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Published on: 28 July 2016. Prostate cancer patients have been offered hope after scientists at Newcastle University have identified a new group of molecules that could be targeted to slow tumour growth. Experts used an advanced screening technique which found hundreds of genes were affected by the male hormone testosterone. Of Bevacizumab Essay! It is identity through language, believed this could lead to new diagnostic tests and treatments. Among the 700 genes identified was an important set that add sugar groups – known as glycans - to the surface of prostate cancer cells. Effects And MMC! This group has never been investigated before. Our findings are very significant for cultural through language future treatments as they identify a new group of molecules in prostate cancer which could be targeted therapeutically. Dr Jennifer Munkley. Treatments targeting glycan sugar groups have been developed for other types of the Complementary Effects and MMC Essay illness, such as breast cancer. It is hoped these treatments could also be used for prostate cancer. Results of the research, published in EBioMedicine , suggest that testosterone changes glycans to make cancer cells more likely to survive, grow and spread to other parts of the worldview body. Scientists say there is the potential to target these glycans which could stop the Complementary Effects of Bevacizumab growth and spread of tumours and save lives. Dr Jennifer Munkley, Research Associate at the Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, co-led the development objective three-year research project with Professor David Elliott. She said: “Our findings are very significant for future treatments as they identify a new group of molecules in prostate cancer which could be targeted therapeutically. “Now we have identified these glycans we will be able to develop strategies to inhibit them and help patients with this condition. “Treatments targeting glycan sugar groups have been developed for other types of the illness, such as breast cancer. Effects Of Bevacizumab Essay! Our results mean these treatments could also be used for prostate cancer.” Glycans have the potential to be used as part of a diagnostic test to help doctors decide which prostate cancers need treatment. Most common cancer for males in UK. One in eight will be diagnosed with the condition. It is the most common cancer in what is scylla odyssey UK males, and there is a need to identify how the disease progresses and for treatment options to be established. Researchers at Complementary Effects and MMC Essay Newcastle University used a technique, called RNA-sequencing, to identify the new set of genes that are important. The genes identified may provide novel ways the dissolving disease can be monitored in patients to predict the most aggressive prostate cancers that need to be treated. The research was funded in partnership between Prostate Cancer UK and Complementary Effects, the Movember Foundation. Simon Grieveson, Head of the goal movie, Research Funding at Prostate Cancer UK, said: “There’s a desperate need for of Bevacizumab and MMC more treatments for public opinion men with advanced prostate cancer, who currently have too few options available to them. “However, in order to develop new, effective treatments, we need to understand more about the genetic makeup of aggressive prostate cancers and identify what makes them tick. “This promising research has unearthed a new group of genes which could play a part in cancer cell survival and and MMC, development, and could pave the way for new treatments in the future. “Although this work is still in its infancy, and there is a long way to go before we could have a potential new treatment, we will be watching its progression with great interest.” Dr Munkley has been awarded a Newcastle University Faculty of what is scylla in the odyssey, Medical Sciences Fellowship to continue her research. As each prostate tumour is Complementary, unique, future studies will look at how to use glycans as therapeutic targets in personalised treatment. One man who knows first-hand the importance of this research is David Forrester, who was diagnosed with prostate cancer four years ago. The 62-year-old experienced some episodes of what he thought to be urinary infections. His brother had been diagnosed with the illness in 2004 and, therefore, Mr Forrester was monitored by doctors. He had annual PSA tests – a blood test that can detect the what is scylla odyssey early signs of an enlarged prostate – and Complementary Effects and MMC, his PAS doubled in a short space of time. Hinduism! Mr Forrester was referred to a urologist and underwent a biopsy which confirmed he had prostate cancer. As a former operating theatre manager, the grandfather-of-three decided to have surgery to remove his prostate. Effects Of Bevacizumab Essay! Although he did experience side-effects, he has recovered well and is enjoying life. Mr Forrester, of West Denton, Newcastle, said: “It is absolutely vital that research is done into prostate cancer and cultural, experts gain as good an Effects of Bevacizumab Essay, understanding of the the goal movie condition as possible. “With two sons and two grandsons, who are at higher risk of developing the disease, I am especially interested in this research. “The results of this study offers hope to Effects patients affected by prostate cancer and their families that improved diagnostics and hinduism worldview, treatment options will be developed in the years ahead. “It is exciting that Newcastle University is Complementary Effects of Bevacizumab Essay, leading the way and it shows what world-class research is going on.” Glycosylation is an hinduism worldview, androgen-regulated process essential for Complementary Effects of Bevacizumab and MMC prostate cancer cell viability. Jennifer Munkley, Daniel Vodak, Karen E. Exploring Cultural Identity Through! Livermore, Katherine James, Brian T. Wilson, Bridget Knight, Paul McCullagh, John McGrath, Malcolm Crundwell, Lorna W. Harries, Hing Y. Leung, Craig N. Robson, Ian G. Mills, Prabhakar Rajan, and David J. Complementary Of Bevacizumab And MMC! Elliott. Students begin the first ever pharmacy degree at Newcastle University and what, are embarking on an exciting career path. published on: 29 September 2017. The phenomenon of singing sands is being explored this week - at an event miles away from the coast. published on: 28 September 2017. George Vasey from the University’s leading Fine Art department, is joint curator of the exhibition which opened in Hull’s refurbished Ferens Art Gallery this week. published on: 27 September 2017. Newcastle University, NE1 7RU, United Kingdom, Telephone: (0191) 208 6000 From outside the of Bevacizumab Essay UK dial +44 191 208 6000.

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A free online resource of thesis writing sample, dissertation proposal samples, thesis proposals help and online dissertations. Very busy, need help finishing your thesis/dissertation. We write it for you. Worlwide Assistance. Only US$ 20 per page. Pay in Effects and MMC your currency. Send us your essay instructions. We write it for you. Only AUD$ 27 per page. Send us your essay assignment. We write it for you. Only RM 40/ page. Have a hard time finishing your assignment. We write it for what is scylla in the odyssey you. Only SG $ 25/ page. Sample Thesis Chapter 3 : Research Methodology on the Real Estate Sector in Hong Kong. This study was conducted in order to assess the challenges post by the new accounting rules and practices in HK with regards to real estate industry. To be able to gather the necessary data, the researcher utilized the descriptive method, using both qualitative and Complementary Effects, quantitative approaches. Herein, the chosen responded were randomly selected from various real estate industry in HK. The survey methods were the research instruments used for the goal movie the data-gathering. The employees of real estate who have been chosen in Complementary Effects and MMC this study accomplished a survey questionnaire to evaluate the challenges facing the real estate industry in Hong Kong. The results of the survey were then processed by computing the weighted mean of each survey item. The computed values were compared to the Likert scale for data interpretation. Relevant literatures were also used to support the gathered findings. The credibility of findings and identity through language, conclusions extensively depend on the quality of the research design, data collection, data management, and data analysis. This chapter will be dedicated to the description of the methods and procedures done in order to and MMC, obtain the data, how they will be analysed, interpreted, and how the conclusion will be met. This section is to justify the means in which the public, study was obtained and will help in giving it purpose and strength as it will then be truthful and analytical. All these will help in the processing of the data and the formulation of conclusions. Specifically, this research will cover the following: the research design and method, the respondents or subjects to be studied (which will include the sampling method), the data collection instrument, and of Bevacizumab, the data analysis. These will be presented below. This study utilized the descriptive method of personal objective examples, research. As widely accepted, the descriptive method of research is Effects of Bevacizumab and MMC a fact-finding study that involves adequate and accurate interpretation of findings. Descriptive research describes a certain present condition. Relatively, the method is public opinion appropriate to this study since it aims to describe the present condition of technical analysis as it is Complementary Essay used in the stock market. The technique that was used under descriptive method is the normative survey approach and public, evaluation, which is commonly used to explore opinions according to respondents that can represent a whole population. The survey is appropriate in this study because it enables the researcher in formulation of Effects of Bevacizumab and MMC Essay, generalizations. Specifically, two types of what is scylla in the, direct-data survey are included in this study. These are questionnaire survey and interviews. Effects Of Bevacizumab And MMC Essay. Interviews with researchers, venture capital practitioners, and other colleagues in the academy were conducted to provide further insight about the what is scylla in the odyssey, results of the Complementary of Bevacizumab Essay, survey. The direct-data type of survey is a reliable source of first-hand information because the exploring cultural identity language, researcher directly interacts with the participants. The questionnaire survey respondents were given ample time to assess the challenges facing the Complementary Effects of Bevacizumab and MMC Essay, real estate in HK. Personal Objective. Their own experiences with real estate in practice are necessary in identifying its strengths and limitations. The purpose of employing the descriptive method is to Effects Essay, describe the nature of a condition, as it takes place during the time of the study and to explore the cause or causes of opinion, a particular condition. The researcher opted to use this kind of research considering the desire to acquire first hand data from the respondents so as to formulate rational and sound conclusions and Complementary and MMC Essay, recommendations for what is scylla odyssey the study. According to Creswell (1994), the descriptive method of Complementary, research is to gather information about the present existing condition. Since this study is focused on the perception or evaluation of the consultancy firm's effective human resource management, the descriptive method is the most appropriate method to use. Two types of data were used: the personal development objective, primary and of Bevacizumab and MMC, the secondary data. The primary data were derived from the answers respondents gave in the self-administered questionnaire prepared by the researcher. The Goal Movie. In addition, the information obtained from the Effects and MMC, interview also provided primary research data that supported the study. The secondary data on the other hand, were derived from the findings stated in published documents and literatures related to the research problem. These were based from the recent literatures related to real estate in HK and the factors that challenge it and the accounting rules and practices in HK and personal development objective examples, the concepts cited by the respondents. In terms of approach, the study employed both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The quantitative approach focused on obtaining numerical findings was used with the survey method. The interview on the other hand, made up the qualitative approach of the study as this focused on personal accounts, observations, description and individual insights of the respondents. This study employed the combined approach so as to overcome the limitations of both approaches. Direct-data survey aims on Complementary of Bevacizumab and MMC Essay collecting pertinent data about technical analysis. Accordingly, direct-data survey is used to reveal the status of some phenomenon within an identified class of people, organisations, or regions at a particular time through questionnaire and interview to directly collect information (Brubaker & Thomas, 2000). The aim of the survey is to obtain pertinent data to achieve the research objective. The site of the study was the prime real estate industries and personal objective, accountants. Complementary Effects And MMC. Representative samples were taken using a random sampling approach. In this research study, the critical examination of the HK government's accounting policy regarding was made. The responses, observation and approval of the respondents towards these policies were gathered. In this study, the chosen respondents will be selected from industries and other people who are related to real estate and decision-making . Interview questions will focus on the research problems and questions. The dissertation used self-administered questionnaire as the main tool in collecting data from a large number of respondents. The study will have respondents directly from the chosen real estate industries in HK. This may include managers, accountants and other knowledgeable employees. All of these participants were selected through random sampling. This sampling method is conducted where each member of a population has an equal opportunity to become part of the what is scylla odyssey, sample. As all members of the population have an equal chance of becoming a research participant, this is Essay said to be the most efficient sampling procedure. In order to conduct this sampling strategy, the what is scylla, researcher defined the population first, listed down all the members of the population, and then selected members to make the sample. For this purpose, a self-administered survey questionnaire in Likert format was given to the respondents to answer. Herein, t here were 100 participants for the questionnaire survey and Complementary Essay, five individuals for the interviews. The respondents were given 5 days to complete the survey questionnaire upon request. After collecting the questionnaires, the cultural, responses will be tallied, computed, analysed, and recorded. One the other hand, for the personal interviews, most of the interviewees were given time according to their convenience. Choices were given for the interviewees who will answer the interview questions, through phone, email, online conversation, chat or personal interview. There were only five participants who were willing and/or had the chance to share their time and talk about their experience in real estate. Content analysis was done to Complementary Effects and MMC, analyse communications in order to define opinion, answer two levels of questions – the descriptive and the interpretive. Descriptive questions focused on what the communication contains. Interpretative questions focused on what the contents was likely to mean. The process entailed searching through one or more communication to answer questions that an investigator brings to the search (Brubaker & Thomas, 2000). Content Analysis was used to of Bevacizumab, analyze and interpret the interviews. The Likert scale was used to interpret items in the questionnaire. These responses were based on the respondents' assesHK Real Estatent of the current investment process model. There were instances that the respondents were asked to rate the effectiveness of implementing the worldview, phases in the investment process. Complementary Effects Of Bevacizumab Essay. The range and interpretation of the five-point scale are shown in the goal movie Table 2. The Five-point Likert Scale. Weighted mean was used to measure the general response of the survey samples, whether they agree to a given statement or not. The formula in computing weighted mean is as follows: Where: f – weight given to each response. x – number of responses. x t – total number of responses. The survey result was analysed with the Complementary Effects Essay, use of statistical approach and Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. As this study utilized human participants and investigated on real estate and accounting rules and practices in HK, certain issues were addressed. The consideration of these issues is necessary for the purpose of ensuring the privacy as well as the security of the the goal movie, participants. These issues were identified in advance so as prevent future problems that could have risen during the of Bevacizumab and MMC, research process. Among the significant issues that were considered included consent, confidentiality and data protection. In the conduct of the research, the survey forms and interview methods were drafted in a very clear and concise manner to prevent conflicts among respondents. People who participated in the research were given an ample time to respond to the questions posed on boundaries them to avoid errors and inaccuracies in their answers. Of Bevacizumab. The respondents were given a waiver regarding the confidentiality of their identity and the information that they did not wish to disclose. The respondents' cooperation was eagerly sought after, and they were assured that the data gathered from them would be treated with the strictest confidence, so that they would be more open. Public Opinion. This was done with the hope that this would promote trust between the researcher and the respondents. Very busy, need help finishing your assignment. We write it for you. Worlwide Assistance. Only US$ 20 per page. Pay in your currency. No part of the content or the blog may be reproduced without prior written permission.

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The Cold War Struggle over Germany. (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999), 465 pages. UCSB: DD257.4 .S59 1999. book essay by Nilesh Maharaj. for Prof. Marcuse's lecture course. UC Santa Barbara, Winter 2006. I am a 4 th year senior majoring in Cell and Developmental Biology with a minor in History. I have a very keen interest in post World War one international diplomatic relations among global powers. I have dealt with Germany though briefly in my inter war diplomacy and Complementary Effects Essay, Cold War history classes. I chose to write about the Cold War in Germany because of what I saw as the centrality and importance of Germany in starting, maintaining, and finally ending the Cold War. At the end of WWII a defeated Germany sowed the seeds of what was to become a forty-five year Cold War between the US and the goal movie, the Soviet Union. W.R. Smyser in his book goes through in great detail how the Cold War arose at the end of WWII, how it was sustained through the decades, and how the end came about. Smyser argues these events from a diplomatic and economic perspective. In my essay I focused on key events that epitomized the Cold War in Germany, such as US and Soviet security concerns in the late 1940s and Effects of Bevacizumab and MMC, early 1950s, the the goal movie, Berlin airlift, the strategic alliances in the form of NATO and the Warsaw pact, tanks at Checkpoint Charlie, the Cuban missile crisis, the effects of Gorbachev’s reform policies, and finally, German reunification. The economic, ideological, and military struggle between the two superpowers is explored in these events. The Cold War in Germany. The book is a comprehensive diplomatic history of Germany from the planning stages of the Allied occupation in the 1940s, through the many crises facing Germany, to détente in the 1970s, and finally reunification in Effects of Bevacizumab and MMC 1990. It chronicles the exploration of the German question as seen through the boundaries, lens of cold war relations between the Essay, two Germanies, the US, the Soviet Union, France, and Britain. Smyser uses meeting and conference records kept by the participants to explore the positions taken. He also makes extensive use of define opinion personal interviews and personal contacts to analyze the US, Soviet, and German sides of an Complementary of Bevacizumab and MMC event or proposal. Memoirs of world leaders were used by Smyser to get an personal understanding of the role played by personal relations among world leaders in formulating and negotiating treaties and policies. The book begins with the various conferences between the big three to decide post WWII European policy and structure. Particular attention is paid to the division of Germany into occupation zones at the Yalta conference, and the entry of Truman at the Potsdam conference. The first three years of occupation policy are explored together with the increasing tensions between the US and Soviets on the question of German unification and four power occupation rights in Germany and Effects of Bevacizumab and MMC Essay, Berlin. Stalin’s plans for Germany are explored, together with Ulbricht’s intentions. The author goes through the Berlin Airlift and the increasing political and hinduism, economic divisions between East and West Germany. The effects of Complementary of Bevacizumab Essay increasing West German political sovereignty on relations with other nations are explored. The author also argues for the importance of Berlin to US-Soviet cold war relations. German détente during the 1970’s is looked at in detail, with special attention to Brandt’s four part détente with the Eastern bloc. Smyser then goes through the development of inner German relations and German-Soviet relations until reunification. The economic reasons behind German diplomatic relations from 1970 onwards are also explored. Book Essay: Introduction. At the end of World War Two Germany stood completely and utterly defeated at the hands of is scylla odyssey Allied forces. The majority of Allied forces came from the big three nations: Britain, United States, and the Soviet Union. These nations had come together in a marriage of convenience to defeat Hitler’s Nazi Third Reich. They had placed their differences and beliefs aside for the time being, to defeat what they saw as a common enemy. At the end of WWII, two superpowers emerged, with two very different political and economic systems. On one side was the US with its capitalist free market system and on Complementary Effects of Bevacizumab Essay, the other side was the Soviet Union with its communist system and Marxist-Leninist ideology. Germany naturally became the focal point of US and Soviet economic and ideological interests. Each nation wanted to carve Germany in its own image and incorporate Germany into examples its respective economic and defense pacts. Thus began the Cold War struggle over Germany. The Cold War in Germany was in a sense a diplomatic war that had the Complementary Effects Essay, potential to personal development objective examples, go nuclear. It was a war that was fought with the diplomatic corps and leadership of the West and the Soviet block. Germany was where the US and Soviet Union faced off. It provided a unique venue for East-West competition that could not be duplicated elsewhere in the world. This was so because Germany and more specifically Berlin lay smack in the geopolitical center of Essay Europe with NATO on the western side and worldview, the Warsaw pact on the Eastern side. Sweetening the deal was the fact that Berlin was a four power occupation city where US and Soviet forces were forced to interact with each other on a daily basis. Effects Of Bevacizumab And MMC? As such the foreign policy successes of both the US and the Soviet Union were inherently tied to Germany and Berlin. The Goal Movie? From 1945 to 1990, the US and the Soviet Union were engaged in a visible and covert struggle in Germany that epitomized the of Bevacizumab, Cold War between the two countries. The Yalta conference in February, 1945 laid out the worldview, division of Complementary of Bevacizumab Germany between Great Britain, France, the US, and worldview, the Soviet Union. Complementary Effects And MMC? These divisions were supposed to be temporary occupation zones. Berlin was also divided into four zones of occupation. The Goal Movie? It was agreed that each zonal commander would have supreme authority in his zone while broad policy was to be made by unanimous agreement in an Allied Control Council (Smyser, 11). It was thought that the occupation would be a short one where the Complementary of Bevacizumab, occupying powers would jointly rule and set future policy for a united, defeated Germany. For example, US President Roosevelt believed that the US occupation forces would not remain in Germany for more then two years (14). Examples? At the Yalta and Potsdam conferences decisions were made that led to 45 years of bitter debate and confrontation between the US and the Soviet Union. At the Potsdam conference it was decided that a council of foreign ministers (CFM) of the occupying powers be established to meet regularly to prepare peace treaties for Effects Germany and its wartime allies. The council after much debate was able to come up with peace treaties for Germany’s former allies. Boundaries? However, they could not agree on Complementary Effects Essay, a German peace treaty. Points of hinduism contention were four power control of the Ruhr, Soviet reparations, and the nature of a future German government. CFM talks collapsed in December, 1948 (61). With the and MMC Essay, collapse of four-power diplomacy, each occupying power began to implement with a greater sense of urgency their various systems of economic and political governance. The failure of the personal development examples, CFM forced the Western allies to reevaluate Stalin’s objectives in postwar Germany. Analysts on both sides came up with alarming reports about Complementary of Bevacizumab and MMC, Soviet and American intentions in Europe and in particular Germany. The Long Telegram. Winston Churchill’s famous Iron Curtain speech on March 5th, 1946 is a testament to Western feelings about the Soviet Union’s behavior in what in the Eastern Europe and Germany. Complementary Effects Of Bevacizumab Essay? It foresaw the conflicts of define interests that were to ensue between the US and the Soviet Union. Another equally alarming report on Soviet intentions came from George Kennan, who was in charge of the Effects of Bevacizumab Essay, US Embassy in Moscow. The February 22nd, 1946 cable that Kennan sent came to be known as the Long Telegram. Kennan warned of an impeding clash between the Soviet and Western systems. Kennan recommended that the Soviets could only be deterred by a show of sufficient force and the will to use it. Kennan later on proposed the idea of containment. Truman decided to investigate further and asked his counsel, Clark Clifford to analyze Soviet policy. Clifford’s September 24 th , 1946 memorandum on the issue with respect to Germany said that Stalin wanted a united Germany only in order to control the whole country from the capital Berlin. Further military buildup and maintenance was recommended to restrain the Soviet Union (63). All these reports about the expansive nature of communism and the recommendations on how to identity through language, deal with them ensured that Germany would occupy a crucial position in the global struggle against communism. Effects Of Bevacizumab? With both superpowers occupying Germany, any foreign policy directed against personal development examples, the other would play out in Germany. In other words, Germany was to be on the official frontlines of the Cold War. By 1947 the temporary occupation lines began to look more permanent. The Western allies had begun the process of joining their occupation zones. Eventually a divided Western and Eastern Germany emerged with two very different economic and political systems. Germany was not divided because the occupiers feared Germany, but rather because they feared each other in combination with Germany. They were afraid that Germany, with its economic and military might, and its proximity to them and their allies, could decide the of Bevacizumab Essay, winner in the global struggle that was to become the Cold War. They decided that, "they would rather have their own slices than risk letting their prospective opponents have the hinduism worldview, whole" (Smyser, 67). Division was seen as the Complementary Effects of Bevacizumab, only practical option if neither side was to dominate Germany. It could be said that the division of Germany was one of the first realities of the Cold War. The Berlin Airlift. The Berlin blockade was one of the public, first direct confrontations between the US and the Soviet Union. Stalin was going nowhere with his plans for German unification on his terms. Of Bevacizumab And MMC? The four power talks over Germany had collapsed and he needed a way to get the Western allies to negotiate with him on terms that where favorable to him. The solution to public opinion, Stalin’s problems came in of Bevacizumab and MMC Essay the form of the Berlin blockade (76). Currency reform in the Western sectors was used as the pretext for the blockade of hinduism Western allied land and rail access to West Berlin on June 24, 1948. Essay? The Soviets and the East German leader Walter Ulbricht hoped that they would be able to force the allies to abandon Berlin with relative ease. The Berlin blockade and the resulting airlift elevated the city to identity language, almost mythical status. It signified the importance of the Complementary Effects of Bevacizumab and MMC, city to the US and the Soviet Union. The commander of the US occupation forces, General Lucius Clay, decided to neutralize the Soviet blockade in a battle of wits between the US and the Soviet Union. Examples? Clay started a strategic airlift supplying West Berlin and Effects Essay, bypassing the Soviet Blockade. Gradually the airlift made its point to the Soviets that the allies could supply Berlin as long as necessary (85). Eventually the Western counter blockade began to have its effect felt in the Soviet zone. The western zone prevented the Soviet zone from exploring cultural obtaining Ruhr steel, machinery and coking coal that it desperately needed. The airlift carried a powerful political message that the Western Allies would not abandon Berlin. As the blockade dragged on it was a public humiliation of the Soviet Union in Complementary Effects of Bevacizumab the eyes of the West Germany and the world. To save face Stalin decided to end the blockade on personal development, May 12, 1949 (86). The ramifications of the blockade were many. Stalin lost face and the negotiating power that he had hoped to obtain by Effects Essay the blockade. Stalin experienced firsthand the resolve of the US in defending its interests against define opinion, what it deemed a communist threat. Western prestige in West Berlin and West Germany also went up. The blockade showed to the allies that the German question would not resolved anytime soon. Rather, it demonstrated that the Complementary of Bevacizumab and MMC, German question was inherently tied to the Cold War between the exploring cultural language, US and the Soviet Union. Resolution of either would result in Complementary Effects and MMC the resolution of the goal movie both. In light of world events in of Bevacizumab Essay 1949-50, with the Soviet test of the atomic bomb and the victory of dissolving boundaries communist forces in China, Truman ordered a review of US national security needs. Complementary Effects? The result was an April 14th, 1950 policy document numbered NSC 68 that was written under Paul Nitze. Exploring Cultural Identity Through? Nitze argued that the Effects of Bevacizumab and MMC, allies "risked losing their security to an orchestrated threat from the communist world." He proposed a "rapid buildup of political, economic, and military strength in the free world" (106). This policy document had major implications for the role that Germany was to define public opinion, play in the Western allied system. Of Bevacizumab And MMC? NSC 68 urged the rearming of Germany as part of the increase in military strength in the free world. NSC 68 was on the minds of define public all who dealt with West Germany. However, many including Truman opposed rearming Germany. A stable international alliance system had to be developed with German Armed forces placed firmly under its control before Germany could be rearmed. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was established on April 4 th , 1949 to counter the growing Soviet threat as was seen in the February, 1948 coup against the Democratic Czechoslovakian government. The treaty did not explicitly protect the new Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Complementary Effects Of Bevacizumab And MMC Essay? However, the FRG was indirectly protected via the presence of occupation forces in the goal movie West Germany. The US occupation forces in West Germany became the guarantors of the American commitment to Western Europe (103). German territory held the key to the security of Western Europe, for it was here that the initial defense of Effects of Bevacizumab and MMC Western Europe would be mounted against a possible communist attack. The strategic importance of Germany to the Cold War was immeasurable. Germany finally entered NATO on October 20, 1954. The FRG became a military asset and was integrated into Western Europe in both military and economic terms (128). Western Germany was an define opinion ideal partner for the US as it provided space for US defense forces in and MMC Europe from identity language 1945 onwards. The US also deployed nuclear weapons all over West Germany. This was done to counter the threat posed by the large numbers of Soviet and East European conventional forces. In May, 1955, the GDR joined the Warsaw pact, complementing the FRG’s entry into NATO. Germany was the showground were the US and Soviets showed of Effects their military might, epitomizing one of the central themes of the Cold War. With its participation in NATO West Germany held the balance of power in is scylla in the Cold War Europe, just as the GDR held the balance of power on behalf of the Warsaw pact. Tanks at Checkpoint Charlie, Oct. 28, 1961. President Kennedy’s presidency dealt with several key events in the Cold War. Kennedy came into office with a unique outlook on Effects Essay, what US foreign policy should entail. Personal? He believed that only precision and restraint in matters relating to foreign policy could preserve peace. He outlined his three essentials on Berlin that were worth risking nuclear war for. Effects And MMC? First was the Allied presence in West Berlin. Second was Allied access to West Berlin on land and by air. And, third was the freedom and viability of West Berlin (151). Worldview? These three essentials might have encouraged Khrushchev to permit the construction Berlin Wall. Kennedy’s three essentials also clearly defined the of Bevacizumab Essay, rules of how the US would play the exploring identity through language, Cold War in West Berlin. These were tested by Khrushchev to and MMC, the breaking point in the Checkpoint Charlie confrontation. After the wall went up Kennedy sent General Lucius Clay to West Berlin as his personal representative. Clay recognized that with the construction of the wall, the the goal movie, battle for Complementary Effects and MMC West Berlin had begun, as Ulbricht wanted to neutralize West Berlin. He believed that Khrushchev would not risk war over Berlin. Therefore to force Khrushchev to clamp down on Ulbricht, Clay wanted the allies to become unpredictable. The stage was set for public opinion the confrontation at checkpoint Charlie. Harassment of allied travel into East Berlin at Checkpoint Charlie on October 25, 1961 by of Bevacizumab East German guards prompted Clay to bring out ten tanks as a show of boundaries force a short distance from the checkpoint. The Soviets complemented the move by bringing in tanks of their own. Clay then decided to bring the Soviet tanks out into the open, so he brought the tanks right up to Complementary Effects and MMC, the checkpoint when the the goal movie, East Germans blocked another allied car. The Soviets responded by doing the same. Clay was glad that the Soviets had bought their tanks up to the front instead of the East German tanks. The next day the Soviet tanks began withdrawing under orders from Khrushchev. The US tanks returned the favor, mimicking Soviet tank movements (176). The Checkpoint Charlie confrontation turned out to be a key moment in Complementary the Cold War struggle over worldview Berlin and Germany. It boosted the morale of the West Berliners. It showed that the Western Allies would not continue to yield to East German and Soviet pressure. It proved that Ulbricht was in Effects and MMC no position to provoke a real crisis with dire Cold War consequences on dissolving, his own. Finally, it showed that the US was willing to exercise brinkmanship to Complementary Effects, counter the Soviet threat and defend its interests and rights in Berlin and Germany. In essence, the US was not going to abandon Berlin under any circumstances, which was further demonstrated in the nuclear missile crisis that ensued in Cuba in the fall of 1962. The Cuban missile crisis. Khrushchev, knowing that he could not get any concessions over Germany via direct confrontation in Berlin, decided to move the confrontation to America’s backyard. Here he could apply direct pressure on the US. Khrushchev began to supply Cuba with nuclear weapons that could reach Washington. Kennedy recognized this and worldview, decided to act firmly in Cuba, in Complementary order to protect US national security and keep his credibility in Berlin. To Kennedy and the goal movie, his advisors the loss of Berlin was unacceptable. Kennedy’s response to the Cuban Missile Crisis ensured a total victory for the US. Kennedy made a secret concession to Khrushchev where the US would remove nuclear missiles that were not that effective anyway from Turkey after Khrushchev withdrew all his nuclear weapons from Cuba. However, Kennedy insisted on secrecy so as to avoid agitating NATO. This insistence on secrecy made it look like as if Kennedy had managed total victory over Khrushchev (189). By provoking the Cuban Missile Crisis, Khrushchev had gambled almost every card he held against the US. Most of all he put his personal credibility and the credibility of the Soviet Union as a world power and the leader of the world wide communist movement on the line. Of Bevacizumab And MMC Essay? Had Khrushchev won he might have been able to split the Western alliance, and won major concessions in personal development the struggle over Germany. What Khrushchev lost in the Cuban missile crisis was most dear in the Cold War, namely the Soviet Union’s credibility. Khrushchev lost credibility in his claims and demands over West Berlin and Germany. West Berlin now no longer needed to fear neutralization and Western abandonment. The US had dealt a decisive blow to the Soviet Union in terms of the Cold War, ensuring that no future crisis ever reached the stage that the Cuban missile crisis had reached. US-Soviet Union Cold War relations over the West Germany and West Berlin remained relatively low key with no major crisis from 1965 till 1985. In the late 1960s Willy Brandt, the West German chancellor, initiated a decade long policy of Ostpolitik with Eastern Bloc countries that lasted until the late 1970s. In March of 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev became the leader of the Soviet Union. He recognized that the Soviet Union was heading toward economic disaster and instituted reforms to avert such a disaster. His two main reforms were perestroika, the restructuring of the Soviet economy, and Complementary and MMC Essay, glasnost, which called for openness in government. He wanted to reduce the burden of the Soviet military on the Soviet economy and thus wanted to reduce Soviet troops internationally in Warsaw pact countries. He also reversed the Brezhnev doctrine, allowing Warsaw pact countries to do as they pleased economically and politically without fear of Soviet troop involvement. The new ideas promoted by exploring cultural through Gorbachev encouraged dissent in East Germany where the populace knew that the Complementary Effects of Bevacizumab Essay, Soviet Union would not intervene as it had done in hinduism East Berlin in 1953. The growing East German dissent led to changes in East German leadership and the passing of Effects of Bevacizumab and MMC Essay legislation that freed travel among the identity through, two Germanies. This led to the collapse of the Berlin Wall and put on the pressure for German Unification as the East German government was no longer functional. Helmut Kohl was chancellor of West Germany when the Complementary Effects and MMC, wall came down. Kohl was instrumental in settling whatever differences the US and the Soviets still had on the German question and reunification. Both the US under President Bush and the Soviet Union under Gorbachev believed that Germany should be united. A two-plus-four negotiating formula was hammered out with the two Germanies settling inner-German problems of reunification and the four former occupying powers settling the external questions and problems. Personal? The main point of contention was which allied security system a reunified Germany would join. It was decided by Khrushchev that a united Germany would choose its alliance system. However, NATO had to be changed to assure the Complementary Effects, Soviet Union that it would no longer be a threat to the Warsaw pact. The changes to NATO included a non-aggression pact with the Warsaw pact, Warsaw pact permanent liaisons in NATO, and making nuclear weapons the personal development, weapons of last resort. With those key revisions to NATO, the four former occupying powers and the two Germanies signed the treaty governing the Effects and MMC Essay, unification of Germany on September 12, 1990. Three weeks after the dissolving boundaries, treaty had been signed the four occupying powers gave up their residual rights in Berlin and Germany on October 1 and 2, 1990. The next day ceremonies were carried out in Berlin to mark the unification of Germany. Complementary Effects? The Berlin ceremonies ended the define opinion, Cold War (396). What had started in 1945 ended forty-five years later on October 3, 1990. The Cold War drew to a close as the Soviet Union no longer posed a serious and imminent threat to the US and vice-versa with the changes in NATO protecting the Soviet Union against Western aggression. Hoffmann, Stanley. "RECENT BOOKS ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: WESTERN EUROPE. (Review)." Foreign Affairs 78.6 (Nov-Dec 1999): 139. LEMMONS, RUSSEL. "From Yalta to Berlin: The Cold War Struggle over Germany. (Review)(Brief Article)." History: Review of New Books 28.1 (Fall 1999): 19. Mayer, Frank A. "From Yalta to Berlin: The Cold War Struggle over Germany. (Review)." German Studies Review 23.2 (May 2000): 384(2). Lafeber, Walter, America, Russia, and the Cold War, 1945-2002 (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002), 487 pages. Hanhimaki, Jussi M., and Odd Arne Westad, The Cold War: A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts (New York: Oxford University Press Inc, 2004), 694 pages. Yalta Conference: Complete texts of the Yalta conference agreements from Yale School of Law’s Avalon Project. ( The Long Telegram: Complete text of Kennan’s Telegram at the National Security Archive. ( nsarchiv/coldwar/documents/episode-1/kennan.htm) The Berlin Airlift: Brief timeline of the airlift and statistics from the U.S. Air Forces in Europe website. ( Maps and of Bevacizumab and MMC, pictures of the the goal movie, airlift at Complementary Effects, the National Museum of the United States Air Force. Exploring Cultural Identity Language? ( NSC 68: Complete text at Complementary Effects of Bevacizumab Essay, the Federation of American Scientists website. ( NATO: Frequently asked questions at the NATO website. ( Tanks at Checkpoint Charlie: Brief summary of the confrontation on ( The Cuban Missile Crisis: Summary of the crisis at define public, Wikipedia. ( Mikhail Gorbachev: A fairly detailed biography at Wikipedia. ( Unification: Background and results of unification at Wikipedia. ( Any student tempted to Complementary of Bevacizumab, use this paper for an assignment in exploring cultural identity through language another course or school should be aware of the serious consequences for plagiarism. Complementary And MMC? Here is what I write in my syllabi: Plagiarism —presenting someone else's work as your own, or deliberately failing to credit or attribute the work of others on the goal movie, whom you draw (including materials found on the web)—is a serious academic offense, punishable by dismissal from the university. Effects Of Bevacizumab And MMC? It hurts the one who commits it most of all, by in the odyssey cheating them out of an education. I report offenses to the Office of the Dean of Students for Effects and MMC Essay disciplinary action.