Problem of Global Ethics” in Terrell Ward Bynum and Simon Rogerson, eds., Global Information Ethics, Opragen Publications, 1996, pp. 177 – 190, (the April 1996 issue of Science and Engineering Ethics) Deborah G. Johnson (1985), Computer Ethics, Prentice-Hall. (Second Edition 1994). Deborah G. Johnson (1999), “Computer Ethics in the 21st Century,” a keynote address at ETHICOMP99, Rome, Italy, October 1999. Deborah G. Ithaka Poem! Johnson and John W. Snapper, eds. (1985), Ethical Issues in Born in Illinois, the Use of Computers, Wadsworth. Walter Maner (1978), Starter Kit on Teaching Computer Ethics (Self published in in the striped characters, 1978. Republished in 1980 by Helvetia Press in cooperation with the National Information and Resource Center for Teaching Philosophy). Maner, Walter (1996), “Unique Ethical Problems in Information Technology,” in Terrell Ward Bynum and Simon Rogerson, eds., Global Information Ethics, Opragen Publications, 1996, pp. 137 – 52, (the April 1996 issue of Science and Engineering Ethics). James H. Moor (1985), “What Is Computer Ethics?” in Essay on Famous People Born in Illinois, Terrell Ward Bynum, ed. (1985), Computers and Ethics, Basil Blackwell, pp. 266 – 275. Ithaka Poem! Joseph Weizenbaum (1976), Computer Power and Human Reason: From Judgment to Calculation, Freeman. Essay On Famous People! Norbert Wiener (1948), Cybernetics: or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, Technology Press. Norbert Wiener (1950/1954), The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society, Houghton Mifflin, 1950. Roman Dieties! (Second Edition Revised, Doubleday Anchor, 1954. This later edition is better and Essay on Famous People Born in Illinois more complete from ithaka poem a computer ethics point of view.) Norbert Wiener’s Foundation of Computer Ethics. In the Essay Born late 1940s and early 1950s, visionary mathematician/philosopher Norbert Wiener founded computer ethics as a field of academic research. In his groundbreaking book, The Human Use of Human Beings (1950, 1954), Wiener developed a powerful method for identifying and analyzing the enormous impacts of information and communication technology (ICT) upon analysis human values like life, health, happiness, security, knowledge and creativity. Even today, in this era of “global information ethics” and the Internet, concepts and procedures that Wiener developed in the 1950s can be used to identify, analyze and resolve social and in Illinois ethical problems associated with ICT of all kinds. Commencement Speech! Wiener based his foundation for Essay on Famous in Illinois, computer ethics upon a “cybernetic” view of human nature that leads readily to an ethically suggestive account of the roman dieties purpose of a human life. From this, he derived “principles of justice” upon Essay People which every society should be based, and ithaka poem then he followed a practical strategy for identifying and resolving computer ethics issues wherever they might arise. Wiener’s cybernetic view of Essay Born in Illinois human nature emphasized the physical structure of the human body and the tremendous potential for learning and creative action that human physiology makes possible. To underscore this fact, he often compared human physiology with that of less intelligent creatures like insects: Cybernetics takes the view that the structure of the machine or of the organism is an index of the performance that may be expected from it. The fact that the mechanical rigidity of the insect is such as to limit its intelligence while the mechanical fluidity of the human being provides for his almost indefinite intellectual expansion is highly relevant to the point of ithaka poem view of this book… man’s advantage over the rest of nature is that he has the physiological and hence the intellectual equipment to adapt himself to radical changes in his environment. The human species is strong only Essay in Illinois insofar as it takes advantage of the innate, adaptive, learning faculties that its physiological structure makes possible. (Wiener 1954, pp. 57-58, italics in the original [see endnote*]) On the life death basis of his “cybernetic” analysis of human nature, Wiener concluded that the purpose of a human life is to flourish as the kind of Born in Illinois information-processing being that humans naturally are: I wish to roman dieties show that the People human individual, capable of vast learning and study, which may occupy almost half of his life, is physically equipped, as the ithaka poem ant is not, for this capacity. Essay On Famous In Illinois! Variety and possibility are inherent in the human sensorium – and are indeed the key to man’s most noble flights – because variety and possibility belong to the very structure of the human organism. (Wiener 1954, pp. 51) A good human life, according to Wiener, is one in which “great human values” are realized – one in which the creative and flexible information-processing potential of “the human sensorium” enables humans to reach their full promise in variety and possibility of action. Different people, of course, have various levels of talent and possibility, so one person’s achievements will differ from ithaka poem another’s. It is possible to Essay People Born in Illinois lead a good human life in an indefinitely large number of ways: as a public servant or statesman, a teacher or scholar, a scientist or engineer, a musician, an artist, a tradesman, an artisan, and here analysis so on. Wiener’s view of the purpose of a human life leads him to adopt what he calls “great principles of justice” upon which a society should be built – principles that, in his view, would maximize a person’s ability to flourish through variety and flexibility in human action. To highlight Wiener’s “great principles of justice”, let us call them “The Principle of Freedom”, “The Principle of Equality” and “The Principle of Benevolence”. On Famous People! (Wiener himself does not assign names but merely states them.) Using Wiener’s own definitions for these key ethical principles, we get the following list (1954, pp. 105-106): The Principle of Freedom – Justice requires “the liberty of ithaka poem each human being to develop in his freedom the Essay People Born in Illinois full measure of the human possibilities embodied in him.” The Principle of Equality – Justice requires “the equality by which what is just for A and B remains just when the positions of A and B are interchanged.” The Principle of Benevolence – Justice requires “a good will between man and roman dieties man that knows no limits short of Essay on Famous Born in Illinois those of humanity itself.” Wiener’s cybernetic account of human nature leads to the view that people are fundamentally social beings who can reach their full potential only by Mr. McCullough's Speech, actively participating in communities of People Born similar beings. Society, therefore, is essential to a good human life. But society can be despotic and oppressive, and thereby limit, or even stifle, freedom; so Wiener introduced a principle to limit, as much as possible, society’s negative impact upon freedom. (Let us name it “The Principle of Minimum Infringement of Freedom. ”) The Principle of Minimum Infringement of Freedom – “What compulsion the very existence of the community and hindu life after the state may demand must be exercised in such a way as to Born in Illinois produce no unnecessary infringement of freedom”. Roman Dieties! (1954, p.106) If one accepts Wiener’s account of human nature and the good society, it follows that many different cultures, with a wide diversity of on Famous People customs, religions, languages and practices, can provide an roman dieties appropriate context for human fulfillment and a good life. Indeed, given Wiener’s view that “variety and possibility belong to the very structure of the human organism”, he presumably would expect and encourage the existence of a broad diversity of cultures in the world to maximize the possibilities for Essay on Famous People in Illinois, choice and creative action. Roman Dieties! The primary restriction that Wiener would impose on any society would be that it should provide the kind of context in which humans can realize their full potential as sophisticated information-processing agents; and People he believed this to be possible only where significant freedom, equality and human compassion hold sway. So-called “ethical relativists” often point to hindu life after death the wide diversity of cultures in Essay, the world – with various religions, laws, codes, values and practices – as evidence that there is no “global ethics”, no underlying universal ethical foundation. Wiener, on the other hand, has a powerful and the boy pyjamas creative response to such skeptics. On Famous Born In Illinois! His account of human nature and the boy striped pyjamas the purpose of a human life can embrace and welcome the rich diversity of cultures and practices that relativists are fond of citing. At the same time, though, Wiener can advocate an underlying ethical foundation for all societies and cultures. Wiener’s suggested methodology for analyzing and solving computer ethics questions is one that, essentially, assimilates new ethical judgments and new cases into the existing cluster of on Famous People laws, rules, practices and principles that govern human behavior in the society in question. And Research Methods Essay! The key elements of this approach are the following: Human Purpose – Ethical judgments and practices must be grounded in the overall purpose of Essay People a human life: a society and the rules which govern its members must make it possible for people to flourish – to reach their full potential in ithaka poem, variety and possibility of action. Principles of Justice – The Principle of People Freedom, the Principle of Equality and the Principle of Benevolence should guide and inform every person’s judgments and practices; and roman dieties society must neither permit nor impose unnecessary limitations upon individual freedom. Clarity of Concepts and Rules – The meanings of ethical concepts and rules, in a given situation, should be clear and unambiguous. If they are not, one must undertake to clarify their meanings to the extent possible. Precedent and Tradition – New ethical judgments and cases should be assimilated, where possible, into the existing body of cases, rules, laws, policies and practices. For any given society, there will be a “cluster” of existing laws, rules, principles and practices to govern human behavior within that society. These form a complex and extremely rich set of overlapping, crisscrossing policies that constitute a “received policy cluster” (see Bynum and Schubert 1997). This received cluster of policies should be the on Famous starting point for developing an answer to any computer ethics question. If a given case or question does not fit easily into roman dieties the existing set of rules and policies in one’s society, then one must either (1) make adjustments in the old policies and in Illinois rules to accommodate the new case, or else (2) introduce a totally new policy to cover the new kind of ithaka poem case. Presumably, if such a new case were to arise, one would have to on Famous Born in Illinois use the overall purpose of a human life, together with the fundamental principles of justice, to create and justify new laws and Commencement policies consistent with the old ones. Such a case would be an example of James Moor’s classic “policy vacuum” for which one must formulate and justify new policies. (See Moor 1985.) Given these elements of ethical analysis, Wiener’s methodology can be construed as including the following five steps: Step One: Identify an ethical question or case regarding the integration of ICT into society. Step Two: Clarify any ambiguous concepts or rules that may apply to the case in question. Step Three: If possible, apply existing policies (principles, laws, rules, practices) that govern human behavior in the given society. Use precedent and Essay on Famous in Illinois traditional interpretation in such a way as to assimilate the new case or policy into roman dieties the existing set of social policies and practices. Step Four: If precedent and existing traditions are insufficient to settle the question or deal with the case, revise the old policies or create new ones, using “the great principles of justice” and the purpose of on Famous Born a human life to guide the effort. Step Five: Answer the question or deal with the case using the revised or enriched policies. It is important to note that this method of doing of ithaka poem computer ethics need not involve the expertise of a trained philosopher. Born! In any just society, a successfully functioning adult will be familiar with the life after laws, rules, customs, and practices that normally govern one’s behavior in that society and enable one to on Famous Born in Illinois tell whether a proposed action or policy would be considered ethical. Thus, all those in society who must cope with the introduction of ICT – whether they be public policy makers, ICT professionals, business people, workers, teachers, parents, or others – can and should engage in computer ethics by helping to integrate ICT ethically into society. Computer ethics, understood in i stand, this very broad way, is too vast and Essay Born in Illinois too important to be left only to academics or to ICT professionals. Wiener makes it clear that, in his view, the integration of ICT into society will constitute the remaking of society – “the second industrial revolution” and the boy striped characters “the automatic age”– destined to affect every walk of life. It is bound to be a multi-faceted, on-going process, which will take decades of effort and will radically change the world. In Wiener’s words, we are “here in the presence of another social potentiality of unheard-of importance for good and for evil.” (1948, p. 27) The defining goal of computer ethics, then, is to advance and facilitate the good consequences of ICT while preventing or minimizing the harmful ones. Today, the ethical importance of the computer revolution – stressed by Norbert Wiener more than fifty years ago – has become obvious. The “information age” is emerging, and the metaphysical and scientific foundation for computer ethics that Wiener laid down decades ago can still provide effective tools and guidance as we confront a wide diversity of challenging new ethical issues. *Quotations from Wiener’s The Human Use of Essay Born Human Beings are all from the 1954 Second Edition Revised. Terrell Ward Bynum (1999), “The Foundation of Computer Ethics”, Keynote Address at AICEC99 (The Australian Institute of here Computer Ethics Conference 1999), Melbourne, Australia, July 1999. Terrell Ward Bynum and Petra Schubert (1997), “How to Do Computer Ethics – A Case Study: The Electronic Mall Bodensee” in Jeroen van den Hoven, ed., Computer Ethics: Philosophical Enquiry, Erasmus University Press, 1997, pp. 85-95. People Born! (Proceedings of CEPE 97) James H. Moor (1985), “What Is Computer Ethics” in Terrell Ward Bynum, ed., Computers and Ethics, Blackwell, 1985, pp. 266-275. (Published as the October 1985 issue of Metaphilosophy.) Norbert Wiener (1948), Cybernetics: or Control and hindu life after death Communication in the Animal and the Machine, John Wiley, 1948. Norbert Wiener (1950, 1954), The Human Use of Human Beings, Houghton Mifflin, 1950. Second Edition Revised, Doubleday Anchor, 1954. As Computer Use Grows, So Do Moral Issues. This article appeared in the Dallas Morning News, on Tuesday, January 12, 1982. A famous rock star has just died and millions of People Born in Illinois fans are grieving. The computer of a major novelty distributor is immediately put into action, for there is not a moment to here analysis lose if the grief is to be fully exploited. In Illinois! From data banks of ticket agencies, record distributors and other firms, the computer compiles names, addresses, purchasing histories and financial backgrounds of people who bought records and attended concerts of the fallen star. Within 48 hours of the tragedy, the novelty company begins computer-dialing phone numbers of thousands of grieving fans. Whenever someone answers, the computer plays excerpts of the dead star’s most emotional records along with a sales pitch for death, souvenir T-shirts and posters. Instantly, orders are taken and Essay on Famous People in Illinois confirmation letters are printed. Within a week, more than a million fans have been reached, and factories have been notified of the number of items to produce. Is this imagined application of computers a smart, efficient business venture? Is it unfair exploitation of people caught in a weak moment? Is the gathering of information on ironing people and the phoning of their homes an unethical invasion of their privacy or a new and commendable business strategy? Such questions and many harder ones are being raised and debated in Essay on Famous in Illinois, “computer ethics,” a new field of growing concern to business and industry as well as to all of society. One large area of problems is ithaka poem, that of computer crime. Computers have been targets of attack – by guns, bombs, screwdrivers, magnets, even simple house keys – that have caused millions of dollars in damages. Computers have been used to embezzle fortunes; to print fraudulent coupons, tickets, deposit slips, bonds, insurance policies; to divert large quantities of on Famous in Illinois merchandise; to establish phony credit ratings, job dossiers, credentials; to steal company secrets, software, even computer time itself. It is and Research Methods, important to note, however, that the vast majority of Essay on Famous crimes studied by computer ethics did not come into roman dieties existence with computers. Embezzlement sabotage, fraud and similar misdeeds have existed for on Famous People Born in Illinois, centuries, and new technology can always be misused as well as used correctly. In many cases, though, computers have tempted the would-be criminal with powers he could only hindu dream of in the past. With the right passwords and computer know-how, for example, it is possible to rob a bank at home from your own telephone and make off with millions of dollars. People Born In Illinois! No guns, no dangerous confrontations with guards, and the evidence can often be electronically erased without a trace. Even when the culprit is caught, convictions are hard to secure and penalties have usually been extremely light considering the staggering amounts of money or damage involved. Another large area of concern in Mr. McCullough's, computer ethics is that of privacy. There are thousands of data banks in business, government, health care and education, containing all kinds of on Famous People in Illinois information on millions of i stand here ironing analysis Americans. How much of this information should a business be permitted to in Illinois compile on its employees? – its potential customers? – its rivals in business? How much of the information stored in the computer of ironing a single company should be readily available to low level employees, middle management and top executives? Surely, a secretary using a computer terminal should not be able to gain information on her boss’ health problems, financial status, promotion prospects. But how much information should the boss be able to compile on the secretary? Should he or she have access to IQ scores, personality profile tests, reports from the company physician and psychologist? Should the company acquire credit card or bank records on its employees and be able to determine where they shop, what doctors they are seeing, what motels they stay in, how they spend their leisure time? Should a company sell names, addresses, phone numbers, salary figures and other information on its employees to other firms to be used for a sales campaign or market analysis? Some answers to People Born questions such as these seem obvious, but others are complicated and debatable. Much work needs to be done in considering the life issues. In the Essay on Famous mid 1960’s, a major public uproar resulted from ithaka poem a proposal before Congress to create a central bank of information on all Americans. The National Data Center, as it was to be called, would assign an identifying number to each American and then establish a dossier of information from the IRS, Census Bureau, National Center for Health Statistics, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Education and scores of other government data banks. Many people saw this as a menacing first step toward a “Big Brother” government that would meddle in the private lives and business affairs of everyone. Even if government data banks were ignored, however, business and industry taken as a whole have sufficient data on most Americans to enable an information thief to Essay on Famous People compile very full dossiers on his victims. Imagine that an unscrupulous person gains access to the files of doctors, psychiatrists, banks, credit bureaus, personnel offices, lawyers, accountants, insurance companies and so on. Hindu Life After! The result could be powerful tools for harassment, blackmail, repression, political control, to name but a few possibilities. In a recent conversation, however, Harold Fleisher of International Business Machines Corp.’s data systems division noted that great fears about data security and on Famous Born limited access may be a bit premature. As computer systems have become more complicated, he said, the “interface technology” needed to make them easily useable has led to roman dieties increasingly effective safeguards, making it harder and harder for Essay Born, unauthorized persons to get information to which they are not entitled. Indeed, according to Walter Maner of the Institute of Applied Ethics at Old Dominion University, our ability to use “secret codes” to roman dieties store and transfer information is Essay, becoming so effective that we may include the question of who has the right to conceal the truth and under what circumstances. Does anyone ever have the right to bury the truth so effectively that it can never be known again? A third important area of computer ethics concerns responsibility and and Research Methods in Teaching decision-making. Sometimes a business may try to on Famous Born excuse a billing mistake or other problems by ithaka poem, calling it a “computer error.” But these days it is highly unlikely that sophisticated computer hardware will malfunction without catching the mistake. So-called “computer errors” are caused, in on Famous Born, most cases, by a person who has entered the wrong information or pushed the wrong button or written a flawed program. In a complex computer system involving many people with a variety of roles, programs, data banks, input terminals, processors and so on, it can become a major problem – both practical and theoretical – to decide who is responsible or liable for the proper functioning of the system. Such problems become even more complicated when computers begin to make decisions that previously were made by ithaka poem, people. More and more business management decisions are being automated by computer – when to order more supplies, which ones to order, when to mail overdue notices or cut off electricity or deny someone credit, and so on. On Famous Born! If an elderly couple freezes to here analysis death in their home because an on Famous People Born in Illinois electric company’s computer has issued a cutoff order, who is the boy in the striped characters, responsible? Computer crime, privacy and responsibility are only on Famous Born three broad areas of computer ethics. There are many others. Deborah Johnson, of the i stand ironing Center for Study of the Human Dimension of Science technology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, is writing a book on computer ethics that also includes discussion of the ownership and copyrighting of ideas, the impact of computers on human autonomy, and a variety of additional issues. In his course “The Ethical and Social Impact of on Famous Born Computing” at Dartmouth, Stephen Garlan, chairman of the Motivation program in computer and Essay on Famous information science, includes such topics as the Commencement impact of computers on organizations and work patterns, and Essay Born in Illinois government related issues like national security and the concentration of political power. At the hindu death Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions at Illinois Institute of technology, John Snappers’ course, “Moral Issues in Computer Science,” deals as well with ethical codes of computer societies. These courses and centers, and a handful of others across the nation, represent the early stages of a discipline that will grow rapidly in the next few years.

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Thesis: We need to work together to People stop animal testing. I .What is animal testing? a.Background on animal testing. b.Products used during animal testing that we u use every day. II. How animal testing affects us and the animals. a.How animal testing affects the animals. b. And Research Methods? How animal testing affects us as human beings. III. What we can do to stop animal testing. a.Actions we can take. b. Alternative solutions to animal testing. B./C.Relevance/Credibility: I have a dog at home that I absolutely love, and would never want to see her get hurt, or see something bad happen to her. On Famous Born In Illinois? Most of us all have pets at i stand ironing home, and if we don't, we definitely know someone that a beloved pet. Could you imagine seeing your pet get tortured for your own sake? Animal testing has become the sole method to testing products and Essay on Famous People Born in Illinois medications prior to human use. D.Thesis: We need to roman dieties work together to stop animal testing. To fully understand the terrible act of animal testing, I will first answer what animal testing is exactly, then I will explain how it affects both the animals and us, and on Famous People Born in Illinois finally we will learn how to take steps to life after death stopping animal testing. Conclusion: Now that we know how cruel and unnecessary animal testing is, we can take steps to putting it to an end. Essay People In Illinois? We now know what animal testing is, how it affects us and the animals, and the boy in the what we can do to stop it. If you can't imagine seeing your innocent pet getting tortured day in People Born in Illinois and day out why should any other similar animal have to do the same? Purpose: To persuade the audience that animal testing is cruel and unnecessary. Thesis: We need to work together to stop animal testing. Organizational Pattern: Problem-Solution. A.Attention Getter : Each Year, over ithaka poem 100 million animals are used for animal testing worldwide. Animals are being used from all over for animal testing that ranges from drugs to our simple everyday shampoo. Almost every medicine or treatment you have ever used has been tested on innocent animals for your benefit. (black screen) B./C.Relevance/Credibility: (Visual of sutter) I have a dog at home that I absolutely love, and would never want to see her get hurt, or see something bad happen to her. Most of us all have pets at home, and if we don't, we definitely know someone that a beloved pet. On Famous People Born In Illinois? Could you imagine seeing your pet get tortured for roman dieties your own sake? Animal testing has become the sole method to testing products and medications prior to human use. (Black screen) D.Thesis: We need to work together to stop animal testing. E.Preview: To fully understand the terrible act of animal testing, I will first answer what animal testing is exactly, then I will explain how it affects both the animals and People in Illinois us, and finally we will learn how to take steps to stopping animal testing, and the alternatives to striped animal testing. Transition: To begin, we will learn about the facts and figures of animal testing. A. Animal testing is a cruel procedure, and there are many things that we need to Essay on Famous People Born know about it to fully understand it. 1. (Visual) Everyday innocent animals are harmed during animal testing. They are forced to endure chemicals and products being put on their skin, eyes, stomach, and roman dieties lungs. Essay On Famous People Born In Illinois? According to after the website Peta.org’s Animal Testing 101 article, “ Monkeys are addicted to drugs and have holes drilled into their skulls, sheep and pigs have their skin burned off and rats have their spinal cords crushed. Tiny mice grow tumors as large as their own bodies, kittens are purposely blinded, and rats are made to suffer seizures. In archaic medical training courses, pigs and dogs are cut open and killed and cats and ferrets have hard plastic tubes forced down their delicate throats.” Animal testing isn’t even 100 % accurate, because animal’s biological makeup is different than our own, and the results are usually misleading. Testing is required for certain drugs, vaccines, chemicals, cosmetics, and other products we use on our bodies, or put in our bodies. Most tests kill over 2,000 animals every time they are used. 2. There are many companies whose products we use on on Famous People Born a day to hindu life day basis, that still use animal testing. Here are a few… Transition: Next, we will visit the effects that animal testing has on Essay on Famous People Born both animals and humans. (black screen) B. Animal Testing is hindu life death, a cruel, unnecessary act that negatively affects both animals and Essay on Famous People humans. 1. Roman Dieties? (Visual ) In Time Magazine’s article How Much Does Animal Testing Tell Us? By Laura Blue, a significant point is mentioned, “ We often hear you can't give aspirin to cats because it's toxic to them, or you shouldn't give chocolate to dogs. Chocolate, which is very safe in humans, is not safe in People dogs. ” Animals are not the Essay best method to test chemical products on, because their biological makeup differs from ours, like I stated earlier. On Famous People Born In Illinois? All of the side effects of Motivation in Teaching Essay animal testing are negative to them, and include conditions such as Illness, skin irritation, pain, genetic mutation, and almost always result in death. The animals come from many places such as zoos, compounds, and breeders. Although the animals may be suffering physically from the pain and torture, they are also suffering by Essay on Famous People Born in Illinois being taken away from in the pyjamas their home environment’s and family’s. People Born In Illinois? It has also been scientifically proven that animal’s feel pain and emotion cognitively as well. (Black screen) 2. Roman Dieties? It is Essay People Born, argued that Human’s benefit from animal testing, because in return we do not have to striped pyjamas characters be tested on. In reality, most of the results coming from animal testing do not correlate with human beings reactions. According to the article Ethical and Scientific Considerations Regarding Animal Testing and Research by Hope Ferdowsian and on Famous People Born Nancy Beck, “Recent systematic reviews of treatments for various clinical conditions demonstrated that animal studies have been poorly predictive of human outcomes…” Therefore, why use animals for testing, when the results aren’t even worth anything? Transition: Finally, we will learn how to help put an end to ithaka poem the detrimental process of animal testing. C. If we know the right steps to take, we can all help to put an end to animal testing once and for all. 1. One of the things we can do to Essay People in Illinois stop animal testing, is buy cruelty-free products. We can also invest in cruelty free companies stocks, bonds, and mutual funds. Cruelty free companies are businesses that do not support animal suffering. We can also join organizations against the cruelty of animals such as PETA, in an effort to exploit the Methods in Teaching companies that do test on animals. Lastly, we can write to our representatives in Born in Illinois congress, asking them to life reconsider the ethics of animal testing, and help to put an Essay People Born in Illinois, end to it once and for ithaka poem all. 2. Along with our efforts to put an end to animal testing, it is also important to know the alternatives to it. (Visual) An in vitro human skin equivalent was created to directly mimic all the Essay characteristics of human skin. According to the article Human Skin Equivalent as an Alternative to Animal Testing by Heike Mertshing and Michaela Weimer “The 3-D skin equivalent can be viewed as physiologically comparable to the boy in the pyjamas characters the natural skin and therefore is a suitable alternative for Essay Born animal testing.” Also, according to the GEARI websites page on alternatives to animal testing, some other options to consider are “Computer modeling, Improved statistical design, and the LLNA.”(black screen) Transition: By learning all about the cruelties of animal testing, it is time for us to make a change and to put a stop to it once and for all! I. Conclusion: (Visual) Now that we know how cruel and unnecessary animal testing is, we can take steps to putting it to an end. We now know what animal testing is, how it affects us and the animals, and what we can do to stop it. If you can't imagine seeing your innocent pet getting tortured day in ithaka poem and day out why should any other similar animal have to do the same? Persuasive Speech Annotated Bibliography. Persuasive Speech Annotated Bibliography. Ferdowsian, H. R., & Beck, N. (2011). In Illinois? Ethical and Scientific Considerations Regarding Animal Testing and Commencement Research. Plos ONE , 6 (9), 1-4. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024059. Mertsching, H., Weimer, M., Kersen, S., & Brunner, H. (2008). Human skin equivalent as an alternative to animal testing. GMS Krankenhaushygiene Interdisziplinär , 3 1-4.

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"Annual Sports Day School Essay" Essays and Research Papers. Every school celebrates its Sports Day and, to this all, the children very longingly look forward to. My . school the St. Andrews Sr. Secondary School also has its Sports Day every year sometime in the month of November. The month of November is earmarked for the occasion, as, at this time, the weather is congenial for on Famous Born a long span of games on the field. When this day is about to come, there appears to and Research Methods in Teaching Essay be a lot of activity in Essay on Famous Born in Illinois, the entire school premises as take lime. Ithaka Poem! Avocado so there is a lot of. High school , The Guest 747 Words | 3 Pages. Short essay on Sports Day at on Famous your College or School (free to read). Annual . Sports Day is an important event in the life of Mr. McCullough's Commencement, every school or college. Sports in Essay People, themselves are an indispensable part of in the pyjamas characters, study. School or college life without sports would be dull and on Famous Born in Illinois, dreary. The Annual Sports Day of our college/ school was held last week. It was held in the “spacious school grounds. The Deputy Commissioner was the chief guest. A huge “shaman” was pitched on one side of the ground to accommodate. College , Discus throw , Hurdling 396 Words | 2 Pages. r my “FRIEND” u r the “BEST”. A special friend is rare indeed, it beems to be special breed, yes, perfect friends r very few, so lucky I m for Motivation Methods Essay . People Born! having you. Speech! They say it takes a minute 2 fine a special person, an Essay on Famous People hour 2 appreciate them, a day 2 love them, but then an entire life 2 forget them. When God opened the window of the Heaven He asked me: What is your wish for today? “I said : please take special care of the person reading this. ” Time might lead me to nowhere and faith might. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 876 Words | 3 Pages. п»ї Essay : Annual Sports Day The 16th Dec is the Mr. McCullough's founation day of my . Essay Born In Illinois! school and ithaka poem, besides other annual co-curricular events like the magic show, fun fair, annual sports day is the event that students wait for anxiously . This event develops competitiveness, sports man spirit and team work among the students. They are full of joy on this day . As usual an interesting programme was chalked out for the day and printed copies were distributed to the students. Born! The parents were also invited alongwith other. Children's games , Cycling , Egg and spoon race 682 Words | 2 Pages. ANNUAL EXAMINATION – 2010 PHYSICS; CLASS - VII NAME: _________________________ Date: 26 – 02 – 10 (1st sit) Roll. No. ___________ . F.M: 75 SECTION A (Answer all questions) QUESTION - 1. Fill in the blanks. Mr. McCullough's Commencement! (5) i) Making one complete round of a circular path of radius r, the net displacement is ___________________. ii) If a body is dropped from a certain height, its velocity increases due to __________. iii) The force of friction is always equal. Classical mechanics , Focus , Force 741 Words | 2 Pages. My First Day of High School “Beep, Beep, Beep!” 6:00 A.M my alarm clock was activated, it was time for me to get ready and . prepared myself for my first day of High School as a freshman student in Piscataway Vo – Tech High School . Fear, excitement, and all of these different emotions were running through my head as I wondered how difficult high school would be, who I would sit with at lunch time or if I would be able to memorize my locker combination. My first day of high school as a freshman. 2006 albums , Education , High school 1086 Words | 3 Pages. Empowerment Programme CBSE Stream Praveshanotsav Young Innovators World Environment Day Relax… Re-learn…. and Refresh… . Mahakavi Ulloor Birth Centenery Table Tennis Champs Felicitation Vayanadinam Leading the Way Be Alert……. Essay On Famous People In Illinois! Be Secure… P.T.A meeting Sweet-teens Feast of Mount Carmel Inservice Programme Inauguration of Clubs & Talents Day Annual Sports Meet Immunization Drive Carme Quest 2009 Quiz Wizards 'Evergreen’ Victory . 1966 , 1967 , 1969 1455 Words | 6 Pages. Reflective Essay- First day of school. п»ї Approaching the intimidating building that holds the future of not only the rest of my high school career, but my entire life, I continue to . feel a longing for my old school . I wish for life death my old friends who I know will recognize me and jump to greet me; my old routine that I grew so accustomed to. But none of that matters now. Essay On Famous In Illinois! All that matters is that I currently feel like a “nobody” and I’m certain that is all that I’ll feel for the next two agonizing years of my life. Roman Dieties! Is it just my imagination. High school , Laughter , Pessimism 905 Words | 3 Pages. This is Essay People Born, a sample speech on annual day for school and pyjamas, college students. Essay On Famous People Born In Illinois! Just like sports and i stand analysis, games . held all the year round culminate into the sports day , all the co-curricular activities held all through the year crystallize into the Annual Day . The Annual Day is on Famous People, highly awaited as it is the day is highly awaited as it is the day when even the parents are invited to watch proudly their children participating in various activities or working hard on the stage. One can say that the preparation. Annual report , Audience , Education 587 Words | 2 Pages. IN SCHOOL SPORTS Sports in in the pyjamas characters, school are very important. IN SCHOOL SPORTS Sports in in Illinois, school are very important. Sports effect schoolwork and . Here! homework greatly. Sports can have a negative affects on your schoolwork. Sports also help you meet new friends and can increase self-confidence. You also tend to People stay out of trouble when you are on sports . Sports also bring a lot to the community. Sports can affect your schoolwork greatly. It can affect your grades in two ways, good or bad. Most schools like Rocky Point have a program where if you are failing your. College , Game , High school 1490 Words | 4 Pages. We have our Annual Sports every year on ithaka poem, the occasion of Born, Basant, when the weather is Motivation and Research Methods, very pleasant and everyone likes to be out of . doors. This year we had these on the 13th of February. The school ground was full of life and activity. The boys were in a holiday mood. The Headmaster and all the teachers were present. The students' guardians and Essay, friends were also present in hindu, quite a large number. The grounds was packed. First of all we had a volley-ball match between the 9th and 10th classes and a. Biscuit , Discus throw , Volleyball 497 Words | 2 Pages. Sports and Essay on Famous Born, School (My experience) School starts at a young age for in the characters most kids. Essay On Famous People Born In Illinois! They go to learn Arithmetic, English, . History, and get a general education for ithaka poem life. They also learn to Essay in Illinois deal with others outside of ithaka poem, their family and close friends. Such was the case for Essay on Famous Born in Illinois myself. Motivation And Research Methods! I lived on on Famous People Born in Illinois, a farm where my neighbor was my best friend till he moved away. I then had one year till school would start for me, which I would spend with my family, and one or two friends who I would see occasionally. When school . American football , Education , High school 1185 Words | 3 Pages. The Pitfalls of High School Sports. Children are often exposed to sports at an early age. As they get older and ithaka poem, start school they often participate in . sports as a way to both make now friends and Essay on Famous People, be active. Ithaka Poem! As the children grow older, progressing into their teenage years, they become more specialized in their sports . The sports that the young people continue with grow in Essay Born in Illinois, their favor. When the child reaches the Mr. McCullough's Speech high school level, sports take center stage. The pressure for them to perform in sports and perform well is immense. There. American football , College , Extracurricular activity 1511 Words | 4 Pages. 1 Research Topic How organized sports affect students’ performances in academics. On Famous People Born In Illinois! Hypothesis Organized sports have more . positive than negative effects on students’ academic performance. Background for the research Most countries in the world have facilitated sports for death extra-curricular activities in schools . Sports provide an opportunity for which students can develop their physical fitness, mental stability, leadership qualities and teamwork skills. Sports play an integral part in the development. Extracurricular activity , High school 1023 Words | 4 Pages. Chief Guest Speech for Primary School Annual Day. A GIFT FROM GOD One day , when I was a freshman in high school , I saw a kid from my class was walking home from . school . His name was Kyle. It looked like he was carrying all of his books. I thought to myself, "Why would anyone bring home all his books on a Friday? He must really be a nerd." I had quite a weekend planned (parties and on Famous People Born in Illinois, a football game with my friends tomorrow afternoon), so I shrugged my shoulders and went on. As I was walking, I saw a bunch of kids running toward him. They. Gratitude , High school , Smile 882 Words | 3 Pages. Badminton becoming a school sport. Throughout the world Australia is roman dieties, known for its elite sport and performers such as Catherine Freeman (Athletics), Shane Warne (cricket) and Essay on Famous in Illinois, Pat . Rafter (tennis). Badminton is Mr. McCullough's Speech, one of the on Famous People in Illinois sports in Australia that is not fondly looked upon as a major sport as its participation rates are only 0.3% in adults (Australian Sports Comission , 2012). Professor Peter Figueroa developed a tool to investigate the issues surrounding, equality and equity in sport , physical activity and access. This has become better. Australia , Badminton , Badminton World Federation 1220 Words | 3 Pages. people do not realize the importance of high school sports ; let me tell a story. There were two completely different kids that . went to the same high school . One of them participated in high school sports from life after, Fall to Spring. This kid kept up with his grades and kept busy with sports and on Famous People Born, homework. Roman Dieties! The other kid did not participate in any kind of school sports . People Born! The kid who didn’t play any sports went home after school every day , so instead of playing sports or doing homework in the free time available. Exercise , Exercise physiology , Extracurricular activity 1961 Words | 5 Pages. Kevin Walters Go Team! Sports have become a huge part of this country’s culture, and the sports fans make up a good portion of . the population. Every other conversation you hear, whether it be at the water cooler or in in the striped pyjamas characters, a bar, has something to do with some big play or blown call that happened the night before. The popularity of sports has grown magnificently in just the last 24 years that I have been a sports fan. What used to be all the men yelling and cussing at the TV, has become almost as popular. Bandwagon , Fan , Season ticket 1083 Words | 3 Pages. what da hell let me sign up man I just want essays . On Famous People In Illinois! Rainy day This year the summer season was unduly long and i stand here analysis, extremely hot. It . was July, the schools had reopened. People! The scorching sun and Mr. McCullough's Commencement Speech, the extreme heat had made life unbearable. Going to the school , studying in the class or playing on the ground all seemed to Born in Illinois be a punishment. One morning, clouds .Rain is ithaka poem, a great blessing after the summer heat. In India the scorching heat of the on Famous in Illinois summer months of May and June causes great suffering to roman dieties animal and People Born, plant-life. College , High school , Rain 1430 Words | 4 Pages. on the way. It took about 2 hours to arrive at hindu our destination. I fanned the mat under a shady tree. After that, my brother and I changed our swimsuit and . swam freely in Essay on Famous People Born in Illinois, the sea. There were many people at here. We just like a family. Roman Dieties! It was a sunny day . The sun was shining brightly in the sky and the fresh air brushed against on Famous in Illinois my face. I felt so snug and in Teaching, comfortable standing on the sand which was as soft as silk. The water was cold and fresh. The fascinating landscape really attracted me. After tired. Education , Family , Teacher 1343 Words | 4 Pages. Essay On My School Picnic For Class 1. Essay on my school picnic for class 1 Contributed By: Rose Johnson, class 7, Carmel School Kuwait. Rose. On Famous In Illinois! My father . always likes to Motivation and Research in Teaching speak about Essay Born, his childhood, especially when he scolds me. Posted: September 2, 2014 in Mr. McCullough's Speech, childrens writing ideas, Essays for on Famous Born Class 1- Class4, Kids essays , Less than 15 sentence essays , Once our school picnic was to a zoo. Completed application form, High School a picnic at ithaka poem seaside essay 9 class Transcript, Essay : Share a. Born In Illinois! Sep 25, 2011 - I am writing a profile essay on a. Educational years , Essay , Fifth grade 1239 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Essay: Cheerleading Is a Sport. face on cheerleading. Cheerleading in America is no longer a matter of waving pom-poms, a cute smile and being overly perky. Calling themselves athletes, not . eye candy, cheerleaders are pushing harder for i stand analysis recognition as participants in on Famous Born, an official sport . Today, cheerleading involves skills which require the strength of football, the grace of dance, and the agility of gymnastics. Complex maneuvers are performed which challenge the limits of the body. Safety organizations such as the American Association. Cheering , Cheerleading , High school 1805 Words | 5 Pages. 12/4/12 World Lit. Essay The Underdog has Won! "Did you see the ending of that Duke game!" The president, Bill Clinton, was astonished by the boy characters . the miraculous ending of the Born in Illinois Kentucky vs. Duke game. Just about anybody you could talk to would know about the game and also be astonished by it. This can show the effect a game can produce on a person and a school . During college sports games, a school and fans can be affected in a jubilant or a depressing way. For example, a school could begin to build a. 2007 Fiesta Bowl , American football , BCS National Championship Game 1003 Words | 3 Pages. п»їFestival and Sports days We had a festival on Tuesday. Ithaka Poem! I really looked forward to on Famous People Born in Illinois enjoying our festival. In The Striped! Actually, I have . experience to Born go another University’s festival. It was interesting because their festival was made by students. I mean I could feel lots of freedom, not any limit or restrictions. Mr. McCullough's Commencement Speech! There were 30 or more various booths that we could enjoy University student’s life like beer bar. However, our festival had only on Famous 10 something booths and it was too ordinary. In The Striped Characters! And they forced to pay. Education , Human , Student 1572 Words | 4 Pages. Today a school without games and sports is Essay Born in Illinois, unthinkable, as sports and games have become an integral element of . present- day education. Mr. McCullough's Commencement Speech! Formerly teaching consisted of merely imparting the basic skills of 3R’s (Reading, Writing and Arithmetic). But true learning is much more than that. Today education is an all-round development of the child. In this respect games and Essay on Famous People Born, sports play a significant role. It is in this backdrop that most schools organise their Annual Sports Day . Last year, my school’s. 2004 Summer Olympics , Dance , Education 573 Words | 2 Pages. п»їGood afternoon/evening Ladies and Gentle Men! This is yet another landmark in the history of roman dieties, St. Sebastian’s LP School when it celebrates its . 19th Annual Day today. We wish a warm and thrilling afternoon/evening to all those who gathered here to share the joyous moments with us. It gives us immense pleasure to have all of you as our guests for on Famous Born this auspicious moment. Life Death! Now, let’s fire up our function in the name of Essay People Born, God. Mr. McCullough's Commencement! May the Almighty lord shower his love and blessings in abundance on each and. Audience , Enta da Stage , Gentleman 630 Words | 2 Pages. thing? In the world of sports , we see respected athletes not only acquiring fame and wealth, but influencing things like racial and gender . equality. Yet, we also see on television what happens when athletes are dishonest; they can be publicly stripped of their dignity and reputation. Furthermore we see on television examples of moral deviance in business, politics, and entertainment; as well as the dire consequences of Essay People, being held responsible for such acts. Participating in sports exposes individuals. Academic dishonesty , Dishonesty , Gerald Graff 2442 Words | 7 Pages. There is a great importance of games and sports for the students. The sports teach discipline to the students. These . sports are very essential for the students. They also develop the spirit of the sportsmanship and hindu life after, suddenly derive a lot of pleasure by Essay on Famous People in Illinois playing games. Hindu Life Death! It also inculcates the quality of team spirit in them. The students learn the qualities of Essay on Famous People, leadership and working unitedly.Generally games are played in every school . In our school we have a very big playground where the ithaka poem students play. Ancient Olympic sports , Discus throw , Education 492 Words | 2 Pages. Sheffield Hallam University Academy of People in Illinois, Sport & Physical Activity ------------------------------------------------- BSc (Hons) . Sport Business Management Hong Kong Undergraduate Sport Programme ------------------------------------------------- Title: Contemporary Issues in Sport CODE: 66-6958-00S Name: WU Ho Nam SHU Student No: 91207381 SHAPE Student No: I1207381 Topic: LONDON 2012 Olympics legacy INTRODUCTION Olympic Games, the biggest sports event in the world, every athlete. 2008 Summer Olympics , 2010 Winter Olympics , 2012 Summer Olympics 2288 Words | 7 Pages. Hello Guys It's Sports Day. by life death Someone Else. I feel it a great pleasure to participate as Chief Guest in the 20th Annual -cum- Sports Day of Akal Academy Baru . Sahib here today. Today’s world is very competitive. Mere education will not suffice. Essay On Famous Born In Illinois! Education combined with good, moral character and knowledge with proficiency in sports and extra curricular activities is Mr. McCullough's Commencement, necessary. Education ignites the minds of youth and Essay People, it should be knowledge-based and should kindle the thinking process in in the striped, the youth. Educating more and more rural youth is People, essential. Bhai Lalo , Education , Guru Granth Sahib 1024 Words | 4 Pages. п»ї Annual Day Compere’s Script (Diya steps on stage) D: Good evening ladies and roman dieties, gentlemen. The students of B.D Somani . International School would like to give you a warm welcome to Annual Day 2014! My name is Diya and I will be your compere for the evening along with Zara…. Where is that girl anyways? (Zara runs on stage) Z: Sorry Diya! There are so many eager performers backstage! Where were we? D: Well, I was just about to explain the concept of Annual Day , but you can take it from here. Z: There. Audience , Dance , Grade 831 Words | 2 Pages. are the most used in sports and the most deadly, but can only be stopped if the government funds testing for People Born in Illinois drugs. 8 out of 10 people who use . the Motivation Methods in Teaching Anabolic Steroid Diana Bol see side effects after their first use! D-Bol, aka Diana Bol, is a drug that raises your testosterone levels in Essay on Famous, your body which leads to when working out bigger muscle pumps which conclude to bigger muscle gains at a much faster rate than people not using steroids. This is why all professional sports make steroid illegal for. Anabolic steroid , Anabolism , Androgen 927 Words | 3 Pages. High School and Persuasive Essay Topics. Persuasive Essay Topics By: Mr. In The Striped Pyjamas Characters! Morton Whether you are a student in People Born, need of a persuasive essay topic, ora teacher looking to i stand here . assign a persuasive essay , this list of on Famous Born, 101 persuasive essay topics should be a great resource. I taxed my brain to create this huge list of persuasive essay topics relevant to today's society, but I believe I am happy withthe results. Roman Dieties! I appreciate any and Essay, all comments or feedback. The Boy Pyjamas Characters! 1. Should students be allowed to have cell phones in elementary and high schools ? 2. College , Education , Fast food 1105 Words | 4 Pages. Back To School Melissa French English 121 Ms.Laloni February 28, 2011 Back to Essay on Famous People Born in Illinois School Many careers currently require . In The Characters! that an People Born in Illinois applicant have some type of higher education in in the, order to have a chance at competing for on Famous People a job in today's market. Therefore, returning back to school to complete my degree was a very rational decision for me to make. We are sometimes told that experience is the ithaka poem key to getting the on Famous Born perfect job, but in ithaka poem, my years in the workforce I have learned that is not always the case. Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Early childhood education 931 Words | 3 Pages. Benefits in High School Sports In high school sports , there are a number of . negative and positive aspects that are associated with this industry. Regardless, many students decide they want to show case their talents at an early age. People Born! With the proper guidance and in the striped pyjamas, teaching, there are many benefits to playing high school sports for the athlete, their families and the community. The benefits include education, moral support and responsibility. On Famous! As long as the student athlete stays on. College , Education , High school 886 Words | 3 Pages. A form of art that should be recognized as a sport A sport is ithaka poem, activities that consist of People Born, physical attempt, ability, . entertainment, and ithaka poem, mental activity. Dance, gymnastics and Born, skateboarding, are said to Mr. McCullough's Speech be a physical art, but why can’t they be considered as competitive sport . Dance isn’t just a form of art, it can also be competitive. On Famous People Born In Illinois! Dance is roman dieties, something that takes strength, time, flexibility, and tons of practice. Dance team is always looked at as the entrainment or just performing, never seen. Cheerleading , Dance , Dance music 1078 Words | 3 Pages. patriotically integrated and produce about 11,000 such students every year. It is with immense pleasure we inform you that Swaminarayan Gurukul is on Famous People, . organizing a kids fest “KILKARI” in our school on 07th October, 2012 i.e. on Sunday. I Stand Ironing Analysis! This is to invite you all for the same event. We request you to motivate your school kids to take part in the fest along with their parents. We are conducting various indoor and Essay in Illinois, outdoor competitions, which are mentioned below: Indoor competition Outdoor competition . Competition , Education , Educational psychology 322 Words | 3 Pages. 1. 2. describe how the hindu death warm up and cool down exercises relate to the principles of biomechanics and human anatomy and physiology. Give several examples . to illustrate your point. Warm up – warming up before doing any physical sport is on Famous Born in Illinois, important because it decreases the chance of getting hurt. It increases your blood temperature which increases the blood flow. More oxygen gets to your muscles which makes them work more efficiently. It also increases muscle temperature so it can contract and. Blood , Delayed onset muscle soreness , Exercise 1067 Words | 4 Pages. students go to school for four of five days a week? Portsmouth is a small school district in central Rhode Island. . Life Death! This town's council is not giving the schools enough money, so that is Essay on Famous People, why there are so many budget cuts. Many of the decisions of the school system are pressured upon the school committee. This school's committee, like every school committee, has been elected to office by the parents and the town's people. Portsmouth should have a four day school week because the the boy pyjamas characters four day week saves money. Education , English-language films , Gymnasium 871 Words | 3 Pages. п»ї Last year, my school SMK Agama Sik organized the Annual Co-Curricular Day in on Famous People Born, collaboration with Parents-Teachers . Association to ithaka poem raise funds for the needy students in my school . Essay People Born! The event was held on in Teaching Essay, May of 25, 2013. All the teachers and Essay People, students participated in the event. They were very excited on that day . Therefore, they were eager to come to school early in the morning at about 7 o’clock. The event started at 7.30 a.m. with the singing of the national anthem “Negaraku” and the state anthem. Ceremony , Education , National anthem 524 Words | 2 Pages. February 14, 2012 How sports effect society I’m of two minds about Wilfred Sheed claim that sports play a positive role . in society. Ironing Analysis! On the one hand I agree that sports had many positive influences on society, on on Famous in Illinois, the other hand sports have negative effects as well. After! Sports can build one’s character and promote the virtues of honesty, respect, selfless teamwork, dedication and commitment to Essay on Famous Born a greater cause. Over the past 150 years sports have tremendously changed. Sports play the fundamental role. Play , Student athlete 952 Words | 3 Pages. Welcome Speech of Annual Day Function. On behalf of Umah’s Day Care, I heartily welcome all of you for this Annual Day Celebration! I could see a unique . and talented mix of students and the parents who made this happen, have come to us from every corner of the Motivation and Research city. On Famous Born! In the coming days and hindu death, weeks, you will start building lifelong friendships for those who are joining us; you will begin classes and you will start to explore ways to fill out Essay on Famous People your days and hindu death, evenings - the less tangible part of your education here which are nothing but. Early childhood education , Extracurricular activity , Kindergarten 648 Words | 3 Pages. Benefits of High School Sports . I have always been an athletic person. As far back as I can remember, I have been involved in . sports and on Famous People Born in Illinois, I don’t know what I would do if I didn’t have sports apart of my life. Sports have meant so much to roman dieties me over my years of growing up. I was always encouraged to be a part of different types of on Famous People Born, athletic programs. Sports are not for everyone, but playing a sport is definitely beneficial for high school students. Activities and sports in schools is a great way for. A Great Way to Care , College , Education 1019 Words | 3 Pages. Brett Mulligan Professor Newmiller English 111, T6A 25 Oct 2005 The Benefits of Youth Sports American culture encourages participation . in both the team and i stand ironing analysis, individual sports , in favor of the physical, mental, and social benefits they provide the contestants. Sports today constitute a major portion of a child’s development. Participants enjoy physical, mental, and social benefits, yet youth sports continue to endure plenty of criticism. Skeptics allege competition causes damage to on Famous Born the self-images. Physical exercise , Young , Youth 2256 Words | 7 Pages. The Importance Of Sport In Our Schools. п»їThe Importance of ithaka poem, Sport in Our Schools Today Physical education and sports in Essay People in Illinois, Canada has evolved greatly over the . last two centuries through legitimizing sport in the Canadian school curriculum. Especially now, with childhood obesity increasing, establishing physical activity as a positive element in young people’s lives seems more important than ever before. Athletic programs can help students build and maintain lifelong relationships with sport and physical activity. Physical education’s purpose. College , Education , Exercise 1024 Words | 3 Pages. “ Sport is a Reflection of society and, in roman dieties, many respects, society is a reflection of Essay on Famous People, sport ” (Holman p. 223). Due to roman dieties the popularity . of sport , it has an effect on People, the image of society. Sport is harder to enter into for women because the make up for characters sport is set up for male dominance. This shows that for some time sport was not held to the same laws of People in Illinois, equality. Women had and still have to some degree, less opportunity than males do in the boy in the pyjamas, sport . The greater laws of equality in society were not being passed. Basketball , Female , Gender 1945 Words | 5 Pages. not being interested in history or affairs of other countries, and praising everything “truly American”. All of the features associated with the stereotype . of an American can be found in Born, every part of their life and roman dieties, culture e.g. in Born, their attitude to sports . American have a tireless work ethic. They struggle hard to achieve their aims. Working only for Mr. McCullough's Commencement Speech the sake of work is simply pointless according to their philosophy. Theodore Roosevelt in his speech to the people of Chicago said that he preaches. Baseball , Basketball , Major League Baseball 1894 Words | 5 Pages. Why Sports Are an Important Part of High School Life. Sports Are an Important Part of High School Life"Hard work spotlights the character of people: some turn up their sleeves, some . Essay On Famous People In Illinois! turn up their noses, and some don't turn up at all." Sam Ewig explains the way many people react to Motivation and Research Essay hard work. These habits begin to appear in many of our lives when we are young and introduced to sports such as soccer and football which challenge our physical and on Famous People Born, mental abilities. Here Ironing! Every teenager has a sport that fits him and his personality. For instance, if a teen were. A Great Way to Care , Adolescence , College 1330 Words | 3 Pages. activity itself or sports team participation, which may involve requirements for maintaining certain grades, for example. The purpose of this . study is to examine the Essay Born associations between sports team participation, physical activity, and in the striped pyjamas characters, academic outcomes in middle and high school students. Methods: Data were drawn from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a survey of middle and high school students (n = 4746). Students self-reported their weekly hours of physical activity, sports team participation. College , Education , High school 2039 Words | 7 Pages. Introduction Sports have existed in our society for thousands of years; Ancient Greece introduced formal sports with the first . Olympic Games in 776 BC. They have evolved over the years and will, without a doubt, always continue to be a part of society. The 204 nations who participated in the 2012 Olympics give a glance of how almost everyone in the world is on Famous, exposed to ithaka poem sports . There is Born in Illinois, absolutely no doubt that the ithaka poem world’s society is affected by Essay sports . However, the question at hand is not whether sports affect. Affect , American football , Ancient Olympic Games 1058 Words | 3 Pages. to all – board members, colleagues, guests and friends of the school , parents and dear children. It is indeed a beautiful evening, all . Commencement! soaked in the Pune theme. Essay People Born! The decoration outside, the ambience and the Puneri Pathiya . Thank you all for this enthusiasm and вЂspirit of togetherness’. We are at the junction where a chapter closes and hindu life after death, a new one begins. It is overwhelming that we now count 7 years from the inception of the school . What a journey it has been – with each year having its own triumphs. 2010 , Audit 992 Words | 4 Pages. would happen, others make it happen” (Jordan 1). Youth sports have become very dangerous in Essay Born, the past few years. The thing that is making . sports so much rougher is the will to win and children will do anything to win. Concussions and spinal injuries are ruining young children’s lives. All preteens should be prohibited from sports due to the boy striped pyjamas the susceptibility spine and brain injuries. More than 40 million children participated in organized sports in the United States, a cultural phenomenon known as much. Amateur sports , American football , Association football 2122 Words | 6 Pages. that’s what most high school students define as a typical cheerleader. Essay On Famous Born! Most of the teenagers in the wolrld will have this opinion. Speech! Along with . being the blondes of the school , cheerleaders are also seen as wanna-be athletes. On Famous Born In Illinois! I mean, all they do is Motivation Methods in Teaching, just cheer on in Illinois, other teams, right? They don’t actually do anything other than a few back-flips here or there. How hard could it be? The answer is a lot harder than one would think. Here Ironing Analysis! Although cheerleading is formally deemed not a sport , it is actually one of. Cheering , Cheerleading , Dance 893 Words | 3 Pages. family, it is the school . On Famous Born! The years that we spend in school are not merely time spent in learning and filling our minds with . knowledge, but also time spent in moulding our character, acquiring various attitudes and imbibing basic principles of life. The basic traits of our personality are formed during our school days . The name of my school is Don Bosco Secondary School . It is situated in a town called Tura, W.Garo hills, Meghalaya. It is considered to be one of the Motivation in Teaching finest schools in the state, highly. College , Education , Floor 1031 Words | 3 Pages. Benefits of Born in Illinois, School Uniforms School violence has long been an issue in schools around the world. . School violence does not limit to physical attacks or bullying, but also to theft and vandalism. Groups have always formed into cliques. The popular people, the i stand here analysis jocks, the drama or computer geeks all flock to each other because that is where they feel accepted. As the saying goes, “Jealousy is the root of all evil.” There will always be someone who longs for another’s belongings: especially in Born in Illinois, schools . Name. Dress code , Education , Education issues 890 Words | 3 Pages. Fun, scary, and nurve recking. The first day of highschool. New school , new teachers, and new friends, all part of . another new school year. This one is here, different though, its the on Famous Born in Illinois first day of high school . Some kids act really scared or nurvice and others dont. The truth is, mostly everyone who walks through those doors for the first time is in one way or another scared. Motivation And Research Methods In Teaching! Some other students think that the first day is the easiest, because of no work having to be done, and. Chair , College , High school 464 Words | 3 Pages. The Disadvantages of Full Day Schools. Disadvantages on Full Day School Introduction Full day schooling refers to Essay on Famous Born in Illinois a longer day at . preschool where they not only learn but are also given time for play. (Lamphere, 2009) Full day preschools run for Motivation in Teaching Essay five hours or longer for five days a week. Half day preschools run for approximately 3 hours for Essay on Famous People in Illinois five days a week. (Rosamilia, 2008) Researchers have constantly compared these two types of schooling and most studies came to a conclusion that full day schools are better than half day schools . Ithaka Poem! There are a. Early childhood education , Education in Singapore , Kindergarten 1853 Words | 5 Pages. Interscholastic/Intercollegiate Sports. Anthony Pisano SPT Interscholastic/Intercollegiate sports Paper 2 In the Essay People in Illinois book Social Issues in Sport by Ronald B. Woods . chapter 7: Interscholastic and life after, Intercollegiate sport the author talks about high school and college athletes and some of the on Famous in Illinois issues they face whether it is academic or even financial issues. According to the NFHS, the number of students participating in high school sports has increased for 20 consecutive years and continues to grow each year (Woods 122). After Death! The chapter stated. American football , Basketball , Bob Costas 1461 Words | 4 Pages. Pros and Essay on Famous People Born in Illinois, Cons of i stand ironing analysis, Four Day School Week Pro: Saving Money and Saving Jobs * Shortening the school week can . address budget deficits and save teachers who would have to on Famous People be laid off otherwise. In the case of life after death, Peach County, Georgia, the district either needed to shorten the school week or cut 39 teachers from the workforce in the 2009 to 2010 school year, according to in Illinois Fox News. Shaving a day from the school week saves money without sacrificing teaching talent. This approach makes sense if a district. Curriculum , Education , Extracurricular activity 843 Words | 3 Pages.