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SEDITION ACT 1948

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Read about influence of advertising on children. Advertising affects children and act 1948, commercials influence children which can be seen in their constant demands for products advertised on television. There can be many negative effects of advertising on spain essay, children if parents are not careful. Although advertisements help us to become aware of the products in the market, they have their negative effects also. Sedition! Children today are exposed to all types of advertisements on the various media like the television, print media and internet as well. In fact, everyone is report bombarded by advertisements everywhere nowadays. Children in general are more susceptible and get easily influenced by advertisements. Children are Defenseless. Children are innocent and not so mature. When a marketer advertises a product on television, they do not understand that it is a business and their main aim is to sell. Sedition! They do not understand that advertisers try to push their products and market in such a way that children want to buy it. Children take everything at face value and believe without a doubt the messages in the advertisements. Advertisements are made in methodology such a way as to attract the attention of act 1948 children. Children do not understand it to be marketing strategy. Children are an extremely vulnerable target audience and get easily carried away. Junk Food Advertising and Children. Research has shown that junk food advertisements influence children greatly leading to an increased demand for junk food by children. When children watch young adults in good shape eating junk foods in the advertisements they assume that it is good for the health. They do not know that junk food is not good for health. They are unaware of the fact that junk food does not contain nutritional value. Government! They may even think that by eating these junk foods they might become like the thin and fit models in the advertisements. A research conducted has shown that children increased their consumption of junk foods after seeing these advertisements. They are seen to be so influenced by these ads that they almost doubled their consumption of these unhealthy snacks and foods. In a study conducted they exposed children to candy commercials. It was seen that those children who were exposed to the candy commercials were highly influenced. In fact, these children chose candy over fruits as snacks. They preferred candy rather than a healthy food like fruits. Sedition! When the commercials were eliminated and the children watched them less it had a positive effect. It encouraged them to pick the fruits over sonet 130 the candy. Recent statistics show that obesity of children under the age of act 1948 five is increasing at sonet 130, a high rate. Childhood obesity is on the rise and one of the main reasons for this has been seen as excessive consumption of fast foods and junk foods. Not surprisingly, it has been seen that childhood diabetes is also on sedition act 1948, the rise. Sumerian Government! Resulting in the Nag Factor. Children may pester their parents for the products advertised. They may insist on act 1948, a particular pair of branded jeans only and division of labor, be against sedition act 1948 the other brands of clothing in the store. They may also insist on living a life as portrayed in advertisements. Essay! Children may make excessive demands on their parents for the products they see in the advertisements. At times, they cry, pinch, pull and will not keep quiet till the parents purchase the sedition, product. Some parents who cannot control their children may give in to the tantrums of children left with no choice. When children see these advertisements it gives a wrong impression on their young minds and they start giving a lot of importance to materialistic joys. What Parents Can Do? Nowadays, with so much openness and exposure in media and commercials parents are often worried about what all their children are watching. It has been noticed that children are often able to remember messages targeted towards adults also. Kids remember the content in advertisements aimed at division, adults. A few countries have banned marketing and sedition act 1948, advertising targeted at children below the age of twelve. One country has banned advertising of toys before 10 p.m. as it is at this time that children are mostly awake. Previously advertisers marketed children’s products towards parents. The Balfour! Parents were their target audience for sedition these products. But nowadays, marketers aim their messages directly at children. Spain Essay! Advertisements are made specifically in such a way that they draw the attention of sedition act 1948 children. The marketing messages are aimed directly at Challenging Needs, the children. Sedition! Parents should teach their children of sonet 130 how to be critical of ads and how to become less influenced by the messages in sedition the ads. Parents need to sonet 130, teach their children the importance and act 1948, value of money. The advertising industry spends $12 billion per year on ads targeted to children, bombarding young audiences with persuasive messages through media such as television and the Internet. The average child is exposed to spain essay, more than 40,000 TV commercials a year, according to studies. And ads are reaching children through new media technologies and even in schools–with corporate-sponsored educational materials and act 1948, product placements in spain essay students’ textbooks. But the buck stops here, if APA and its Task Force on Advertising and Children have it their way. Sedition Act 1948! In February, APA’s Council of Representatives adopted the task force’s policy and research recommendations to help counter the potential harmful effects of advertising on children, particularly children ages 8 and younger who lack the cognitive ability to recognize advertising’s persuasive intent. With this latest move, APA joins the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Kaiser Family Foundation and several other organizations that have recently suggested similar policies. And, APA has been making strides in getting some of the task force’s recommendations put into action. Among its recommendations, the task force calls for advocacy efforts for legislation to restrict advertising targeted to children 8 years old and younger and for conducting more research showing the influence advertising has on young children (see sidebar for the full list of recommendations). So far, APA’s Public Policy office has met with members of methodology dissertation Congress, the Federal Trade Commission and the Federal Communications Commission to address advertising’s effects on children. APA also plans to co-sponsor a briefing in Washington, D.C., this month with Children Now and the American Academy of Pediatrics about child-oriented ads delivered through digital media and sedition, multicasting technologies. The task force report, with its empirically based recommendations, is helping to guide such advocacy efforts and to do the same for research–both major goals, says APA Board of Directors member Barry Anton, PhD, who is also a member of APA’s Council of Representatives. “We can use it to advocate to the balfour report, state legislators, organizations and foundations, and we can use the task force report as a way to request funding for research,” says Anton, who chaired a subsequent task force on children and sedition, adolescents. Ultimately, such efforts aim to spotlight the question of fairness in sonet 130 child-directed advertising, says Dale Kunkel, PhD, senior author of the task force’s report and professor of communication at the University of California, Santa Barbara. “Is it fair to allow advertising to an audience that is too young to recognize commercial messages are biased and have a persuasive intent?” Advertising effects. Certainly the messages’ power of persuasion is compelling, the task force found. Act 1948! Studies cited in the report have shown that after just one exposure to a commercial, children can recall the ad’s content and have a desire for the product. Some messages may influence children’s behavior too, says Brian Wilcox, PhD, chair of the task force, which formed in 2000 to conduct an extensive literature review of advertising’s effects on children. For example, research has shown that child-directed ads for healthy foods can lose their effectiveness when children view ads for snack foods in dissertation the same sitting. Indeed, some researchers speculate that advertising geared to children–which largely consists of ads for sugary cereals, candy and act 1948, fast-food restaurants–may be contributing to the increase in childhood obesity by promoting unhealthy foods. Plus, studies suggest that eating habits formed during childhood can persist throughout life, according to the report. Also of concern is the “privatization” in children’s media consumption, with a growing number of young children using the Internet and watching televisions in their bedrooms, where no one is present to explain what they are viewing or reading, according to the report. That lack of adult interpretation is a concern because young children tend to accept ads as fair, accurate, balanced and truthful, Kunkel says. Sumerian! “They don’t see the exaggeration or the bias that underlies the claims,” he says. “To young children, advertising is just as credible as Dan Rather reading the evening news is to an adult.” For children to critically process ads, they must be able to discriminate between commercial and noncommercial content and identify advertising’s persuasive intent, the report notes. Sedition Act 1948! Particularly alarming to the task force is that commercials also often use psychological research to make their messages more powerful. For example, they draw from new international division of labor, developmental psychology principles to build campaigns that persuade children they need a product and to nag their parents to buy it. In addition, advertisers often use characters and celebrities–such as from shows like “SpongeBob SquarePants” or “Blues Clues”–or premium gimmicks to reel in sedition act 1948 children. Increasing efforts. Psychologists can help parents and their children get wise to such advertiser strategies–particularly in spain essay the schools, says task force member Edward Palmer, PhD, who has been studying advertising’s effects on children for the past 30 years. In fact, even as schools themselves have become a venue for advertisers, little research has explored whether school-based ads distract students from learning or intensify pressure on them to buy, he adds. Sedition! “Psychologists are also needed to help educate educators about this problem,” says Palmer, a professor of psychology at Davidson College in Davidson, N.C. For example, he says, psychologists can create media literacy interventions to spain essay, help children understand the persuasive intent of ads. “I hope psychologists mount a public-information campaign so that the various stakeholders understand these issues–especially parents, teachers and legislators,” adds task force member Joanne Cantor, PhD, professor emerita at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Advertising has changed tremendously in the past few decades as it has increasingly turned to younger audiences, Wilcox notes, such as using the act 1948, Internet to reach children in spain essay subtle ways like through the games they play. “The user is sometimes not even aware of the marketing effort and advertising undertaking,” Wilcox says. “Advertisers and act 1948, marketers are very sophisticated in using advertising to reach children.” However, virtually no research exists on methodology dissertation, the use of sedition act 1948 Internet interactivity to reach children, he says. Spain Essay! He notes that a growing number of parents support psychology’s involvement in act 1948 filling that gap–in exploring the effects of such ads and curbing them. “When I talk to parents they are quite concerned about advertising’s effects on their children, says Wilcox, professor of psychology and director of the Center on Individual Essay, Children, Families and sedition act 1948, the Law at report, the University of Nebraska. “They have to live with children making unreasonable purchasing requests from the sedition, advertisements they see–toys they want, food that is not good for them. This can be difficult for parents to manage.” Child psychologist Allen D. The Balfour! Kanner, PhD, who consulted with the task force and played a part in its formation, agrees. Kanner says he has noticed more of his young clients interested in money and asking parents for products they see advertised. “The materialistic shift happening in sedition our society is having an enormous impact and major influence on sumerian, children’s lives that is highly psychological in nature,” Kanner says. “It needs to be a focus of our profession right now.” Advertising is hardly a recent human endeavor; archaeologists have uncovered signs advertising property for rent dating back to ancient Rome and Pompeii. Act 1948! Town criers were another early form of advertising. As an industry, advertising did not take off until the arrival of the various mass media: printing, radio, and television. Nevertheless, concerns over advertising targeting children preceded both radio and television. The British Parliament passed legislation in 1874 intended to protect children from the efforts of report merchants to induce them to sedition, buy products and assume debt. Commercial appeals to children, however, did not become commonplace until the advent and dissertation, widespread adoption of television and sedition, grew exponentially with the advent of cable television, which allowed programmers to develop entire channels of child-oriented programming and advertising. Opportunities to sonet 130, advertise to children further expanded with the explosive growth of the Internet, and thousands of child-oriented Web sites with advertising content have appeared in the past few years. Compounding the growth in channels for advertising targeting children has been another development: the privatization of children’s media use. Sedition Act 1948! A recent study found that a majority of dissertation all U.S. children have televisions in sedition act 1948 their bedrooms. Many children also have unsupervised access to computers, meaning that much of the media (and advertising) content that children view is in contexts absent parental monitoring and supervision. These two trends—the growth in advertising channels reaching children and the privatization of children’s media use—have resulted in a dramatic increase in advertising directly intended for the eyes and dissertation, ears of children. It is estimated that advertisers spend more than $12 billion per year to reach the youth market and sedition act 1948, that children view more than 40,000 commercials each year. These figures represent dramatic increases over those from the 1970s. The Task Force on Advertising and Children, responding to its charge, began by reviewing research on the impact of advertising on children, 2 with particular attention given both to the implications of children’s cognitive development for understanding the potential effects of exposure to advertising and to specific harms that might result from exposure to advertising. Spain Essay! There is a substantial body of sedition act 1948 scientific evidence addressing all of these basic issues. In contrast, concerns about spain essay advertising that have emerged as a result of new and changing technological capabilities, such as interactive forms of advertising and commercial Web sites targeting children, have yet to attract almost any empirical study. Consequently, our research review and conclusions are largely confined to more traditional advertising approaches, although we identify the issues in sedition need of further research investigation within our final recommendations. The task force reviewed research addressing two important types of questions regarding the effects of advertising on children. First, does advertising affect children’s commercial recall and product preferences? If not, the $12 billion spent annually by advertisers in commercial appeals to sumerian government, children would represent a surprisingly poor investment. Sedition Act 1948! Second, does exposure to government, advertising result in consumption of products that are inimical to the health and well-being of children? For example, does advertising play a role in the overconsumption of candy and sugared cereals or in underage drinking of alcoholic beverages? Research on children’s commercial recall and product preferences confirms that advertising typically achieves its intended effects. A variety of studies using differing methodologies find that children recall content from the ads to which they’ve been exposed. Product preference has been shown to occur with as little as a single commercial exposure and to strengthen with repeated exposures. Most importantly, studies have shown that product preferences affect children’s product purchase requests and that these requests do influence parents’ purchasing decisions. The more fundamental concern regarding the effects of advertising on sedition act 1948, children relates to questions of potential harm resulting from exposure. A variety of research findings are relevant to methodology dissertation, this issue. Sedition! Several studies, for the balfour report example, have found that parent–child conflicts occur commonly when parents deny their children’s product purchase requests that were precipitated by advertising. Considerable research has examined advertising’s cumulative effect on children’s eating habits. Studies have documented that a high percentage of advertisements targeting children feature candy, fast foods, and snacks and act 1948, that exposure to such advertising increases consumption of these products. While consumption of sonet 130 nonnutritious foods per se may not be harmful, overconsumption of these products, particularly to sedition, the exclusion of healthier food, is linked to obesity and spain essay, poorer health. Several studies have found strong associations between increases in sedition advertising for nonnutritious foods and rates of childhood obesity. A variety of studies have found a substantial relationship between children’s viewing of tobacco and alcohol ads and positive attitudes toward consumption of such products. Sonet 130! Children find many such commercials attractive (e.g., Joe Camel, the Budweiser frogs) and consequently have high brand awareness of such products and positive attitudes toward them. These products and their spokes-characters have been found to be featured in programming and publications frequently viewed by minors, and sedition, reviews of this research (including the spain essay, Surgeon General’s analysis) conclude that advertising of sedition them contributes to youth smoking and methodology, drinking. Critics have also expressed concern regarding the prevalence of sedition advertising of dissertation violent media, such as movies and sedition act 1948, video games, targeting children. Three reports by the Federal Trade Commission found considerable support for such charges, and while studies have not directly assessed the impact of such advertising, it is methodology dissertation highly likely that such ads do affect children’s media preferences. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Effects Of Advertisement On Children. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Effects Of Advertisement On Children. In 2004 alone, the U.S. advertising industry spent £7 billion on commercials targeting children — which makes business sense, considering that kids make up a massive consumer base, using their… How Media effects Teenagers and Children. In a matter of seconds, most children can mimic a movie or TV character, sing an advertising jingle, or give examples of what they have learned from the media. Sadly,… How television effects children. When I was 2 years old, my family had the first TV. Since that time, television had become an inseparable thing in my life. In my memory, if I wanted… What Are the Hidden Messages Behind the Bacardi Limon Advertisement? With increased industrialization and sedition act 1948, various production machines, products that are available in All Students' Individual Essay the market are getting more numerous and diversified. In order to compete for a share of the consumer… Positive effects of television on act 1948, young children. Television is constantly being criticised as being bad for methodology children. One of the first arguments to come up is the effect that violent TV has on children. It is a… Negative Effects Of Junk Food Health Essay. Though your children may ask for junk food because they like the sedition act 1948, taste or because their friends are eating it, you undoubtedly already know that junk food can have negative…

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Things Fall Apart: Examining Literary Merit. by Feross Aboukhadijeh. In Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, the reader is taken on a literary journey to sedition act 1948, a Nigerian tribe, the Umuofia, to experience first-hand the struggles of a warrior named Okonkwo. At first glance, the Challenging All Students' Individual Needs Essay novel appears to be written for a very specific audience: scholars familiar with Nigerian history, traditions, and culture. However, upon further examination the act 1948 novel reveals itself to be a striking chronicle of human experiences, universal themes, and timeless struggles that appeal to every human, regardless of familiarity with Nigerian culture. Taken as a whole, the novel appears to be much more than the sum of its parts: syntax, diction, figurative language, imagery, repetition, and dissertation, symbols. Things Fall Apart is a novel with literary merit—and lots of it. Part of the novel’s appeal lies in its compelling themes which strike chords that resound throughout time and across linguistic barriers. The clash of cultures, the act 1948 struggle with change, and fatal character flaws are the main themes which Achebe’s novel probes. Division Of Labor? In order to sculpt a literary monument to sedition act 1948, the human condition and these universal themes, the author, Achebe, employs a broad variety of literary tools. Literary devices play a crucial role in enhancing the novel’s main themes and earning Things Fall Apart its widespread acceptance as a quality piece of literature. The clash of cultures is undoubtedly one of the Challenging Needs most universal themes seen in sedition act 1948 literature. This cultural clash can be seen throughout life and history anytime two groups of dissertation, people hold differing views that cannot coexist. Even today, Western and Eastern cultures—the U.S. and China are one example; the Palestinians and Israelis are another—continue their struggles to reconcile dissimilar beliefs through negotiation, and in some cases, armed conflict. Similarly, the European missionaries and the native Umuofians struggle to coexist peacefully. However, the relationship between the Europeans and the Umuofians is one-sided. When the Europeans arrived in Umuofia, they brought Christianity with them but did not foist it upon anyone; joining the church was entirely optional. Sedition? But over time, the missionaries became increasingly aggressive—even hostile—to the native Umuofian beliefs and culture. Sumerian? Slowly, the Europeans erode the native beliefs and come to dominate the native society. Achebe expresses the effects of the missionaries clearly through the repeated imagery of the tribal drums. Sedition? The signature Umuofian drums are heard many times throughout the story—until the Europeans arrive in the tribe—after which the drums are heard no more. The tribal drums are a symbol of tribal unity. “The drums were still beating, persistent and the balfour report, unchanging. Their sound was no longer a separate thing from the sedition act 1948 living village. It was like the pulsation of its heart. It throbbed in the air, in the sunshine, and even in the trees, and filled the village with excitement” (44). Any time Achebe mentions the sound of the drums, Umuofian society is functioning properly. Every clansman knew his place and purpose in life; the tribe worked together, functioning as a single unit. Indeed, the drums seemed to have Umuofia under a spell. “Old men nodded to the beat of the drums and remembered . New International? . . its intoxicating rhythm” (47). Act 1948? However, the constant repetition of the drum imagery before the European missionaries arrive stands in stark contrast to the lack of drums throughout the latter half of the novel. After the Christian missionaries arrive in Umuofia, they immediately begin to evangelize the locals. One method they used to captivate the tribesmen was to sing hymns. “Then the dissertation missionaries burst into song. It was one of sedition, those gay and rollicking tunes of evangelism which had the power of plucking at silent and the balfour, dusty chords in act 1948 the heart of an Ibo man” (146). And pluck at Umuofian hearts the missionaries did. New International? Achebe uses imagery of the “silent” and “dusty” Umuofian man’s heart being quenched by the Christian music to act 1948, demonstrate the European point-of-view. Government? No doubt, the missionaries believed that they were bringing salvation (water) to a savage people (living in the desert). When Okonkwo returns from his seven year exile, he finds the Europeans dominating Umuofian culture—even controlling the Umuofian government. The tribal unity has been shattered. Family ties—once so important in Umuofian society—are now nearly meaningless. In this clash between tradition and change, change was the clear-cut winner. In addition to cultural clash, Achebe explores the theme of masculinity versus femininity, and in doing so, reveals Okonkwo’s fatal character flaw: hyper-masculinity. Okonkwo is motivated by a desire to prove himself superior to his father, who was cowardly and irresponsible and died a poor man with many unpaid debts. He viewed his father as overly pensive, slow to act, and effeminate (womanly). Therefore, Okonkwo adopts opposite traits; Okonkwo is rash, quick to act, and excessively violent (Okonkwo associates violence with masculinity). Achebe uses figurative language like metaphors and similes to compare Okonkwo to a fire. “. . . Okonkwo's fame had grown like a bush-fire in the harmattan . . .” (1). Act 1948? Okonkwo gained power and importance in Umuofian society by methodology dissertation burning lesser people as fuel. Sedition? Just like a brush-fire, Okonkwo’s fame, importance, and prestige grew stronger the longer he burned. He continued to burn strong into adulthood. Government? “. . . [The drums] filled him with fire as it had always done from his youth. He trembled with the desire to conquer and subdue” (42). Okonkwo’s inner fire is what allowed him to sedition, conquer Umuofian society and rise above the disgrace of his father. As his fame and popularity increased, Okonkwo pursued his ideal of masculinity. Okonkwo constantly distanced himself from anything even remotely feminine. He constantly reminded himself of his masculinity and strove to make sure all his clansmen knew of the balfour, it as well. “Okonkwo was popularly called the ‘Roaring Flame.’ As he looked into the log fire he recalled the sedition name. He was a flaming fire” (153). The metaphor of fire is perfect to describe Okonkwo’s character, and yields a deep analysis of sonet 130, human feelings and personality. Like a fire, Okonkwo is violent, and burns whatever he touches. In many cases, he “burns” his own family. Throughout the sedition novel, Okonkwo nags on his wives and son, beats his family, and kills three innocent people—not to spain essay, mention himself, as well. In many cases, he hurts his family for sedition, trivial reasons. Sonet 130? For instance, Okonkwo chastised and beat his son, Nwoye, for merely listening to his mother’s stories. He beat Nwoye again when he discovered him helping women with their household tasks. Okonkwo saw within Nwoye the same “effeminate” essence of his the act 1948 father whom he hates so much. Although Okonkwo’s fiery personality is what allowed him to succeed in Umuofian society, his destructive nature also led to his eventual suicide. As the Europeans gained influence and government, political clout in sedition the Umuofian government, Okonkwo saw his own power and influence at risk. When the Europeans finally succeed in taking control of the government, then Okonkwo—like a fire without any fuel—dies, a victim of his own nature. And this is the beauty of Achebe’s fire metaphor, which is seen throughout the novel. Ultimately, the success of Things Fall Apart as a novel of literary merit is due to Achebe’s use of universal literary themes like self-exploration, change, tradition, cultural clash, and masculinity versus femininity. No matter what language is spoken by the reader or what time period they come from, Achebe’s writing about the human experience is relevant and sumerian government, meaningful. Of course, not all scholars agree with the assertion that Things Fall Apart has literary merit. However, this is not important. Achebe’s skillful use of literary devices like metaphor, simile, imagery, and repetition demonstrate the quality of writing. Achebe’s understanding of the “human experience” demonstrates the relevance of theme. And the number of copies of the novel sold (over two million worldwide) demonstrates the universality of the sedition act 1948 story. Government? It is safe to say that Things Fall Apart has earned widespread acceptance as a quality piece of sedition act 1948, literature. You just finished Sample Literary Devices Essay - "Things Fall Apart" . Challenging All Students' Individual? Nice work! Tip: Use ← → keys to navigate! 238,604 views (134 views per day) Posted 5 years ago. Well done is better than well said. Benjamin Franklin. That's easy — it's the best way to study for AP classes and AP exams! StudyNotes offers fast, free study tools for AP students . Act 1948? Our AP study guides, practice tests, and notes are the best on the web because they're contributed by students and teachers like yourself. Always 100% free.