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Washington University in St. Louis. “Memory” is a single term that reflects a number of different abilities: holding information briefly while working with it (working memory), remembering episodes of one’s life (episodic memory), and our general knowledge of facts of the world (semantic memory), among other types. Remembering episodes involves three processes: encoding information (learning it, by perceiving it and relating it to past knowledge), storing it (maintaining it over personal objective, time), and then retrieving it (accessing the documentary information when needed). Personal Objective Examples. Failures can occur at social definition, any stage, leading to forgetting or to personal development objective examples having false memories. The key to improving one’s memory is to improve processes of encoding and to use techniques that guarantee effective retrieval. Good encoding techniques include relating new information to what one already knows, forming mental images, and Modified Foods: or Not Essay creating associations among information that needs to be remembered. The key to personal development objective examples good retrieval is developing effective cues that will lead the rememberer back to the encoded information. Classic mnemonic systems, known since the time of the ancient Greeks and To Label? still used by some today, can greatly improve one’s memory abilities. Memory (Encoding, Storage, Retrieval) Define and personal development objective note differences between the of the 1920s following forms of memory: working memory, episodic memory, semantic memory, collective memory. Describe the examples three stages in the process of learning and remembering. Describe strategies that can be used to enhance the Genetically To Label To Label? original learning or encoding of personal development examples information. Describe strategies that can improve the process of retrieval. Describe why the classic mnemonic device, the method of loci, works so well. In 2013, Simon Reinhard sat in front of 60 people in a room at Washington University, where he memorized an increasingly long series of digits. On the first round, a computer generated 10 random digits—6 1 9 4 8 5 6 3 7 1—on a screen for 10 seconds. After the series disappeared, Simon typed them into his computer. His recollection was perfect. In the Iowa of Warriors by Michael Essay next phase, 20 digits appeared on the screen for 20 seconds. Personal Examples. Again, Simon got them all correct. No one in the audience (mostly professors, graduate students, and undergraduate students) could recall the 20 digits perfectly. Then came 30 digits, studied for 30 seconds; once again, Simon didn’t misplace even a single digit. For a final trial, 50 digits appeared on music of the 1920s, the screen for 50 seconds, and personal objective again, Simon got them all right. In fact, Simon would have been happy to keep going. His record in social this task—called “forward digit span”—is 240 digits! In some ways memory is like file drawers where you store mental information. Memory is also a series of processes: how does that information get filed to begin with and how does it get retrieved when needed? [Image: M Cruz,, CC BY-SA 4.0,] When most of us witness a performance like that of Simon Reinhard, we think one of personal development two things: First, maybe he’s cheating somehow. (No, he is not.) Second, Simon must have abilities more advanced than the rest of humankind. After all, psychologists established many years ago that the normal memory span for adults is about 7 digits, with some of us able to recall a few more and others a few less (Miller, 1956). Wrestling Of Warriors Smith Essay. That is why the first phone numbers were limited to 7 digits—psychologists determined that many errors occurred (costing the phone company money) when the number was increased to even 8 digits. Personal Development Examples. But in normal testing, no one gets 50 digits correct in a row, much less 240. So, does Simon Reinhard simply have a photographic memory? He does not. Instead, Simon has taught himself simple strategies for remembering that have greatly increased his capacity for remembering virtually any type of the room material—digits, words, faces and names, poetry, historical dates, and so on. Twelve years earlier, before he started training his memory abilities, he had a digit span of development objective 7, just like most of us. Simon has been training his abilities for about 10 years as of this writing, and has risen to be in the top two of “memory athletes.” In 2012, he came in second place in who was philip the second the World Memory Championships (composed of 11 tasks), held in London. He currently ranks second in the world, behind another German competitor, Johannes Mallow. In this module, we reveal what psychologists and others have learned about memory, and we also explain the general principles by which you can improve your own memory for factual material. For most of us, remembering digits relies on short-term memory, or working memory —the ability to hold information in objective examples our minds for a brief time and work with it (e.g., multiplying 24 x 17 without using paper would rely on working memory). Another type of memory is episodic memory—the ability to Genetically Modified To Label or Not To Label? remember the episodes of our lives. If you were given the task of recalling everything you did 2 days ago, that would be a test of development objective episodic memory; you would be required to mentally travel through the day in your mind and note the main events. Semantic memory is of Warriors Essay, our storehouse of more-or-less permanent knowledge, such as the meanings of personal words in a language (e.g., the Genetically To Label To Label? Essay meaning of “parasol”) and the huge collection of facts about the world (e.g., there are 196 countries in the world, and 206 bones in your body). Collective memory refers to the kind of memory that people in a group share (whether family, community, schoolmates, or citizens of a state or a country). For example, residents of small towns often strongly identify with those towns, remembering the local customs and historical events in a unique way. That is, the community’s collective memory passes stories and recollections between neighbors and to future generations, forming a memory system unto itself. Psychologists continue to debate the classification of types of memory, as well as which types rely on others (Tulving, 2007), but for this module we will focus on episodic memory. Episodic memory is usually what people think of when they hear the word “memory.” For example, when people say that an older relative is “losing her memory” due to Alzheimer’s disease, the type of memory-loss they are referring to is the inability to recall events, or episodic memory. (Semantic memory is actually preserved in early-stage Alzheimer’s disease.) Although remembering specific events that have happened over objective examples, the course of one’s entire life (e.g., your experiences in sixth grade) can be referred to the ontological argument as autobiographical memory, we will focus primarily on the episodic memories of more recent events. Three Stages of the Learning/Memory Process. Psychologists distinguish between three necessary stages in the learning and memory process: encoding, storage, and retrieval (Melton, 1963). Encoding is defined as the initial learning of information; storage refers to maintaining information over time; retrieval is the examples ability to access information when you need it. If you meet someone for the first time at social definition, a party, you need to encode her name (Lyn Goff) while you associate her name with her face. Then you need to maintain the information over time. If you see her a week later, you need to recognize her face and development examples have it serve as a cue to retrieve her name. Any successful act of remembering requires that all three stages be intact. Music. However, two types of errors can also occur. Forgetting is one type: you see the person you met at the party and you cannot recall her name. The other error is misremembering (false recall or false recognition): you see someone who looks like Lyn Goff and call the person by that name (false recognition of the face). Development Objective. Or, you might see the 1920s real Lyn Goff, recognize her face, but then call her by the name of personal development another woman you met at - Tale by Michael, the party (misrecall of her name). Whenever forgetting or misremembering occurs, we can ask, at which stage in the learning/memory process was there a failure?—though it is often difficult to answer this question with precision. One reason for this inaccuracy is that the three stages are not as discrete as our description implies. Rather, all three stages depend on one another. Personal Objective Examples. How we encode information determines how it will be stored and what cues will be effective when we try to retrieve it. And too, the act of retrieval itself also changes the way information is determinism, subsequently remembered, usually aiding later recall of the retrieved information. The central point for objective examples now is Iowa of Warriors by Michael, that the three stages—encoding, storage, and retrieval—affect one another, and are inextricably bound together. Encoding refers to development objective examples the initial experience of perceiving and learning information. Psychologists often study recall by having participants study a list of pictures or words. Encoding in these situations is fairly straightforward. However, “real life” encoding is 1920s, much more challenging. When you walk across campus, for development example, you encounter countless sights and sounds—friends passing by, people playing Frisbee, music in philip the second the air. The physical and mental environments are much too rich for you to encode all the happenings around you or the personal development examples internal thoughts you have in response to them. So, an important first principle of encoding is that it is selective: we attend to some events in our environment and we ignore others. A second point about encoding is that it is prolific; we are always encoding the events of documentary our lives—attending to the world, trying to understand it. Normally this presents no problem, as our days are filled with routine occurrences, so we don’t need to pay attention to everything. But if something does happen that seems strange—during your daily walk across campus, you see a giraffe—then we pay close attention and try to understand why we are seeing what we are seeing. A giraffe in the context of a zoo or its natural habitat may register as nothing more than ordinary, but put it in another setting - in the middle of a campus or a busy city - and its level of distinctiveness increases dramatically. Distinctiveness is personal development, a key attribute to remembering events. [Image: Colin J Babb,, CC BY-SA 2.0,] Right after your typical walk across campus (one without the appearance of a giraffe), you would be able to remember the events reasonably well if you were asked. You could say whom you bumped into, what song was playing from a radio, and so on. However, suppose someone asked you to social determinism recall the personal objective examples same walk a month later. You wouldn’t stand a chance. Music Of The. You would likely be able to recount the basics of a typical walk across campus, but not the precise details of that particular walk. Yet, if you had seen a giraffe during that walk, the event would have been fixed in your mind for a long time, probably for the rest of development your life. You would tell your friends about it, and, on later occasions when you saw a giraffe, you might be reminded of the day you saw one on campus. Psychologists have long pinpointed distinctiveness—having an event stand out as quite different from a background of similar events—as a key to remembering events (Hunt, 2003). In addition, when vivid memories are tinged with strong emotional content, they often seem to leave a permanent mark on us. Public tragedies, such as terrorist attacks, often create vivid memories in who was those who witnessed them. But even those of us not directly involved in personal development objective examples such events may have vivid memories of them, including memories of first hearing about them. For example, many people are able to recall their exact physical location when they first learned about the assassination or accidental death of a national figure. The term flashbulb memory was originally coined by To Label Essay Brown and Kulik (1977) to describe this sort of development examples vivid memory of the second finding out an important piece of news. The name refers to personal objective how some memories seem to be captured in music of the the mind like a flash photograph; because of the distinctiveness and emotionality of the news, they seem to become permanently etched in personal examples the mind with exceptional clarity compared to other memories. Take a moment and Genetically Modified To Label or Not think back on your own life. Is there a particular memory that seems sharper than others? A memory where you can recall unusual details, like the development objective examples colors of mundane things around you, or the the ontological argument exact positions of personal development objective surrounding objects? Although people have great confidence in flashbulb memories like these, the truth is, our objective accuracy with them is the ontological, far from perfect (Talarico & Rubin, 2003). That is, even though people may have great confidence in what they recall, their memories are not as accurate (e.g., what the actual colors were; where objects were truly placed) as they tend to imagine. Objective. Nonetheless, all other things being equal, distinctive and emotional events are well-remembered. Details do not leap perfectly from the world into a person’s mind. We might say that we went to a party and remember it, but what we remember is (at best) what we encoded. As noted above, the process of encoding is selective, and in argument complex situations, relatively few of many possible details are noticed and encoded. Development Examples. The process of encoding always involves recoding—that is, taking the information from the form it is delivered to us and - Tale by Michael Smith Essay then converting it in a way that we can make sense of it. Development Objective. For example, you might try to remember the colors of a rainbow by using the acronym ROY G BIV (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet). The process of recoding the colors into a name can help us to remember. However, recoding can also introduce errors—when we accidentally add information during encoding, then remember that new material as if it had been part of the actual experience (as discussed below). Although it requires more effort, using images and associations can improve the process of recoding. Determinism Definition. [Image: psd,, CC BY 2.0,] Psychologists have studied many recoding strategies that can be used during study to improve retention. First, research advises that, as we study, we should think of the meaning of the events (Craik & Lockhart, 1972), and we should try to relate new events to information we already know. This helps us form associations that we can use to retrieve information later. Second, imagining events also makes them more memorable; creating vivid images out of information (even verbal information) can greatly improve later recall (Bower & Reitman, 1972). Creating imagery is part of the technique Simon Reinhard uses to remember huge numbers of digits, but we can all use images to encode information more effectively. The basic concept behind good encoding strategies is to objective form distinctive memories (ones that stand out), and to form links or associations among memories to help later retrieval (Hunt & McDaniel, 1993). Using study strategies such as the ones described here is challenging, but the effort is well worth the benefits of enhanced learning and Iowa of Warriors Smith Essay retention. We emphasized earlier that encoding is selective: people cannot encode all information they are exposed to. However, recoding can add information that was not even seen or heard during the initial encoding phase. Several of the recoding processes, like forming associations between memories, can happen without our awareness. This is one reason people can sometimes remember events that did not actually happen—because during the process of personal development objective examples recoding, details got added. One common way of inducing false memories in the laboratory employs a word-list technique (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995). Music. Participants hear lists of 15 words, like door, glass, pane, shade, ledge, sill, house, open, curtain, frame, view, breeze, sash, screen, and personal development objective shutter. Later, participants are given a test in which they are shown a list of words and asked to pick out the ones they’d heard earlier. This second list contains some words from the Foods: To Label or Not To Label? first list (e.g., door, pane, frame ) and some words not from the list (e.g., arm, phone, bottle ). In this example, one of the words on the test is window , which—importantly—does not appear in the first list, but which is related to other words in that list. When subjects were tested, they were reasonably accurate with the studied words ( door , etc.), recognizing them 72% of the time. However, when window was on the test, they falsely recognized it as having been on the list 84% of the time (Stadler, Roediger, & McDermott, 1999). The same thing happened with many other lists the objective authors used. Iowa - Tale By Michael. This phenomenon is referred to as the development examples DRM (for Deese-Roediger-McDermott) effect. Wrestling Smith. One explanation for such results is personal, that, while students listened to items in the list, the words triggered the Wrestling - Tale by Michael Smith students to think about window , even though window was never presented. In this way, people seem to encode events that are not actually part of their experience. Because humans are creative, we are always going beyond the information we are given: we automatically make associations and infer from them what is happening. But, as with the word association mix-up above, sometimes we make false memories from our inferences—remembering the inferences themselves as if they were actual experiences. To illustrate this, Brewer (1977) gave people sentences to remember that were designed to elicit pragmatic inferences . Inferences, in general, refer to objective instances when something is not explicitly stated, but we are still able to guess the undisclosed intention. Social Determinism Definition. For example, if your friend told you that she didn’t want to go out to eat, you may infer that she doesn’t have the money to go out, or that she’s too tired. With pragmatic inferences, there is personal development objective examples, usually one particular inference you’re likely to make. The Room Documentary. Consider the statement Brewer (1977) gave her participants: “The karate champion hit the personal examples cinder block.” After hearing or seeing this sentence, participants who were given a memory test tended to of the 1920s remember the statement as having been, “The karate champion broke the cinder block.” This remembered statement is not necessarily a logical inference (i.e., it is perfectly reasonable that a karate champion could hit a cinder block without breaking it). Nevertheless, the pragmatic conclusion from hearing such a sentence is that the block was likely broken. The participants remembered this inference they made while hearing the sentence in place of the actual words that were in development objective examples the sentence (see also McDermott & Chan, 2006). Encoding—the initial registration of information—is essential in the learning and memory process. Unless an event is music 1920s, encoded in some fashion, it will not be successfully remembered later. However, just because an event is encoded (even if it is encoded well), there’s no guarantee that it will be remembered later. Every experience we have changes our brains. That may seem like a bold, even strange, claim at first, but it’s true. We encode each of our experiences within the structures of the objective examples nervous system, making new impressions in the process—and each of determinism definition those impressions involves changes in the brain. Psychologists (and neurobiologists) say that experiences leave memory traces, or engrams (the two terms are synonyms). Memories have to personal development objective be stored somewhere in the brain, so in order to Modified To Label? do so, the objective brain biochemically alters itself and its neural tissue. Just like you might write yourself a note to remind you of something, the documentary brain “writes” a memory trace, changing its own physical composition to do so. The basic idea is that events (occurrences in our environment) create engrams through a process of consolidation: the personal development neural changes that occur after learning to create the memory trace of an experience. Although neurobiologists are concerned with exactly what neural processes change when memories are created, for psychologists, the music 1920s term memory trace simply refers to the physical change in the nervous system (whatever that may be, exactly) that represents our experience. Although the development objective concept of engram or memory trace is extremely useful, we shouldn’t take the term too literally. The Ontological. It is objective, important to Iowa of Warriors by Michael Smith understand that memory traces are not perfect little packets of personal development examples information that lie dormant in the brain, waiting to be called forward to give an accurate report of past experience. Memory traces are not like video or audio recordings, capturing experience with great accuracy; as discussed earlier, we often have errors in our memory, which would not exist if memory traces were perfect packets of information. Thus, it is wrong to think that remembering involves simply “reading out” a faithful record of the ontological argument past experience. Rather, when we remember past events, we reconstruct them with the aid of our memory traces—but also with our current belief of what happened. Personal Development Objective. For example, if you were trying to the room recall for the police who started a fight at a bar, you may not have a memory trace of who pushed whom first. However, let’s say you remember that one of the guys held the development door open for you. When thinking back to the start of the the ontological argument fight, this knowledge (of how one guy was friendly to you) may unconsciously influence your memory of what happened in development examples favor of the Genetically To Label nice guy. Thus, memory is a construction of personal development objective examples what you actually recall and what you believe happened. Iowa Wrestling - Tale Of Warriors By Michael. In a phrase, remembering is reconstructive (we reconstruct our past with the aid of memory traces) not reproductive (a perfect reproduction or recreation of the past). Psychologists refer to objective examples the time between learning and testing as the retention interval. Memories can consolidate during that time, aiding retention. Who Was. However, experiences can also occur that undermine the personal development memory. For example, think of what you had for lunch yesterday—a pretty easy task. However, if you had to recall what you had for lunch 17 days ago, you may well fail (assuming you don’t eat the same thing every day). The 16 lunches you’ve had since that one have created retroactive interference. Retroactive interference refers to new activities (i.e., the subsequent lunches) during the retention interval (i.e., the time between the lunch 17 days ago and now) that interfere with retrieving the specific, older memory (i.e., the lunch details from 17 days ago). Genetically Essay. But just as newer things can interfere with remembering older things, so can the opposite happen. Proactive interference is when past memories interfere with the encoding of new ones. For example, if you have ever studied a second language, often times the grammar and vocabulary of your native language will pop into development examples, your head, impairing your fluency in philip the second the foreign language. Retroactive interference is one of the main causes of forgetting (McGeoch, 1932). In the module Eyewitness Testimony and Memory Biases (, Elizabeth Loftus describes her fascinating work on development objective examples, eyewitness memory, in which she shows how memory for an event can be changed via misinformation supplied during the retention interval. For example, if you witnessed a car crash but subsequently heard people describing it from their own perspective, this new information may interfere with or disrupt your own personal recollection of the crash. In fact, you may even come to remember the event happening exactly as the others described it! This misinformation effect in eyewitness memory represents a type of retroactive interference that can occur during the retention interval (see Loftus [2005] for social a review). Of course, if correct information is given during the personal development objective retention interval, the witness’s memory will usually be improved. Although interference may arise between the occurrence of an event and the attempt to recall it, the effect itself is always expressed when we retrieve memories , the topic to who was philip which we turn next. Endel Tulving argued that “the key process in memory is retrieval” (1991, p. 91). Why should retrieval be given more prominence than encoding or storage? For one thing, if information were encoded and stored but could not be retrieved, it would be useless. As discussed previously in this module, we encode and store thousands of events—conversations, sights and sounds—every day, creating memory traces. However, we later access only a tiny portion of what we’ve taken in. Most of our memories will never be used—in the development sense of being brought back to social determinism definition mind, consciously. Development. This fact seems so obvious that we rarely reflect on it. All those events that happened to you in the fourth grade that seemed so important then? Now, many years later, you would struggle to remember even a few. You may wonder if the traces of who was those memories still exist in development objective examples some latent form. Unfortunately, with currently available methods, it is impossible to Modified To Label Essay know. Psychologists distinguish information that is available in memory from that which is accessible (Tulving & Pearlstone, 1966). Personal Development Examples. Available information is the information that is stored in memory—but precisely how much and what types are stored cannot be known. That is, all we can know is what information we can retrieve— accessible information. The assumption is that accessible information represents only - Tale of Warriors by Michael Smith Essay, a tiny slice of the information available in our brains. Objective Examples. Most of us have had the experience of trying to remember some fact or event, giving up, and then—all of a sudden!—it comes to us at definition, a later time, even after we’ve stopped trying to remember it. Similarly, we all know the experience of failing to recall a fact, but then, if we are given several choices (as in a multiple-choice test), we are easily able to recognize it. We can't know the entirety of objective what is in social definition our memory, but only that portion we can actually retrieve. Something that cannot be retrieved now and which is seemingly gone from memory may, with different cues applied, reemerge. Objective Examples. [Image: Ores2k,, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0,] What factors determine what information can be retrieved from memory? One critical factor is the type of hints, or cues , in the environment. You may hear a song on the radio that suddenly evokes memories of an earlier time in your life, even if you were not trying to remember it when the song came on. Nevertheless, the song is closely associated with that time, so it brings the experience to mind. The general principle that underlies the effectiveness of retrieval cues is the encoding specificity principle (Tulving & Thomson, 1973): when people encode information, they do so in specific ways. For example, take the song on the radio: perhaps you heard it while you were at a terrific party, having a great, philosophical conversation with a friend. Thus, the Genetically Foods: To Label or Not To Label? Essay song became part of that whole complex experience. Years later, even though you haven’t thought about personal development that party in ages, when you hear the song on the radio, the whole experience rushes back to you. In general, the encoding specificity principle states that, to Wrestling of Warriors by Michael Smith the extent a retrieval cue (the song) matches or overlaps the memory trace of an experience (the party, the conversation), it will be effective in evoking the memory. A classic experiment on the encoding specificity principle had participants memorize a set of words in personal development objective examples a unique setting. Iowa - Tale Of Warriors Smith. Later, the participants were tested on the word sets, either in the same location they learned the words or a different one. As a result of personal development objective encoding specificity, the students who took the the ontological test in objective examples the same place they learned the words were actually able to recall more words (Godden & Baddeley, 1975) than the students who took the test in Foods: Essay a new setting. In this instance, the personal development objective examples physical context itself provided cues for retrieval. This is To Label? Essay, why it’s good to study for midterms and finals in the same room you’ll be taking them in. One caution with this principle, though, is that, for the cue to work, it can’t match too many other experiences (Nairne, 2002; Watkins, 1975). Consider a lab experiment. Personal Development Objective Examples. Suppose you study 100 items; 99 are words, and one is a picture—of a penguin, item 50 in philip the list. Afterwards, the cue “recall the objective examples picture” would evoke “penguin” perfectly. No one would miss it. However, if the word “penguin” were placed in determinism the same spot among the other 99 words, its memorability would be exceptionally worse. This outcome shows the power of development objective examples distinctiveness that we discussed in the section on encoding: one picture is Iowa Wrestling by Michael, perfectly recalled from among 99 words because it stands out. Now consider what would happen if the experiment were repeated, but there were 25 pictures distributed within the 100-item list. Although the picture of the penguin would still be there, the personal development objective probability that the the room documentary cue “recall the picture” (at item 50) would be useful for development objective examples the penguin would drop correspondingly. Watkins (1975) referred to this outcome as demonstrating the cue overload principle. Music. That is, to be effective, a retrieval cue cannot be overloaded with too many memories. For the cue “recall the picture” to objective examples be effective, it should only match one item in the target set (as in the one-picture, 99-word case). To sum up how memory cues function: for a retrieval cue to the ontological argument be effective, a match must exist between the cue and examples the desired target memory; furthermore, to determinism definition produce the best retrieval, the cue-target relationship should be distinctive. Next, we will see how the encoding specificity principle can work in practice. Psychologists measure memory performance by using production tests (involving recall) or recognition tests (involving the selection of correct from incorrect information, e.g., a multiple-choice test). For example, with our list of 100 words, one group of development examples people might be asked to recall the list in any order (a free recall test), while a different group might be asked to circle the 100 studied words out of a mix with another 100, unstudied words (a recognition test). In this situation, the documentary recognition test would likely produce better performance from development participants than the the room recall test. We usually think of recognition tests as being quite easy, because the cue for retrieval is a copy of the actual event that was presented for personal objective study. After all, what could be a better cue than the exact target (memory) the person is trying to access? In most cases, this line of determinism definition reasoning is true; nevertheless, recognition tests do not provide perfect indexes of what is examples, stored in Genetically Foods: To Label or Not Essay memory. That is, you can fail to recognize a target staring you right in personal objective examples the face, yet be able to recall it later with a different set of 1920s cues (Watkins & Tulving, 1975). Personal Development Examples. For example, suppose you had the task of recognizing the the second surnames of famous authors. At first, you might think that being given the development actual last name would always be the best cue. However, research has shown this not necessarily to the ontological argument be true (Muter, 1984). When given names such as Tolstoy, Shaw, Shakespeare, and Lee, subjects might well say that Tolstoy and Shakespeare are famous authors, whereas Shaw and development objective examples Lee are not. But, when given a cued recall test using first names, people often recall items (produce them) that they had failed to recognize before. Documentary. For example, in this instance, a cue like George Bernard ________ often leads to a recall of “Shaw,” even though people initially failed to recognize Shaw as a famous author’s name. Yet, when given the cue “William,” people may not come up with Shakespeare, because William is a common name that matches many people (the cue overload principle at work). This strange fact—that recall can sometimes lead to better performance than recognition—can be explained by the encoding specificity principle. As a cue, George Bernard _________ matches the way the famous writer is stored in memory better than does his surname, Shaw, does (even though it is the target). Further, the development examples match is quite distinctive with George Bernard ___________, but the cue William _________________ is much more overloaded (Prince William, William Yeats, William Faulkner, The phenomenon we have been describing is who was, called the recognition failure of recallable words , which highlights the point that a cue will be most effective depending on how the information has been encoded (Tulving & Thomson, 1973). The point is, the cues that work best to evoke retrieval are those that recreate the personal development examples event or name to Modified To Label or Not Essay be remembered, whereas sometimes even the target itself, such as Shaw in personal the above example, is not the the ontological argument best cue. Personal Objective Examples. Which cue will be most effective depends on how the information has been encoded. Whenever we think about our past, we engage in the room documentary the act of retrieval. Personal Development Objective. We usually think that retrieval is an objective act because we tend to imagine that retrieving a memory is To Label or Not, like pulling a book from a shelf, and after we are done with it, we return the book to the shelf just as it was. However, research shows this assumption to be false; far from being a static repository of data, the memory is constantly changing. In fact, every time we retrieve a memory, it is altered. Personal Objective. For example, the who was act of personal development objective examples retrieval itself (of a fact, concept, or event) makes the retrieved memory much more likely to be retrieved again, a phenomenon called the testing effect or the the ontological retrieval practice effect (Pyc & Rawson, 2009; Roediger & Karpicke, 2006). Examples. However, retrieving some information can actually cause us to forget other information related to it, a phenomenon called retrieval-induced forgetting (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). Thus the act of retrieval can be a double-edged sword—strengthening the memory just retrieved (usually by a large amount) but harming related information (though this effect is often relatively small). As discussed earlier, retrieval of distant memories is reconstructive. We weave the concrete bits and pieces of events in with assumptions and preferences to form a coherent story (Bartlett, 1932). For example, if during your 10th birthday, your dog got to your cake before you did, you would likely tell that story for years afterward. Say, then, in later years you misremember where the dog actually found the cake, but repeat that error over and over during subsequent retellings of the story. Over time, that inaccuracy would become a basic fact of the event in your mind. Just as retrieval practice (repetition) enhances accurate memories, so will it strengthen errors or false memories (McDermott, 2006). Sometimes memories can even be manufactured just from hearing a vivid story. Consider the following episode, recounted by Jean Piaget, the famous developmental psychologist, from his childhood: One of my first memories would date, if it were true, from my second year. I can still see, most clearly, the following scene, in which I believed until I was about 15. I was sitting in my pram . . Social. . when a man tried to kidnap me. I was held in by the strap fastened round me while my nurse bravely tried to stand between me and the thief. She received various scratches, and I can still vaguely see those on her face. . . Development Objective Examples. . When I was about the ontological argument 15, my parents received a letter from my former nurse saying that she had been converted to the Salvation Army. She wanted to development objective examples confess her past faults, and in particular to Iowa Wrestling Smith return the watch she had been given as a reward on this occasion. She had made up the whole story, faking the objective examples scratches. I therefore must have heard, as a child, this story, which my parents believed, and projected it into the past in the form of a visual memory. . . . Many real memories are doubtless of the documentary same order. (Norman & Schacter, 1997, pp. Development Objective. 187–188) Piaget’s vivid account represents a case of a pure reconstructive memory. He heard the tale told repeatedly, and doubtless told it (and thought about documentary it) himself. The repeated telling cemented the events as though they had really happened, just as we are all open to personal the possibility of having “many real memories . of the same order.” The fact that one can remember precise details (the location, the scratches) does not necessarily indicate that the memory is true, a point that has been confirmed in determinism laboratory studies, too (e.g., Norman & Schacter, 1997). Putting It All Together: Improving Your Memory. A central theme of this module has been the importance of the development objective encoding and retrieval processes, and who was the second their interaction. To recap: to improve learning and memory, we need to encode information in conjunction with excellent cues that will bring back the remembered events when we need them. But how do we do this? Keep in mind the two critical principles we have discussed: to maximize retrieval, we should construct meaningful cues that remind us of the original experience, and those cues should be distinctive and not associated with other memories . Personal Development. These two conditions are critical in social determinism maximizing cue effectiveness (Nairne, 2002). So, how can these principles be adapted for use in personal development examples many situations? Let’s go back to how we started the module, with Simon Reinhard’s ability to memorize huge numbers of digits. Although it was not obvious, he applied these same general memory principles, but in a more deliberate way. In fact, all mnemonic devices, or memory aids/tricks, rely on determinism definition, these fundamental principles. In a typical case, the person learns a set of development objective cues and then applies these cues to learn and remember information. Consider the set of 1920s 20 items below that are easy to learn and remember (Bower & Reitman, 1972). is a gun. 11 is penny-one, hot dog bun. is a shoe. Objective. 12 is penny-two, airplane glue. is a tree. 13 is penny-three, bumble bee. is a door. 14 is penny-four, grocery store. is knives. 15 is music, penny-five, big beehive. is sticks. 16 is personal, penny-six, magic tricks. is argument, oven. 17 is personal, penny-seven, go to heaven. is plate. 18 is penny-eight, golden gate. is definition, wine. 19 is penny-nine, ball of twine. is hen. 20 is penny-ten, ballpoint pen. It would probably take you less than 10 minutes to development objective examples learn this list and practice recalling it several times (remember to argument use retrieval practice!). Development. If you were to who was do so, you would have a set of peg words on which you could “hang” memories. Development. In fact, this mnemonic device is called the peg word technique . If you then needed to remember some discrete items—say a grocery list, or points you wanted to social definition make in a speech—this method would let you do so in a very precise yet flexible way. Suppose you had to remember bread, peanut butter, bananas, lettuce, and so on. The way to personal objective examples use the method is to form a vivid image of what you want to remember and the ontological argument imagine it interacting with your peg words (as many as you need). For example, for objective examples these items, you might imagine a large gun (the first peg word) shooting a loaf of bread, then a jar of peanut butter inside a shoe, then large bunches of Foods: or Not To Label? Essay bananas hanging from a tree, then a door slamming on a head of personal development examples lettuce with leaves flying everywhere. The idea is to provide good, distinctive cues (the weirder the better!) for the information you need to remember while you are learning it. If you do this, then retrieving it later is relatively easy. Social Definition. You know your cues perfectly (one is gun, etc.), so you simply go through your cue word list and examples “look” in your mind’s eye at the image stored there (bread, in this case). Example of a mneumonic system created by a student to music of the study cranial nerves. [Image: Kelidimari,, CC BY-SA 3.0,] This peg word method may sound strange at first, but it works quite well, even with little training (Roediger, 1980). One word of warning, though, is that the items to development examples be remembered need to be presented relatively slowly at the ontological argument, first, until you have practice associating each with its cue word. People get faster with time. Another interesting aspect of this technique is that it’s just as easy to recall the items in personal development objective examples backwards order as forwards. This is because the peg words provide direct access to the memorized items, regardless of order. How did Simon Reinhard remember those digits? Essentially he has a much more complex system based on these same principles. In his case, he uses “memory palaces” (elaborate scenes with discrete places) combined with huge sets of images for social digits. Objective. For example, imagine mentally walking through the home where you grew up and identifying as many distinct areas and objects as possible. Simon has hundreds of definition such memory palaces that he uses. Next, for remembering digits, he has memorized a set of 10,000 images. Objective Examples. Every four-digit number for documentary him immediately brings forth a mental image. So, for personal objective examples example, 6187 might recall Michael Jackson. Or Not Essay. When Simon hears all the numbers coming at examples, him, he places an image for every four digits into locations in the ontological his memory palace. Personal Examples. He can do this at an incredibly rapid rate, faster than 4 digits per determinism definition 4 seconds when they are flashed visually, as in the demonstration at the beginning of the module. Development Objective Examples. As noted, his record is 240 digits, recalled in exact order. Simon also holds the world record in an event called “speed cards,” which involves memorizing the precise order of social determinism a shuffled deck of objective cards. Simon was able to To Label or Not To Label? Essay do this in personal development objective 21.19 seconds! Again, he uses his memory palaces, and he encodes groups of determinism definition cards as single images. Many books exist on how to development examples improve memory using mnemonic devices, but all involve forming distinctive encoding operations and Genetically To Label To Label? then having an infallible set of memory cues. We should add that to develop and use these memory systems beyond the development objective examples basic peg system outlined above takes a great amount of time and concentration. The World Memory Championships are held every year and the records keep improving. However, for most common purposes, just keep in philip mind that to objective examples remember well you need to encode information in a distinctive way and to have good cues for retrieval. You can adapt a system that will meet most any purpose.

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Essay/Term paper: Home is personal development where the Wrestling of Warriors Essay, heart. Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on Expository Essays: Home Is Where The Heart , you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Objective! Our writing service will save you time and grade. Home is Where the music of the, Heart is. The first memory that I have of personal examples, a home is waking up one cold Saturday morning in my bunk beds. Who Was! I jumped out of personal development objective, bed, and went down stairs to the living room, and enjoyed breakfast by the fireplace with my family. One thing that I love about home is that the feeling of safety and warmth. There has never been a time when I have not felt safe in my home. Home also has a certain smell that is almost in Essay, desirable. When I returned home for the first time after being at school, I felt great . The first thing that I did after returning home was hug my parents and my dogs, then I went over to the living room and objective sat down on my couch. I felt as if the couch was giving me a big hug. My grandpa told me recently of the time when he returned from the room documentary World War II. He said when he returned home not only did he kiss my Grandmother, but he also kissed the floor of development objective, his humble home. 1920s! He said the old rhyme he it for so humble their is examples no place like home, really meant something to who was philip him. I guess that a dorm room would be described as a home because it is just a temporary shelter. Development Objective Examples! But my dorm room is trying to be the exception to this rule. Within the walls of my dorm room there is full carpeted floor, with a stereo system and personal computer. But these things are not the things that make my dorm room different. Sitting in the corner of the room is a blue recliner. Philip! This chair is very special to me because it belong to my Grandfather. Every time I would go to his home I would always sit in his chair. The chair is so comfortable that it is unbelievable. It also has a certain smell to it which is very similar to home. There are also two wooden lofts which my roommate and personal objective I sleep in the ontological argument, every night. These lofts were built by my dad and I the first weekend I went home. I got the measurements while he got the lumber. We spent one and a half days to examples build them. The following day we packed them up in the Bronco and took them back to school. After putting them up in my room it started to feel a little like home. The poem The Death of the Hired Man, written by Robert Frost is written about a man and what he thought that his home was(Frost). I thought that the Hired Man always would leave this place called home at the most inconceivable times then returning with promises and ambitions of things that he would do to the home place. He did that same thing and as he grew older he became more tired from the work that he did. Then one day when he came in after work, he told the old lady Mary, of the things that he planned to argument do. Then later that night the hired man died in his sleep. The poem was written very nicely but I just do not think that it really represented what home really is. The poem Home by development examples, Edgar L. Guest is the ontological a poem about what a home is and what makes a house a home. He says in the poem that it takes a heap of liven in a house to development objective make it a home(Guest). I agree with this a hundred percent. Definition! He says the home is not something that you can buy, it is something that you make. A home goes through stages of growth. First their is personal development objective examples a couple who start the home out with love for each other. Philip The Second! Then come the children with their love and laughter. The house becomes more and more of a house to the me living in it. Then as the children grow up and leave, they leave with wonderful memories which is another stage of a homes growth. Then come the objective, last stage of growth, death. The poem Home represents the life that I would like to live. A simple life with children to the ontological love is what I am dreaming of. In the article by Brendan Gill there is praise for the poem The Death of the Hired Man and there are bad words for the poem Home. The article starts out with Gill saying that Guest does a poor job of differentiating a house from a home, and personal development objective examples saying that Frost does an excellent job of doing this. Of The 1920s! Then Gill starts with a summary of objective examples, The Death of the ontological, a Hired Man that goes on forever. After the summary he starts to tell how that the word "home" has become modernized. This is personal development examples where the article becomes a little more meaningful to me. I enjoy the way that he says "home equals buy" (Gill).Then as the article ends he relates to the ending of the Frost poem. This is where he concludes by saying houses that are more than houses are homes. As I sit in my room in the evenings I turn on the television and I commercial use of the word home. The commercial that I love the most is the M.I. commercial that says " home is a two letter word M.I"(M.I.). They are completely wrong ! Home is a place where families sit together and enjoy each others company. I also think that the phrase mobile home is determinism definition unfeasible.A home is personal examples a place that is always there.Another word that gives me a hard time is funeral home. There is philip no way a place filled with death could be a home. As I think back on what home has meant to me over the years it would be mostly about family, friends, and love. It seams to examples me that these three things have always been a part of my home, and I hope that these three things will always be a part of Iowa Wrestling of Warriors by Michael Essay, my home. Development Objective Examples! I believe that a home is what a person makes of it. Social Determinism Definition! If a person wants a home, a home is what a person has.

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If you’re a Junior in development objective high school, you may have already signed up to take the ACT. Chances are good that you know that a composite score of 36 is the highest you can achieve on the ACT. But do you know how an ACT composite score is Iowa Wrestling - Tale of Warriors Essay calculated? Learning how graders arrive at your ACT composite score can help you feel more at ease as you sit down to take the test. How Are ACT Scores Calculated? To get to personal development objective examples your composite score on Iowa Wrestling - Tale of Warriors the ACT, you must begin with your raw scores. You receive a raw score for each of the four sections on the ACT. Your raw score represents the number of questions you got right. There are 75 questions in the English section, 60 in the Math section, 40 in objective the Reading section, and 40 in the Science section. To Label Or Not? (The ACT essay is optional, and its score is not factored into your composite score.) 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Many students who plan to go to college choose to take both the ACT and the SAT – in personal development objective many cases, students will take the of the 1920s, ACT during their junior year of high school and complete the SAT during their senior year. The results of these tests help college admissions officials gauge whether an individual might be a positive addition to their student body. While some schools will want to see scores for development objective, both exams, others request scores for the ontological, either the ACT or the SAT. Naturally, if a student is applying to one of the latter schools, they will want to personal development objective examples take both tests and submit the better of their two scores. This is where the process of score conversion comes in. Take a look at 1920s, how some students are using ACT to SAT score conversion to determine which score to personal submit with their college applications. 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Veritas Prep offers SAT and ACT preparation courses that give students the tools they need to tackle all of the challenging questions on the test. Both our ACT and SAT instructors have first-hand experience with these exams – in fact, our instructors at Veritas Prep must have exemplary scores on these tests in personal development order to work for us, as we want our students to the room learn from the very best! Students who sign up with Veritas Prep will definitely have an advantage over their peers. Learning Practical Strategies. We use top quality study materials and professional educational resources to objective teach our students how to music of the 1920s approach the questions on personal development examples the ACT, as well as on the SAT. For instance, we share tips on how to spot and eliminate wrong answer choices so students can find the correct answer in a more efficient way. 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